Package of Practices of maize cultivation in Andhra Pradesh

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1 Package of Practices of maize cultivation in Andhra Pradesh Package of practices of Maize for Kharif and Rabi Season Rabi Recommended hybrid and varieties Hybrid/ Variety Hybrids Rainfed/ irrigated Duration (days) Grain yield q/ha Salient features 1 DHM-103 Irrigated Tolerant to foliar diseases Irrigated and stalk rot 2. DHM-1 Irrigated Early maturing short duration variety tolerant to diseases 3. DHM-105 Irrigated Stable hybrid 4. Trishulata Irrigated Three way cross hybrid. Tolerant to leaf blight and stalk rots 5.BH-2187 Irrigated Short duration single cross hybrid. Kernels attractive and orange flint type and tolerant to leaf blight, rust and stalk rots. Composite 6. Ashwini Irrigated Tolerant to stalk borer 7. Harsha Irrigated A promising composite with uniform cobs 8. Varun Irrigated Drought tolerant Special varieties 9. Amber popcorn Irrigated Grains for popping. Law yields are compensated with higher returns 10. Madhuri Irrigated Delicious table variety having higher sugar(30-36%) in green cobs. 11. Priya Irrigated Delicious table variety having higher sugar 30-36% in green cobs Time of sowing

2 Middle of October to November in Telangana districts and up to January 1 st week in coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh ( seed production). Soil Deep medium black soils with good drainage and red loams are preferable. Maize does not come up well on saline alkaline and waterlogged soils. The optium ph range is between 5.5 to 7.5. Sowing Seed rate: 18 kg/ha (7kg / ac). Dibble 2-3 cm deep. Sowing on sides of ridges at a distance of 1/3 rd from top facilitates irrigation as well as drainage. Excess seedling should be thinned 10 days after emergence to have single seedling per hill. Spacing 75 cm between rows and 20cm between plants or 60 cm) between rows and 25 cm between plants. This gives a plant population of 66,000 ha or 26,000/ac approximately. Weeding Pre-emergence spraying Atrazine 1.0 to 1.5 kg a.i./ha in case of light soils and 1.5 to 2.0 kg a.i/ha in case of heavy soils in of water will control most board leaved weed effectively. After days, crop may be intercultivated and earthing up should be done. Fertilisers For rabi crop 120 kg N-60kg P 2 O 5-50 kg K 2 O per ha is recommended. Nitrogen may be applied in two or three splits viz., at sowing, knee high stage and at flag leaf emergence. 50 kg of commercial zinc sulphate per ha may be applied if soils ae known to be deficient in availblable zinc sulphate. With second dose of nitrogen, loosen the soils by working cultivator and earth it up by a ridger. Irrigation To get a good crop, irrigations should be given as and when required. Maize needs less irrigations till the crop attains growth phase i.e., up to 30 days. As growth period advances these intervals between irrigations can be reduced and more quantity of water applied till the completion of silking are very essential. When the crop is in initial stages, drainage is as important as irrigation since water logged conditions impede crop growth.. Plant Protection a) Pests:

3 The pink borer (Sesamia inferens) infests the crop during rabi season. The borers cause dead hearts in early stage of crop. The Pest incidence is recognized by the presence of parallel holes in the leaf blades as well as exit holes on the stem. Generally hybrids are tolerant to these pests. In endemic areas prophylactic spraying of Endosulfan % or application of Endosulfan 4 G/ Carbofuran 3 G in leaf is recommended when the crop is days old. In case of helicoverpa armigera which attack tassels and green cobs, 0.1% (3ml/litre) may be sprayed. b) Diseases The important diseases of maize are leafblight (Helminthosporium turcicum) late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) and charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina). Three sprayings of Dithance 0.3% (3g/l) at weekly interval starting from knee high stage of the crop controls the leaf blight. Hybrid/Variety Rainfed / Duration (days) Grain yield Salient features Irrigated q/ha Hybird 1)DMH-103 Irrigated Tolerant to foliar disease and stalk rot 2) DMH-1 Irrigated Early maturing short duration variety tolerant to diseases 3) DMH-105 Irrigated Stable hybrid 4) Trishulata Irrigated Three way cross hybrid. Tolerant to leaf blight and stalk rots 5) BH-2187 Irrigated Short duration single cross hybrid. Kernels attractive and orange flint type and tolerant to leaf blight, rust and stalk rots. Composites 6) Ashwini Irrigated Tolerant to stalk borer 7) Harsha Irrigated A promisig composite with uniform cobs

4 8) Varun Irrigated Drought tolerant Special varieties Amber popcorn Irrigated Grains for popping. Low yields are composited with higher returns 10) Madhuri Irrigated Delicious table variety having higher sugar (30-36%) in green cobs. 11) Priya Irrigated Deliciuos table variety having higher sugar 30-36% in green cobs Time of sowing Middle of June to middle of July. In case of delayed mansson, may be extended up to first week of August. Soil Deep medium black soils with good drainage and red loams are preferable. Maize does not come up well on saline alkaline and waterlogged soils. The optimum ph range is between 5.5 to 7.5. Sowing Seed rate : 18kg/ha (7kg/ac). Dibble 2-3 cm deep. Sowing on sides of ridges at a distance of 1/3 rd from top facilitates irrigation as well as drainage. Excess seeding should be thinned 10 days after emergence to have single seeding per hill. Spacing 75 cm (2.5 ) between rows and 20 cm (8 ) between plants or 60cm (2 ) between rows and 25 cm (10 ) between plants. This give a plants. This give a plant population of 66000/ha or 26000/ac approximately. Fertilisers For Kharif crop 100kg N-50 kg P 2 O 5-40 kg K 2 O per ha is recommended.

5 Nitrogen may be applied in two or three splits viz., at sowing, Knee high stage and at flag leaf emergence.50 kg of commercial zinc sulphate per ha may be applied if soils are know to be deficient in available zinc. If symptoms appear later, the crop can be sprayed with 0.2% solution of zinc sulphate. With second dose of nitrogen, loosen the soils by working cultivator and earth it up by a rider. Irrigation To get a good crop, irrigations should be given as and when required Maize needs less irrigations till the crop attains growth phase i.e., up to 30 days. As growth period advances these intervals between irrigations can be reduced and more quantity of water applied till the completion of silking are very essential. When the crop is in initial stages, drainage is as important as irrigation since water logged conditions impede crop growth. Plant protection a) Pests: The striped borer (Chilo partellus) infests the crop during Kharif season. The borers cause dead herts in early stage of crop. The pest incidence is recognized by the presence of parallel hole in the leaf blades as well as exit holes on the stem. Generally hybrids are tolerant to these pests. In endemic ateas prophylactic sprying of Endosulfan % or application of Endosulfan 4 G/ Carbofuran 3 G in leaf 5kg/ha is recommended when the crop is days old. In case of Helicoverpa armigera which attacks tassels and green cobs, 0.07% (2ml/Litre) may be sprayed. b) Diseases The important diseases of maize are leafblight (Helminthosporium turcicum) late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) and charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina). Three sprayings of Dithane 0.3%(3 g/l) at weekly interval starting from knee high stage of the crop controls the leaf blight. Selection of suitable hybrids or varieties for disease tolerance is a must in endemic areas. Cultivars grown in the Zone: About 95% of the area in the zone was cultivated by Kargil 900M, Seed Tech 2324, BH2187, PRO311, BIO9681, BIO9637, Kaveri, Kanchana, Pioneer, Allrounder, 33v92, CP818 and KH517.