2 FDI for Sustainable Development and the SDGs - National Challenges and Policy Responses Seyed Komail Tayebi Director of CEIEUI, Department of Economics, University of Isfahan, Iran Zahra Zamani Department of Economics, University of Isfahan, Iran Fifth Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Network United Nations Conference Centre, Bangkok, Thailand 2 November 2015
3 Introduction Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) can serve as a catalyst to attain faster economic growth rates in developing economies. FDI plays as a key role in globalization. FDI led-growth results in degradation of the environment in most cases. Rising food and water insecurity, climate change and the growing economic disparity have emerged as the major threats in this millennium.
4 The Concept of FDI in Economic Point of View FDI refers to capital inflows from abroad that invest in the production capacity of the economy and are usually preferred over other forms of external finance because they are non-debt creating, non-volatile and their returns depend on the performance of the projects financed by the investors. FDI has many evident benefits which includes: Source of economic development, Modernization, Employment generation, Technology spillovers, Assists human capital formation, International trade integration and exports, Create a more competitive business environment, Enhances enterprise development, Increases total factor productivity Improves the efficiency of resource use.
5 Sustainable Development in Economic Point of View The Concept of SD; Sustainable Development is defined as Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This definition requires that future generations should at least get as much resources as we have, to meet their needs.
6 SDGs in Economic Point of Views The Concept of The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, are an inter-governmentally agreed set of targets relating to international economic development. They will follow on from the Millennium Development Goals and build on the sustainable development agenda that was finalized by member states during the Rio +20 Summit. The SDGs were first formally discussed at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012 (Rio+20).
7 The SDGs Implementation On 19 July 2014, the UN General Assembly s Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) forwarded a proposal for the SDGs to the Assembly. The proposal contained 17 goals with 169 targets covering a broad range of sustainable development issues. These included ending poverty and hunger, improving health and education, making cities more sustainable, combating climate change, and protecting oceans and forests. On 4 December 2014, the UN General Assembly accepted the Secretary-General's Synthesis Report which stated that the agenda for the post-2015 SDG process would be based on the OWG proposals. The Intergovernmental Negotiations on the Post 2015 Development Agenda (IGN) began in January 2015 and ended in August Following the negotiations, a final document was adopted at the UN Sustainable Development Summit September 25 27, 2015 in New York, USA. The title of the agenda is Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
8 Dimensions of Sustainable Development Economic Growth Stability Efficiency Social Empowerment Inclusion/Consultation Institutions/Governance Environment Resilience/Biodiversity Natural Resources Pollution
9 Determinants of FDI Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Degree of Openness Exchange Rate Per capita GDP Social and political stability Rule of Law Transparency Investor friendly regulations Tax incentives Infrastructure Size of domestic markets Availability of skilled labor (Human Capital) Communication facilities Quality of host country s institutions Cost of wages Competitiveness of workforce in terms of quality Productiveness Working conditions and trade Specific skills
10 Dimensions of Investment Policy that are Key Points for Sustainable Development Creating regulatory and legal capacity for managing investment inflows Promoting and facilitating investment Attracting private investment in infrastructure Strengthening the links between investment and trade Promoting responsible business conduct by multinational enterprises
11 Impacts of FDI on Sustainable Development FDI is a vital source of external capital for most developing countries The macroeconomic impacts of FDI are related mainly to growth and investment. Sustainable development depends as much on the quality of investment as on the quantity. FDI affect SD both directly and indirectly. Finally, FDI is a Vehicle for Sustainable Development.
12 As a Result Sustainable FDI Sustainable Development Sustainable Economic Growth SDGs Environment
13 The Causality Relationship between FDI Growth F(1, 103) = 8.88 and Growth Bhutan, Nepal, Mongolia, Azerbaijan, Sri Lanka, Iran ( ) FDI Prob. > F = FDI Growth F(1, 103) = Prob. > F =
15 Iran at a Glance Basis of the economy: oil and gas industries percent of national revenues are secured by oil and gas exploration. Iran owns the second largest reserves of gas and the third largest reserves of crude oil in the world. The crude oil production is about four million barrels per day and the daily natural gas production is more than 120 billion M 3. Private sector activities: Auto manufacturing, textile, petrochemical, metallurgy, food industries,
16 Iran at a Glance Iran is rich in Mines and Metal: Exports of iron ore, construction and decorative stones, cooper ore, coal, zinc, lead,, World rank of Iran in producing of some mines: 4 th of World rank in Zinc, Lead and Cobalt, 6 th in Copper Metal industries have started to grow up since 1990s FAO (2005): Iran is ranked as the fourth for diversity of agricultural products. Share of agricultural products in the world market: Saffron (90%), Pistachio (52.5%), Stoned fruits (44%), Mulberry (35.9%), Dates (13.9%) Of Top 10 countries for Tourist Attraction
18 Degree of Openness, as a Challenge Degree of Openness = (EX+IM)/GDP
19 Economic Growth, as a Challenge
20 Investment Share of PPP Converted GDP Per Capita at Current Prices (%) Source: Penn World Table
21 Fluctuations in Iran s Foreign Direct Investment Source: World Bank
22 The Role of Human Capital in Sustainable Economic Growth: As a Challenge or an Opportunity in Developing Countries Various studies in the context of economic growth of developed and developing countries have shown that growth is not only explained by physical capital and labor force but also, and more importantly, by human capital. Human capital can be categorized based on their genders. Today human societies recognize the role of women in economic development and international institutions like the World Bank has considered gender equality as an economic intelligence
23 Education and Training make the accumulation of human capital, higher productivity and improved technology. So, Human capital is used to be stated as offered education as an sustainable investment in human. Conventional growth theories have failed to explain all aspects of economic development, while economists now consider the role of human capital. In addition to physical capital and labor, endogenous economic growth inserted educational capital stock in the economy and in addition, two other factors, such as improving the quality of human resources, the technology and economies of scale have major contribution to economic growth.
24 Stylized Facts: Economic Growth Model Female Human Capital Formation: Education & Training expenses on Women Male Human Capital Formation: Education & Training expenses Men We investigated the effects of human capital (both for male and female) on economic growth in the selected developed countries (OECD) as well as Iran over the period
25 Empirical Results for OECD Variable Coefficient Z Pr.>z Cons Capital Stock Female LF Male LF Female H Male H Trade Trade*FH Trade*MH R 2 =0.98
26 Empirical Results for Iran Variable Coefficient t Pr.> t Cons Capital Stock Female LF Male LF Female H 11e Male H Trade Trade*FH Trade*MH R 2 =0.96
27 Conclusion Investment Opportunities: Towards Iran s SDGs The recent nuclear agreement between Iran and the P5+1 could lift the sanctions and obviously change the competitive environment in the oil sector. A sensible acceleration of non-oil exports has taken place in recent years. Non-oil exports have increased significantly in Central Asian markets. It is clear that there is potential for further growth of Iranian non-oil exports in the region. What is interesting is that there is now a real consensus in Iran among the government and the private sector on the necessity to improve private sector competitiveness in order to increase non oil exports. The government of President Rouhani has stated clearly its willingness to support the private sector. The new government is also thinking about increasing the size of the private sector in the economy and simplifying firms legal requirements.
28 Conclusion Better Conditions for Foreign Investments Reasons to Invest in Iran Iran qualifies from many respects to be a good location for investments and doing business: 1) Strategic Location: A unique geographical location at the heart of a cross-road connecting the Middle East, Asia and Europe, coupled with many inter- and trans-regional trade, customs, tax and investment arrangements; 2) Market Potentials and Proximity: Vast domestic market with a population of 70 million growing steadily as well as quick access to neighboring markets with approximately 300 million inhabitants; 3) Climate Characteristics: A four-season climate endowment as a privilege to agricultural activities throughout the country and throughout all seasons.
29 4) Labor Privileges: Large pool of trained and efficient manpower at very competitive cost in a diversified economy with an extensive industrial base and service sector. 5) Low Utility and Production Cost: Diversified range of energy, telecommunication, transportation, as well as a public utilities; 6) Abundant Natural Resources: Varied and plentiful reserves of natural resources ranging from oil and gas to metallic and non-metallic species reflecting the country s accessibility to readily available new materials.
30 An Issue for Roundtable: A Policy Agenda on Relationship between Sustainable FDI and SDGs FDI impacts depend to a large extent on the capabilities of domestic firms in host countries. Hence, it is a priority to improve the competitiveness of local firms (especially SMEs). Policy efforts in the FDI area should focus not only on the quantity of FDI received but also on its quality. We should deal with the impacts of FDI on unemployment and wage inequality (decreasing or increasing). Labor productivity increases after a domestic firm is acquired by foreign investors. Exports and export propensities increase after the firm changes ownership. foreign firms are more prone to undertake environmental management activities and to generate positive environmental spillovers, however, foreign ownership is somewhat associated to a relative decrease in the quality of environmental management.
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