Dr. Archana Mukherjee Central Tuber Crops Research Institute ICAR, India

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1 Dr. Archana Mukherjee Central Tuber Crops Research Institute ICAR, India

2 International Chapter: Network for Edible Aroids

3 Adapting clonally propagated crops to climatic and commercial changes Date of start : April, 2011 INEA meeting, 16-17th, DEC.2013, CIRAD- France Partner Country : India Dr. Archana Mukherjee, Dr. J. Sreekumar, Dr. M. Unnikrishnan Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, ICAR, India RCCTCRI, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India CTCRI, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

4 Today s thoughts Population, poverty and pollution. Developing nations including India are more vulnerable to climate changes (IPCC, CoP-8) In India 23.8 million hectares of land is affected by salinity. The total water logged area reported to be 11.6 million ha and is expected to increase steadily due to global warming. Food-insecure vast coastal wet lands will be affected severely by consequences of climatic changes like irregular monsoon, flood, salinity & drought affecting the food security chain. Compounding to wide spread poverty and accounting for malnutrition.

5 Challenges Global Hunger Index (GHI) in India and in its major neighbouring countries Country Proportion of undernourished in the population (%) Prevalence of underweight in children under five years (%) Under five mortalility rate(%) GHI With data from With data from India Bangladesh China Pakistan World Source: Global Hunger Index, 2010

6

7 Comparative proximate composition of tuber crops Tuber crops Grams per 100 g on dry weight basis Protein Fat Minerals Fibre Carbohydrates Calories Potato Sweet potato Cassava Yam Colocasia Elephant foot yam Rice Wheat *Colocasia (taro), elephant foot yam are hidden source of food and nutrition International Network for Edible Aroids (INEA) was launched with taro to address the issues like climate change, food-nutrition-livelihood security

8 Brief Note on Physical and Financial Progress Period of report (April 2011-November 2013) (Funding Agency: European Union, INEA Programme) (International Network for Edible Aroids (INEA) Crop: Taro (Colocasia esculenta) Objective To develop genotypes adapted to new environments (climate change, pest and disease outbreaks) and able to satisfy market needs

9 Action Plan Work Programme spread over the 5 years (60 months) under following work plan WP1 to WP8 WP1: Project co ordination and management: SPC, Fiji. WP2: In vitro culture distribution and field propagation: SPC and Partner countries (16 countries). WP3: Breeding and on-farm participatory selection: partner countries (who received the exotic germplasm from SPC, Fiji). WP4: Molecular analysis (DNA finger printing SSRs & SNPs) of indigenous germplasm, CIRAD, France. WP5: Drought resistance studies, University of Madiera, Portugal. WP6: Physico chemical characterization, University of Maribor, Slovenia. WP7: Virus detection and identification, DSMZ, Germany. WP8: On farm trials and participatory evaluation activities: Partners to conduct the evaluation of the exotic lines along with the indigenous lines in selected villages.

10 Work in India is being continued under following work plans WP2: In-vivo, in-vitro, maintenance and multiplication of 50 exotic taro lines for further evaluation and distribution. WP3: Breeding and selection of exotic lines for participatory evaluation. WP8: On-farm trials and participatory evaluation activities.

11 Work done The project targeted to maintain and multiply exotic taro genetic resources under work plan 2 (WP2) for distribution & evaluation. The morphological characters like group distinctness, early maturity, disease resistance and edibility were studied to select the genotypes for participatory trials under work plan 3 (WP3). The work on molecular analysis of indigenous germplasm carried at CIRAD, France under work plan 4 (WP4). The physico-chemical characterization carried out at University of Maribor, Slovenia under work plan 6 (WP6). Participatory activities in India are laid out with taro growing farmers encompassing 9 villages with 21 farmers of Odisha under work plan 8 (WP8) as per the programme laid out in the INEA project.

12 Target: I Work Plan (WP2) Maintenance and multiplication of exotic taro Achievements: The fifty exotic taro genotypes are maintained in vitro as well as in field at both the Centres (Bhubaneswar and Trivandrum). Tubers/ Suckers of 50 exotic lines which were transferred to farmers field in Odisha for multiplication has generated 1646 plants for further distribution and evaluation. In addition to that a set of 402 plants were also received from CTCRI Trivandrum to extend distribution for participatory activities.

13 In Vitro Maintenance

14 Field maintenance of INEA taro plants at RC of CTCRI, Bhubaneswar

15 Maintenance of INEA taro at CTCRI, Trivandrum

16 Target: II Work Plan (WP3) Morphological characterization, monitoring for diseases- pests Achievements: Morphological observations on key characters revealed grouping as 50 lines into six categories based on petiole and leaf characters (Table 1). Six found to be early maturing types. Among the exotic taro, 64% population observed to be resistant to taro leaf blight (TLB). Based on edibility and other attributes, 35 exotic lines are selected for further evaluation. Flowering observed in 18 accessions had set fruits & seeds. Testing on seed viability of OP seeds is being continued.

17

18 Dark Purple Petiole and Vein Colour

19 Monitoring for Diseases

20 Monitoring for diseases

21 Flowering in Taro

22 Fruits Characteristics

23 Seed Germination

24 Characteristics of Harvested Tubers

25 Characteristics of Harvested Tubers

26 Target: III Work Plan (WP4) Molecular analysis (DNA Fingerprinting) of indigenous germplasm Achievements: The molecular analysis carried out at CIRAD, France (UMR-AGAP) revealed that maximum genetic diversity in taro exist in India among the 16 participatory countries. Two distinct gene pools. Gene pool 1 with 26 accessions and gene pool 2 with 18 accessions, out of the 44 accessions. Gene pool 1 contained accessions from states of North Eastern, South India. Gene pool 2 had accessions from North Eastern India only. The divergent genetic variability available in the North Eastern states, wide distribution in India.

27 Genetic Diversity, Taro (India) Gene pool 1-26 lines with 18 triploids and 8 diploids Gene pool 2-18 lines with 14 triploids and 4 diploids Source : (UMR-AGAP, France)

28 Work Plan (WP6) Target: IV Physico-chemical characterization (Univ. Maribor, Slovenia) Achievements: Triploids and diploids did not show much variation in starch contents. Diploids taro are rich in Mg, K, P & Ca. Triploids taro are rich in Cu, Mn, Zn & Fe micronutrients. K values were also higher (1.44 to 3.24%) in Indian accessions.

29 Target: V Work Plan (WP8) Participatory evaluation for yield and other quality attributes Achievements: On-Farm participatory trials laid out with the selected 37 exotic lines along with 2 indigenous cultivars at 4 villages involving 7 farmers, Odisha, India Based on edibility, disease resistance, good tuber yield (0.5-1kg/plant) during preliminary evaluation, participatory trials are laid out with selected 28 lines in 5 villages involving 14 farmers in 2013.

30 Onfarm Participatory Trials In Odisha

31 Onfarm Participatory Trials In Odisha

32 Harvested tubers from Participatory Trials in India

33 Issues of Participatory Trials in India Commercial taro growers are found to be reluctant to grow exotic taro. Marginal farmers who grow paddy had agreed to grow exotic taro along with local cultivars in the off season.

34 Publications S.K. Naskar & J. Sreekumar. Dec Evaluation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Scott) germplasm using multivariate analysis. Journal of Root crops., 37: D.M.P. Pradhan, A. Mukherjee, S.K. Naskar, L. Samal Response of taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultivars for in-vitro conservation. Global conference on Aroids - opportunities & challenges. Regional Center of CTCRI Bhubaneswar. PP M. Unnikrishnan, A. Mukherjee, T. Srinivas, S.K. Naskar, D.M.P. Pradhan & T. Sharma Valued traits in taro: influence of cytotypes. ICTRT-2013, CTCRI Trivandrum, Abst. P. 52. Cash Flow Statement * *The fund for 2nd year is now being released

35 Questions How many INEA Lines are still alive? All the 50 exotic lines received are surviving and are being multiplied in every cropping season. Selected ones are being tested in Farmers participatory trials in different villages of Odisha state in India.

36 What is the clonal count (propagation) per variety? Table-2.1:Clonal count of INEA lines propagated and multiplied at CTCRI, India, Trivandrum (3 seasons) & Bhubaneswar (2 seasons), during No. Lines code No Total No. 1. BL/HW/ = BL/HW/ = BL/HW/ = BL/IND/ = BL/IND/ = CE/IND/ = CE/IND/ = CE/IND/ = CE/IND/ = CE/IND/ = CE/IND/ = CE/IND/ = CE/MAL/ = CE/MAL/ = CE/MAL/ = BL/PNG/ = BL/PNG/ = 62

37 Table-2.2:Clonal count of INEA lines propagated and multiplied at CTCRI, India, Trivandrum (3 seasons) & Bhubaneswar (2 seasons), during BL/PNG/ = BL/PNG/ = BL/PNG/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/ SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = 122

38 Table-2.3: Clonal count of INEA lines propagated and multiplied at CTCRI, India, Trivandrum (3 seasons) & Bhubaneswar (2 seasons), during BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = BL/SM/ = CE/THA/ = CE/THA/ = CE/THA/ = CE/THA/ = CE/THA/ = CE/THA/ = CE/THA/ = CA/JP/ = CA/JP/ = CA/JP/ = CA/JP/ = CA/JP/ = 75 Total =4053

39 What are the results of morpho-agro characterization of the local and introduced varieties Morpho-agro characterization of the locals (India) In India,Taro is cultivated in almost all states as a vegetable. Eddoes referred as ARVI are more popular in eastern India. Dasheen types known as BUNDA are cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and the North Eastern states. CTCRI released varieties viz. Sreereshmi, Sreepallavi, Sreekiran and Muktakeshi (all Eddoes) for commercial cultivation. Pre released varieties viz. Jhankri, Telia, Topi and Sonajuli are preferred locally are eddoes with good cooking quality. Telia is early maturing, matures within 3-4 months. Jhankri, Sonajuli and Muktakeshi are medium (5-6 months) tall types with t/ha yield. Muktakeshi, Jhankri are resistant to Taro Leaf Blight, Jhankri & Topi are tolerant to drought. Eddoes are popular in Central and southern parts. 75% of indigenous germplasm are resistant to blight.

40 Biotic and abiotic stress tolerant taro Developed taro verities (Muktakeshi, Jhankri & Sonajuli) tolerant to both biotic (blight) and abiotic stresses (drought and salinity). Muktakeshi Yield : t/ha Dry matter (%) : 23 Starch (%) : 17.8 Total sugar (%) : 2.0 Cooking quality : Excellent Jhankri Yield : t/ha Dry matter (%) : 23.5 to 24.6 Starch (%) : Total sugar (%) : Cooking quality : Good Sonajuli Yield : t/ha Dry matter (%) : 23.0 to 24.8 Starch (%) : Total sugar (%) : Cooking quality : Good

41 Morpho-agro characterization of the Introduced Varieties Of the 50 lines, 3 from Hawaii,9 from Indonesia,3 from Malayesia,5 from Papua New Guinea,18 from Samoa,7 from Thailand and 5 from Japan. Eddoes- 10 lines, Dasheens-35 lines and intermediate-5 lines. Out of 50 exotics, 11 lines stoloniferous, showing slender, elongated, short stolons. Stolons of indigenous lines are used as vegetables in West Bengal and North Eastern states, India. Edibility Of the 50 lines, 6 possessed only edible tubers but non-edible leaves. In 3 lines-only leaves found edible. Five lines were found to have only non edible parts. Tuber Yield ranged from 30g/plant to 1000g/plant in the initial observations. 35 potential lines are identified from the initial evaluation.

42 Blight Resistance Incidence of Taro Leaf Blight was mild in the year 2012, severe in 2013 due to the heavy monsoon rains. The symptoms appeared in July and lasted up to mid October. Later, the plants recovered and showed healthy growth. The lines identified as tolerant and resistant to TLB in 2012 continued to show the same reactions in 2013 confirming the stability of this character. All the breeding lines from Samoa continued to show the disease tolerance character. BL/SM/116,151(Samoa), BL/PNG/09,11 (Papua New Guinea) and CE/ MAL/12 (Malaysia) showed better expression of tolerance with no symptom development at all.

43 Table.3- Performance and selection of exotic INEA lines Group Country No. of lines received 1. Hawaii 3 500gm & > 500gm / plant 2. Indonesia 9 200gm & <200gm/ plants 3. Malaysia gm / plants 4. Papua New guinea gm/ plants 5. Samoa 18 7 lines Good yield 400-1kg/ plants Performance Yield Edibility Reaction to TLB Corms and leaves 7(Corms and leaves) Corms and leaves Corms and leaves All edible except BL/ SM/ Thailand 7 Moderate All lines edible, 3 with edible tubers 7. Japan 5 Low to moderate Tubers and leaves (4) 2 tolerant 1 less tolerant (BL/HW/ 08) All tolerant tolerant and resistant 4 lines tolerant All 18 lines tolerant Selection 3 lines BL/HW/08,26 & 37 7 lines CE/IND/06,07,10,20,24 &31 BL/IND/14 3lines CE/MAL/06,12 & 14 CE/MAL/06 (TLB symptoms in 2013) 4 lines BL/PNG/9,11,12 & lines BL/SM/43,80,111,114,115, 116,120,128,132,134,135,143,147,151, 152,157 & tolerant 6 lines CE/THA/05,07,09,10,12 & 24. Tolerant (4) 4 lines CA/JP/01,02,06 & 08

44 Selection of the lines from the different groups The following 35 lines can be subjected to participatory trials considering their overall performance and potential in the multiplication trials conducted in India. INEA lines for participatory trials (1). BL/HW/08, 26, 37 (3 lines), (2).CE/IND/06,07,10,20,24& BL/IND14 (6 lines) (3). CE/MAL/ 06,12,14 (3 lines), (4). BL/PNG/ 09, 11,12 (3 lines) (5). BL/SM/43, 80, 111, 115, 116, 120, 128, 134, 151, 152, 158 (11 lines) (6). CE/THA/ 05, 07, 09, 10, 12, 24 (6 lines), (7). CA/ JP/ 02, 04, 06 (3 lines) Total: 35 lines How many farmers are involved in participatory trials in India? No. of Villages involved : 9 villages 4 in 2012 and 5 in 2013 Total no. of Farmers contacted : 102 No. of Farmers involved : 21 7 in 2012 and 14 in 2013

45 How many samples were sent to the EU partners for analysis from India? WP4. (Molecular analysis): 44 samples (processed leaf samples). WP5. (Drought tolerance studies) : 2 samples. WP6.(Physico chemical studies) : 10 samples (processed tuber samples). WP7. (Virus studies) : 25 samples.

46 Work Programme 2 Work Programme for 2014 Maintenance and multiplication of exotic taro lines Maintenance and propagation of all 50 lines Distribution of selected lines to farmers. Work Programme 3 Breeding based on Morphological characterization, tolerance to diseases - pests Conduction of controlled crosses to raise F1 Hybrids and clonal generations from the selected seedling populations.

47 Work Programme 8 Ascent to food and nutrition security on-farm trials and participatory activities Selected genotypes to be supplied to farmers. Genotypes to be evaluated by the farmers. Participatory Breeding Trials at different villages in India

48 Acknowledgement Director Dr. S.K. Chakrabarti, former Director Dr. S.K. Naskar, and other members as well as Archana Mukherjee

49 Thank you From INEA Team, India

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