1 Agric. Sci. Digest, 27 (3) : , 2007 PROSPECTS OF BIOFERTILIZERS AND ORGANIC MANURE UTILIZATION : A CASE STUDY IN DURG DISTRICT S.P. Singh, S.K. Shrivastava, S.S. Kolhe, J.R. Patel and S.S. Bargali Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Anjora, Post Box No. 06, Durg , (C. G.) India ABSTRACT Study conducted to know the utilization pattern of biofertilizers and organic manures in Durg district revealed that integrated nutrient management (INM) strategy is getting positive recognition among farmers. Analyses of 10 years data ( to ) indicated that utilization of biofertilizers in terms of acreage was higher than organic components. Among components, use of PSB (38.64%) was maximum followed by rhizobium culture (20.48%) Azotobactor (10.02%) and vermicompost (0.16%). Data further suggested that the potential and prospects of further expansion of the technology for which a core strategy is needed for enhancement of technological adoption by resource poor farmers. India with 2.2 per cent of area supports about 15 per cent of human and livestock population of the world and has to produce 264 million tonnes food grains per annum by 2010 and 315 million tonnes by 2025 to feed a population of 1.12 and 1.30 billion respectively as against million tonnes by (Tandon,1997). However, per capita availability of land for producing agricultural commodities has declined from 0.48 ha in 1951 to 0.15 ha in 2000 AD and it is expected to decline further to about 0.09 ha in 2050 AD. This situation warrants maintenance of soil health and other resource base to produce more quality food (Singh et al., 2002). It is evident that nutrient mining is becoming a serious threat to sustainable agriculture (Pathak et al., 2002). Currently used management practices which are over dependent on chemical fertilizers do not provide a good balance between soil nutrient supply, crop requirements and quantity of applied nutrients but also deteriorates the soil health. Therefore components of biofertilizers and organic manure being supplemented in INM strategies of field crops. In present study, Durg district a javik jila of Chhattisgarh state was taken in to account for assessment of use and impact study of organic manures and biofertilizer use pattern. To achieve the goal, data on crop and crop area and their distribution in kharif and rabi seasons with fertilizer consumption in term of chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers and biofertilizers were collected from district office of department of agriculture from to The cropping pattern of the year has been taken as the base year to calculate the data of the object. The data of kharif and rabi seasons were pooled and averaged to know the overall distribution of cropped area ( ) and for better presentation, the changing pattern was depicted on the basis of percentage share of various components. District cropping pattern data suggested (Fig. 1) that cereals accounts major share (56.01%) followed by pulses (23.16%) and legume oilseeds (8.24%) in Durg district. According to season wise distribution of crop categories in kharif, the major groups are cereals (75.20%) followed by pulses (42.70%) and legume oilseeds (31.86%), whereas in rabi season pulses contributed maximum share (52.36%) than oilseeds (21.43%) and cereals (17.35%), respectively (Anonymous, ). The yield level of most of the crops were in increasing trend however, it was higher in oilseeds and pulses than cereals (Table 1) due to NPK use during the study 36.01
2 1 5 8 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE DIGEST Fig. 1. Cropping Pattern (%) in Durg Table 1. Yield levels (q/ha) and change in productivity of some selected crops in district Durg ( to ) Crops Kharif crops (q/ha) Crops Rabi crops (q/ha) % change in % change in productivity productivity Rice Wheat Sorghum Gram Maize Peas Kodo-kutki Lentil Arhar Linseed Moong Mustard U r d Safflower Kulthi Sunflower Groundnut Sugarcane Sesamum Soybean Table 2. NPK use (kg/ha)in district Durg during study period Year N P K (kg/ha) Kharif Rabi Total Average Annual (kg/ha/annum) rainfall (mm) Av. Of 10 years % change in 10 years Change in NPK use during 10 years(kg/ha)
3 Vol. 27, No. 3, kg/ha ( ) to kg/ha ( ) i.e kg/ha more (39.71%) with highest NPK use in the year and decreased thereafter. This is mainly because of reduction in NPK use during rabi season. Low NPK use during may be because of drought (Table 2). Katre et al. (1994) were also of the same view that efficiency of applied nutrient can further be enhanced by adopting INM concept enabling the farmers to reduce the expenditure on purchased inputs and ensure sustainability of the production system. Observations further reflected that during study period, the use of biofertilizers and organic manures increased manifolds. One base year ( ), the thousand hectare area was under use of biofertilizers and organic manures which increased sustainability ( thousand hectares) in the year (Fig. 2a and b). It seems that introduction of new INM components (Azotobactor, BGA, green manure, biogas slurry and vermicompost provided more options to the farmers, moreover use of PSB, rhizobium and compost also increased in terms of acreage hence resulted in increased total area under use of such inputs. Data further suggests that biofertilizers claimed larger share in (64.13%) and had progressive linear trend up to (70.45%) while during same period organic manure had decreasing pattern (% share in INM). This might be due to awareness of farmers about the benefits of low cost input technologies. Tiwari et al. (2002) also concluded that INM produced sustainable yields on long run basis, besides effecting a saving of 50% of costly fertilizers. Fig. 2a. Share of bio-fertilizers on acreage basis in Durg during Fig. 2b. Share of bio-fertilizers on acreage basis in Durg during
4 1 6 0 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE DIGEST Fig. 3. Distribution of components in Durg (Mean of 10 years) It is evident from Fig.1 and 3 that within all components use of PSB was highest (38.64%) followed by rhizobium culture (20.48%), compost (15.56%), Azotobector (10.02%) and vermicompost (0.16%). Observations further indicate that average utilization of biofertilizers is higher (76.07%) than that of organic components (23.93%). However, analyses of land utilization pattern by different crop categories and average utilization of components suggested that the biofertilizer use in cereals (Azotobector, Azospirillum and BGA) was still very low and there was much scope for these components. Sustainable agriculture through integrated nutrient management had shown positive impact and recognition among the farmers of the district. The perusal of the acreage ( th. ha) under INM indicated the possibility and potential for further expansion. Singh et al. (2002) stated that management of natural resources should be economically viable, socially acceptable and ecofriendly which would alleviate many of the problems faced by marginal and small farmers (78.47%). Though the benefits derived from using INM had been established in the region but popularization of technique to a greater extent was needed. This will enhance the technology adoption capability among resource poor farmers and had to be taken as core strategy for the development of the area. The bottlenecks of the technology adoption at field level and input availability constraints needed to be identified and solved. The soil and climatic factors must be taken care of. Strengthening extension, distribution channels and administrative manageability were some of the steps for the successful promotion of the technology under existing structure (Sundaram, 1994). REFERENCES Anonymous. Annual progress Reports ( to ), Department of Agriculture, Durg, C.G. Katre, R.K. and Patil, S.K. (1994). In Abstracts of Symposium on Sustainable Crop Production in Madhya Pradesh. December, 23. Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur, M.P. Pathak, H. et al. (2002). Fertilizer News, 47(11): Singh, H.P. et al. (2002). Extended Summaries Vol. 2: 2 nd International Agronomy Congress, Nov., 26-30, 2002, New Delhi, India.
5 Vol. 27, No. 3, Singh, K. et al. (2002). Fertilizer News, 47(11): Sundaram, K.P. (1994). Biofertilizers in Indian Agriculture. Tech. Bull. FAI, New Delhi, Tandon, H.L.S. (1997). In Plant Nutrient Needs, Supply, Efficiency and Policy Issues. NAAS, New Delhi, pp Tiwari, K.L. et al. (2002). Extended Summaries Vol. 1: 2 nd International Agronomy Congress, Nov., 26-30, 2002, New Delhi, India.