1 PLANNING Every construction project is a unique undertaking. Although similar work may have been performed previously, no two projects will have identical job conditions. The pace, complexity, and cost of modem construction are incompatible with trial-and-error corrections as the work proceeds. Therefore, planning is undertaken to understand the problems and to develop courses of action. The goal of planning is to minimize resource expenditures required to successfully complete the project and to ensure that the work is accomplished in a safe manner. Planning is necessary in order to 1. Understand project objectives and requirements. 2. Define work elements. 3. Develop safe construction methods and avoid hazards. 4. Improve efficiency. 5. Coordinate and integrate activities. 6. Develop accurate schedules. 7. Respond to future changes. 8. Provide a yardstick for monitoring and controlling execution of project activities. It is a decision-making process, an anticipatory decision-making process that chooses courses of action that will be performed in the future or when certain events occur. Systematic planning requires screening of variables and alternatives that potentially affect the success of the project.