ORGANIC NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN CHILLIES BENGAL GRAM BABY CORN SEQUENCE

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2 Int. J. Agrl.Sc Sc. & Vet.Med. Med P M Shanmugam and K Siddeswaran, 2013 Research Paper ISSN Vol. 1, No. 3, August Meghana Publications. All Rights Reserved ORGANIC NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN CHILLIES BENGAL GRAM BABY CORN SEQUENCE K Siddeswaran 1 and P M Shanmugam 1 * *Corresponding Author: P M Shanmugam, Field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during the year to to evaluate the performance of different organic farming packages for high value cropping system, viz., chillies bengal gram baby corn. The experiment was laid out in randomised block design with four replications. The results revealed that the combination of both organics and inorganics (50% each) resulted higher net returns and B:C ratio (2.95) due to the less cost involved in nutrient application compared with different organic farming packages. Among the different organic farming packages, 100% N as EFYM + neem cake + bio compost registered higher net returns with B:C ratio (2.50). Keywords: Organic farming, Chillies, Bengal gram, Baby corn, EFYM, Bio-compost INTRODUCTION Organic farming is a sustainable system that avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and raises the crop with the use organic cultivation practices. It is one among the broad spectrum of production methods that are supportive of the environment. Use of high analysis chemical fertilizers in imbalanced and indiscriminate manner has developed many problems like decline of soil organic matter, increase in salinity and sodicity, deterioration in the quality of crop produce, increase in hazardous pests and diseases and increase in soil pollutants (Chakarborti and Singh, 2004). Continuous use of inorganic fertilizers not only brought about loss vital soil fauna and flora but also resulted in loss of secondary and micronutrients. In view of these facts, supply of all the plant nutrients has been advocated through organic sources only (Tarafdar et al., 2008). There is very little research work on total use of organic sources particularly for high value crops and experiences in the past have shown that it is impossible to attain sustainable agricultural production through the use of inorganic fertilizers. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the different organic 1 Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore

3 farming packages for high value cropping sequence to obtain higher productivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS Field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and the experiment was laid out in randomized block with three replications. Chillies (PKM 1), Bengal gram (CO 1) and babycorn (COBC 1) were raised in kharif, rabi and summer season during the year and in a sequence. The soil of the experimental site is sandy loam in texture. The soil ph is alkaline and has low to medium soluble salt content and low in available nitrogen, low to medium in available phosphorus and medium to high in available potassium. The mean annual rainfall is 657 mm distributed over 47 rainy days. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 31.5 and 21.4 o C, respectively. The treatment combinations were, T 1 : 50% N as inorganics + 50% N as Enriched FYM (EFYM); T 2 : 100% N as Enriched FYM + bio-compost + Neem cake (each 33%); T 3 + (Chillies +Onion) - (Bengal gram + Coriander) - (Baby corn + Vegetable cowpea); T 4 + Agronomic practices for weed and pest control; T 5 : 50% N as Enriched FYM + Azospirillum + Phosphobacteria; T 6 + Azospirillum + Phosphobacteria. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Yield Pooled analysis of the results showed that, integration of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients at the ratio of 50% recorded higher yield in the chillies (9067 kg/ha), bengal gram (1522 kg/ha) and baby corn (7042 kg/ha) compared with the only organic management practices. Among the various organic management practices, application of 100% N as EFYM + Bio-compost + Neem cake + intercrop (onion) recorded significantly higher chillies fruit yield (8319 kg/ha) which was followed by the application of 100 % N as EFYM + Bio compost + Neem cake (8011 kg/ ha). The same result was obtained by Rao and Rao (1999) in soybean, stated that substitution of fertilizer N requirement by FYM similar to those obtained with complete inorganic fertilizer. Bengal gram favorably responded to the application of 100% N as Enriched FYM + bio-compost + Neem cake + intercrop (coriander) and recorded higher pod yield (1368 kg/ha) compared with other organic practices and it might be due to the acceleration of respiratory process by cell permeability or by hormone growth action due to organic manurial application as it supplies N, P 2 O 5 and sulphur in available forms to the plants through biological decomposition. Application of 100% N as EFYM + Bio-compost + Neem cake + intercrop (vegetable cowpea) registered significantly higher baby corn green cob yield (6596 kg/ha) which was followed by the application of 100% N as EFYM + Bio compost + Neem cake (6571 kg / ha) (Table 1). Sharma (2002) noticed that application of 10 t ha 1 coupled with 50% recommended N recorded maximum values of yield attributes in maize. Economics Considering the economics, higher net returns could be achieved only in chillies and baby corn (Table 1) both being crops of high commercial value, unlike bengal gram. Based on the net returns obtained from the cropping system, chillies bengal gram babycorn as a whole, 50% N as inorganics + 50% N as organics is found to be superior (B:C ratio : 2.95). Among the different organic farming packages, 100% N as EFYM + neem cake + bio compost registered 123

4 Table 1: Organic Farming Packages on Yield and Economics of Chillies-bengalgram-babycorn Cropping System (Pooled data for three years) Treatments Yield(kg/ha) Green Chillies Bengal Gram Baby Corn CEY* Net return B:C (kg/ha) (Rs/ha) Ratio T 1 : 50 % N as inorganics % N as organics T 2 : 100 % N as EFYM + Bio compost + Neem cake T 3 : 100 % N as EFYM Bio compost + Neem cake + intercrop T 4 + Agronomic practices of weeds and pest control T 5 : 50 % N as EFYM Azospirillum T 6 + Azospirillum CD (P=0.5) Note: * Chillies equivalent yield. higher net returns with the B:C ratio of 2.50 compared with other organic management practices. This shows that the higher cost and also the low availability of organic inputs involved in applying 100% as organics do not commensurate with the returns as compared to the application of either 50% as inorganics. Soil Physical Properties The bulk density was lowered because of the application of organic manures. The water holding capacity (WHC) (60.3%) and porosity (35.0%) were higher with 100% organics. The decrease in bulk density making the soil more pulverized and increase in WHC for retention of soil moisture extended period and increase in porosity for effective aeration are positive factors in organic farming practices (Table 2). The particle density did not change much because of the different organic farming practices. Nutrient Availability The available N status of the soil was the highest in the treatment received 50% N as inorganics + 50% N as organics followed by 100% N as EFYM + Bio compost + Neem cake and 100 % N as EFYM + Bio compost + Neem cake + intercrops. The higher available P was recorded with the application of 100% N as EFYM + Bio compost + Neem cake + BF + PB. The post harvest available K status of the soil was the highest in the treatment received 50% N as inorganics + 50% N as organics followed by 100% N as EFYM + Bio compost + Neem cake and 100% N as EFYM + 124

5 Bio compost + Neem cake + intercrops (Table 2). Studies with continuous application of organic manures showed that application of 10 t ha 1 resulted in increase the availability of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O in soil after harvest in cotton (Harish kumar, 2003). Soil Microbial Properties The analysis on soil microbial properties showed that organic manure application recorded higher microbial population as compared to inorganics application. Organic manure application along with biofertilizers recorded higher microbial population as compared to other treatments. Similar findings were reported by Nanda et al. (2006) for high value crops. Organic manure application recorded higher bacterial population which increased from an initial population of 20 to 32 CFU (x10 6 ) g 1 dry soil. A similar trend was also observed with actinomycetes population which increased from 7 to 12 CFU (x10 4 ) g 1 dry soil as compared to the initial status. Fungal population was not much influenced (Figure 1). Organic Carbon Status Organic carbon was higher in the application of 100% N as EFYM + bio compost + Neem cake with intercrops (0.77, 0.79 and 0.82 in kharif, rabi Table 2: Physical Properties, Soil Available Fertility Status at the End of the Cropping Cycle Bulk Particle Water Porosity Post harvest soil Treatments Density Density Holding (%) available status(kg/ha) (g cc -1 ) (g cc -1 ) Capacity (%) N P K T 1 : 50 % N as inorganics % N as organics T 2 : 100 % N as EFYM Bio compost + Neem cake T 3 : 100 % N as EFYM Bio compost + Neem cake + intercrop T 4 + Agronomic practices of weeds and pest control T 5 : 50 % N as EFYM Azospirillum T 6 + Azospirillum T 7 : 100 % NPK as inorganics Initial CD (P=0.5)

6 Soil biological properties Figure 1: Effect of Organic Farming on Soil Biological Properties T1. T2. T3. T4. T5. T6. T7. Initial Treatments Bacterial CFU CFU (x (x 106) 6 g-1 ) g -1 dry dry soil soil Fungi CFU (x 103) g-1 dry soil Actinomycetes CFU (x 104) g-1 dry soil Fungi CFU (x 10 3 ) g -1 dry soil and summer seasons, respectively). Continuous application of organic manure will increase the organic carbon content in soil. These findings are similar to those of Santhy et al. (1999) reported that different soil amendments including FYM significantly improve the soil physicochemical and biological properties and thereby increase the organic carbon content of the soil. Application of 100% N as inorganics registered lower organic carbon content in all the three seasons (Figure 2). Figure 2: Organic Carbon Content in the Soil Treatments T7. T6. T5. T4. T3. T2. T CONCLUSION OC(% ) Kharif Rabi Summer Organic farming can be taken up for high value crops like chillies, bengal gram and baby corn. On-farm generation of organic sources and possibility of getting high premium price for organically grown crops will commensurate the net returns in addition to maintain the soil ecological equilibrium. REFERENCES 1. Chakarborti, Mandira and Singh N P (2004), Bio-compost: a novel input to the organic farming, Agrobios Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 8, pp Harish Kumar (2003), Effect of long term application of organic manures on soil properties and yield of cotton under rainfed condition, M.Sc.(Ag) thesis, UAS, Bangalore. 3. Nanda S S, Mohanty M, Mishra M M, Pradhan K C and Mohanty A K (2006), Effect of nonconventional organic inputs for system based high value crops, in Extended Summaries of National seminar on Standards and technologies of nonconventional organic inputs, 8-9, April, held at PDCSR, Modipuram, Meerut, pp Rao S and Rao S A (1999), Impact of farmyard manure and phosphorus application on soil potassium status and K uptake in a vertisol under soybean-wheat system, J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., Vol. 47, pp Santhy P, Velusamy M S, Murugappan V and Selvi D (1999), Effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers combinations on soil physiochemical properties and microbiomass, J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., Vol. 47, pp Sharma R (2002), Management of crop residues and FYM f or sustainable productivity of rainfed Maize, Crop Res., Vol. 18, No. 3, pp Tarafdar J C, Tripathi K P and Mahesh Kumar (2008), Organic Agriculture, p. 327, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur. 126

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