Phosphorus Regulations in Europe

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1 Phosphorus Regulations in Europe Outcome of an inventory in 27 countries involved in EU COST action 869 WG1 Meeting Hamar, May 2007 Oscar Schoumans (NL) Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre

2 Content 1) Introduction / background information 2) Inventory 3) Results 4) Conclusions

3 Introduction / Background Main reasons for this study In the Netherlands discussion started in which way P application standards should be regulated in the new Action Plan (and the Dutch Ministry of Environment was interested in which way this was done in other EU countries) Regulating P inputs is one of the most important starting points before implementing additional measures in relation to hot spots c.q. critical source areas (CSA) So, we all can learn from each other

4 Inventory EU information information from COST 869 partners In principle, three questions: are P application rates also regulated in your national country by legislation ( by laws ). e.g. via a maximum set for annual P application rates? And if so, is the P status of the soil taken into account? are there any other types of official regulations implemented in legislation in your country specifically to reduce P losses from agricultural land? Can such legislation be expected in the near future e.g. based on the discussions regarding the implementation of the WFD?

5 Inventory: Cost 869 partners EU = 25 countries EU Candidates = 3 countries (RO, BR, TR) COST = 35 countries = EU, EU Candidates, EFTA, IL EFTA = European Free Trade Association`(FI, CH, IS)

6 Inventory: Cost 869 partner information COST Members Abbrev. COST 869 Info COST Members Abbrev. COST 869 Info Austria AT Y Y Latvia LV Y??? Belgium BE Y Y Lithuania LT Y Y Bulgaria BG Luxembourg LU I??? Croatia HR Malta MT Cyprus CY Netherlands NL Y Y Czech Republic CZ I Y Norway NO Y Y Denmark DK Y Y Poland PL Y Y Estonia EE Y??? Portugal PT Y??? Finland FI Y Y Romania RO Y??? France FR Y Y Slovakia SK Y Y Germany DE Y Y Slovenia SI Y Y Greece GR Y Y Spain ES Y??? Hungary HU Y Y Sweden SE Y Y Iceland IS Switzerland CH Y??? Ireland IE Y Y Turkey TR Italy IT Y Y United Kingdom UK Y Y Israel IL Y Y Republic of Serbia RS Rep of Macedonie MK COST members: 35 countries COST 869: 27 countries involved (of which 2 not officially signed yet [I=intension]) Inventory: From 20 countries information received Response: 74%

7 Inventory: Results Input Regulation Status COST 869 (27 Countries) regulated standard P application rates Status COST 869 (27 Countries) Yes: 6 out of 20 30% regulated standard P application rates Austria N Lithuania N Belgium Y Luxembourg Czech Republic N Netherlands Y Denmark N Norway N Estonia Poland N Finland N Portugal France N Romania Germany Y/N Slovakia N Greece N Slovenia Y Hungary N Spain Ireland Y Sweden Y Italy N Switzerland Israel N United Kingdom N Latvia

8 Inventory: Results P Input Regulation Ireland: Minimise P surpluses on land: Annual maximum fertilisation rates based on the soil P index and crop requirements Belgium: Maximum fertilisation rates for specific (group of) crops; not differentiated to soil P test Limitations regarding the use of chemical P fertilisers (except soil with a low P status) In Phosphate saturated areas (PSD > 40%) the maximum fertiliser rate is 40 kg P 2 O 5 per ha per year

9 Ireland: e.g. tillage crops

10 Inventory: Results P Input Regulation Ireland: Minimise P surpluses on land: Annual maximum fertilisation rates based on the soil P index and crop requirements Belgium: Maximum fertilisation rates for specific (group of) crops; not differentiated to soil P test Limitations regarding the use of chemical P fertilisers (except soil with a low P status) In Phosphate saturated areas (PSD > 40%) the maximum fertiliser rate is 40 kg P 2 O 5 per ha per year

11 Inventory: Results P Input Regulation Netherlands: Maximum fertilisation rates for specific (group of) crops; not differentiated to soil P test Sweden: Regulation about application of manure (livestock density) on farm level corresponding to 22 kg P/ha. The status of the soil P is not taken into account. This law, which is more than 10 years old, has newly been looked over without any major modifications. Slovenia: Maximum application of P from farm animal excrements is restricted (up to 120 kg P2O5/ha = ca. 50 kg P/ha per year)

12 Inventory: Results P Input Regulation Germany: A regulation (status of a law) exists which regulates the fertilisation practice also in relation to BMP. In practice, the fertilisation is according to plant withdrawal and soil P status. However, every federal state has its own methodological approach and this normally has not the status of a law.

13 Inventory: Results Question 2 Status COST 869 (27 Countries) other P regulated options Status COST 869 (27 Countries) other P regulated options Austria N Lithuania Y Belgium Y Luxembourg Czech Republic Y Netherlands N Denmark Y Norway Y Estonia Poland Y Finland N Portugal France N/Y Romania Germany not mentioned Slovakia Y Greece N Slovenia N Hungary N Spain Ireland not mentioned Sweden N Italy N Switzerland Israel Y United Kingdom N/Y Latvia 10 out of 20 so 50%

14 Inventory: Other official regulations Most countries without P regulations mentioned that Phosphorus supply is indirectly regulated by the implementation of the Nitrate Directive on national scale. Because of: 170 kg N/ha/y Storage capacity Closing period Spreading conditions (e.g. injecting on grassland and direct ploughing of arable land)

15 Inventory: Other official regulations Other mentioned regulations CZ: Soil protection against erosion (governmental directive) DK: Livestock densities maxima are mandatory. They represent a general limit on manure P additions on a farm basis Specific regulatory measure for P are only applicable on farms located in catchments draining to so called Natura 2000 water bodies that receive critical loads of P tile drained loamy/clayey soils with Olsen P between 40 and 60 mg kg 1 soil: annual P surplus may be increased up to 4 kg P ha 1 for a given field. tile drained loamy/clayey soils with Olsen P >60 mg kg 1 soil: balance in P inputs and output on a field basis (i.e. zero P surplus).

16 Inventory: Other official regulations Other mentioned regulations F: Regional regulations; In Britany and Vendée a regional regulation give a limit to P inputs (100 kg/ha expressed in P 2 O 5 ). IL: Amount of biosolids (sewage sludge) application is limited by crop demand for N (so indirectly for P). LT: The highest Ptot concentration in drainage water after irrigation of land with urine, slurry or liquid manure should not exceed 2 mg P/l. In Lithuania works "polluter pay" principle. If pollution exceed permitted limit, the company should pay fine pursuant to the damage made.

17 Inventory: Other official regulations Other mentioned regulations No: Regulation on the amount of animal units related to cultivated area on the farm. According the law a minimum of 0.4 ha per manure animal unit is necessary. As an average on farm scale 35 kg manure P per ha is allowed. FI: 95% of Finnish farmers have joined the Agri Environmental Programme, where there are regulations on P use that take the P status of soil into account. Moreover, there are other actions in AEP like those against erosion (crop cover, buffer zones)

18 Inventory: Expected regulations Status COST 869 (27 Countries) Expected regulation for P management Status COST 869 (27 Countries) Expected regulation for P management Austria N Lithuania not mentioned Belgium not mentioned Luxembourg Czech Republic N Netherlands probably Denmark Y Norway probably Estonia Poland probably Finland probably Portugal France probably Romania Germany Y Slovakia not mentioned Greece may be Slovenia not mentioned Hungary N Spain Ireland not mentioned Sweden probably Italy probably Switzerland Israel N United Kingdom not mentioned Latvia

19 Inventory: Conclusions 1. So far, 6 countries implemented fertiliser applications rates. Sometimes the soil P status is taken into account In many other countries the nitrate directive indirectly regulates inputs for phosphorus 2. Sometimes other regulations (besides NO 3 Directive): livestock densities maxima are mandatory maximum applications rates are set within vulnerable watersheds erosion regulations are implemented 3. Many European partners expect that the WFD will introduce regulations for phosphorus Thank you for your attention

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