Research Article IJAAER (2016); 2(2): EVALUATION AND ADAPTATION OF SORGHUM GENOTYPES UNDER AGRO- ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF PESHAWAR VALLEY

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1 Research Article IJAAER (2016); 2(2): International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Research FREE AND OPEN ACCESS Available online at ISSN (Online) ISSN (Print) EVALUATION AND ADAPTATION OF SORGHUM GENOTYPES UNDER AGRO- ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF PESHAWAR VALLEY SYED JUNAID AHMAD 1, FAZAL MUNSIF 1, TARIQ JAN 2, IKRAM ULLAH 3, M. Z AFRIDI 1 AND NUMAN ALI 1 1 Department of Agronomy, The University Of Agriculture Peshawar, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus Mardan 2 Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar 3 Deptt: of Soil and Environmental Sciences, The University of Agriculture Peshawar Correspondence author E.mail: Abstract In order to identify the adaptability of sorghum genotypes, received from National Agricultural Research Center Islamabad, an experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar during summer The Experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design having three replications. Perusal of the data showed that sorghum genotypes differed significantly for plant height, leaf area, number of leaves plant -1, green fodder yield and dry matter yield of sorghum. The genotypes DS-75, YSS- 98 and DS-97 attained higher plant height (284, 270 and 249 cm, respectively) and leaf area (357, 276 and 267 cm, respectively). The genotypes DS-97, Johar and PK SS-2 had more number of leaves tiller -1 (14.4, 14.2 and 13.4, respectively) while greater green fodder yield was produced by PK SS-2, YSS-98 and Ds-75 (63.7, 63.4 and 62.2 t ha -1 ) while dry matter yield was higher for DS-75, Ghiza-3 and YSS-98 (30.3, 26.9 and 26.3 t ha -1 ). It is concluded from the study that sorghum genotypes PK SS-2, YSS-98 and Ds-75 are due to its higher production recommended for cultivation in the agro-ecological condition of Peshawar valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Keywords: Sorghum, genotypes, fodder yield, Adaptability and Peshawar INTRODUCTION Livestock sector play a very important role in livelihood in dry land area of Pakistan. It added 55.1 % value of agriculture and 11.5 % to GDP. A large segment of the rural population comprising approximately 40 million of people have 2-3 cattle and 5-6 sheep per family providing 30-40% of income for livelihood (GOP, 2011). The major feed stuffs include residues of different crops particularly of cereals (44%), grazing in pastures and canal banks (28%), forage and fodder (15%) and concentrates (3%) (Iqbal et al., 2015). Low fodder production and lesser-feed availability is the major limiting factor for increasing livestock productivity in Pakistan and particularly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Improvement in livestock production depends on the proper quality and quantity of feed. The existing production of fodder is hardly enough to meet about 30 to 50% of the total national fodder requirement. Fodder availability per animal per day in our province is less than 2 kg. This situation leads to poor feeding of the animal, resulting in low milk and meat production. Due to low per capita availability of the quality Please cite this article as: Ahmad, J.S., F.Munsif, T. Jan, I. Ullah, M.Z. Afridi and N. Ali Evaluation and adaptation of Sorghum genotypes under Agro-Ecological conditions of Peshawar valley. Int. J. Agric. Environ. Res., 2(2):

2 products from livestock, our nation is facing the problems of malnourishment, high disease incidence and low life expectancy. Demand for animal products for human consumption is increasing day by day because of expanding human population and improvement in life style of citizens (Amanullah, 2007).Due to low yield ha -1 and minimum area under fodder crops, the available fodder supply is one third of that actually needed and the shortage is further being increased due to reduction in area under fodder crops by 2% after each decade (Sarwar et al., 2002). Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) locally known as Jawar or Chari belong to family Poaceae is a major kharif (summer) cereal crop in arid and semiarid areas of the world including Pakistan. It is one of the four major food grains of the world. Besides being a major source of staple food for humans, it serves as an important source of feed and fodder for animals. It makes comparatively quick growth and gives not only good yield of grain but also very large quantities of fodder. Sorghum fodder possesses oxalic acid and prussic acid. (Ullah et al., 2007).Sorghum has a good potential to tolerate adverse environmental conditions which makes it a suitable crop for semi-arid areas. Its rapid growth and high biomass production helps to overcome unfavorable environmental conditions (Zerbini et al., 2003). Sorghum is the short maturity period favors successful cultivation of the crop on marginal soils with low soil moisture in temperate, tropical and subtropical climates (Nahar et al. 2011).There is need to emphasize for increased fodder production so that we could provide more support to livestock industry in the country whereas feed resources are not enough to satisfy the projected livestock population (Devendra and Leng, 2011). Among different possibilities to fulfill the forage shortage as happens in our country, the most pragmatic option is the growing of those varieties which have higher fodder yield potential (Bilal et al., 2001; Chohan et al.,2006). This study was therefore, planned to evaluate various sorghum cultivars and determine the cultivars that performed better in terms of fodder yield and dry matter production under agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar. MATERIAL AND METHOD Description of the Study Area: The research institute is located about 14 km east of Peshawar city, capital of KPK province. Peshawar is located about 1600 km north of Indian Ocean and thus has a continental climate. The experimental site is located at 34 `N, 71`E and an altitude of 450 m above sea level. The soil of the research institute is silty loam (Clay and silt 27 and 50 %, respectively). The PH value of the soil is , contained 1.06% Organic matter with %, 22.1 % and % mg kg -1 N,P and K respectively. (Tariq Jan 2005). Treatments and experimental design: The experiment entitled Evaluation and adaptation of sorghum genotypes for their performance under Agro-ecological condition of Peshawar valley was conducted at the Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Farm during summer season The experiment was comprised on seven sorghum genotypes received from National Agriculture Research Center, Islamabad and were compared for various growth traits and fodder yield. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. A uniform seed rate of 32 kg ha -1 was used for each genotype. Each plot consisted of 5 rows, 5 m long and 1.5 m apart. Seedbed was prepared at proper weather conditions. A basal dose of 57 kg N and 57 kg P 2O 5 ha -1 was applied with first irrigation as SSP (18% P 2O 5) and Urea (46% N). Irrigation was applied when required. Weeds were controlled manually at the proper time. The crop was sown on 7 th May 2015 and harvested on 31 July Data was collected on plant height, leaves tiller -1, leaf area, number of tillers plant -1, green fodder yield and dry matter yield. All other agronomic practices were kept uniform for all the treatments. Table 2.1. Number and name of cultivars. S. No Name of Cultivars Name of cultivars 1. DS YSS Pk SS-2 6. DS

3 3. Ghiza-3 7. Johar 4. DS-97 Data recording procedure: Data regarding plant height was measured in cm from base to the tip of the plants by selecting 3 plants at random within each treatment at 50% heading stage and then average was worked out. Length and width of each leaf of three randomly selected plants from each plot was measured and converted into leaf area per plant using following formula. Leaf area = leaf length leaf width factor (0.75) Data on number of leaves tiller -1 was recorded by counting the number of leaves tiller -1 from (10) randomly selected plants in each plot and then average was calculated. For Green fodder yield, three 5m long middle rows was harvested at 50% heading stage and weighed with a spring balance to record fresh fodder yield. Data regarding dry matter yield was measured by selecting a sample of 500 gram of green fodder at random from each plot and replication and dried it at sun light and weighed with a digital balance to record dry matter yield after drying. Statistical Analysis: Data was statistically analyzed according to method appropriate for RCB designs. Differences among means were compared using Lsd at 5% probability level (Steel et al., 1997). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Leaf area: Leaf area of different sorghum genotypes are presented in Table 3.1. Analysis of the data indicated that leaf area was significantly different of various sorghum genotypes. The highest leaf area (357 cm 2 ) was noted for DS-75. Lower leaf area (259.9 cm 2 ) was recorded for genotype Johar, however it was at par with the other tested cultivars. The variation in leaf area per plant may due to differences in genetic makeup of the cultivars. These results confirm the findings of Mehmud et al. (2003) and Chohan et al. (2006). Plant height (cm): Data regarding plant height of sorghum genotypes are presented in Table 3.1. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that genotypes significantly varied among each other for plant height. Mean values of the data showed that highest plant height was cm for genotype DS-75 and it was statistically similar with all cultivars except DS- 91, PK-SS-2 and DS Lesser plant height (149.9 cm) was recorded for DS-91. Difference in plant height could be due to variation in genetic make-up or the hormonal balance and cell division rate that result in changes in the plant height of the different genotypes (Ullah et al., 2007). Number of tillers plant -1 : Number of tillers plant -1 of different sorghum cultivars under agro-ecological condition of Peshawar valley is presented in Table 3.1. Perusal of the data revealed that number of tiller plant -1 was considerably differed for sorghum genotypes. Highest number of tillers plant -1 (10.2) was noted for genotype DS-2003, while lower number of tillers plant -1 (1.5) was recorded for YSS- 98. The variation in number of tillers plant -1 may be due to the differences in genetic makeup of the genotypes. These results confirm the findings of Lafarge et al. (2002) and Kim et al. (2010). Number of leaves tiller -1 : Data on number of leaves tiller -1 of different sorghum genotypes are presented in (Table 3.2). Statistical analysis of the data showed that genotypes differed significantly for number of leaves tiller -1. Higher number of leaves tiller -1 (14.4) was noted by the genotype DS-97. Less number of leaves tiller was recorded for genotype YSS- 98. This variation in leaves tiller -1 may also be attributed to variation in genetic make-up and adaptability of these genotypes to different environmental conditions. The same was reported by Sowiński and Szydełko (2011) who found considerable differences in genotypes for number of leaves tiller -1. Green fodder yield (t ha -1 ): Statistical analysis of the data showed that green fodder was significantly varied among sorghum genotypes (Table 3.2). Mean values of the data exhibited that highest green fodder yield (63.7 ton ha -1 ) was obtained for genotypes PK SS-2 and Johar, whereas lower green fodder yield (48.9 t ha -1 ) was produced for DS-2003.These results are in agreement with the findings of Nabi et al. 173

4 (2006); Khan et al. (2007) and Singh et al. (2008), who also reported that differences in fodder yield of various genotypes could be attributed to positive contribution of fodder yield components. Dry matter yield (t ha -1 ): Data pertaining to dry matter yield of different sorghum genotypes under agro-ecological condition of Peshawar valley are presented in Table 3.2. Analysis of the data revealed that sorghum genotypes significantly varied dry fodder yield. Mean values of the data exhibited that highest dry matter yield (30.3 t ha -1 ) was obtained for variety DS-75, whereas lower dry matter yield (14.3 t ha -1 ) was noted for PK-SS-2.The significant variations among sorghum genotypes for dry matter production have already been reported in studies conducted by Panwar et al. (2002), Nabi et al. (2006) and Malik et al. (2007). Table 3.1 Different growth characteristics as affected by various sorghum genotypes. Cultivars Leaf Area (cm 2 ) Plant height (cm) Number of leaves tiller -1 DS a a 12.8ab Pk SS b b 13.4ab Ghiza b 246.7ab 11.7 b DS b c 14.4 a YSS b a 11.4 b DS b b 12.9ab Johar b 242.2ab 14.2 a LSD(0.05) Table 3.2. Different growth characteristics as affected byvarious sorghum genotypes. Cultivars Number of tillers plants -1 Green Fodder Yield (t ha -1 ) Dry Matter yield (t ha -1 ) DS b 62.2 a 30.3 a Pk SS b 63.7 a 14.3 b Ghiza b 58.5 a 26.9 a DS b 63.0 a 25.1ab YSS b 63.4 a 26.3ab DS a 48.9 b 16.4 b Johar 1.8 b 63.7 a 22.5ab LSD(0.05) CONCLUSION On the basis of findings obtained, it is concluded that sorghum genotypes PK SS-2, and Johar due to higher production are hence recommended for cultivation in the agro-ecological condition of Peshawar valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. REFERENCES Ahmad, H. K., S.M.C. Muhammad, K.H. Syed, M. Abdul.A.K. Riaz, Nitasha and M. Khadija A new dual purpose sorghum bicolor cultivar for agroclimatic condition of Pakistan.J. Agric. Res., 51(1): Amanullah, A., A. Khan, K. Nawab, A. Khan and B. Islam Growth characters and fodderproduction potential of sorghum varieties under irrigated conditions. Sarhad J. Agric, 23(2): Amir, S. R., H. Azraf, S.Nadeem, N. Ahmad, H. Tasawar and S. Muhammad Differential response of sorghum cultivars for fodder yield and quality. J. Glob. Innov. Agric. Soc. Sci, 2(1): Ayub, M., M.A. Nadeem, M. Tahir, A. Ghafoor, Z. Ahmed and M. Naeem Comparitive studies on the growth, forage yield and quality of sorghum (Sorghum 154

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