SOCIAL MEDIA AND WEATHER WARNINGS: EXPLORING THE NEW PARASOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS IN WEATHER FORECASTING A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SOCIAL MEDIA AND WEATHER WARNINGS: EXPLORING THE NEW PARASOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS IN WEATHER FORECASTING A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL"

Transcription

1 SOCIALMEDIAANDWEATHERWARNINGS: EXPLORINGTHENEWPARASOCIALRELATIONSHIPS INWEATHERFORECASTING ATHESIS SUBMITTEDTOTHEGRADUATESCHOOL INPARTIALFULFILLMENTOFTHEREQUIREMENTS FORTHEDEGREE MASTEROFSCIENCE BY ADAMM.KLOTZ DR.DAVIDCALL,ADVISOR BALLSTATEUNIVERSITY MAY2011

2 TableofContents ListofFigures... ii ListofTables... ii Acknowledgments... iii Chapter1:Introduction...1 Chapter2:LiteratureReview GrowthinMobileandSocialMedia UnderstandingParasocialRelationships WeatherWarningReactions Chapter3:Methods DiscussionofSubjects DiscussionofInterviews Chapter4:Trust,Weatherforecasting,andSocialMedia Background:FortWayneMediaGeography CriticsofWeatherForecasting Framework:SocialMediaUsers CaseStudy:October2010Storms DiscussionofFindings AudienceandTrust Newparasocialrelationships Weatherwarnings Conclusion Chapter5:OnlinePresence WANE TV ssocialmediastrategy CaseStudy:WANE TV sonlinepresence DiscussionofFindings TVtalentneedonlinepresence Stationsneedtopromotesocial mediapresence Conclusion Chapter6:Conclusion SummaryofFindings Implicationsandrecommendations Limitationsandfurtherresearch Epilogue:Overlytanandperfectteeth,butnow interesting Appendix Appendix Bibliography...89 i

3 ListofFigures Figure Page 4.1October26 th EF1TornadoPath October26 th EF1TornadoDamage aSevereWeatherThread bSevereWeatherThreadContinued WANE TVWebsite WANE TVSiteTools WANE TV stoolbar WANE TV sfacebookscreenshot WFFT sfacebookscreenshot WANE TVTwitterScreenshot INCTwitterScreenshot 71 ii

4 ListofTables 3.1InterviewSubjectDemographics 26 ii

5 Acknowledgments Thisthesiswouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutmyadvisor,Dr.DavidCall, whoseguidancefromitsinitiallevelallowedmetogainbothadirectioninmy researchandanunderstandingofthetopic. IowemydeepestgratitudetoDr.MatthewWilsonwhosementorshipover thelastyearhasmeantsomuchtomebothacademicallyandpersonally. IwouldliketoshowgratitudetoDr.MariaWilliams Hawkinsforhersupport andinterestthroughoutmycollegiatecareer. Lastly,itisanhonorformetothankmyfavoriteEnglishteacherandmother, TerriKlotz,whosehoursofpeerreviewshavehelpedmythesistakeshape. iii

6 Chapter1:Introduction OnFridayOctober1 st,2010,afternearly24yearsinthefortwayne,indiana, televisionmarket,wane TV sweatherspecialistsandythompsonsignedoffforthe lasttime.thestation sgeneralmanagerdecidednottorenewhercontractbut noted, Shedideverythingweaskedhertodo;shewasagreaton airpersonality andagreatambassadorforwane. Shewasletgobecauseshewasaweather specialist,herdegreebeinginbroadcasttelevisioninsteadofmeteorology.wane s generalmanagerdescribedthedecisionasoneofthetoughestofhiscareer: Sandy spopularitystandsonitsown. Heacknowledgedthatthestationmight takesomehits fromherfans. JessicaKristy*,age38,worksinretailandismarriedwithtwochildren,ages 10and13yearsold.SheisalsooneofthosefansthatWANE TV sgeneralmanager fearedhemightlosewhenhereplacedsandythompson.jessicaisunawarethat Sandywaspurposelyletgo;sheisundertheimpressionthatSandyrecentlyretired. Kristyishavingahardtimedecidingwhomtowatchnow.Whenitcomestimeto choosealocalchannelforweather,sheadmitsthatsheis notsureanymore,ireallyliketheotherpeopleonwane,butthenew weatherpersonat6:00pmisnoteasygettingusedto.so,ihavebeen surfing. *Pseudonymsareusedinplaceofinterviewees namesthroughoutthisresearchpaper.

7 JessicaKristylikedSandybecauseshewascomfortablewithher,andbecauseover thepast24yearsshehasbuiltapseudo relationshipwithher.jessicaliked, herhumor.sheseemedlikeanauntorsomething.itishardtodescribe: Sandywasn tafraidofmakingmistakes;shewouldrollwithit. NowJessicaisleftlookingforanewweathercaster;shefeelsthenewperson atwaneisnot real. Hercomplaintsincludethatheisoverlytanwithperfect teeth,somethingsheequatestoseeming fake. Shecannotpicturethisnewperson withhisfamilyorcomingintoworkwithacold. YearsofwatchingSandyThompsononTVallowedJessicaKristytodevelop whathortonandwohl(1956)identifiedasaparasocialrelationship:theonesided relationshiptheaudiencebuildswithmediapersonalities.shelearnedtotrust Sandy.AccordingtoKathleenSherman Morris(2005),herparasocialrelationship andtrustmeantthatjessicawasmorelikelytotakepotentiallife savingprecautions duringsevereweatherifsandythompsontoldherto.so,withsandy sdeparture, Jessicafindssheis channelsurfing, lookingforapersonwithwhomsheconnects, unknowinglytryingtobuildanewparasocialrelationship.buthowisanew weathercastergoingtobreakthroughtoherandbecomewhatjessicadescribesas real? Theexplosionofsocialmediainrecentyearshascreatedawayofbuilding parasocialrelationshipsthathortonandwohl(1956)neverdreamedof.kathleen Sherman Morris(2005)showedthatstrongparasocialbondsresultinhighertrust 2

8 betweenaudiencesandtheirweathercasters,resultinginanincreasedlikelihood thatviewerswilladheretoweathercasters callstotakeshelterduringsevere weather.socialmediaprovidesawaytoincreasethatparasocialbondandthen communicatewiththeaudiencedirectlyandpersonably,increasingbothwarningreactiontimeandthelikelihoodofviewerstakingpreventativemeasures. Wewillseethatstationsareusingsomesocialmediatacticsinlocalnews andlocalweathercasts,butthisnewmediumisnotfullybeingtakenadvantageof. Potentialexiststhroughsocialmediatocreatemuchstrongerparasocialbondsthan havebeenpreviouslycreated.alongwiththis,alargeportionofthepopulation remainsunderserved.creatinglargersocialnetworkswillgiveweathercasters unprecedentedinfluenceovercommunitypopulations,allowingthemtowarnand mobilizegroupsindangermorequicklyandmoreefficientlythaneverbefore.truly, theparasocialrelationshipbetweenviewerandbroadcasterweatherforecasters hasbecomemorecomplexalongsidedynamicchangesinthemediageographyof localtvmarkets. Toaddresstheseissues,wefirstmustknowtheresearchthathasledupto thisissue scurrentstanding.thenextchapterbeginswithanexplanationofthe longhistorygeographershavehadstudyingweather,climateandenvironmental change.then,furtherwithintheliteraturereview,worksdiscussingthegrowthof mobilemedia,theinternet,andsocialmediaareanalyzedtoshowtheirimportance inallaspectsofdailylife.theliteraturereviewchapterthentransitionsintoa discussionofthehistoryoftheparasocialrelationshipfromitsfirstconceptionby 3

9 HortonandWohlin1956,toitsquantificationin1985byRubin,Perse,andPowell, andthenintotoday scontinuedapplication.next,thechapterexaminesliterature involvingweather warningsystems:whereandhowquicklypopulationsgettheir weatherwarnings,howtheyreacttothewarnings,andhowsuccessfulthewarnings canbeinsavinglifeandproperty.finally,thesethreeareasarebroughttogetherto indentifythegapintheliterature,aplacewherethisstudyattempts,through qualitativeresearch,toexploreandunderstandlocalnewsstations useofsocial mediatodistributesevereweather. Chapter3detailsthemethodologyofthisstudy,beginningwiththegoalsof theresearch.nextthechapterdetailshowtheinterviewsubjectswereselectedand thequestionstheywereasked,howtheinterviewswereconducted,andfinally,the mannerinwhichthedatawasanalyzed. Chapter4beginswithabackgroundandhistoryofFortWayne stelevision media,followedbyadiscussionwithaweathercritictodemonstrateaninsightinto trustinweatherforecasting.followingthisdemonstration,ipresentaconceptual frameworktoassistinanalyzingsocialmediausers.ithenevaluatethisframework usingacasestudyofseverestormsinoctober,2010.usingthiscasestudy,ipresent adiscussionofmyfindings,highlightingpreviouslyunrecognizedsocialmedia pervasiveness.insupportofthescholarlyliterature,iexaminehowaudiences inherentlycometotrusttheirweathercasters.socialmediahasprovidedanew vehicleforthebuildingofparasocialrelationships,and,therefore,trust.finally,in 4

10 chapter4thisstudyclaimsthatviewersnolongerrelyprimarilyontelevisionfor severeweatherwarnings. Thesecondempiricalchapter,chapter5,beginswithadiscussionwith WANE TV sinternetcontentmanagertoillustratethetypicalsocialmediastrategy employedbytelevisionstations.fromthiscasestudyipresentadiscussionofmy findings,highlightingtheimportanceoftalentmaintainingindividualsocialmedia profilesandthestation sneedtobetterpromoteitssocialmediapresence.finally,i revisituserandprofessionalinterviewstounderscorethewaysinwhichsocial mediaisnotbeingutilizedtoitsfullcapability. Chapter6reiteratesthisstudiesfindings.Followedbyadiscussionof researchlimitationsandsuggestionsforfutureresearch. 5

11 Chapter2:LiteratureReview Thisliteraturereviewtakesafocusedlookatliteratureinthreetopicalareas: growingmobileandsocialmediausage,thehistoryandcurrentapplicationof parasocialrelationships,andweatherwarningsandsubsequentpublicreaction. Shortcomingsintheliteraturearetargetedinthisstudyforfurther.Priorto discussingthethreemajorliteraturetopics,wemustfirstbrieflyintroducethe importanceofweather relatedtopicstogeographers. Thereisarichhistoryofdiscussionamonggeographersabouthowweather, climate,andenvironmentalchangeaffectdailypracticesofpeopleworldwide.in recentyearstherehasbeenarejuvenatedinterestinthesetopicsasanew generationofgeographershasbeguntotackleage oldquestions(jankovicand Barboza2009;Rayner2009;Turner2009;Pennesi2009).InUndertheWeather, TomFort(2006)explorestheroleofweatherinthedailylifeandhistoryofGreat Britain.Geographershaveevenprobedtheweatherman sroleinsociety.mark Monmonier sairapparent(1999)examineshowmeteorologistslearnedtomap, predict,anddramatizetheweatherforanaudience. Withthisbriefbackgroundintothehistoricaldiscussionofweatheramong geographers,wecannowreadfurthertounderstandhowsocialmediaand parasocialrelationshipsareaffectingweatherwarnings.

12 2.1Growthinmobileandsocialmedia Becauseofsocialmedia snewness,itsdefinitionvariesdependingonthe source.mostrecentdefinitionsof socialmedia builduponuser generatedcontent thatcanbesharedamongstusers peers.forthepurposeofthisstudy,socialmedia isbestdefinedasacategoryofwebsitethatarebasedonuserparticipationand user generatedcontent.thiscontentcanbevideo,audio,text,ormultimediathatis published,andmostimportantly,sharedinasocialenvironment.sometypesof socialmediaareforums,messageboards,blogs,wikis,andvideohostingsites.the mostpopularofthesesitesincludefacebook,youtube,flickr,twitter,and Wikipedia. Socialmediawebsitesandtheportabilityofthewebhavebecomeapartof thehumanexperience.smartphones,suchastheiphone,offeradvancedpc (personalcomputer) typefunctionalityandfullinternetaccessandaregrowingin popularity(ling,etal.2010).inmanycasesthedesiretobeconnectedtosocial mediahasdriventhesalesofsmartphones(ibid.).theinternational TelecommunicationsUnionprojects5.3billionmobilecellphonesubscriptions worldwideatthestartof2011;ofthese,940millionaresubscriptionsto3g services,thetypeneededforfullaccesstotheinternetandforpc typefunctionality. Accesstothesemobilenetworksisnowavailableto90%oftheworld spopulation in143countries(ibid.).developedcountriesshowanaverageof116mobilephone subscriptionsforevery100inhabitants.thismarketsaturationhasledtoan explosioninshortmessageservice(sms)messaging,thesystemonwhichstandard 7

13 phone to phonetextsaretransmitted.but,smshasalsobeentappedintoby TwitterandFacebook,allowingusers tweetsandfacebookstatusupdatestobe sentouttoanyperson sphoneintheworldthatsubscribes,perhapsexplainingthe ITU sreportofsmsmessagingtriplinginthelastthreeyearstonearly200,000 messageseverysecond. Theincreaseofmobileserviceisamajorcauseoftheadvancementofsocial media,butjustasimportantisthecontinuallyincreasingsizeoftheonline community.accordingtotheitu(2010),in2005approximately1billionpeople wereonline;by2010thisnumberdoubledto2billion.justunderhalfofthe Internetusers,800million,areindevelopedcountries.Whileitisexpectedthat strongergrowthtrendswillcontinuetobeseenindevelopingcountries,continued growthindevelopedcountriesisexpected,asonly65.6%ofpeopleindeveloped countrieshaveinternetaccess.anumberofdevelopedcountriessuchasestonia, Finland,andSpainhavedeclaredaccesstotheInternetalegalright. U.S.basedresearchhasfoundasignificantincreaseinonlineuseandinsocial mediausageinthelasthalf decade(dimmick2003;dimmick2004;jenkins2004; Lehart2009).Wellman(2004)documentstenyearsofInternetgrowth,sayingthe Internetasatoolofsocialcommunicationhas becomeembeddedineverydaylife. Wellmanaddsthatwehaveevolvedfrom aworldofinternetwizardstoaworldof ordinarypeopleroutinelyusingtheinternet. Butwhatareordinarypeople routinelyusingtheinternetfor?in2008billtancer,thegeneralmanagerofglobal researchathitwise,acompanydedicatedtounderstandinginternetusers behavior, 8

14 saysthatsocialmediahasovertakenpornographyasthenumberoneuseofthe Internet.ThemostpopularofthesesocialmediasitesisFacebook,asocial networkingsitethatconnectsitsuserswiththeir friends. Facebookallowsusers tocreateindividualprofilepagesthatallowthemtosharethehappeningsintheir livesbyuploadingpicturesandvideosandbypostingwrittenmessages.thesite recentlypassed500millionusers,morethanthepopulationsoftheunitedstates, Canada,theUnitedKingdom,FranceandSpaincombined(facebook.com2010).In spring,2010,facebookovertookgoogleasthemost visitedwebsiteontheinternet (www.guardian.uk2010).itscreationandastonishingsuccessandgrowthspawned thecriticallyacclaimed,high grossingmovie*thesocialnetwork. MikeElgan(2009),atechnologywriterandformereditorofWindows Magazine,arguesthatsocialmediahavealreadybeguntoreplacetelevision, pointingoutthatmajornewsstoriesabouttheusairwaysflightlandinginthe HudsonRiverandtheterroristattacksinMumbaiwerecommunicatedmuchmore quicklyontwitterandothersocialmediasitesthanontelevision.thisisaslightly presumptuousstatementas98%ofamericanshavetv scomparedto65.6%who haveinternetaccess(itureport).nonetheless,socialmediahavechangedtheway traditionalmainstreammediawork.wrightandhinson(2009)notethatsocial media bypasstraditionalnewsmediaand,assuch,throwamajorwrenchinthe *AsofFebruary1 st 2011TheSocialNetworkgrossed$213,824,288inworldwidebox officesales.http://boxofficemojo.com 9

15 suggestionthatthesetraditionalnewsmediasetanyagendaforpublicthought. Ina 2008study,WrightandHinsonfoundthat89%ofpublicrelationsfirmemployees thinksocialmediahaveinfluencednewscoverageinthetraditionalmedia.only 72%ofrespondentsthinkthattraditionalmediahave,inreturn,influencedsocial media.inthatsamestudy,theauthorsobservedagapinaccuracy,credibility,trust, andethicsbetweentraditionalandsocialmedias.traditionalmediaoutletsshowed, byreceivingupwardsof60%ofthevotes,alargeadvantageinallofthese categories.fewerthan20%believesocialmediaprovidethemostaccurate, credible,ortrustworthyinformation.interestingly,eventhoughsocialmediaisless trustedthantraditionalformsofmedia,56%saidtheyagreethatsocialmedia servesasawatchdogfortraditionalmainstreammedia.still,75%expect mainstreammediatobehonest,totellthetruth,andtobeethical;whereas expectationsforblogsandothersocialmediaintheseareasareconsiderablylessat 44%.Whileresearchdoesnotshowhightrustintheinformationprovidedthrough socialmedia,itdoesshowthatsocialmediahaschangedhowtraditionalmedia outletsdotheirjobs.... UnderstandinghowtheInternetischangingcommunicationisessentialto televisionstationsandweathercasters,especiallyforthepurposeofgettingout severeweatherwarnings.inthebusinessworldquickercommunicationhaskept businessesconsumer focused;84%offortune 500employeessaidthatblogsand 10

16 othersocialmediahavemadecommunicationsmoreinstantaneousbecausethey forceorganizationstorespondmorequicklytocriticism(wrightandhinson2008). Manywebsites(outsideofFacebookandTwitter)arechangingcommunication practicesbyprovidingplacestoinstantlyshareideasandinformationwithlarge audiences.thevideosharingsiteyoutubeclaimssome350millionmonthly visitors.nearly10millionregisteredusershavecontributedtotheuser edited onlinedictionarywikipedia.morethan35millionhavepostedandtaggedmore than3billionphotosandvideosonflickr.(kelly2009). Thosewhoactivelytakepartintheonlinerevolutionofsocialmedia communicateinadifferentwaythantherestoftheworld.inasuburbneartoronto, thetwo thirdsofresidentswhohadalways on,super fastinternetaccessknewthe namesofthreetimesasmanyoftheirneighborsastheirunwiredneighbors.they alsospokewithtwiceasmanyneighborsandvisitedneighbors homes1.5timesas often(hamptonandwellman2003).withnewrulesincommunication,thereneeds tobechangesinthewaythemediareachestheseonlineconsumers. Businesseshavebeenracingtogetrecognizedonlinebythisnewandrapidly growingonlinepopulation,butthereisstillampleroomforgrowth.in2009,ganim (2010)showedthat22%ofFortune500companieswereblogging,alargeincrease fromthe9%reportedbloggingin2007.inaddition,35%offortune500companies haveincludedthesocialnetworkingandmicro bloggingsitetwitterintotheir marketingplans.thesteadyadoptionofblogs,facebook,andtwitterbyfortune 11

17 500companiesexpressesanecessaryandimportantinterestinthegrowingonline audience. Thisgrowthillustrateshowimportantitisforthelocalnewsandlocalnews personalitiestobevisibleinthisgrowingmedium.unfortunately,davidmeerman Scott(2008)says, Onlyasmallnumberofpractitionersareeffectivelyusingblogsandother socialmediawhencommunicatingtothepublic,eventhoughthewebis usuallyfreeasopposedtopurchasingspacethroughothertraditional advertisingmedium. ThevalueofatelevisionpersonalityonTwittermightbebestunderstoodinterms ofdollars.advertisingcompanyad.lyreportsthatreality televisionstarkim Kardashianispaid$10,000perendorsedtweettoherover2.7millionfollowers (NewYorkPost2009).Accordingtoa2004Businessweekarticle,companies includingmicrosoftanddellencourageemployeeblogging,believingthat; Done well,theycanhumanizefacelessbehemoth.theevilempireofredmondcan insteadbecomethehomeof TheSchobleizer, Microsoft smostfamousblogger. Thisissomethingtelevisionnewsstationshavelongrealized;byputtinganchors andweathercasters picturesonbillboardsandparkbenches,theyaresellingthe person,notthefacelesscompany.but,theyhavenotyettakenfulladvantageof howtheinternetcouldhelpthemdothis.ultimatelymakingthetelevision experienceaspersonalaspossiblewillonlyhelpthestationbecause Realhuman 12

18 beingsspeaklikerealhumanbeings,whichissomethingcompanieshaveforgotten howtodo. (Businessweek2004) Insummary,therehasbeenanexplosioninpopularityofsocialmediainthe lastfiveyears.withthis,wemustalsounderstandhowparasocialrelationships haveaffectedbroadcastweatherforecasting. 2.2UnderstandingParasocialRelationships Whiletheshifttowardssocialmediahasbeenquiterecent,overhalfa centuryhasbeenspentexaminingtherelationshipindividualsdevelopwith televisionpersonalities.hortonandwohlfirstrecognizedthisrelationshipbetween viewerandaudience,ortheparasocialinteraction(1956).thisinteractionisalso describedasan illusionofintimacy betweenmediapersonalitiesandtheaudience members.televisionpersonalitiesencourageparasocialinvolvementwithviewers byusingconversationalstyleandgesturesalongwithinformalsettingsthatinvite interactiveresponses(hortonandwohl1956). HortonandWohl sideashavebeenadoptedandexpandedsincetheir conception(rosengren&windahl1972;rosengren,windahl,hakansson,and Johnsson Smaragdi1976;Levy1979;Hedinsson1981).In1985,Rubin,Perse,and Powelldevelopedaconceptualmodeltopredictparasocialinteractionintelevision news.fromthismodel,thefirstempiricalevidenceofparasocialinteraction,orpsi, wasshowntoexistbetweentheaudienceandthenewscaster.since1985,adapted modelshavebeenusedtoshowthatthisrelationshipexistsforanumberofpublic 13

19 mediafiguressuchasathletes(brown2003),televisioncharacters(rubinand Mchaugh1987),newsanchors(Perse1990),radiohosts(RubinandStep,2000), andtelevisionweathercasters(sherman Morris2005). GilesandMaltby(2006)namedthestrongbondsbetweentheaudienceand theperformer celebrityworship. Tomeasurecelebrityworship,GilesandMaltby builtfromtheparasocialinteractionscale(psi)ofrubinetal.(1985)aswellas fromwann ssportsfanmotivationsaleandthecelebrityappealquestionnaire. Wann s(1995)sportfanmotivationscaleidentifiedeightfactorspredictingsport fandom:sourceofself esteem,anavenueforescape,asentertainment,family affiliation,groupaffiliation,aestheticappeal,excitement,andforeconomicreasons. TheCelebrityAppealQuestionnaire(Stever1991)emphasizedtheentertainerasa rolemodel.usinglargeunitedkingdomsamples,threeaspectsofcelebrityworship wereisolated(maltbyetal.2002,maltbyetal2005,maltbyetal.2001).thevast majorityoffansaredescribedas Entertainment social. Thesefansareattracted toafavoritecelebritybecauseoftheirperceivedabilitytoentertainandtobecomea sourceofsocialinteractionandgossip (GilesandMaltby2006).Fansincludedinto thiscategoryagreedwithstatementssuchas MyfriendsandIliketodiscusswhat myfavoritecelebrityhasdone and Learningthelifestoryofmyfavoritecelebrity isalotoffun. Thisone sidedrelationshipbetweentheaudienceandthemediafigures shouldcomeaslittlesurprise.throughouthistorypublicfiguresfromkingsto outlawshavebeenidolized.onlyrecentlyhavewehadaccesstoouridolizedpublic 14

20 figuresthroughsocialmediasuchasfacebookandtwitter.gilesandmaltby(2006) suggestthatcelebritymaybeanextremeformofpopularity.hartup(1996)notes thatwealwaysflocktoattractivepeopleinourimmediateenvironment;evenin preschoolsocialgroupsthereseemtobe stars thatcommandextraattention.but whatisitthatattractsustothesedifferentpublicfigures?accordingtomaltbyetal. (2002),mostfans favoritecelebritychoiceistiedtotheirentertainmentvalue. Favoritecelebritiesarealsoidentifiedhavingqualitiessuchasintelligence,talent, andsocialskillsthatmakethemdeservingoftheircelebritystatus.psihasbeen showntoexistbetweenaudiencepopulationsandavarietyofcelebrities,athletes included. Brown(2003)showedaparasocialrelationshipexistedbetweenlarge audiencesandbaseballstarmarkmcgwireduringhishistoric72 homerunbaseball seasonin1998.brownattributeshigherthanusualstrengthintheparasocial relationshipduetothepublicitythatexposedmcgwiretomillionssurroundinghis homerunchase.hishomerunchasewasafocusofmediaoutsidethesportingworld andwasdiscussedonradio,local,andnationalnewsprograms.sixtypercentof thoseinterviewedinthestudyreportednottofollowbaseballregularly,yetthey stillfollowedhisseason,showingthathisrepeatedmediaexposurewasakeyfactor intheparasocialrelationshipsinvolvingmcgwire. Whilelocalnewsanchorsdonotcommandthenationalattentionofstar athletes,theyhaveotheradvantagestobuildingstrongparasocialrelationshipswith theiraudience.aconversational styleandaface to facesettingmirror 15

21 interpersonalcommunication.productiontechniquessuchasclose upsandcamera zoomsincreaseintimacy(hortonandwohl1956).theregularityoftelevisionnews broadcastshasalsobeenhighlightedasareasonforstrongpsiscores.altmanand Taylor(1973)noticedthatthemoreoftenpeopleinteract,themorelikelytheyare toachievedeepstatesofintimacy.friendshipisalsobased,inpart,onhowothers helpusmeetourneeds(wright1978).televisionnewsanchors,then,provideus withinformationaboutourcommunitiesthatwedesire,meetinganeed.whilenot nationalstars,newscastersoftenbecomecelebritiesinabroadcastmarket, appearingonlocalinterviewprograms,makingpersonalappearances,andbeing topicsofdiscussioninlocalprintmedia(rubin,perse,andpowell1985).while highpsiscoresoftelevisionnewscastershasnotshownanincreaseinknowledge gainbytheaudience,scoresdoaffectemotionalreactionstothenews(rubin,perse, Powell1985).Thus,itfollowsthatthenewscastercaninfluenceviewers behavior tosomeextent. Talk radiohostshavestrongerpsiscoresthanothercelebrities(rubin 2001).Onereasonforthisisthattheperceiveddistancebetweenradiolistenersand theirprogramiscloserormoreimmediatethanforothermedia(rubin2001).talk radioispersonality drivenandofferslistenersanopportunityforconversationand interpersonalinvolvement(rubinandrubin1985).talk radiolistenersoftenpay attentiontohostswhosharetheirsameopinions.sinceaudiencesfinditsatisfying tohavetheirbeliefsandopinionsconfirmed,theaudience hostbondis strengthened.rubinandstep(2000)foundthatinteractingwithtalkradiohosts 16

22 predictedfrequentlisteningtothathost.theyalsofoundthataudiencestreatthe hostasanimportantandcrediblesourceofinformation.thehostinfluences attitudesandactionsaboutsocietalissues,andasthedegreeofpsiincreases, listenersbelievetheirattitudesarestrongerinagreementwiththehost.developing therelationshipincreasesdesireformoreinteractionthroughregularlistening.this highlightstheimportanceofbuildingparasocialrelationships.theybenefitthehost byincreasinghispopularityandjobsecurityattheradiostationwhilegenerating morerevenue.havingthiskindofinfluenceofanaudienceishelpfulforany broadcaster,butespeciallyimportantforweathercasterswhoprovidewarnings duringsevereweather. Recently,theParasocialInteractionScale,orPSIScale,ofRubinetal.(1985) wasusedtotesttherelationshipoflocaltelevisionweathercasters.sherman Morris (2005)measuredPSIintheMemphis,Tennesseemarket.Thesurveyresults indicateastronger than expecteddegreeofpsiwithlocalweathercasterscompared tootherstudiesfocusingontalkshowhosts,sitcomactors,orevenlocal newscasters.sherman Morrissuggeststhehighregularityofinteractionbetween theaudienceandweathercasterandtherelevanceoftheinformationtodaily activitiesasreasonsforthehigherthanaveragepsiscores.sherman Morrisalso concludesthatstrongpsiscoresresultinhighertrust,meaningtheaudienceis morelikelytoseekshelterwhenwarnedbyatrustedweathercaster.therefore, buildingastrongparasocialrelationshipwiththeaudiencecouldincreasesafety. 17

23 Thisliteraturehasshownthatparasocialrelationshipsdogivebroadcasters influenceoveraudiences.tounderstandhowthisinfluencecanaffectbehavior duringseverweatherevents;wemustfirstexamineresearchinvestigatingsevere weather warningreactions. 2.3Weatherwarningreactions Consumers demandforever evolvingweatherinformationisdrivenby always changingaudiences.eveninthenewspaperindustry,weathermapsare continuouslyevolvingtobetterillustratetofutureweatherevents(call2005).itis importanttounderstandhowpersonsreacttosevereweatherwarningssothatwe canappreciatehowthisreactionmightbechangingwiththeintroductionofnew mediaandnewwaysofwarningthepublic.thosewhotaketheproperprecautions followingawarninghavethelowestinjuryanddeathrate(hammerandschimidlin 2002). R.DeniseBlanchard BoehmandM.JeffreyCook(2004)foundthatpeople whohavehadpreviousexperiencewithatornado,especiallyanintenseone,were mostlikelytobepreparedforfuturesevereweatherevents.itmayseemobvious thatbehaviorisaffectedbydirectexperience,butdoesthisapplytoindividuals only,orcansocietyasawholelearnfrompreviousdisasters?craige.coltenand AmyR.Sumpter s(2009)studyentitled SocialMemoryandResilienceinNew Orleans examinesthelessonslearnedfrom1965 shurricanebetsyandhowthese 18

24 lessonswereappliedpriortohurricanekatrinain2005.afterbetsy,plansto completemassiveearthworksandstructuresprotectingthecitywereputintoplace. Thesestructuresweretobefinishedby1978,buttheyremainedunfinishedwhen Katrinastruckin2003,asthemoneyneededtocompletetheprojectwasspent elsewhere.betsyalsodemonstratedthateasternneworleanswasatthegreatest vulnerabilitytoflooding,yet20,000homeswerebuiltbelowsealevelduringthe40 yearsfollowingthehurricane.betsyalsoshowedthatpost flooding,waterwouldbe slowtoleaveandsitinthecitylikewaterinabowl.nonetheless,whenkatrinahit NewOrleans,thecitywasnotpreparedtopumptheresultingwateroutofthecity, andwaterstoodforweeks.coltenandsumpterfoundthatasasociety,new Orleansdidnotlearnitslesson,andtheypointouttheimportanceforfuture generationstolearnfromkatrina sdestruction. MontzandGruntfest(2002)claimthatnewertechnologiesandincreased warningtimeshavenotaffectedfloodlosses.accordingtoa2005study,scientists oftendisagreeonfloodpredictionbecauseofthe complexityofmeteorologicaland hydrologicalprocesses (Downtonetal.).Beyondthecollectivesociety smemory andincreasedwarningtimes,whatisitthatmakesindividualsadheretosevere weatherwarnings? Studiesshowvaryingresponsesduringsevereweather.DuringtheMay3 rd, 1999,OklahomaCityTornado,65%ofresidentslefttheirhomeswheninstructedto dosothroughvariouswarningsystems(hammerandschimidlin2002).according toa2010study86%ofrespondentswerenotconcernedaboutfalsealarmsorclose 19

25 callsreducingtheirconfidenceinfuturetornadowarnings.thissamestudyshowed thatoverhalfofrespondentswouldtakeshelterfromatornadounderahighway overpassiftheyweredriving,indicatingthatpeopleneededucatedandwarnedon thedangersofusinghighwayoverpassesasshelterfromsevereweather(schultzet al.).overpassescreateawindtunnelmeaningwindspeedswillactuallybehigher underneaththemduringtornados. A2005studyshowedthatnearly90%ofthesevereweatherwarningsare discoveredthroughthetelevisionmedium(sherman Morris2005).Sherman Morris alsodiscoveredthatduringsevereweatheronauniversitycampus,textmessage alertswerethemosteffectivewayofalertingthestudentbodyandfacultyofa tornado.facultyoftenknewthatsevereweatherwascomingfromhavingseeniton localnewscoveragepriortoitsarrival,whereasstudentswerelessofteninformed. However,asthestormapproached,morestudentsthanfacultysaytheylearnedofit fromtelevision.intheconclusionofthestudy,respondentswereaskedwhich wouldbethebestwayofcommunicatingstormwarningsinthefuture.students overwhelminglychoosecellphonemessages,whilethefacultypreferred s. A2010studybySilverandConraddocumentedHurricaneJuan sstrikeofthe AtlanticCanadacoastonSeptember29,2003,andshowedthepublic s unpreparednessforsevereweatherevents.fifty eightpercentinterviewed indicatedthattheycheckedtheforecastatleastonceperday.non government Internetsourcesrankedasthemostreliablesourcesforweatherinformation.The mostcommonlyusedmediabyrespondentsoverage60yearswaslocalnewsand 20

26 radio,whereasthemostcommonformofmediaforrespondents ages20 40was theinternet.fromthis,researchersconcludedtheimportanceofunderstandingthat differentagegroupsobtaintheirsevereweatherinformationindifferentways, emphasizingtheimportanceinthefuturetodevelopforecastsforalltargetgroups. Thislackoftailoredmediacoveragecoincideswiththerisinguseofsocialmedia, especiallyinportablemobiledevices,leavingtheperfectopportunityforlocalmedia toprovideaneededandprofitableservicetothepublic.oncewarned,teachersand studentsbothsearchoutmoreinformationaboutthestorm.otherliteraturehas confirmedsimilarbehavior.a1995studyshowedthatonly8%ofwesttennessee residentsconstantlylistenedtonoaaweatherradio.thatpercentageraisedto nearly25afterhearingofapproachingsevereweather(redmond1995). Sherman Morrisstudiedhowtheparasocialrelationshipbetweenthe weathercasterandviewerisstrongerthananyotherpreviouslydemonstratedpsi relationship(2005).shealsowasabletodemonstratehowthisrelationshipgives theaudiencemoreconfidenceinthesevereweatherwarnings.butstill,in2005,the majorityofpeoplesurveyedhadlearnedofthesevereweatherontelevision.since thistime,theaboveliteraturehasshownthattherehasbeenanincredibleupsurge insocialmediaapplications.howthisupsurgeintheuseofsocialmediaaffectsthe relationshipbetweentheweathercasterandtheaudiencehasyettobeexplored. Norhasitbeenexploredhowandifthesetrustedlocalweathercastersusingsocial mediatoalertaudienceshashelpedpopulationstakeheedtowarningsmore quickly.furthermore,itisnotyetfullyknowniflocalnewsstationsor 21

27 weathercastersaretakingfulladvantageofthesocialmediaattheirfingertipsto reachanaudiencethatisrelyinglessandlessontelevision.theseareallquestions thatthisstudywillexplore. 22

28 Chapter3:Methods Togainanunderstandingofhowrespondents growinguseofsocialmedia andotheremergingmediahaveimpactedtherelationshipwiththelocaltelevision weathercasterandhowthisgrowingusehasultimatelychangedhowpeoplereceive weatherwarnings,respondentsinthisstudyparticipatedinasemi structured interviewdesignedtoexplorethefollowingtopics: Understandamountoftimespentonsocialnetworkingsitessuchas Facebook,Twitter,YouTube,MySpace,Bloggs,etc. Understandhowsocialmediasiteshavechangedwhererespondents hearaboutbreakingnewsandhowtheypassalongthatinformation Understandtherespondents attitudestowardtheirweathercaster andiftheyusesocialmediatostayconnectedtothatweathercaster Learnwhererespondentsturnduringsevereweatheraswellas wheretheyfirsthearit.alsoiftheyfeeltheyarealertedinatimely manner. Respondentswereselectedthroughanon probabilitysamplingtechnique, knownassnowballsampling,inwhichexistingresearchsubjectshelprecruitfuture subjectsfromtheiracquaintances.othernon probabilitysamplingtechniques consideredincluderelianceonavailablesubjectssampling,judgmentsampling,and quotasampling.availablesubjectsamplingstopsrespondentsatagivenlocation. 23

29 Thiswasnotselectedbecauseitisoverlyusedandariskysamplingmethod(Babbie 2008).Quotasamplingisthemostthoroughsamplingtechnique,resultingin demographicsthatbestmimicthatoftheentirepopulation.thisnon probability samplingtechniquewasnotusedbecauseoftimeandexpenseconstraints. Judgmentalsamplingallowsmoreexactsectionsofapopulationtobetargeted.This wasnotproperforthisstudybecausesuchexactsectionsofthelargerpopulation weredifficulttoidentify.snowballsamplingismostlikejudgmentalsampling,butin snowballsampling,onlyasmallnumberofthedesiredpopulationmustbe identified.thoseidentifiedthenledtootherrespondents.onceinitialsnowball samplerespondentswereidentified,theywereprovidedwithinformationalsheets describingthestudyasseeninappendix1. 3.1Discussionofsubjects Twointerviewsubjectswereselectedspecificallyasexpertsindifferent areas,mitchmanning,ceooftherrrgroup,andjoeljackson,internetcontent manageratwane TV.TwomoreintervieweeswerefoundthroughWANE TV s Facebookfanpage.Thesesubjectswerecontactedbasedonthehighqualityofthe commentstheyhadpostedonathreaddiscussingtheoctober26 th tornados.these intervieweesthenhelpedrecruitadditionalsubjects,andthosesubjectshelped recruitmoresubjectsuntiltheinterviewquestionsnolongerreceivedpreviously unmentionedresponses. 24

30 Sixofthesubjectsarewomenrepresentingalldifferentages(seeTable1). JessicaKristy,describedearlierasa poweruser, issearchingforanew weathercasterafterherfavorite,sandythompson,wasfiredatwane TV.Kristyis marriedwithtwochildrenandworksinretail.the38 year oldkristyisoneoftwo femaleresearchsubjectsthatarenoteducatedbeyondhighschool.theyoungestof thewomenis22 year old,single,withahighschooleducation.thenextoldestisa 23 year oldcollegestudentwhoprovidedauniqueperspectiveintotheuseofsocial mediaassheisamarketingmajor.anotheroftheyoungersubjectsisa25 year old marriedwomanwhorecentlysettledjustoutsideoffortwayneafterfinishing graduateschool.anotherfemalesubjectisa38 year oldwifeandmotheroftwo. Shehastakensomecollegecoursesbutneverfinished.Currentlyshehasherown onlinebusinesssellingjewelryshemakestopeoplearoundtheworld.theoldestof thefemalerespondentsisa54 year oldnurse.sheismarriedandhasadult children. Unintentionallybutfortuitously,thissubjectpoolhadsubjectsrepresenting everylevelofeducation,fromthehighschooldropouttodoctoraldegree.the youngestofthemenisahighschooldropout.the25 year oldsinglemangrewupin TennesseebutmovedtoFortWayneayearago;heremainsunemployed.Theonly interviewsubjectwithaweatherbackgroundwasthehighschool educated,retired firefighter,a60 year olddivorcee.duringhistimeasafirefighter,hevolunteeredas astormspotterforthenationalweatherserviceinnorthernindiana.henowlives 25

31 nextdoortooneofhistwoadultchildren.thelastoftheinterviewsubjectshashis DoctorateinVeterinaryMedicine.Heis65,marriedandhasadultchildren. Table3.1 InterviewSubjectDemographics Respondents Gender/Age Education MaritalStatus Employment #1JessicaK. Female/38 HighSchool Married RetailSales #2MarieM. Female/22 HighSchool Single Unemployed #3BrendaA. Female/23 InCollege Single Full TimeStudent #4JennaF. Female/25 GradSchool Married Athomemother #5PattyS. Female/54 College Married Nurse #6KatieJ. Female/38 SomeCollege Married SelfEmployed #7MattS. Male/25 SomeHS Single Unemployed #8DavidD. Male/60 HighSchool Divorced Retired #9RajivK. Male/65 Doctorate Married Veterinarian 3.2Discussionofinterviews Interviewswereconductedintwodifferentmanners.Onseveraloccasions, tripsweremadetoft.wayne,wherein personinterviewswereconducted.these interviewstypicallylastednomorethanthirtyminutesandwererecordedbyhandwrittenfieldnotes;adigitalrecordingdevicewasnotusedduringtheseinterviews. AnotherportionoftheinterviewswasconductedwithanInternetchatservice, 26

32 GoogleChatorFacebookChat.Theseinterviewstookmuchlongertoconduct, slightlyoveranhourinmostcases,butlesstimewasspentsummarizingthe interview,astheentireconversationcouldbecopiedandsavedintoamicrosoft Worddocument. Subjectswereinterviewedwithalayoutof12questions.Questionsevolved duringeachinterview;respondents answersledtonewquestions.anoutlineofthe questionsaskedcanbefoundinappendix2.inanattempttounderstandthesocial attitudetowardsweathercastersandsocialmediainfortwayne,therespondents wereaskedtoprovideinformationaboutthemselves.thisprovidedacomposite pictureofthegroupthattheindividualinformantsrepresent.thereisnowaytobe certainthatnon probabilitysamplingdemonstratestheattitudeoftheentire population,butitdoesprovideastartingpointforunderstandingtheinfluenceof socialmediawhenitisusedbytelevisionweathercasters. Interviewfieldnotesandtranscriptswereanalyzed;themeswere indentified,separated,andreorganizedaccordingtotheirplaceinthestudy.todo this,transcriptsofallsubjectinterviewswerereviewedandcodedaccordingto theme.thethemesidentifiedare Pervasivenessofsocialmedia. Trustinweatherforecasters. Perceivedsocialmediaawarenessoftelevisionstations. Informationgatheringbehavior. 27

33 Changingparasocialinteraction. Reactionstosevereweather. Codedresponseswerethenpulledfromoriginaltranscriptsandputinto separatedocumentsbasedonthemes. Inconclusion,theuseofthenon probabilitysnowballsamplingmethod allowedoriginalrespondentstorecruitnewrespondents.twelvesemi structured questionsledtointerviewresponsesthatwerecodedbythemesandusedtogainan understandingofhowrespondents growinguseofsocialmediaandotheremerging mediahasimpactedtherelationshipwiththelocaltelevisionweathercasterand howthishasultimatelychangedhowtherespondentsreceiveweatherwarnings. 28

34 Chapter4:Trust,WeatherForecasting,andSocialMedia Trustiscentraltounpackingthecomplexityoftherelationshipbetween weatherforecastingandnewsocialmedia.assherman Morrisargues,parasocial relationshipsandtrustareinterrelated.highermeasuresofparasocialinteraction equatetohigherlevelsoftrust.however,sherman Morris sworkislimitedinat leasttwoways,whichthischapterseekstoaddress.firsthermethodisquantitative andcannotfullyexplorethenuancesofaudiencetrustinweatherforecasting. Second,herstudiesdonotconsidertheroleofsocialmediaincontemporary parasocialrelationships.therefore,thisresearchemploysqualitativeinterviews withbothprofessionalsandviewerstounderstandthecomplexrelationship betweenweatherforecastingandsocialmedia.thisargumentissituatedbythefort Wayne,Indiana,mediageography.AccordingtoNielsen(2011),FortWayneisthe 107 th largesttelevisionmarketinthenation,makingitamedium sizedmarket. Inproceeding,thischapterbeginswithabackgroundandhistoryof televisionmediainfortwayne,followedbyadiscussionwithaweathercastercritic, whichillustratesanexampleoftheissuesoftrustintelevisionweatherforecasting. HisinterviewprovidesbothinsightintosocialmediauseinFortWayneandmakes assumptionsaboutweathercastersthatarelateraddressedinthefindings. Followingthisillustration,Ipresentaconceptualframeworktoassistinanalyzing socialmediausers.ithenevaluatethisframeworkusingacasestudyofsevere

35 stormsinoctober,2010,demonstratingtheimportanceoftrustinviewers responsetosevereweatherwarningsbyweathercasters. Fromthiscasestudy,Ipresentadiscussionofmyfindings,highlighting previouslyunrecognizedsocialmediapervasiveness.insupportofthescholarly literature,iexaminehowaudiencesinherentlycometotrusttheirweathercasters. Socialmediahasprovidedanewvehicleforthebuildingofparasocialrelationships, andtherefore,forbuildingtrust.finally,thisstudyclaimsthatviewersnolonger exclusivelyrelyontelevisionforsevereweatherwarnings.inconclusion,ireturnto theweathercastercritictounderlinethewaysinwhichtrustisadynamicand shiftingrelationship.indeed,theparasocialrelationshipbetweenviewerand broadcastweatherforecastershasbecomemorecomplexalongsidedynamic changesinthemediageographyoflocaltvmarkets. 4.1Background:FortWaynemediageography Toproperlyunderstandtherelationshipamongweathercasters,the audience,andweatherwarnings,wemustfirstunderstandthemediageographyin thefortwaynetelevisionmarket.thecityofjustover250,000residentsishometo allfourofthemajornetworks.nbcaffiliatewkjg TV,nowWISE TV,becameFort Wayne sfirsttelevisionstationin1953.oneyearlater,cbsaffiliatewink TV,now WANE TV,joinedWISE TVtobecomethecity ssecondtvstation.in1957wpta 30

36 TVbecameABC sfortwayneaffiliate.wfftlaunchedindecemberof1977asan independentstation.itwasnotuntilthedayoffoxnetwork slaunch,october6 th, 1986,thatthestationWFFT TVbecameitsaffiliate. FormostofFortWayne stelevisionhistory,therehavebeenthreelocaldaily broadcastnewsprogramsfromwhichtochoose.thatfactremainsthesametoday, butthechoiceshavechangedovertheyears.forthemajorityofthelast50years, WISE TV,WANE TV,andWPTA TVallofferedlocalnewscoverage.OnApril6 th, 2009,WFFT TVlaunchedanighttimehour longnewsprogram,foxfortwayne NewsFirstat10.Currentlytheyproduceonedailyone hourshowthroughtheweek. Otherstationsproduceatleast4showsdailythroughtheweek,alongwithweekend editions. EvenwiththeadditionofWFFT TVtothemarketplace,viewersonlyhave threenewsteamsfromwhichtochoose.inwhatremainsoneofthemostunpopular movesinfortwaynetelevisionmediahistory,nbc swise TVnewsdepartment wasmergedwithabc swptain2005.intheprocess,57employeeswerefired, includingon airandproductionstaff.onlytheleadanchorfromwise TVwas integratedintothewptanewsproduction.themovetocombinestationswas wildlyostracizedbythepublic.fortwayne snews Sentinelbecameafashionable placeforviewerstovoicetheircomplaints.nothingangeredfansmorethanthe releaseofwise TV sleadmeteorologist.seizingtheopportunity,cbs swane TV quicklyhiredtherecentlyfiredweathercasterandputhimtoworkontheweekday morningandnoonforecasts.accordingtonielsenmediaresearch,wptaand 31

37 WISE TVimmediatelysawadropinratingswhileWANE TVtookoverasthe market snewsleader(2005). JustastheNBCandABCaffiliatesnowsharenewsstaff,theyalsosharea website.thesiteprovidesavideooftheweatherforecast,alongwithawritten7 dayforecast.tabsontheweatherpageofferviewerslinkstoliveskyviewcameras, interactiveradar,andinformationonschoolclosings.cbsaffiliatewane TVcan alsobefoundonline.thewebsiteprovidesmoreweatherinformationandtools overthewebthananyoftheircompetitors.thesiteofferscurrentconditionsfor surroundingareas,videoforecasts,weatherblogsfromstaffmeteorologists,live satelliteandradarfeeds,andanumberofotheroptions.fortwayne snewestnews team,wfft,residesatfortwaynehomepage.net.thesiteincludeslivelocalradar, schoolclosings,andaweatherwarningspage. Allthreeofthenewsteamshavecreatedatleastsomekindofsocialmedia identity.leadingthewayinthatcategoryseemstobewane TV.Theyarebyfarthe most liked televisionstationfanpageinthefortwaynemarket.whenfacebook usersvisitwane TVoranyotherfanpage,theyhavetheoptionof liking that page.iftheychoosetodoso,theywillbeinformedwhenthatisupdated.wane TV sfanpagehadbeen liked by6,856peopleinlate2010(october18 th TVisthemostactiveofthe stationsinupdatingitsfanpagewithstoriestheyarecoveringontelevision.from theirfacebookpage,theyoftenlinktostoriesontheirownwebsite,bringingthem highertrafficandmorepossibilityforaddrevenue.fromtheirfacebookpage,one 32

38 canalsofindalinktotheirstation runtwitteraccount.areviewoftheirtweeting historyinlate2010shows1,084followers(october18 th attendedtoasactivelyasthefacebookpage.anoverviewofindiana snews Center s(wptaandwise TV)Facebookpageshowswhatappearstobethemost well thoughtoutandmostupdatedofallofthefanpagesinthetelevisionmarket. Updatesareveryfrequentontheirfanpage,andthenumberofpeoplecommenting ontheirstoriesisequaltothosecommentingonthepostsofwane TV.Yet, Indiana snewscenterhadonlybeen liked by2,909peopleinlate2010(october 18 th welltosendpeopletotheirstationswebsite.thefacebookpagealsoconnectsfans totheirtwitteraccount.1,272arefollowingthem(october18 th ofdaysduringwhichnoupdatesaresentoutatall.finally,theyoungeststationin themarkethasleftthesmallestsocialnetworkfingerprinttodate.asoflate2010, WFFT sfanpagehadatotalof590followers(october18 th appearontheirfollower swalls.linksintheirupdatesguidetraffictotheirown webpage.alinktoanytwitterprofileismissingfromboththefacebookpageand thestationwebpage. Missingfromallofthestations socialmediaprofilesareconnectionstothe individualreporters,anchors,andweathercasters.nowherearetwitteraccounts 33

39 forthetelevisionpersonalitiesdisplayed,noraretherewaystofriendthetelevision personalitiesonfacebook.thereisagiveandtakebetweenthestationandthe audienceonfacebookwalls,butnotbetweentheaudienceandthepersonalities whoareonthenewseveryday.ifstationswishtotakeadvantageofparasocial relationships,theywillneedtopromoteandrequiretheirtalenttomaintainsocial mediaprofiles. 4.2Criticsofweatherforecasting InterAmericaIncorporatedisacompanybasedinFortWaynethatis responsibleforhostinghundredsofblogs.therrrgroupisaconstructofthelarger InterAmericaInc.Thissmallergroupisresponsibleforsomeofthecompany smost importantblogs.oftherrrgroup s300 someblogsrangingonalltopics,twelveare updateddaily.noneismoreimportanttothebusinessthanfortwaynemedia Watch,awatchdogblogthateditorializesonthequalityofcoveragebyFortWayne mediaoutlets,primarilytelevisionstations.accordingtointeramericainc.ceo MitchManning,MediaWatchhasbeenpublishedfor21years,firstasafax sendand thenasawebsitein2001.mediawatchisnotbelovedbyfortwaynemedia.even whilemakingenemieswithfortwaynemediaoutlets,mediawatchremainsa powerfulvoiceinthecity.asmanningdescribestheblog, We reoftenmean,but everyonereadsit,despitewordstothecontrary. 34

40 ManningisanexpertinbothFortWaynemediaandtheuseofsocialmedia suchasblogging.startinginadsalesatasmallpaperinmichigan,helaterbecamea reporterformellusnewspapersandthenforthedetroitnews.manningthenspent severalyearsasaradiohostatdetroit swlin FMbeforefinallyworkingforthe RRRGroup.Throughoutthe1980 s,heandhisteamattherrrgroupworkedas newscorrespondentsforfortwayne sthenews Sentinel,theIndianapolisStar,the ToledoBlade,andtheFortWayneTelevisionstationWANE TV.Inthelasttwo decades,manningandtherrrgrouphavemadeanameforthemselvesamong televisionbroadcastersinfortwayne. AspartofhisdutiesatMediaWatch,Manningrecordsandviewsallofthe televisionbroadcastsfromallofthestationsonadailybasis;andasmightbe expectedfromsomeonewhomakesalivingandnameforhimselfasacriticwho holdsthemediatothehighestofstandards,manningisnotfullofcomplimentary statementsaboutfortwaynetelevision.ofhiscomplaints,perhapsheishardeston weatherbroadcasting. Mediamanagersintelevisionthinkofweatheras entertainment,abreakbetweenhard corenewsandsports, saysmanning. The moregadgetsandglitzthatthesegmentcanincorporatethebetter;(thatway) viewersthinktheyaregettingavaluableservicefromthestation. MediaWatch CEO slackoftrustinweatherforecastingdoesnotstopthere;hecontinues, The stationmanagerspretendtohavethepublic sconcernsasapriority,but,ifyoucan getthemcandid,you llhearjustwhati mtellingyou. AccordingtoManning, viewersareonlyconcernedifitwillbehotorcoldorifthereareany caveats on 35

41 theday sdrivetowork.heputsevenlessimportanceonweatherwarnings, They arenotlocalespecificandareonlyagambler sguesstowherebadweathermight hit. Manningpointsoutthat,inmanycases,astation sfrequentuseofweather warningsisdoingmoreharmthangood: Generictornadowarningsmerely increase,unnecessarily,theanxietyoftheviewers,andwhenstormsdon tactually followthosealerts,viewersloosetrustinfuturewarningsandalerts. Manning believes, It samatterofcryingwolfbythetvstationsandissuchamatterof practicethatmanyviewers,mostperhaps,takesuchalertswithagrainofsalt. And asforlocalweathercastersbeingabletowarnaudiencesintimeforthemtotake action,manningclaims, Indianaweathercastershaveneverpredictedasituation thatispreventative;theyhavealwayspresentedscenariosthataretoolittle,too late. Whilepessimisticoftheweathercaster sabilitytocorrectlyidentifysevere weatherintimetohelpaudiences,manningdoesfeelthatsocialmediahave shortenednotificationtime.hesaysthatthestationsinfortwayneareeitherjust starting,oratleastplanning,tosendwarningsandotherinformationviafacebook andtwitter.henotesthatdoingsowill, certainlyprovideacachetfortvstations, andwillallowadrevenuetobeaccruedbysuchpractices. Butcurrently, weathercastersareoverlookingthepossibilitiesofsocialmedia;forthemostpartit isonlythestationasawholeandnotindividualtelevisionpersonalitiesthatis startingtotrytotakeadvantageofsocialmediatofurtheritscause.manningsays thattvpersonalitiescanattain cachet byhavingfacebookand/ortwitter 36

42 accounts, althoughmostremainaloof. Manningbelievesthatsocialnetworking humanizestelevisionpersonalitiesthatstationshavebuiltuptobecelebrities.he says, Theyreallythinktheyarestarsorcelebrities,whichTVstationshavefostered overtheyears,butfacebookandtwitterhavehumanizedtvpersonsandtaken themdownapegortwoasfarasegogoes. Manningpointsoutthatsocial networkinghasforeverchangedlocalmedia.hearguesthatthesesiteshave democratizedmedia.tomanning,thiscanbebothagoodandabadthing.hesays, Mediacanbecomemorelikablebutlosesstatureintheprocess;thatis, mediabecomeslessaustereattheexpenseofprofessionalcachetor credibility. Manningisclearlyskepticalofthetrustworthinessofweathercastersinany mediumorsmallmarket.however,heisquicktopointoutthepossibilitiesthat socialmediasitesoffertolocalstationsaswellastolocaltelevisionbroadcastersof alltypes.forpersonalitiesthemselves,heseesfacebookandtwitterasawayto humanizethemselvestotheaudiences.manningbelieves,however,thatindoingso, credibilityisgoingtobesacrificed.onewouldimaginethen,thatalackincredibility wouldresultinlowertrustbetweenthetelevisionpersonalityandtheaudiences. Hisopinionisincontrasttoresearchthatsuggeststhatstrengtheningparasocial relationshipsbetweenweathercastersandtheaudienceresultsinhighertrust,and ultimatelyinfasterreactiontimesduringsevereweatherevents(sherman Morris, 2005).TheissuesraisedbyManningwillberecurringandaddressedlaterinthis chapter. 37

43 4.3Framework:Socialmediausers Interviewsofthenineparticipantsinthestudyshoweddifferentlevelsof socialmediausershipandcompetence.fromtheinterviews,iwasclearlyableto definethreedifferenttypesofsocialmediausers: powerusers, socialusers, and newusers. Powerusers arethemostcomprehensivesocialmediausers, spendingupto5hourseachday. Socialusers usethesitetoconnecttofriendsand spendaroundanhoureachday. Newusers havebeensocialmediausersforless thanayear.theyonlyspend15minutesadayconnectingtofriendstheyotherwise wouldnoteversee. PowerUsers: Powerusers spendthemosttimeonsocialnetworkingsiteseachdayby far(upto5hoursinseveralcases).often,butnotalways,theyspendagood portionofthattimeloggedonthroughasmartphone.theseusersseesocial mediaasaviablewaytocommunicate,justaseffectiveasphones,texting, and . Powerusers moreoftenhavesocialnetworkingaccounts beyondfacebook,includingtwitter,youtube,personalblogs,andlinkedin. Theseusersdependonsocialmediatokeeptheminformedofthe happeningsoftheirworldonaday to daybasis. Powerusers gooutand 38

44 activelyfindsourcesthatcanprovidethemwiththisinformation;theythen subscribetothesesources,checkingbackwiththemfrequentlytobe updated. Powerusers donotstopatpassivelytakinginformationin;they insteadhaveamuchmoresymbioticrelationshipwiththeirsocialmedia. Theygivebyfindingstoriesthataffecttheirlivesandcommunitiesand sharingthemwiththeirfriends,family,andcollegesviasocialmedia.they usethesesitestoactivelynetworkwithpeople,tomakebusiness connections,andtomeetclients. Powerusers mosteffectivelymakesocial mediaworkforthem. SocialUsers: Socialusers spendsignificantlylesstimeeachday(usuallynomorethan anhour)onsocialnetworking.justlike powerusers, theseusersseesocial mediaasaviablewaytocommunicate.theseusersarelesslikelytohavean accountoutsideoffacebook;thosewhodomostoftenhaveaccountswith Twitterthattheypaylessattentionto.Whileonsocialmediasites,these usersspendthemajorityoftheirtimelookingthroughfriends photosor readingstatusupdates.theseuserswillreadarticlesandlinkspostedby theirfriends,butrarelytaketheinitiativetoshareanarticleorinformation ontheirownwalls.theseusersarealsolesslikelytoactivelypursuesources ofinformationavailabletothemoversocialmedia,yetarestilljustaslikely 39

45 tofollowinformationsourcesiftheproviderisofferedtothemwithoutthe effortoftheirownsearching.ultimatelytheseusersviewsocialmediaasa waytoconnectwithfriendsandfamilyanduseitonlyinasmallwayto gatherinformationandtoshareinformation. NewUsers: Theseusersspend15minutesorlessonsocialmediaeachday.These new users areoften,butnotalways,newtosocialmediaasawhole.themajority oftheseusershavehadfacebookaccountsforlessthan6months.unlikethe powerusers and socialusers, theseusersdonotusesocialmediato communicateinthesamemanner.theseuserslimitsocialmedia based communicationtothosewholivegreatdistancesawayorthosetowhom theyhavenottalkedinmanyyears.theothertwogroupsofusersarejustas likelytoshareinformationwithsomeonearoomaway.theseusersrarely,if ever,havesocialmediaaccountsoutsideoffacebook. Newusers donot sharearticlesandinformationthroughsocialmediasites.these NewUsers areoftensurprisedtodiscoverthattheycanreceivealertsandupdatesfrom newsorganizations.thisgroupofpeoplewillnotactivelyhuntdownsources ofinformationonsocialmediasites.nonetheless,thisgroupisvery importantbecausemyinterviewssuggestthisisarapidlyevolvinggroup. Nearlyallwilleventuallybecome socialusers andsomewillbecome 40

46 powerusers. Asaresult,thisgroupisstillinthebeginningstagesofsocial mediauseandneedstobemoreaggressivelysoughtoutbythemedia entitiesthemselves. Interviewsshowthat powerusers havestrongerconnectionstospecific weathercastersthaneitherofthetwousergroups.thissuggeststhatparasocial relationshipsarebeingbuiltprimarilyorevencompletelythroughsocialmedia, somethingthathasyettoberecognizedbyotherstudies. 4.4CaseStudy:October2010storms AcasestudyofstormsmovingthroughFortWayneprovidsacontextto evaluatehowrespondentsinteractwithsocialmediaandhowtheyrespondedtothe severeweatherwarningsassociatedwiththatstorm. OnOctober26 th, 2010,awell documentedandforewarnedwidespread weathereventthatwasunusualforthattimeofyeartookplaceacrossthemidwest; thiseventchallengedtheparticipantsofthisstudytomakedecisionsaboutwhere toturnforpotentiallylife savinginformation,howtosharethisinformationwith familyandfriends,andultimatelyhowtoputthatinformationintoactiontoprotect themselvesandtheirlovedones. 41

47 AccordingtotheNationalWeatherService,arecord breakinglow pressure systemoverminnesotapushedastrongcoldfrontthroughthelowermidweston themorningofoctober26 th.thiscoldfrontaidedinthecreationofalineofstrong thunderstormsknownasasquallline.intheearlymorninghours,thesquallline developedandstretchedfromnorthernwisconsinthroughillinoisandinto Missouri.Thislinethenpushedeast,eventuallyaffectingIndiana,Michigan, Tennessee,Kentucky,Mississippi,Alabama,Georgia,andOhio,beforebreakingup overtheeastcoast.thesqualllineproduced50 60mileperhourwindswithgusts recordedatover75milesperhour.inadditiontostrong,straight linewinds,storms producedtornadosinwisconsin,illinois,indiana,andohio. ThislineofstormspassedthroughnorthernIndianaduringthemid to late morninghours.televisionstationsinfortwayneputthewatchandwarning graphicsontotheirregularprogrammingearlyinthemorning,allowingample warningforthosewhocheckedthetelevisionforupdates.additionally,twoofthe threestations,wane TVandIndiana snewscenter,providedlivecut insfrom regularlyscheduledprogramswithmoredetailedweatherupdates.at8:37am, WANE TV smorningmeteorologistspostedinformationandvideoonwane TV s Facebookfanpageconcerningthecomingsevereweather.Thatwastheonly warningbyanyofthestationssentoutviasocialmediapriortothestorms arrival. ConversationsdiddevelopamongFacebookusersonthefanpagewallsofallthree stationsaboutwhatwashappeningduringthestorms. 42

48 Ultimately,theareacoveredbyFortWaynetelevisionmedia,northeastern IndianaandnorthwesternOhio,receivedthebruntofthetornados,with13 confirmedbythenationalweatherservice.ofthe13confirmedtornados,8were classifiedasef1andtherestwereclassifiedasef0ontheenhancedfujitascale, whichratesthestrengthoftornadosintheunitedstatesbasedonthedamage caused.windsinef0tornadosrangefrom65 85milesperhour,whilewindsinEF1 tornadoesrangefrom86 110milesperhour. TherewerenodeathsorinjuriesasaresultofthestormsonOctober26 th, buttherewasasignificantamountofpropertydamageacrosstheregion.oneef1 tornadothattoucheddowninallencountyleftaseven miledamagepathuptoa half milewideinsomeplaces(figure4.1).asaresultofthe95mileperhourwinds associatedwiththetornado,moderatedamagetomanystructureswasobservedto. Numerousbarnswerecompletelydestroyedaswell.Similardestructionwasseen throughouttheregion(figure4.2). 43

49 Figure 4.1 October 26th EF1 Tornado Path Figure 4.2 October 26th EF1 Tornado Damage 44

50 4.5Discussionoffindings Theparticipantsofthisstudywerebrokenintothreegroupsofsocialmedia users: powerusers, socialusers, and newusers. Literaturehaspointedoutthat theonlinepopulationhasdoubledfromonetotwobillionusersinthelastfiveyears (Ling,Bjelland,Canright,Engo Monson2010),andwealsoknowthatFacebook recentlysurpassed500millionusers(facebook.com,2010).still,onemightassume apopulationofsocialmediauserstobeayoungergeneration,perhapsbetweenthe agesof20 30,butthisisnotthecase.Perhapsevenmoresurprisingisthatagedoes notplayaroleastowhichofthethreegroupsparticipantsfellinto.twoofthe strongest powerusers weremiddle agedwomen,onewomannear40yearsold withpreteenchildrenandtheotherawomananempty nesterjustover50.bothof thesewomenspendoverthreehoursadayonfacebookandothersocial networkingsites.thissomewhatsurprising poweruser demographichas discoveredthepowerofsocialmediaand,asaresult,hasputittoworkforthemin theirpersonallives,savingthemtime,money,andgivingthemmoremobility. Iamafanofdifferentnewssites;Igettheirnotifications.Dependingon whatitis,imayjointheconversationandimayrepostit.sinceigotmy smartphoneinapril,idon thavetospendasmuchtimeonmycomputer andidon twatchasmuchtelevision. Patty Middle Aged PowerUser 45

51 Anotherparticipant,David,aretiredvolunteerfirefighter,isnowdisabled.Beinga socialnetworking poweruser hasallowedhimtomaintainasociallifewhen gettingoutisincreasinglydifficult.theself proclaimedweatherjunkiespendsover 4hourseachdayonFacebook,connectingwitholdfirefightingfriendsandkeeping trackofhisdaughters,becauseaccordingtodavid, Ikeeptrackofmyfamilywith Facebookbecauseitisjustsoeasy. Andofcourse,asaformerpublicservantand weatherjunkie,davidlikestopostweatherwarningsastheycomeout,sothatallof hisfriendsfromtheareacanseethem.jokinglydavidadds, SometimesIthink peoplegetsickofmepostingwarnings,butlikeitbecausetheywanttobeableto takecover. Noneoftheparticipantsgraspthepowerofsocialmediaquitelikethe23 year oldseniormarketingstudentwhospendsupto6hoursconnectedtosocial mediaeachday.again,thesmartphoneisacommonfactoramongtheseusersandit keepsthemmoreconnectedandmoremobilethantherestoftheinterview population. Ifsomethingbigwashappening,I dbecheckingtwitter,becauseit sso instant.ialwaysknowwhatishappening.iget sfromabctellingme aboutbreakingnews,andidon thavetowaitforatvtofindoutwhat s happeningintheworld. Theparticipantswhofellintothe socialuser and newuser groupsdidnotfollow astereotypicalgroupdemographiceither.twooftheyoungerparticipantsfellinto 46

52 the newuser category,showinglessofanunderstandingofsocialmediathan manyparticipantsmucholderthanthemselves. Ofcourse,thepervasivenessofsocialmediausebythemembersofthisstudy waslargelyinfluencedbytheself selectionofthoseparticipating.presumably,those whodonotusesocialmediaofanykindwouldnothavefoundthetopicinteresting andthusnotvolunteeredtotakepart.still,itwouldbesuspectedthatthosewhodid volunteeroftheirownfreewillwouldhavebeenofasimilardemographicagewise. Thisprovednottobethecase,asparticipantsinallstagesoflifeshowedvarying levelsofsocialmediasophisticationandaptitude Audienceandtrust Justaspervasiveinthesubjectpopulationastheuseofsocialmediaisthe inherenttrustparticipantshaveintheirlocalweathercasters.despitemediawatch CEO sassertionthat sophisticatedviewersdonotacceptweathercastsasbon afide, interviewssuggestthatahighleveloftrustisgiventotheweathercaster.all oftheparticipantsindicatedthattheyvaluethepredictionsmadebyatrusted weathercaster.thisholdsespeciallytrueduringsevereweather,whenevery intervieweeagreedthatheorshewouldtakecoveriftoldtodosobyhisorher televisionweathercaster.oneparticipantsaidshetrustswarningsfromtelevision weathercasters,butshetrustsinternet,coworkers,andfriendswarningsjustas much.thiswasnotthecaseformostoftheinterviewpopulation.further 47

53 questioningshowedthatthiswasnotatrusttiedsolelytothethreatofdangerous severeweather,butinsteaditwasatrusttieddirectlytothefactitwasprovidedby aweathercaster.oneparticipantsaidshehasgottentothepointwhereshedoesnot trustthetornadosireninherneighborhoodanymore.duringthesevereweatheron October26 th, shewasfollowingthetrackofthestormswithherfavoritelocal weatherstationwhilethetornadosirenwassoundingoff.thetelevisionshowed thattornadoswerenotathreatinherarea,yetherneighborhoodsirenwasgoing off.sheneverdoubtedthatthetelevisionweathercasterwastheproviderof accurateinformation,andshewascorrect.thereisnodoubt,duringsevere weather;consumersdotrustthepredictionsofweatherforecasters. Evenwithhightrustintelevisionweathercasters,citizensareturningto differentlocationstoreceivethetrustedweatherwarninginformation.previous studieshaveshownthattelevisionprovidesamajorsourceofwarninginformation duringsevereweather(hammerandschmidlin,2002;legatesandbiddle,1999, Pauletal.,2003).Subjectsinthisstudydisplayedrelianceontelevisionforsevere warningsalso,butpeopleareturningtoothersourcesoutsideoftelevisionfor information,primarilytosecondaryinformationsources.literaturehasshownthat peopleexhibitalevelofdependencyonmassmediaandtelevisiontofulfillcertain needsduringnormalconditions(ball Rokeachetal.,1985),butonceanevent occursthatchallengesnormalexpectations,peoplebegininformation seeking behavior,creatingastrongerdependencyonmassmediaduringthesetimes(mileti anddarlington,1997).interviewssupportthispreviousliterature:allofthe 48

54 interviewsubjectsrecallsearchingoutsecondarysourcesofinformationafter hearingoftheapproachingsevereweatheronoctober26 th.itappears,however, thatfirstandsecondarysourcesarechangingduetothewideapplicationofsocial andmobilemedia.televisionremainsanimportantpartoftheprocess,butitisno longerthebiggestcomponentininformationgatheringforthepublic.media consumersnowturntotheinternetastheirprimarysourceofweatherinformation duringsevereweather.seeinganonlinealertmayleadconsumerstoturnonthe televisionforsecondaryinformation.oneparticipantlabeledasa poweruser who stillreliesontelevisionasanimportantinformationsourcehadthistosayaboutthe stormsonoctober26 th : IgotthealertonmyphoneandthenIturnedontheTVbeforegoingabout myusualcookingandcleaning.icontinuedtogettextsfromfriendsand familytalkingabouttheweather.ireadalotof(weatherrelated)facebook postsaboutwhatwasgoingoninotherareas.iwasgladwhenigotanother alerttomyphonethatthewarningwascancelledandthestormwas dissipating.ipassedthatinformationontomyparentsandbrotherwhohad lostpowerandonlyhadtheircellphonestokeepuptodatewiththings whiletheyhidintheirbathrooms. Buildingontheliterature,theseinterviewssuggestmorepeopleareturningto onlineandmobilesourcesfortheirsecondaryinformation.eventhosewhoheardof severeweatherthroughtelevisiongenerallystillwenttotheinternetformore information.anumberofrespondentssaidtheyloadedaradarloopfromeithera localornationalwebsitetofollowtheweatherontheirown.overhalfofthe subjectsvisitedthefanpageoftheirfavoritelocaltelevisionstationtopost 49

55 commentsandtojointheconversationofhowtheweatherwasaffectingdifferent people(figure4.3aandfigure4.3b). Figure4.3 SevereStormThread 50

56 Figure4.4 SevereStormThreadContinued 51

57 The23 year oldmarketingstudentspentoctober26 th atherworkplace whereshehasaccesstoacomputer. Isatonthecomputeratworkonthe(television)station swebsiteandkept clickingrefresh.iwasonfacebookandtwittertheentiretime.iwasseeking moreinformationaboutthestorms.iknowitskindoflame,butidon twant todie Newparasocialrelationships Thisincreasingimportancetotheaudienceofonlinesourcesofinformation haschangedthenatureoftheparasocialrelationshipinthelastfiveyears.taking advantageofsocialmediaallowsweathercasterstobemoreaccessibletothepublic thaneverbefore,givingthemanewavenuetobuildtheparasocialrelationshipthat hasprovedtoincreasetheirvalueacrossaspectrumofmediaoutlets(hortonand Wohl,1956;Rubin,2001;amongothers).Thepotentialforsocialmediainbuilding parasocialrelationshipsisjustnowbeginningtobetakenadvantageof,anditis alreadymakingadifferenceforsomeviewers.themajorityofthoseinterviewed saidtheyhadaspecificweathercastertheyenjoyedthemost.onepersonhadthis tosaywhendescribingwhyshelikesaparticularweathercaster: Heismorepersonablethanothermeteorologists.Ifeellikeheistalking directlytome.heisfunny,too. Fromearlierinthepaper,JessicaKristydescribedherfavoriteweathercasterwith similarintimacy; 52

58 Ilikeherpersonalityandherhumor.SheseemslikeshecouldbemyAunt.It ishardtodescribebutsheisnotafraidofmakingmistakesandjustrolling withit. Kristy scomplaintofotherweathercasterswasthattheyappearedmoreartificial andthattheywerenotrealpeople.unknowingly,kristyhasbuiltthetextbookcase ofaparasocialrelationshipthatwasfirstrecognizedbyhortonandwohl(1956) andfirstdescribedasarelationshipwiththeillusionofintimacybetweenaviewer andaudience.hortonandwohlalsopointedouttelevisionstations promotionof suchrelationshipsbymanipulatingcameraangles.kathleensherman Morriswas thefirsttopointoutthisrelationshipamongweathercastersandaudiences(2005). Theadventofsocialmedia,however,hasbeguntochangethenatureofthe relationshipentirely.whilethemajorityofthesubjectshavesocialnetworking connectionstoanewsorganization,onlyonesubjecthasbuiltsocialnetworking connectionswithparticular personalities atastation.theintervieweethathas madetheconnectionappearstobemoreattachedtothatweathercasterthanthose whoserelationshiphasbeenbuiltsolelythroughwatchingtelevision.the intervieweetalkedfondlyofseeingherfavoriteweathercaster spostsonthe station sfacebookpage.sheenjoyslookingatthepostedpicturesofthepumpkinhe designedforhalloween.thisseeminglyintimatesharingledhertonamehimasher favoriteweathercasterbecause It sfuntoknowsomeonewhoisregularlyontv. 53

59 Interviewsshowthatthereisanewwaytocreateastrongerparasocial relationship,buttelevisionstationshavefailedinusingsocialmediatodowhatthey havebecomeexpertsindoingthroughtraditionalformsofmedia.socialmedia campaignshavefocusedsomuchongettingviewerstonoticethestation sonline presencetheyhaveforgottentopromotethe talent thattheyworksohard encouragewithtelevisionandprintadds.thenextchapterexploresandpostulates aplanthatcanhelpbetterutilizesocialnetworkingwebsitestocreatestronger parasocialrelationships Weatherwarnings Finally,thisstudyismeanttostudyhowpeoplereacttosevereweather warningsinanageinwhichpeopleareincreasinglygettingthosewarningsfrom differentsources.also,wewanttofurtherunderstandhowgettingwarningsfrom favoriteweathercastersviasocialmediamightchangereactionsduringsevere weatherwarnings.literaturefromkathleensherman Morrisin2005hasalready shownthatastrongpsi,parasocialinteraction,resultsinhighertrustandahigher probabilitythatviewerswilltakecover,butshedoesnotlookathowthesocial mediainfluencesthisdecisiontotakeheedtowarnings. Theseinterviewsshowedthatrespondentswhofellintothe powerusers groupwerethemostlikelytotakeactionwhentoldtodosobyatrusted weathercasterwithportablesocialmedia.theserespondentsproactivelysought 54

60 outtrustedinformationandthenfollowedinstructions.oneofthe powerusers tookcoverinalowerlevelhallway,bringingwithherhersmartphonecontinuallyto beupdatedonwhenitwouldbesafetoresumehernormalresponsibilities. Anotherrespondentwholivesinatrailerparkfollowedthestormontelevisionand Facebookallmorning.Thisrespondentisdisabledandthecloseststormshelterisa quartermileaway;hedecidedtotakecoverinthenextbestplace.whenthestorm arrived,heandhisdogsatinthebathroomandrodeoutthestorm.whenitis suggestedonemovestoasaferlocation,literatureshowstrailerparkresidentsare lesslikelythanhomeownerstotakeshelter(schimidlinetal.,2008).another subjectlimitsherweathermediacoveragetotheweatherchannel swebsite.she did,however,knowtherewerelocaltornadosonoctober26thbecauseofpostsshe hadseenfromfriendsonfacebook.shesatandwatchedtheweatheronher computertheentiretimethestormmovedthrough,butshefeltsafeenoughnotto takecoverbeyondthat.whenanotherintervieweeheardofthestormswhile visitingafriend,sheandherfriendheadedstraighttothecomputerupstairs.she signedonfacebookbutdidnotseeawarningfromher liked newsstation.her friendturnedonthetvtobeabletofollowthestorm.shethenkeptoneeyeonthe nationalradarandanotheronthewindow,readytomovetothebathroomif needed. Theseinterviewsfoundthatpeopleindividuallydecidediftheywerein dangerornot,butitwasnotalackofinformationthatkeptanyoftherespondents fromtakingcover.alltherespondentsknewaboutapproachingbadweather. 55

61 Perhapsmoreimportantly,alloftherespondentshadquickaccesstosecondary information.sowhiletherespondentsdidnotnecessarilytakecover,theywereall wellawareofapproachingbadweatherandtookanextrasteptocalculatetheir owndangerbygatheringinformationfromradarsandweathercasters. 4.6Conclusion DespiteMediaWatch smitchmanning ssuggestionthatweathercastersare merelycharlatansandthatsophisticatedviewersdonotgenerallyaccepttheir forecasts,researchsuggeststhisisfarfromthecase.weathercastersare,infact,the mosttrustedmediapersonality(sherman Morris2005).Alongwiththistrustisa relationshipbuiltthroughanumberoffactors,anincreasingfactorbeingsocial media sroleinthenewsroomanditsincreasingimportanceinanindividual s everydaylife.whethera poweruser, socialuser, ora newuser, the pervasivenessandimpactofsocialmediaisinfluencinghowpeoplefirsthearof severewarnings,wheretheyturnforsecondaryinformation seeking,andhowthey sharesevereweatherinformationwiththeworld.duringtheunusuallysevere weatheracrossthemidwestonoctober26 th residentsinfortwayne,indiana turnedtotheirtelevision,computer,andmobilephonestofindinformationthat couldhelpthem.thesourceoftheweatherinformationismoremobilethanever before,butthemessageisstillthesame.thosewhoarewarnedintimeprepare 56

62 themselvesasmuchastheyfeelisneeded.andbecauseofmobilemedia,more peoplearewarnedearlierofsevereweatherthananytimeinourhistory. ThefirstinterviewwithMediaMatters CEOMitchManningtookplacea weekpriortooctober26 th sunusuallystrongstorms.asafortwaynemedia critiqueandblogger,manningwasquicktopointoutthepotentialforsocialmedia asatoolforincreasingthestation sprofitandasawaytoquicklycommunicate duringsevereweather. And; TVweatherwarningsareoptimalwhentheyoccurearlyenoughtogetthe attentionoftheviewersandarepinpointedsothatthoseviewerscantellif theyareinthetornadicpath. TVstations,inFortWayne,planonorarealreadyusingFacebookand Twitterforweatheralerts.SuchusewillcertainlyprovidecachetforTV stationsandwilladrevenuetobeaccruedbysuchpractices. Furthermore,Manningthinksstationshavemoretodobeforetheyperfecttheir socialmediause.otherintervieweesagreedthatstationsarenottakingfull advantageofsocialmedia. Therewasonetopic,wereMitchManning sviewofpublicopinionprovedto beincorrect.manningsays, Igenerallyloatheweatherpeople,andhavesaidsoattheMediaWatchsite andblogs.theyare charlatans inmyestimation. Ourexperienceisthatsophisticatedviewersdonotacceptweathercastsas bonafide. 57

63 Interviewsshowedthatpeopledotrusttheirweatherforecaster.Whenpeoplelearn ofweatherwarnings,theymostoftenturntotheirlocalweathercaster,eitherontv orincreasinglyonline,forconfirmationandadviceofhowtoreacttothe information.literaturehasshownthatthosewhohavehadexperiencewithsevere weatherinthepastaremorelikelytopaycloserattentioninthefuture(blanchard BoehmandCook,2004),andperhapsthiswasthecaseforMitchManning.Ina followupinterviewafterthestormsproducing13tornadosandstraight linewind gustsupto75milesperhour,themoodofmitchmanning,mediawatchand RRRGroupCEO,hadchangedtowardsFt.Wayne sweatherpresentation proclaiming, Theweatherpeopleheredidanexcellentjobwiththestormslastweek, interruptingshowsofcourse,butrightfullyso.whenbadweatherhit, stationshereputontheirmeteorologicalhatsandstoppedthefoolishness. Weatherpeopleareschizophrenicthatway:theycanbesillyandirrelevant butwhenstormsentertheirarea,theybecomeprofessionalanddotheirjobs withgusto. 58

64 Chapter5:OnlinePresence Asdiscussedinthepreviouschapteranddemonstratedthroughinterviews withusersandexperts,understandingtheparasocialrelationshipisanimportant meanstounderstandingtheconnectionbetweenviewersandtelevision weathercasters.thischapterwillarguethatuserswhoareconnectedwithtv stationsthroughsocialmediahaveevenstrongerparasocialrelationshipsthan thoselimitedtotraditionaltelevisionviewershipandthattvstationshavean opportunitytocapitalizeontheseemergingrelationships. Forthepast50years,televisionstationshavepurposelyexploitedparasocial relationships,but,today,thenatureoftheserelationshipsischangingduetotherise insocialandmobilemedia.aprocedurefirstpointedoutbyhortonandwohl (1956),TVstationspromotethisone sidedrelationshipusingcamerazoomsand othertrickssuchasconversationalstyle,gestures,andinformalsettingstoinvite interactiveresponses.itiscommonthattvanchors,reporters,andweathercasters areseeninprintadds,billboards,andtoldtoattendpublicevents,allincreasing theirpublicexposureandultimatelytheirparasocialrelationshipswiththe community(rubinperse,andpowell1985;brown2003,etal.). Italsohasbeenestablishedthatinradio,thehigherthePSI(parasocial interaction),themorelikelythevieweristofrequentthatstationandradio personality(rubinandstep2000).forweathercasters,ahigherpsihasshownto resultinhighertrust(kathleensherman Morris2005),whichultimatelyincreases

65 thelikelihoodthatapersonwilltakeappropriatecoverwheninstructedtodosoby atrustedweathercaster. ThischapterbeginswithadiscussionwithWANE TV sinternetcontent managertoillustratethetypicalsocialmediastrategyemployedbytelevision stations.hisinterviewprovidesinsightintoboththegrowingimportanceofsocial mediatostationsandtheroomleftforimprovementinutilizingsocialmedia.ithen evaluatethisillustrationusingacasestudyofwane TV scompleteonlinepresence, thestationshownthroughcomparisonsinsection4.1tohavethemost comprehensiveonlinepresenceinfortwayne,demonstratingboththestrengths andtheweaknessesintheironlinecampaign. FromthiscasestudyIpresentadiscussionofmyfindings,highlightingthe importanceoftalentmaintainingindividualsocialmediaprofilesandthestation s needtobetterpromoteitssocialmediapresence.inconclusion,ishallreturnto userandprofessionalinterviewstoemphasizethewaysinwhichsocialmediaisnot beingutilizedtoitsfullpotential.indeed,duetotheshiftingparasocialrelationship betweenviewerandweathercastersasdiscussedinchapter4,thereareclear opportunitiesfortvstationstointegratesocialmediainthisemergingmedia geography. 5.1WANE TV ssocialmediastrategy 60

66 Eventhemostwellestablishedonlinestation,WANE TV,requiresnothing fromtheirpersonalitiesonline.thatdutyfallsonlyontheinternetdepartment, whichtakescareoftheonlinecontentforwane.com,aswellasfacebookand Twitteronasecondarylevel.Thestation sinternetcontentmanager,joeljackson, describesthestrategyforsocialmediauseas loose. JacksonhasworkedforWANE TVfor23yearsandfulltimeintheInternet departmentascontentmanagerfornearlyfouryears.hiseducationand backgroundareintelevisionnews.hereceivedhisbainradioandtelevision Broadcasting,nowcommonlycalledTelecommunications.Hebecamethetelevision newsproducerinhisfirstyearsatwane TV,eventuallybecomingassistantnews director,untilfinallyholdingthepositionhedoesnow. Jackson sjobrequiresthatheoverseethecontentonwane.comandits mobileplatformthatcanbeaccessedthroughsmartphones.lessimportantaspects includemanagingthestation sfacebookpageandtwitteraccount.accordingto Jackson,becausehisbackgroundisinnews,heconcentratesonhavingtimely updates, TheInternetcanbecomparedtoalivingandbreathingthingasopposed toanewspaper,whichisdatedthemomentit sprinted. EventhoughWANE TVhasthemostextensiveFortWaynenewsstation socialmediapresence,jacksondescribestheirsocialmediastrategyasasecondary concern.headds, 61

67 Wedon twanttobombardfanswithconstantupdates,justonesthatare criticallyimportant,weather,forexample,oronesthatfanswillfind interesting.youwanttostayawayfromcontroversialtopicsasthe discussionthreadscanturnugly. EvenwiththerelaxednatureofthesocialmediastrategyatWANE TV,Jacksondoes notunderestimateitsimportance,admitting, They(FacebookandTwitter)aredefinitelygrowinginimportanceandas farasthejobgoes,youcan tignoreeitheroneandexpecttokeepyourjob. Indeed,thischapterwillarguethatweathercasterscan tignoreeitheroneand expecttokeeptheirjob.buttounderstandwheremid levelmarketstationssucceed andwherethereremainsroomforimprovement,wemustexaminetheonline presenceofonestation. 5.2CaseStudy:WANE TV sonlinepresence Asdescribedearlier,FortWayne scbsaffiliatewane TVleadsintelevision ratingsandhasthemostcomprehensiveonlinepresenceofanyofthefortwayne stations.becauseofthis,theywereselectedasthebeststationtoexamine,knowing thatallotherstationsinthemarketwouldshowevenmoreweaknessesintheir onlinecampaignthanwane TV. AsdescribedbyJoelJackson,WANE TV sinternetcontentmanager,the Internetdepartment sprimaryconcernisthecontentonthestation swebsite, 62

68 wane.com, and the mobile platform of that website for smartphones. This website is well maintained and updated frequently. A screen shot of the top of the page shown in figure 5.1, then zoomed in on, shows a number of links and options to guide users throughout the website, but not among these are any indications of their social media presence. Figure 5.1 View of Wane.com links along the top of their homepage. Links along the top of the page lead to important content. Note the absence of links to social media sites. 63

69 TofindWANE TV ssocialmedialinksonthemainpage,usersscrollmidway downthepage,and,ontherightside,aboxoftoolsandlinksaredisplayed.(see figure5.2) Figure5.2 WANE TVSiteTools:Foundontherightsidebarmidwaydownwane.com shomepageasite toolsbaroffersseveraloptionsallowinguserstofollowwane TVonlineandontheircell phones. 64

70 Thetoolsinclude(figure5.2) RSSFeedsbutton,whichstandsfor ReallySimpleSyndication andallows userstosubscribetotimelyupdatesinbriefsummariesthatprovidealink backtotheoriginalarticleiftheuserwishestoreadmoreindepth. Mobilebutton,whichallowsuserswithsmart phonestoviewthewebpage inaversionthatcomplimentstheirphonebetterthanthetraditional computer viewedsite. Twitterbutton,linksuserstoWANE TV stwitterprofilewhereuserscan decidetofollowwane TV. SMS/TextAlertsbutton,allowsuserstosubscribetothestationcellphone textmessagingservice. WeatherAlerts,allowsuserstosubscribetoreceiveweatheralerts. Newsletters,allowsuserstosubscribeto ednewsletters. Facebookbutton,takesuserstoWANE TV sfacebookfanpage,where userscanlikewane TVtoreceiveupdatesintheirnewsfeeds. Downloadipulsebutton,allowsuserstodownloadWANE TV sdesktop widgetwhichisasmallapplicationthatwouldbeplacedonauser sdesktop screenandreceiveupdatesfromwane TV. 65

71 This ToolBar boxcanbefoundonanypageofthewebsite,evenonpageswith newsstories,butanewtool boxalsoappearsonthesesecondarypages Thisnewtool boxofferswaystouseandsharethearticleitself.inorderfromleftto rightthebuttonsare Figure5.3 wane.com stoolbarcanbefoundonanypageofthewebsite BookmarkThisandStarIcon,allowsuserstosavethepageintheirInternet browsertoreturntoatalatertime. DiggIconisapopularwebsitethatuserscan Digg websitestheyenjoy. WebsitesthatreceivethisvoteoftengethighertrafficasmoreDiggusersare senttoit. StumbleUponisapopularsitesimilartoDigg,fromwhichusersare directedtohighly liked websitesbasedontheirtastes. Liking thatsite willbringmorestumbleuponuserstoit. YahooIcontakesuserstoYahoo sotheycansharethestory. 66

72 DeliciousisalessknownsitelikeDiggandStumbleuponwhereusersvote ontopsites. GoogleIcontakesuserstoGoogle sgmailtosharethestory. Redd.ItisasitelikeDiggandStumbleupon,muchless usedandknown. WindowsIconconnectstoWindows tosendstory. Thisbuttonuseswane.com tosharestory. *NoticethatthereisnotaneasyFacebookshareorTwittersharebuttonincluded onwane.com stool boxwhichiscommononmanywebsites. OnceonWANE TV sfacebookfanpage(seefigure5.4),oneseesthemost well maintainedfanpageofanyofthefortwaynetelevisionstations.theother stations facebookpagesaverageonly3 4updateseachday.WANE TV spage averagesover10updateseachday,manyofwhichincludevideothatlinks Facebookusersbacktowane.comtowatchthestoryandreadmoreinformation aboutthetopic. Otherpostsincludequestionspostedbyusers,whichappeartobewell attendedtobywane TVwithanswersbeingpostedwithinacouplehours. Questionsarenotalwaysrespondedtoquicklythough;oneinterviewsubject complainedthatshenoticesquestionsthatgounanswered.sheaskedaquestion afterseverestormsmovedthroughthearea,wonderingwhyacertaintornadosiren wentoffwhentornadoeswerenotclosetoherlocation.herquestionwent 67

73 unansweredandmadeherdoubtifshewouldinteractwithwane TVagainvia Facebook.Thisisamajorsinforanyorganizationattemptingtohaveasuccessful socialmediacampaign.ifinteractingwithstationshasallowedconsumerstobuild loyalty,neglectingthatinteractionwillsurelydisenfranchiseconsumerstothat samestation. Figure5.4 WANE TV SFacebookFanPage:Inthisscreenshotweseethemostrecentpost,posted1 hourearlier.also,4 hoursearlieraquestionwaspostedontheirwall,whichwasanswered2 hours later. 68

74 Figure5.5 WFFTFox sfacebookfanpage:inthisscreenshotweseetwopostsinthelast6hours. Noticethelowlevelofuserfeedback.Also,amuchsmalleramountof likes. FromWANE TV sfanpage,onecaneasilylinktowane TV shomewebpage andtheirtwitteraccount.whilewane TVhasalargerfollowingonFacebookthan anyotherstation,theyarebehindindiananewscenter(abc s21aliveandnbc33) inthenumberfollowingthemontwitter.atwane TV,Twitterisgivenmuchless attentionthanthefacebookpage,asupdatesaremuchmoreinfrequent.thereis notthesameconsistencyinupdatesasthereisonthefacebookpage.onsomedays WANEtweets10times,whileothertimestherearethreeandfourdaygaps 69

75 betweentweets.sowhiletheymakeuseofthefeaturesfacebookoffers,theyare neglectingtwitter sabilitytoshareinformationquickly(figure5.5),evenifall WANE TVwantedwastolinkbacktotheirFacebookpage.Still,evenwithan infrequencyofupdatesandasmallerfollowing,wane TVstilltweetsmoreoften thanindiana snewscenter(figure5.6) Figure5.6 WANE TVTwitterAccount:Ascreenshotshowsthemostrecenttweettakingplaceanhour earlier.priortothatthestationposted2tweetsfourhoursearlier. 70

76 Figure5.7 Indiana snewscentertwitteraccount:ascreenshotshowsthemostrecenttweet takingplacethepreviousdaymarch1st.thestationtweetedtwiceonmarch1 st,priortothatthey tweetedfebruary24 th. Asdescribedinsection4.1andhighlightedinthissection,WANE TVis superiortotheotherstationsinfortwayneatpresentingitselfthroughsocial media,yetitstillleavessomeroomforimprovementsthatcouldhavemajoreffects ontheparasocialrelationshipbetweenitsviewersanditsanchors,reporters,and weathercasters.withweaknessesexistingatthetopstationinfortwayne,itisfair toassumethatthemajorityofmid levelmarketstationsacrossthecountryhave roomforimprovementonthisveryimportantfront. 5.3Discussionoffindings 71

Full Name: Date of Birth: / / Street Address: City: Zip: Address: Cell Phone: ( ) - Name: Relationship. What is the best day/time to reach you?

Full Name: Date of Birth: / / Street Address: City: Zip:  Address: Cell Phone: ( ) - Name: Relationship. What is the best day/time to reach you? Volunteer Application for Furloughing, Puppy Starting & Whelping Host PLEASE PRINT. INFO ON HOW TO SUBMIT YOUR APPLICATION IS INDICATED AT THE END OF YOUR APPLICATION. THANK YOU. Thank you for your interest

More information

!!! Agricultural!Technologies!and!Economic!Development:!Three!Essays!on! Technology!Adoption!and!Inequality!!!!!!

!!! Agricultural!Technologies!and!Economic!Development:!Three!Essays!on! Technology!Adoption!and!Inequality!!!!!! AgriculturalTechnologiesandEconomicDevelopment:ThreeEssayson TechnologyAdoptionandInequality VanessaDelRocíoCarriónYaguana DissertationsubmittedtothefacultyoftheVirginiaPolytechnicInstituteandStateUniversityin

More information

SECONDARY NON- USER RESEARCH

SECONDARY NON- USER RESEARCH SECONDARY NON- USER RESEARCH Information gathered via in-person interviews and the following sources: Boise Public Library Community Survey, March 2012 Wisconsin Public Library Attitudes, Opinion and Usage,

More information

DEMOGRAPHICS AUDIENCE HEADSPACES

DEMOGRAPHICS AUDIENCE HEADSPACES DEMOGRAPHICS AUDIENCE HEADSPACES MARCH 2015 INTRODUCTION Through the use of the FutureFact research survey, Primedia Broadcasting is able to give clients a rich psychographic picture of the headspaces,

More information

Student Questionnaire

Student Questionnaire Identification Label TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE STUDY Student Questionnaire IEA, 2014 Directions In this booklet, you will

More information

Regional Prosperity Initiative: Labor Market Information Supplement

Regional Prosperity Initiative: Labor Market Information Supplement Regional Prosperity Initiative: Labor Market Information Supplement Prepared For: (Region 8) (Berrien, Branch, Calhoun, Cass, Kalamazoo, St. Joseph, and Van Buren) Prepared By: State of Michigan Department

More information

THE SALVATION ARMY LIBERTY PROGRAM 832 W. James M. Wood Blvd. Los Angeles, CA Spring College Book Scholarship

THE SALVATION ARMY LIBERTY PROGRAM 832 W. James M. Wood Blvd. Los Angeles, CA Spring College Book Scholarship THE SALVATION ARMY LIBERTY PROGRAM 832 W. James M. Wood Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90015 2009 Spring College Book Scholarship Dear Veteran: The Salvation Army Liberty Program fully honors, respects, and thanks

More information

Interview Process and Candidate Selection

Interview Process and Candidate Selection 1. Interviewing Lay Persons In formulating questions for interviewing lay persons, the two most important guidelines are to ensure that each question be related to do the job for which the applicant is

More information

NCFE Level 2 Certificate in Business and Enterprise (601/0048/5) Marketing for business and enterprise

NCFE Level 2 Certificate in Business and Enterprise (601/0048/5) Marketing for business and enterprise External Assessment NCFE Level 2 Certificate in Business and Enterprise (601/0048/5) Marketing for business and enterprise Paper number: THIS IS NOT A LIVE PAPER Assessment window Sample This booklet should

More information

2014 SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES

2014 SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES 2014 SPONSORSHIP OPPORTUNITIES OVERVIEW...2 PRESENTING SPONSOR...3 GOLDSMITH SPONSOR...4 SILVERSMITH SPONSOR...5 COPPERSMITH SPONSOR...6 BLACKSMITH SPONSOR...7 BENEFITS GLOSSARY...8 MEDIA & SPONSORS...10

More information

Discipleship Training School Student Application

Discipleship Training School Student Application Discipleship Training School Student Application School Applying for - Month.. Year Personal and Contact Information Name (as it appears on your passport) Surname:... First Name:... Age:... Date of Birth:...

More information

Employment Application

Employment Application Employment Application Human Resources Department 122 First Avenue, 2nd Floor Fairbanks, AK 99701 Phone: 907-452-8251 x3155 Fax: 907-459-3956 www.tananachiefs.org Position applying for: Last Name: First

More information

TOM HARRISON ERIKA KLOEHN MODERATOR: SHIRA MITCHELL. Speaking of Fundraising

TOM HARRISON ERIKA KLOEHN MODERATOR: SHIRA MITCHELL. Speaking of Fundraising TOM HARRISON ERIKA KLOEHN MODERATOR: SHIRA MITCHELL Speaking of Fundraising Costs Agenda Let s Talk About Fundraising Costs What are they? Who cares? When will you start talking? What will you say? Let

More information

SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACT ON BUSINESS STUDENTS AND! THE IMPORTANCE OF ONLINE PRESENCE!

SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACT ON BUSINESS STUDENTS AND! THE IMPORTANCE OF ONLINE PRESENCE! SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACT ON BUSINESS STUDENTS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ONLINE PRESENCE Prepared for Ms. Shari Weiss Business Communication San Francisco State University Prepared by Noemi Viver-Grigorian San Francisco

More information

QUESTIONNAIRE A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENTS ON PURCHASE DECISION OF CONSUMERS IN SALEM DISTRICT IN RESPECT OF DURABLE GOODS

QUESTIONNAIRE A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENTS ON PURCHASE DECISION OF CONSUMERS IN SALEM DISTRICT IN RESPECT OF DURABLE GOODS QUESTIONNAIRE A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENTS ON PURCHASE DECISION OF CONSUMERS IN SALEM DISTRICT IN PERSONAL DETAILS: 1. Name: RESPECT OF DURABLE GOODS 2. Name of the Division : Name

More information

30 important questions of Data Interpretation - I (Quantitative Aptitude)

30 important questions of Data Interpretation - I (Quantitative Aptitude) IBPS PO PDF IBPS PO Prep Module by: 30 important questions of Data Interpretation - I (Quantitative Aptitude). Page 1 of 9 DIRECTIONS Q.1 to Q. 5: Study the following graph and table carefully and answer

More information

APPENDIX 1 THE SURVEY INSTRUMENT - QUESTIONNAIRE

APPENDIX 1 THE SURVEY INSTRUMENT - QUESTIONNAIRE APPENDIX 1 THE SURVEY INSTRUMENT - QUESTIONNAIRE 84 Date : September 03, 2011 MBA Research Project Questionnaire Research Title : Does Flexible Working Arrangement as one of the Work Life Benefits Foster

More information

keep surf cams free and local media kit surfguru.com

keep surf cams free and local media kit surfguru.com 2015 keep surf cams free and local media kit SurfGuru.com has provided surfing and action sports enthusiasts a home on the web since 1996. The core of SurfGuru.com has always been our surf cams and reports,

More information

IDEAL CUSTOMER AVATAR TOOLKIT

IDEAL CUSTOMER AVATAR TOOLKIT IDEAL CUSTOMER AVATAR TOOLKIT Ideal Customer AVATAR TOOLKIT 2 According to the SBA, 95% of small businesses fail within the first 5 years. One of the main reasons these businesses fail is the lack of a

More information

Adoption of ICT in the Greek Livestock Sector: Results of a Survey in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki

Adoption of ICT in the Greek Livestock Sector: Results of a Survey in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki Adoption of ICT in the Greek Livestock Sector: Results of a Survey in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki V. Samathrakis a, M. Salampasis b, Ch. Batzios c, M. Adroulidakis a, G. Arabatzis d a Department of

More information

From Customers to Brand Ambassadors How to find them, create them & keep them working for your brand

From Customers to Brand Ambassadors How to find them, create them & keep them working for your brand From Customers to Brand Ambassadors How to find them, create them & keep them working for your brand 1 Customer A person that buys goods or services. Brand Ambassador-Advocate An army of deliriously happy

More information

Maker - A National Movement

Maker - A National Movement Sponsorship The NoVa Mini Maker Faire is a day of excitement, fun, learning and inspiration for everyone. It showcases the amazing creativity and diversity of Makers from our community. A Maker Faire inspires,

More information

Network Marketing: Network Marketing: The 7 Marketing Strategies You Need To Be A Successful Networking Marketing Professional (MLM) (Network

Network Marketing: Network Marketing: The 7 Marketing Strategies You Need To Be A Successful Networking Marketing Professional (MLM) (Network Network Marketing: Network Marketing: The 7 Marketing Strategies You Need To Be A Successful Networking Marketing Professional (MLM) (Network Marketing, MLM) (Volume 1) By Mark Strauss Books Online Social

More information

The wellbeing and resilience paradox

The wellbeing and resilience paradox The wellbeing and resilience paradox Nina Mguni, Nicola Bacon and John F Brown Contents Introduction... 3 Summary of findings... 5 Individual wellbeing and resilience... 7 Community wellbeing and resilience...

More information

Paths to Subscription: Why Recent Subscribers Chose to Pay for News

Paths to Subscription: Why Recent Subscribers Chose to Pay for News Paths to Subscription: Why Recent Subscribers Chose to Pay for News February 2018 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON THIS REPORT: Eric Young, Public Affairs Manager, NORC 301-634-9536 Young-Eric@norc.org www.mediainsight.org

More information

Engaging Elusive Targets

Engaging Elusive Targets Engaging Elusive Targets The Elusive Audience 2007 Nielsen Ad Share 81% Newspaper 42% Television 39% Mag 7% Radio 6% OOH 6% Consumers will continue to look for less interrupted media experiences, and advertisers

More information

INSTRUCTIONS TO COMPLETE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT PLAN-CWDA

INSTRUCTIONS TO COMPLETE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT PLAN-CWDA INSTRUCTIONS TO COMPLETE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT PLAN-CWDA 1) Please complete the Individual Employment Plan to the best of your abilities. If you have any questions, please contact your Career Manager.

More information

Please answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper:

Please answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper: YWAM Solomon GUIDE TO COMPLETING DTS APPLICATION Application Form - All the questions on the application must be completed with honesty. lf a question does not apply to you, write N/A (not applicable)

More information

Agricultural Information Sources Utilized By Farmers In Benue State, Nigeria.

Agricultural Information Sources Utilized By Farmers In Benue State, Nigeria. PAT 2009; 5 (1): 39-48 ISSN: 0794-5213 Online copy available at www.patnsukjournal.net/currentissue Publication of Faculty of Agriculture, Nasarawa State University, Keffi Agricultural Information Sources

More information

Global J. of Arts & Mgmt., 2012: 2 (2)

Global J. of Arts & Mgmt., 2012: 2 (2) Research Paper: Rangarajan and Ponnarasi, 2012: Pp.120-124 CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENTS AND ITS IMPACT ON CONSUMERS (A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO MADRAS UNIVERSITY) Rangarajan.R and B. Ponnarasi Department of

More information

Web Appendix. Targeted Online Advertising: Using Reciprocity Appeals to Increase Acceptance among. Users of Free Web Services

Web Appendix. Targeted Online Advertising: Using Reciprocity Appeals to Increase Acceptance among. Users of Free Web Services 1 Web Appendix Targeted Online Advertising: Using Reciprocity Appeals to Increase Acceptance among Users of Free Web Services Jan H. Schumann, Florian v. Wangenheim, and Nicole Groene APPENDIX W1 Research

More information

Background + Bio. Brand + Mission

Background + Bio. Brand + Mission Intro Background + Bio Name: Email: Brand/company name: Position within company: What type of brand, company, or organization is this? Why did you start this brand (or why do you work with this company)?

More information

MICHIGAN CONSUMER MEDIA RESEARCH STUDY. Scarborough 2013

MICHIGAN CONSUMER MEDIA RESEARCH STUDY. Scarborough 2013 MICHIGAN CONSUMER MEDIA RESEARCH STUDY Scarborough 2013 THE RESEARCH The market research study consists of 1,000 interviews from adults in Michigan. 850 interviews were conducted on a random-digit dial

More information

SPONSORSHIP PACKAGES

SPONSORSHIP PACKAGES SPONSORSHIP PACKAGES PACKAGES www.fallfest.candlerpark.org About WHAT IS FALL FEST? Candler Park s Fall Fest is one of in-town Atlanta s most treasured festivals. This two-day event attracts 15,000 + festival

More information

EUROPEAN UNION- SURVEY ON THE USAGE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) Analysis of key results of the 2004 survey in Greece

EUROPEAN UNION- SURVEY ON THE USAGE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) Analysis of key results of the 2004 survey in Greece NATIOΝAL STATISTICAL SERVICE OF GREECE Population and Labour Market Statistics Division Unit of Special Household Surveys EUROPEAN UNION- SURVEY ON THE USAGE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

More information

Investigating Television News Service Quality Dimensions: A Factor Analysis Approach

Investigating Television News Service Quality Dimensions: A Factor Analysis Approach www.fthm.uniri.hr facebook.com/fmtuopatija Jelena Komšić, M.A., Ph.D. student Iva Valčić, M.A., Ph.D. student Investigating Television News Service Quality Dimensions: A Factor Analysis Approach Contact

More information

Alabama 2002 Agricultural, Environmental and Rural Life Issues

Alabama 2002 Agricultural, Environmental and Rural Life Issues Alabama 2002 Agricultural, Environmental and Rural Life Issues April 2002 Table of Contents 2002 Alabama Survey on Agricultural, Environmental and Rural Life Issues April 2002 Executive Summary I. Project

More information

Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior in a Services Context

Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior in a Services Context GENERAL CONTENT Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior in a Services Context 1. The prepurchase stage begins with. a. perceived risk b. formation of expectations c. moments of truth d. evoked

More information

FOCUSED ON ROI: INTEGRATING MARKETING TACTICS FOR BETTER STRATEGIC RESULTS IN FRANCHISE SALES

FOCUSED ON ROI: INTEGRATING MARKETING TACTICS FOR BETTER STRATEGIC RESULTS IN FRANCHISE SALES FOCUSED ON ROI: INTEGRATING MARKETING TACTICS FOR BETTER STRATEGIC RESULTS IN FRANCHISE SALES DAWN KANE PRES HOT DISH ADV @XXXXX TRACY WEISE PRES WEISE COMM @TracyWeise Twitter: #IFA JASON ZICKERMAN CEO

More information

[DataSet3] C:\Program Files\SPSSInc\Statistics17\Samples\English\GSS93 subset.sav. Auto-Clustering. Ratio of BIC Changes b

[DataSet3] C:\Program Files\SPSSInc\Statistics17\Samples\English\GSS93 subset.sav. Auto-Clustering. Ratio of BIC Changes b TwoStep [DataSet] C:\Program Files\SPSSInc\Statistics7\Samples\English\GSS9 subset.sav Schwarz's Bayesian Criterion (BIC) 79.9 Auto-ing Ratio of BIC Changes b Ratio of Distance Measures c Number of s BIC

More information

TREADWAY EVENTS, KUKN, KLOG & THE WAVE PRESENTS: 2017 Marketing Packet

TREADWAY EVENTS, KUKN, KLOG & THE WAVE PRESENTS: 2017 Marketing Packet TREADWAY EVENTS, KUKN, KLOG & THE WAVE PRESENTS: THE CINEMA OF HORRORS HAUNTED HOUSE 2017 Marketing Packet Brandon Treadway Treadway Events Owner and Creative Director Brandon@TreadwayEvents.com 971.266.1781

More information

The Anatomy of Consumer Switching Behaviors. Solving the Stumbles that Prevent Profitable Engagement

The Anatomy of Consumer Switching Behaviors. Solving the Stumbles that Prevent Profitable Engagement The Anatomy of Consumer Switching Behaviors Solving the Stumbles that Prevent Profitable Engagement 2 Executive Summary Driving consumer account-switching behavior is a key objective for financial institutions,

More information

#truthaboutadvertising

#truthaboutadvertising #truthaboutadvertising The research 1000 online survey with the U.S. consumers 478 online survey with U.S.industry employees 11 interviews with industry representatives Man on the street interviews on

More information

The gendered nature of employment & insecure employment in Northern Ireland: A story of continuity and change

The gendered nature of employment & insecure employment in Northern Ireland: A story of continuity and change The gendered nature of employment & insecure employment in Northern Ireland: A story of continuity and change NERI Seminar Series, Dublin 17 th January 2018 Lisa Wilson NERI (Nevin Economic Research Institute)

More information

FACES IV Package. Administration Manual. David H. Olson Ph.D. Dean M. Gorall Ph.D. Judy W. Tiesel Ph.D.

FACES IV Package. Administration Manual. David H. Olson Ph.D. Dean M. Gorall Ph.D. Judy W. Tiesel Ph.D. FACES IV Package Administration Manual David H. Olson Ph.D. Dean M. Gorall Ph.D. Judy W. Tiesel Ph.D. 2006 Version 3/07 2006 Life Innovations, Inc. Life Innovations P.O. Box 190 Minneapolis, MN 55440 FACES

More information

Frequency Table (Weighted)

Frequency Table (Weighted) Table (Weighted) Q1_1 Q1: Consider the following issues. What are the three most important issues facing the US today? [Crime] 0 no Crime 1 Crime Crime 1040 86.3 86.3 86.3 165 13.7 13.7 100.0 100.0 Q1_2

More information

Presentation for the New York State Bar Association. Keith Emmer Startegix LLC

Presentation for the New York State Bar Association. Keith Emmer Startegix LLC Presentation for the New York State Bar Association Keith Emmer Startegix LLC 212.920.9205 keith@startegix.com Lawyers and Public Relations Lawyers are a Great Fit for PR! U.S. Media Consumption How much

More information

Lake Tahoe Visitors Authority. Visitor Profile Study Top Line Results Preliminary Summer 2015

Lake Tahoe Visitors Authority. Visitor Profile Study Top Line Results Preliminary Summer 2015 Lake Tahoe Visitors Authority Visitor Profile Study Top Line Results Preliminary Summer 2015 Project Objectives Develop visitor profile data. Analyze the importance of various factors on decisions to visit

More information

CHAPTER-V CHILDREN S ATTITUDE TOWARDS TV ADS

CHAPTER-V CHILDREN S ATTITUDE TOWARDS TV ADS CHAPTER-V CHILDREN S ATTITUDE TOWARDS TV ADS Children s attitude towards ads would not only determine their product purchase behaviour but also other behavioural influences of ads on them. Priya et al.

More information

New research from PPA Marketing

New research from PPA Marketing New research from PPA Marketing Targeting Influentials New research from PPA Marketing Categories: Clothes Alcoholic Drinks Cars Food (for home) Financial Services Pharmaceutical/Chemist Products Household

More information

Join Us In Launching Our Newest Site

Join Us In Launching Our Newest Site Join Us In Launching Our Newest Site Executive Page 1 How QuadCities.com Helps Your Business The first place your prospects turn to when they want to learn about the Quad Cities, now becomes your #1 source

More information

Top 5 Strategies to Drive Traffic & Generate Leads from

Top 5 Strategies to Drive Traffic & Generate Leads from Top 5 Strategies to Drive Traffic & Generate Leads from Stephen Fairley CEO of The Rainmaker Institute 2013 All Rights Reserved. About Stephen Fairley CEO of The Rainmaker Institute the nation s largest

More information

MEETING PEOPLE (01) Describing a company activities (04) 1. Crédit Lyonnais 2. Esso 3. Fedex 4. Mercedes Benz

MEETING PEOPLE (01) Describing a company activities (04) 1. Crédit Lyonnais 2. Esso 3. Fedex 4. Mercedes Benz MEETING PEOPLE (01) Describing a company activities (04) IN CONTEXT 3-5 min What type of companies are they? 1. Crédit Lyonnais 2. Esso 3. Fedex 4. Mercedes Benz 5. Johnson &Johnson 6. The Shop 7. Alcatel

More information

Gender. Audience Analysis for Print Media in South Sudan By Reech Malual-Akumrich; HIRACA Media Consultant /Juba

Gender. Audience Analysis for Print Media in South Sudan By Reech Malual-Akumrich; HIRACA Media Consultant /Juba Audience Analysis for Print Media in South Sudan 1 By Reech Malual-Akumrich; HIRACA Media Consultant 3-3-1/Juba The survey was conducted in Juba-South Sudan with the intention to find out problems being

More information

E Employee Transfer Form HR 3

E Employee Transfer Form HR 3 E Employee Transfer Form HR 3 This form is to be completed in all cases when an Employee is moving from one location to another within the HSE. Sections 1 9 to be Completed by the Employee Section 1 Employee

More information

The Fourth Edelman Survey on Trust & Credibility

The Fourth Edelman Survey on Trust & Credibility The Fourth Edelman Survey on Trust & Credibility Presented by Richard Edelman World Economic Forum Davos 23 January 2003 Methodology Edelman conducted its fourth semi-annual trust and credibility survey.

More information

5 CHALLENGES HOW TO ENHANCE WOMEN S LEADERSHIP IN CREDIT UNIONS

5 CHALLENGES HOW TO ENHANCE WOMEN S LEADERSHIP IN CREDIT UNIONS 5 CHALLENGES HOW TO ENHANCE WOMEN S LEADERSHIP IN CREDIT UNIONS 1 PIPELINE PROBLEM Women often start working for the credit union with less education and in departments that don t lead directly to the

More information

Developing a Management Succession Plan for the Family Farm?

Developing a Management Succession Plan for the Family Farm? Developing a Management Succession Plan for the Family Farm? Alan Miller Farming Together Purdue University 2002 Alan Miller What is succession planning? it is a PROCESS that ensures the continuation of

More information

LMI 101: Key concepts

LMI 101: Key concepts LMI 101: Key concepts Key concepts is one of three LMI 101 guides available for download from the HR Council at hrcouncil.ca. Also available: Putting LMI to work in HR management Putting LMI to work in

More information

Mentor Application DATE AREA OF TOWN OR SCHOOL FOR MENTORING

Mentor Application DATE AREA OF TOWN OR SCHOOL FOR MENTORING Mentor Application 1. To complete this form electronically, first type in all information in the text boxes and click within the appropriate check boxes to answer the information requested. 2. Frequent

More information

KEY FINDINGS. 2 New trends in global shopping habits. Smartphones are increasingly important during all stages of the consumer journey

KEY FINDINGS. 2 New trends in global shopping habits. Smartphones are increasingly important during all stages of the consumer journey KEY FINDINGS 1 Smartphones are increasingly important during all stages of the consumer journey 2 New trends in global shopping habits 3 Social media s influence varies widely by country METHODOLOGY To

More information

Exercise One: Rethinking Our Economic Value

Exercise One: Rethinking Our Economic Value HOW TO SOURCE AND RESEARCH WHAT YOU RE REALLY WORTH Exercise One: Rethinking Our Economic Value Lorrie is a working mother and trial attorney with two children under five years of age. She's been working

More information

AN ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INTERNET BANKING

AN ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INTERNET BANKING CHAPTER V AN ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INTERNET BANKING 5.1 INTRODUCTION Banking industry is also one of the predominant industries adopting technologies which are

More information

Targeting on derstandard.at

Targeting on derstandard.at Targeting on derstandard.at Precise advertising Three types of targeted advertising The aim of targeted advertising is to address an exact target audience in order to increase the success of your campaign,

More information

Chapter 5 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

Chapter 5 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION Chapter 5 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 205 CHAPTER 5 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 5.1: ANALYSIS OF OCCUPATION WISE COMPOSITION OF SUBSCRIBERS. 5.2: ANALYSIS OF GENDER WISE COMPOSITION OF SUBSCRIBERS.

More information

The other 3 Rs - Recruitment, Retention and Retirement

The other 3 Rs - Recruitment, Retention and Retirement The other 3 Rs - Recruitment, Retention and Retirement CONCURRENT INTERACTIVE SESSION 1pm-2.30pm Knox Campus: Level 2, 2 Capital City Boulevard, Knox Ozone Wantirna South VIC 3152 Skills Training Australia

More information

Teacher's Guide. Lesson Seven. Consumer Awareness 04/09

Teacher's Guide. Lesson Seven. Consumer Awareness 04/09 Teacher's Guide $ Lesson Seven Consumer Awareness 04/09 consumer awareness websites Consumer awareness offers students a leg up on financial literacy, decision-making and money management. Students need

More information

Thank you for downloading the word version of our application form, which follows these notes.

Thank you for downloading the word version of our application form, which follows these notes. Human Resources LED Leisure Management LTD Head Office Unit 16 Woodbury Business Park Woodbury Exeter EX5 1AY Telephone: 01395 562500 Email: hr@ledleisure.co.uk Dear Applicant, Guidance note to complete

More information

ECO361: LABOR ECONOMICS FINAL EXAMINATION DECEMBER 17, Prof. Bill Even DIRECTIONS.

ECO361: LABOR ECONOMICS FINAL EXAMINATION DECEMBER 17, Prof. Bill Even DIRECTIONS. ECO361: LABOR ECONOMICS FINAL EXAMINATION DECEMBER 17, 2009 Prof. Bill Even DIRECTIONS. The exam contains a mix of short answer and essay questions. Your answers to the 15 short answer portion of the exam

More information

OPINION LEADERS AND THE ECONOMIST

OPINION LEADERS AND THE ECONOMIST January 2016 OPINION LEADERS AND THE ECONOMIST Erdos and Morgan Opinion Leaders Study 2015 ERDOS AND MORGAN OPINION LEADERS STUDY 2 This survey is a national study of contemporary issue involvement by,

More information

News Digital Media Insight Report

News Digital Media Insight Report Based on the survey findings of 12,903 News Digital Media users online between May 20 and June 16 2008 July 2008 Introduction News Digital Media has grown rapidly over the past two years. We are now consumers

More information

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING EMPLOYEE ENROLLMENT/CHANGE FORM (PEBTF 2)

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING EMPLOYEE ENROLLMENT/CHANGE FORM (PEBTF 2) INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING EMPLOYEE ENROLLMENT/CHANGE FORM (PEBTF 2) Listed below are instructions for completing the Employee Enrollment/Change Form. You will see that each section on the form contains

More information

ZHAO Hong-xin, YU Gao-feng. University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China

ZHAO Hong-xin, YU Gao-feng. University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China US-China Foreign Language, March 2017, Vol. 15, No. 3, 204-208 doi:10.17265/1539-8080/2017.03.007 D DAVID PUBLISHING Study on the Differences of Business Etiquette Between China and America From the Perspective

More information

The College for Financial Planning Alumni Survey Report

The College for Financial Planning Alumni Survey Report The College for Financial Planning Alumni Survey Report Dr. Jacob Rodriguez, Director of Institutional Research and Organizational Effectiveness Dr. Natalie Wright, Assessment Manager Rebecca Henderson,

More information

Andrew Moore. National Marketing & CRM Manager Suzuki Australia

Andrew Moore. National Marketing & CRM Manager Suzuki Australia Andrew Moore National Marketing & CRM Manager Suzuki Australia Segment Marketing How the car industry engages with 35-55 year olds Change Changing Markets Your Business Changing Customers Changing Technology

More information

How Media Contribute to Young Citizen s

How Media Contribute to Young Citizen s How Media Contribute to Young Citizen s Formation of Orientations towards the EU Mag. Dr. Christina Ortner University of Salzburg, Austria Paper presented at the European Communication Conference (ECC),

More information

Knights of Columbus. Business Ethics in a Time of Economic Crisis

Knights of Columbus. Business Ethics in a Time of Economic Crisis Knights of Columbus Business Ethics in a Time of Economic Crisis Introduction Overview The tumult of the American economy has reverberated in homes, workplaces, and boardrooms and has left few untouched.

More information

Findings From The Pre-Wave Of The e-file Advertising Tracking Study

Findings From The Pre-Wave Of The e-file Advertising Tracking Study Findings From The Pre-Wave Of The e-file Advertising Tracking Study Prepared For: The Internal Revenue Service and FCB Advertising/NY Publication 4208 (6-2003) January 2003 Catalog Number 36965K Prepared

More information

ESPN Audio 2017 Quick Little Update 2017 QUICK LITTLE UPDATE

ESPN Audio 2017 Quick Little Update 2017 QUICK LITTLE UPDATE 2017 QUICK LITTLE UPDATE RADIO RIGHT NOW > A18+ weekly reach is GREATER than TV, TV Connected Devices, PC, Smartphone and Tablets Over 90% of Adults Listen to Radio each week 5 + Adults listen to radio

More information

Canadian Market Ad Effectiveness ROI. February 2012 Prepared by Strategic Marketing & Research, Inc.

Canadian Market Ad Effectiveness ROI. February 2012 Prepared by Strategic Marketing & Research, Inc. Canadian Market Ad Effectiveness ROI February 2012 Prepared by Strategic Marketing & Research, Inc. Background & Objectives Visit California began substantial marketing efforts in Canada in 2007, which

More information

Appraisal Skills SAMPLE PAGES

Appraisal Skills SAMPLE PAGES Delegate Manual COURSE OUTLINE 9.00 Welcome and Setting the Scene Overview of the Day Knowledge/ Skill Checklist Ice Breaker: Sensitive Issues 10.45 BREAK 12.45 LUNCH 3.00 BREAK Appraisals Overview Benefits

More information

Form H: Governor-nominee Data Form

Form H: Governor-nominee Data Form Page 1 of 5 : Governor-nominee Data Form District governor candidate: Please complete and sign this form, have your club secretary sign it, and submit it to the district nominating committee. Governor

More information

POHNPEI STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY ADMINISTRATION APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT

POHNPEI STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY ADMINISTRATION APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT POHNPEI STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY ADMINISTRATION APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: DO NOT WRITE READ THE CERTIFICATE AT THE END OF THIS APPLICATION CLEARLY BEFORE FILLING IT

More information

Gender role stereotyping in radio advertisements. A Spanish case. Mariluz Barbeito (UAB) Anna Fajula (UAB)

Gender role stereotyping in radio advertisements. A Spanish case. Mariluz Barbeito (UAB) Anna Fajula (UAB) Gender role stereotyping in radio advertisements. A Spanish case. Mariluz Barbeito (UAB) Anna Fajula (UAB) Narrator (woman) 1: As a psychologist I say you should leave that job and forget your wife, she

More information

Communicating with the Public about Climate Change: Understanding Global Warming s Six Americas

Communicating with the Public about Climate Change: Understanding Global Warming s Six Americas Communicating with the Public about Climate Change: Understanding Global Warming s Six Americas Ohio Sea Grant Webinar November 8, 2012 Teresa Myers, PhD tmyers6@gmu.edu Identify your Audience Meet Global

More information

Youth Employment and Educational Strategies. Research Context Research Objectives Methods & Sampling Strategies Emerging Themes

Youth Employment and Educational Strategies. Research Context Research Objectives Methods & Sampling Strategies Emerging Themes Youth Employment and Educational Strategies Research Context Research Objectives Methods & Sampling Strategies Emerging Themes Research Context Two of the key determinants associated with youth risks and

More information

FIVE WAYS MEN CAN IMPROVE GENDER DIVERSITY AT WORK

FIVE WAYS MEN CAN IMPROVE GENDER DIVERSITY AT WORK FIVE WAYS MEN CAN IMPROVE GENDER DIVERSITY AT WORK By Matt Krentz, Olivier Wierzba, Katie Abouzahr, Jenn Garcia-Alonso, and Frances Brooks Taplett Women are underrepresented in many global companies, particularly

More information

CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW MEDIA

CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW MEDIA MODULE - 6 Characteristics of 21 CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW MEDIA We live in an age of rapid technological changes. Everyday we are flooded with information from everywhere. The internet makes sure that we

More information

She Ran Like the Wind

She Ran Like the Wind UNIT 4 WEEK 2 Read the article She Ran Like the Wind before answering Numbers 1 through 5. She Ran Like the Wind In 1960, a record was broken in Rome, Italy, when Wilma Rudolph became the first American

More information

ACCOUNT-BASED MARKETING FOR RECRUITERS

ACCOUNT-BASED MARKETING FOR RECRUITERS Geo-targeting and data science for account-based marketing ACCOUNT-BASED MARKETING FOR RECRUITERS Account-Based Marketing TARGET KEY ACCOUNTS AND RECRUIT NEW HIRES FROM COMPANIES AND CAMPUSES Account-based

More information

Insurance Industry Resource Council Career Awareness Campaign

Insurance Industry Resource Council Career Awareness Campaign Insurance Industry Resource Council Career Awareness Campaign October 18, 2012 Sandra W. Harbrecht, President and CEO All content 2012 Paul Werth Associates status report Goals for the first 90 days Building

More information

International Journal of Business and Administration Research Review, Vol. 1, Issue.1, Jan - Mar, Page 253

International Journal of Business and Administration Research Review, Vol. 1, Issue.1, Jan - Mar, Page 253 CHILDREN S INTEREST IN T.V ADVERTISEMENTS: AREA, AGE AND GENDER ANALYSIS. Ms Radhamani Divakar* Prof. Guntur Anjana Raju** *Asst. Prof. in Commerce,Govt. College of Arts, Science & Commerce,Khandola-Marcela,

More information

Q1 What is your age?

Q1 What is your age? Q1 What is your age? Answered: 24 Skipped: 0 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51+ 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51+ 8.33% 2 12.50% 3 12.50% 3 16.67% 4 25.00% 6 12.50% 3 12.50% 3 TOTAL 24 1 / 34

More information

Mobile Marketing Solutions The message is the same, the medium has changed.

Mobile Marketing Solutions The message is the same, the medium has changed. Mobile Marketing Solutions The message is the same, the medium has changed. Mobile Overview Mobile phones today are now an extension to the body. We check for three things when we leave the house; keys,

More information

Twitter page management for beginners

Twitter page management for beginners Twitter page management for beginners Twitter page management for beginners 2 Contents Executive Summary.... 4. Introduction to Twitter... 5 Twitter Statistics. 5 Twitter Demographics 6... Logging In &

More information

Digital Assistants a brand s best friend?

Digital Assistants a brand s best friend? Digital Assistants a brand s best friend? By: David Wright, Kantar Large internet companies are putting an awful amount of effort into building or improving Digital Assistants (DA). Facebook launched M,

More information

Adoption of the Dual Frame Telephone Survey with Cell Phones as Well as Landline Phones

Adoption of the Dual Frame Telephone Survey with Cell Phones as Well as Landline Phones Adoption of the Dual Frame Telephone Survey with Cell Phones as Well as Landline Phones From the Survey on Attitudes and Values on Society and Life 1 February 2018 HAGIHARA Junji Public Opinion Research

More information

Using Automation Technology In The Legal Industry

Using Automation Technology In The Legal Industry Using Automation Technology In The Legal Industry 1 Context - Cost The legal industry is worth $300 billion a year Documents are the most expensive outputs produced Legal documentation costs clients $75

More information

EXPLORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MINIBUS TAXIS AS AN ADVERTISING MEDIUM IN AN EMERGING MARKET

EXPLORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MINIBUS TAXIS AS AN ADVERTISING MEDIUM IN AN EMERGING MARKET EXPLORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MINIBUS TAXIS AS AN ADVERTISING MEDIUM IN AN EMERGING MARKET Thérèse du Plooy, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa Giselle du Plessis, University of Pretoria,

More information

CUSTOMER ATTITUDE TOWARDS PURCHASING OF GOLD (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RITI JEWELLERY, COIMBATORE)

CUSTOMER ATTITUDE TOWARDS PURCHASING OF GOLD (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RITI JEWELLERY, COIMBATORE) e-issn : 2347-9671 p- ISSN : 2349-0187 Impact Factor : 0.998 www. epratrust.com October 2014 Vol - 2 Issue- 10 CUSTOMER ATTITUDE TOWARDS PURCHASING OF GOLD (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RITI JEWELLERY, COIMBATORE)

More information