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2 HARYANA FARMING Volume X January 1981 No.1 Contents Pages 1. Enhancing pulse production 2. Insect pests of rape seed and mustard and their control 3. Produce your own seed of wheat, gram and Indian mustard 4. Field evaluation of promising herbicides 5. Proper care of sprinkler system 6. Inter-cropping in poplar plantations 1. How and when to plant an orchard 8. Educating rural women about child care 9. Honey-a sweet or medicine 10. Rabbit farming breeds & reproduction-l -D. C. Nijhawan and A. K. Narang -v. K. Kalra, Hari Ram and Harvir Singh -D. C. Nijhawan and A. K. Narang -So K. Katyal and V. M. Bhan -R. K. Malik and M. L. Jain -So S. Sagwal - V. P. Ahlawat, B. S. Daulta and A. S. Dabas -MissLa/i Yadav and Shashi Kania -Kamla Singh and Gulab Singh -/. S. Yadav and 11. P. Sharma Director of Publications: Dr. R. M. Sharma Layout I Kuljit Director of Extension Education; Dr. J. C. Sharma Joint Director (Extn.) : Dr. A. W. Sohoni * Editor V. S. Gupta Assisted by D. C. Yadav * Photo: HAU Photo Unit Yearly Subscription Rs Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, Hissar

3 .right strain of Rhizobium culture furtner proved to be a tremendous success. /6itiiilD. Enhancing Pulse Production. -D. C. Nijbawan and A. K. Narang Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar The importance of pulses in our diet can be easily :ppreciat.ed from t.he f'act that protein mal-nutrition ius~$ not only physical detformity but also intellectual 'warfism. The pulse plants also possess nodules on the L JO'ts and thus fix a:.tmospihierric nitrogen in the field. 1t the average yields of pulse crops have been tra '.,tionally low because of: (a) Psychologioal factors, \ lack of recognization of these crops as major impm-tance, (c) low prices received by the cultivator, (d) low yielding potential of the var1eties, (e) lack of stability in production, and (f) susceptibility of these pulse :rops to diseases and insect-pests. It is, therefore, very.. npoi1tant to consider the following factors for stepjng-up pulse production. (i) Selection of right variety to suit your farm oonditions is a pre-requisitje for maximal production. ~:i) Always use pur.e seeds of these improved varieties as low quality seed results into r educed stand, slow-growing seedlings and ultimately lower yields. \ (iii) The inherent potentiality of these improved varieties will further be realized in practioe only with appropriate package of inputs and better management,e.g. : (a) Plaoement of fertilizer like Diammonium Phosphate 30 to 40 kg/ha plays a big mle in boosting pulses production. (b) Seed treatin ent with a mixture of thiram and Brassicol and thereafter ooating the seed with (c) One or two irrigations to rabi pulses like gram and lentil could go a long way to improve ylerld potential of these crops. (d) Another faotor leading to a higher yield is proper plant stand such as mungbean plant spaced at 5 em apart in rows yield 45 % more than plants spaced at 15 em apart. Ukewise arhar yielded 40% more when plant to plant distance was 20 em in rows of 50 cm than 40 em Clipart in rows as gene'rally recommended. (e) Time,ly control of pests and diseases have also been shown of bringing about 100 to 200% inarease in grain yield as oompared to unprotected crop. (f) Slow seedling growth characteristics of legume makes weed control very essential as these weeds oompletely swamp a pulse crop so that almost no yield is obtained. (iv) New cropping pattern with quick growing pulses have also started paying dividends such as: (a) Greengram Pusa Baisakhi and T-44 grown during summer gives higher yield than that of kharif. (b) The interspace between cotton rows can be best utilized by growing greengram Pusa Baisakhi which will give an additional. production of 2-3 q/ha without affecting cotto!). yield. (c) Short duration greengram Pusa p,aisakhi suits best as a companion crop in sugarcane. (d) The ident~fioation of short duration varieties like UPAS-120 and Parbhat also makes it possible to take a crop of arhar before rabi crop of wheat. In Pulses, therefore, moderate inputs or several fronts have" to be combined together to increase production.. {UARY, \ \\\111 11\\1 \11'1 I'll' 1'1'1 '1111 lui lui, 10;

4 MUSTARD SAWFLY (Athalia proxima) Insect Pests of Rape Seed and Mustard and their Control - v. K. Kalra. Hari Ram add -Hanir Singb Deptt. of Plant Breeding, H.A.U., Hlssar Rape seed and mustard, which include brown sanson, toria, yehow sa'rson, taralllira, and raya are the major oilseed crops in rabi season. These crops are attacked by a number of insect pests. Important among them are mustard aphid, painted bug, mustard saw fly and leaf miner. Since the attack, sometimes, is so severe, that nothing is left to harvest, therefore, the knowledge about the iden,tification, life history and\ timely control measures of these insects becomes essential to save the crops. The information about these insect-pests. is given below: CUTWORMS (Agrotis spp.) This insect attacks the crops during the month of November. The damage is done by larvae which are dark green in colour and have 8 pairs of abdominal prolegs. The wrinkled appearing body has five black stripes IOn the back. The full gii"own larva measures mm in length. The adult ( em) is an orange coloured wasp with black head and smoky wings. Their DVLpositor is saw like therefore cahed sawfly. The larvae bite irregular holes into the leaves which can be completely skeletonized in case of sevea"e attack, and resowing has to be done. When dristurbed,. they fall down, curl and feign deatih but again start moving after some time. About 8-10 generations of this insect are reported in a year. CONTROL 1. Dust the crop with BHC 10 per cent 25 kg/ha or spray endosulphan (Thiodan, Thiotox, Endocel 35 Ee) 0.07 per cent i.e. 1. lit. mixed in 500 Lilts. of water/ha. The leaves should not bel used fat saag purpose, at least for 15 days after spray. 2. The larvae sihould be colleded in the morning and evening hours and destroyed. CutwoTmS are active from October to April and are most severe in October and November. The larvae (oaterpillars) oause damag;e, which are gn-eesy, light dark coloured and 3-4 em in length. They are nocturnal in habit and during day time go deep into the soil As the ni'ght falls, they come out and cut the young pl1ants just 1-2 em above the soh surface. The attacked plants f,all down and dry away. When the attack is very sevete resowing may be necessitated. If the soil near a cut plant is dug, the caterpillar can be recovered and destroyed. The adult moth is dark brown ooloured with many wavy lines and patches on the forewings. CONTROL, 1. Apply BHC 10 perr cent 25 kg/ha beforrel sbwing. 2. Hand picking and destroying the caterpilla'l's quite effective. is I 3. Irrigate the infested fields. PAINTED BUG (Bagrada cruciferarum) The black coloured! adults with yelldw and orrange markings and! crimson red nymphs oan be seen in the field ilrom October to March. The winter months of January and February are passed in the adult stagte under the heaps of dried plants lying in the fields. The nymphs differ from adults because of yellowish to bright orange colour and small size. Both nymphs and adults suck the plant sap from the leaves and developing pods. I'll October, it attacks the growing crops turning the leaves yellowish white. The young crops may wilt and die. In March, it sucks the oil from the pods when the crop is in threshing floor where it may cause 3-4 per cent loss in the oil content. On an ave I1age eggs are laid by a single female. scattered on the soil. sur ace Dr on pl:ants which hatch in a week's time. Approximately 6-9 generations are com pleted.in a year. The entire life cycle is comp~eted in days depending 'On the temperature. 2 HARYANA FARMING

5 CONTROL Dust the crop with BHC 10 per cent 25 kg/ ha when this insect appe1ars in the field. When the crop is in threshing. floor a 6 em wide band of BHC 10 per cent dust should be applied around it. The crop grown "for saag purpose should be sprayed with Malathion 50 5;00 ml mixed in 500 lits. of water/ha. The lea\'es should be picked only after one week of the spray. HAIRY CATER PILLARS (Diacrisia obliqua) The attack of hairy caterpillars continues :lirom October to January in tlhe field. The caterpillars are light yellow to reddish brown in colour wru'ch arle' 3-4 em in length. Their bod~,is covered with thick hairs. The initial stag:e of this insect is found feeding in hundreds on a single leaf where the female moth had laid eggs in clusters. The,attacked ]saves are reduced to skeleton. The later stages of the caterpillar migrate to other parts of plant and field. The adult moth is dull cream coloul'ed with black spots. CONTROL 1. The leaves infested with the e1arly stages of the caterpillars should be removed and destroyed so that they cannot disperse in the field. 2. Spray the crop wlth endosulphan (Thiodan, Thiotox or Endtocel 35 EC) 0.07 per cent, i.e. one lit. mixed in 500 lits. of water/ha. MUSTARD APHID (Lipaphis erysimi) This is the moot important insect pest of rapeseed and mustard crops. Locally it is known as tela, chepa and Mahun in different regions. It is found abundantly from December to M(l['ch attacking various cruciferous oil.seed and V'ergetable crops. For its rapid multiplicatlon cold, moist and clo'l.ld~ weather is most congenial. Both young ones (nymphs) and adults, which resemble each other, except size, suck the cell sap from the leaves, st~, flowets and pods witrh the help of their beak like prooosis. However, they prleier'to nrf oolonies on the inflorescence. In case of severe ffestation, plants die away without producing a single pod. JANUARY, 1981 This insect is small sized (1-2 rom 'in length) pale yellowish green in colour and oblong in shape. Usually they!lii'e winglelss and reproduce parthenogenetically (giving birth to youn.g ones without mating). AF. the weather starts heating up, they develop wings and start miligrating to' cooler places. APhids secrete a honey dew like liquid substance which attracts fungus which affect the photosynthesis of the plant. As many as 29 overlapping generations of this pe~t are completed in a year. CONTROL 1. Brassica juncea (Raya) varieties, comparatively tolerant, should be preferred over B. campestris (B:wwn sarson). 2. In the early stages the infested twigs should be removed. 3. Avoid late sowing. 4. Since this insect pest is sucking type in nature, fortnightly spraying of systemic insecticides like methylideme'ton per cent (Metasystox 25 EC) or dimethoate 0.03 per cent (rogor , 850 and 1000 ml/ha) or phosphamidon per cent (DimeiCron 150, 225 and 250 ml/ha will kill this insect. Any of these above insecticides should be mixed in 625, 850 and 1000 lits. of water/ha for 1st, 2nd and 3rd spray, respectively. The leaves should not be used for saag purpose. Note: Insecticide should. be applied only in the afternoon to avoid mortality of pollina,tors. MUSTARD LEAF MINER (Phytomyza atricornis) 'I1h~s insect is active f'rom December to April. The larvae (Maggots) damage the leaves by making irregular mines in the leaves. A sing1e leaf may harbour 6-10 maggots which ar:e mm in length. The adult fly is 2-3 mm long and lays eggs inside the leaf tissue. Affected leaves turn yellow and finally fau down thus causing glreat los:s in yield. There are about 8-10 generations of this pest in a year. r CONTROL. As this insect appears alongwith the aphid, both ~lll be controlled simultaneously with any systemic msecticide recommended fot the control of. mustard! aiphid. ' 3

6 D TOLKAN effectively controls Phalaris minor, Wild Oats and Broad-Leaved weeds, together. TO LKAN is safe for use in all varieties of wheat grown in Haryana and Punjab TOlKAN also increases wheat yield. Per hectare, use 2 kilo of Tolkan mixed in 750 I itres of water days after sowing or about a week after the first 'irrigation, is the best time for appl ication. For spraying, use FLAT FAN or FLOOD JET NOZZLE~ For Enquiries: May & Baker Chaudhary Bldg. 'K' Block, Connaught Circus,.New Delh i For Further Details write to-regd. Office-Bombay I~t~~:) May&Baker I May & Baker (India) Ltd, May Baker House Bombay

7 Inseparahle other crop p,lants Produce yout own seed of Wheat~ Gram and Indian- Mustard -D. c. Nijhawan and A. K. Naraog Haryana. Agricultural University, Hissar Farmers are now well. aware of the signifioonce of good quality seed. But still some of them either use thielir own seed or fetch it from other unreliable SQurces witlhiout ensuring its genetic identity land purity. At the same time while storing the seed, farmers.do not know about the minimum percentage of moisture and ather storage conditions which again result into' deteriorati:on 61 its quality. Sometimes non-availability of seed or financial hurdles discourage the farmers to use quality seed which lelad to yield reduction. High yielding varieties of approved and assured souiree of maintaining genetic identity and purity are 1Jhe prerequisites in seed production. But even these varieties hardly stay pure For more than few years because of mechanical mixture, natural crossing and,even mutation. Therefore, roguing is one good alternative for these contaminations as it faciu,tates the removal of off-types, inseparable other orop pliants, objeationable wee9i plants and d~seases. Off-types Plants of same crop species as the seed crop but deviating from the seed crop in the expression of morpho1ogical characteristics such as plant, plant type, branching, pigthentation, morttring., llaitiness on stem ~d leaf colour, shape and size of flower and flower Pa:rts, oolour, size and shape Df fruits and :seed pt other charaotets su~h <l:s maturity, tillering, male ste'i1ility or degree of resistance to disease. For example' a plant of SO?Jalika ill th~. field qf ]~.?.lyan Sona is 'an off-type and an off-type is always counted as an offtype irrespective of its stage of growth. JANUARY, 1981 'Ifuese are plants of cultivated: crops found iii the seed field and Vi hose se ids are so similclll' to the drop seed that it is difficult to separate them economic,ally by mechanical means. FOT example in case of wheat crop, p1ants of barley, oats and gram shall be known as inseparable other crop p~ants. Objectionable weed plants An objectionable WIOOd is weed whose seed is Jifficult to separate once mixed: with crop seed. But for counting an objectionable weed piant is counted if its stage of growth is such that it will bear seed when the seed crop matures aiid possibly cause mecharnioal admixture during harvesting or threshing. Diseases lot is very much necessary to ensure that seed infected with diselase causing pathogell5 is not mixed witih disease free seed. Now you are to observe the above mentioned technical facts while producing the seed of wheat, gram and Indian mustard. WHEAT Wheat is a self-pollinated crop but the entry of foreign -pouen while the flower is open may sometimes result in a small amount of cross pollination amounting to less than one per cent. Thel1efore, a grower is advised to provide an isolation distanoe of atleast three metres around tihe seed plot to avoid genetic as well as physioal contamination. Regarding land requirements, the pre'vious crop should be kept in m1nd. For example in the field of Sonalika, a variety Kaly1aiIl Sana must not be gro'wn so as to avoid physical admixture. However, normal agronomic practices and plant proteetion meqsures should be adopted throughout the course of cultivation. During weeding, attmtion should be focussed upon the hiran khuri, an objectionable weed plant to wheat as the seed of wh1ch shall be difficult to sleparate from the main seled crops. Regarding disease, loose smut of wheat is a notified seed borne disease and therefore the isolat~on distance even may go upto 150 mertres in case of fields infected wijth this type of disease. Efforts shall be made to rogue out such diseased plants in polythene bags soon 5

8 befo're tj:jiey disseminate spores after emerging from leaf sheaths. It is, therefore, advisable to tme'at the crop vatriety.susceptible to' loose smut with Vitava?C 2 to 2! gin per kilogiam. Rigorous rouguing shall be practioed :liar off-types, other crop plants, objectionable weed plants and dise'ase if any prevalent in the seed crop.. - GRAM Since a very small pe!"c'entage of cross-pollination may result Rom insect visitation alter flowers open thus isolation distance upto 10 metres around the' seed plot shall avoid genetic and physical contamination. Land requirements shall also be taken into considi~ation before planting your seed crop so that other cvop v:ariety may not contaminate. After adopting the normal agronomic practices and plant protection measures, growers should pay due attention for roguing to weeds like matltri etc., other crop plants, off-type and so on so as to maintain the genetic and physicaj. purity. And thetn seed crop should be harvested when it is completely matured in order to have better germination vesults. INDIAN MUSTARD Here the extent of cross pollination due to insects is ranging from 4 to 15% tihus isolation distance naturally shall be much more as compared to wheat and gram. This distance should be kept atleast 200 metres. The objectionable weed here is Satyanasi and you have to go for roguing of this weed and off-types. Adopt the normal agronomic practices and pl'ant protedion measures througjhout the course Q1f cultivation., I I all the NOiW after the crops have fully ripen, rogues should,be collected to avoid admixture during harvesting and threshing. Any chance of mixing the seed during loading, unloacljing, ti1ansportation and even storing should possibly be avoided. The seed should be got tested fol)." its mqlisture peroentage either after harvest 0'1" befo['e storage so that seed may not get deteriorated. Don't focget to fumigate your store with celphos from time to ~e in order to avoid any insect infestation as this will afleat the gennination percentage and so, the quality of your seed. The seed thus produced with SOl much care will serve your purpose : Q1r raising a pmfitable crop. FOR BUMPER HARVEST HARYANA SEEDS are certified having high genetic & physical purity and germination; are free from diseased & weed seeds. HARYANA SEEDS are pre-tested & packed in sealed bags with MONEY BACK GUARAN'TEE \ '" '),:-.",-:-.. BUV CERTIFIED SEED$ OF."~.; WHEAT PADDY 'ir.~. GRAM COTTON ilf POTATO BAJRA )l/:k PULSES & FODDER.... "- AND OIL SEEDS 6 For trade enquiries & detllils. please contact HSDC offices at :- 1. A-3. Dayal Singh Collage. Link Road. Opp. Main Stand. KARNAL Phone: M-5. Industrial Area. YAMUNANAGAR (Amb.laJ.l Phone: Sirsa Road. Near Main Bua Stand. HISSAR. Phone: 40f Additional Mandi. SlRSA. Phone: :j Near Grain Market. HAlLY MANDl (Distt. Gurgaon). Phone: 66.,. HARYANA FARMING

9 Field Evaluation of Promis~ng Herbicides.--S. K. Katyal and V. M. Bhan Haryana Agricultural University', Hissar Competition of wood ~s one of the impontant factors responsible for low grain yield of wheat in Haryana. The problem of grass weed like Phalaris minor (Mandusi or Kanki or Sithi or Guli Dandla) and Avena sp. (Javi or Ka:Ijaundhar) ffi increasing at a faster rate in dwarf wheats in districts of Kamal, AmbaJa, Kurukshetra, par:ts of Jind, Sirsa and Sonepat, although instances of tbeia' infestation have beell1 reported from all other districts of Haryana. The heavy in:llestation of Phalaris minor has been observed in medium to heavy soils Wlhere paddy-wheat mtation is predominantly!ollowed. The problem of Avell1a sp. is being experienced in areas of light to medium soil especially in district Faridabad and Sonepat. The preliminary survey conducted in districts Kurukshetra and Ambala have revealed that over 60 per cent of wheat crop is badly infested with Phalaris minor. Therefore, effective weed contlrol, in addition to the balanced use of fertilizers, irrigation, and othie'r improved pracijices is obviously essential for raising the wheat yield in the state. Treatment Weedy check Hand weeding (2-4) Tribunil-2 Kg./ha Product (Post emergence)* Dosanax-2 Kg./ha Product (Post emergence) 1 Tolkan-2 Kg./ha Product (Post emergence) Arelon-1.25 Kg./ha Product (Post emergence) Stomp-3.40 Kg./ha Product (Pre-emergence)** Morphological similarities of these weeds with that of wheart; make it practically difficult to identify such weeds all1d remove them from the field, espelcially at the initial stages of tlhe gtowth, thus rendering the trad1tional method of hand weeding compocatively ineffeotive. Though, these Wleeds can be identified at late stages of gro,wth,,it would be at such a stage where the expecited loss has already occurred. The~efore, limitatioins of oultural controii have forced the farmers to adopt chemical method of weed oontroil. A number of herbicides have been identified and reconunended since the problem of gi1as:s weeds has been experienoed in the state: In order to dispel the dloubts about the field efficacy of new herbicides fo~ controll of grass weleds in wheat, large number of field demonstrations were conducted by DES (Agro) at the farme["'s fields during rabi in selected dffitricts of Haryana. The results of these demonstrations have proved that such ~ass weeds can be control1ed effectively by using Tribunil, Dosanax, and 2 kg per hectare (product) in 700 litres of water as post emergence spray (30 to 35 days after sowing) resulting in remarkable increase in grain yield over unweeded control and traditional methods of weeding as is clear rom this Table: The above data also reveals that Arelon and Stomp aji'ie also promising herbicides for control of grass weeds. The variation in grain yield of wheat on different locations indicates that we should use tjhe herbicides with utmost care to achieve the desired results. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES ON THE GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT Range in grain yield (q/ba) Kurukshetra Jhansa & Azrana Kalan ; Karnal Kutail, Kamopura, Sirsa, Bastra & Dadupur Sonepat Jind Uddsipur, Kharkhera Garhi, Khesi Sahanpur & Sevali ! Hissar Pirthla, Dangra & Moth *Post emergence-herbicides were sprayed days after sowing. **Pre-emergence-Stomp was sprayed immediately after sowing of wheat. Sirsa Vaidwala, Mauzdin, Nattar & Narelkhera

10 Aphids are a menace to mustard Get rid of them effectively, quickly with ROGOR 15 days interval. Rogor should be mixed with water in the basic proportion of 1 ml Rogor: 1 The deadly Aphids attack mustard within a month. litre water. Recommended dosage IS 200 to 300 from sowing. The infestation lasts from December ml of Rogor per acre depending upon the growth right up to February. Aphids suck the sap of the of the plant Rogor should be sprayed all over the young mustard plant from the underside of leaves plant thoroughly for the most effective action thus causing the plant to die \lltimately. These Rogor has two fold action: systemic and contact minute yellowish. green insects cause 'curling of What's more. Rogor IS backed by continuous leaves downwards and gradual yellowing ~'Rallis R&D and international know how As extensive Held teeu prove Ragor offers the...,'"... ~_.,,'. "", "*... ""."0,, ~'. ". y ;'" only effe.ctlve a"c{ profit~b(e prqt(jcl iell from Aphids. Onee the infestation is detected_or as a preventive measure when the plant is a month old -3 sprays of Rogor are recommended at 10 to ~" Rallis India Limite" "';"~'- Fertilisers & Pesticides Division $r",o-.t '--_ Raveline Street. Bombay I

11 Proper Care of Spr~nkler System -R. K. Malik and M. L. Jain Deplt. of Agril. Engineering, HAU, Hissar Proper design and installation only of sprinkler system do nqlt ensure success. The manner of operation and maintenance of all the compo'nents of the system also determine its ultimate success or failure. Therefore every sprinkler system needs to be handled properly ~d components like power units etc. tn~intained and stored oarefully so as to' keep it operatmg at its peak efficiency. The manufacturers of the equipment usually supply the instructional and maintenance manual. which must be sttictly followed for getting long hfe and satisfactory performance. Following <life the general guidelines regarding maintenance of sprinkler system. The pipes and fittings should be occasionally cleaned so that sand or dust particles if any are flushed out as otherwise the sticking of these particles in the coupler in which the rubber seal rings are fitted, may disturb the performance. Deposition of these particles will also damage these rings. Flushing may be done atleast after laying the pipes in the field so that foreign material if any is flushed out to avoid chqlcking of nozzles. The sealing rings in the couplers and fittings are usually designed to drain water from the pipes whem the pressure is turned off. At the initial stage of operation! sealing rings may give little leakage but at optimum and adequate pressure, couplings and fittings will be leak-free. White zinc or thick oil paint should be applied to the threadis provided for fitting riser pipes. The riser pipes should be tightened properly. The sprinklers are ajso to be tightened into the top of riser pipes and should be inspected for trouble-free rotation. Rotating sprinkler head is the part of the system that is subjected to maximum wear and tear. In order JANUARY, Body 2. Swing Arm 3. Rltnge Nozzle 4. Pivot Pin 5. Pivot Bearing Washer (White) 6. Pivot Sealing Washer (Black) 7. Swing Arm Spring 8. Bottom Sealing Washer (Black) SPRINKLER HEAD 9. Bottom Bearing Washer (White) 1 D. Coupling Nut 11. Connector Tube 12. Top Bearing Washer (White) 13. Top Sealing Washer (Slack) 14. Bearing Spring 15. Brass Washer 16. Spreader-Nozzle to keep sprinkler heads in proper condition, it is necessary to see that when the sprinkler lines are moved, the heads do not come in contact or are pushed into the soil. The sprinkler heads should not be oiled, greased or lubricated because these are water lubricated. Sprinkler heads usually have sealed bearings and at the bottom washers are provided. Generally, it is the washer that wears out and disturbs the proper working of the sprinkler. Therefore, the washers should be checked for wear once in a season or after every six months and changed if worn out. Washers wear rapidly when water contains sand particles. Sand or dust particles or any other foreign material may completely or partially clog the sprinkler nozzles restricting the flow of water and proper pattern of spray may not develop. So the nozzles should be cleaned with the help of wooden pin. Hard metal pins should never be used for cleaning the nozzles. 9

12 The pump and power source should be maintained regularly and periodically as per the instructions in the manual supplied by the manufacturer or supplier. The sprinkler set should be stored properly during the off-season. The rubber seal rings should be re- moved from the couplers and stored properly. The pipe should be pre1ferably stored at inclined racks and! should never be stored in the vicinity of acids or any other chemical material. The worn out parts should be replaced immediately so that the equipment performs perfectly during the next season. Beware of New Grassy Weeds In Wheat fields Kanki (Phalaris minor) and wild oats are causing severe problem in the cultivation of wheat. Successful methods to control these weeds have been developed and used by farmers for controlling these weeds. Three new weeds, namely, Polypogon monspleinsis, Lolium tomulentum and Poa annua have belen' observed at farmers fields in wheat growing areas. POe annua: It is an annual plant; also reproduoes vegetatively through istolons. Stem short 15 to 35 cm errect, leaves 5 to 10 cm long; linear smooth, panicle ovate or oblong upto 7.5 cm long. This weed is found in temperate and sub-alpine Himalayas from 6000 to ft. It has also been seen in Khosa and Nilgiri hills. Infestations in wheat crop have been reported in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh. Polypogon monspleinsis: It is an annual plant. Stem 15 em to 60 cm long, stout, selender, leaves 8 to 15 cm long; panicle 2 to 15 cm long, yellow green in colour, silky (fluffy) in look, excessively delicate. This weed is observed throughout continental India upto 9000 ft. in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate region. Infestation in wheat crop of this Weed has been observed in Haryana, Punjab, Himacha1 Pradesh and Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh. Lolium tomulantum: It is an annual plant. Stem 15 to 4:5 cm tall erect, usually stout; leaves smooth, flat 3 to 8 cm long, ligule very short: Spike 15 to 20 cm long strict rachis, spikelets variable in size, awns 1. 5 cm long. This plant' has been obse~ved and Himalayas upto 6000 ft. m upper gangatic plain, Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh - V. M. Bhan, S. P. Singh and S. K. Katyal Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar 10 HARYANA FARMING

13 Inter-Cropping In Popl.ar Plantations -So S. Sagwal Deptt. of Forestry, H.P.K. Y. Y., Palampur 5. Resistant to some extent to odd conditions of climate. 6. It serves as a shelter-belt. 7. Canopy is not suitable for bird nesting. 8. Add extra manure to soils through leaves. 9. Does not affect the water-table of soil. 10. Inter crops can be taken up to the full rotational age. 11. Leaves are useful as fodder. Poplar.(Populus spp.) is a very fast growing tree.species. The rotational age of this tree is ten years. Raising of other crops: in between the tree rows be comes very essential for the farmers who are involved in poplars cultivation. The main advantage of ip.tercropping is better aeration and good physical conditions of soil. Being a vigo'rous tree, it attains nearly 7-8 em diameter and 7 to 8 m height in one year. This indicates that it does not affect production of agricultural crops, which are grown in between the plantation. It does not occupy too much space and causes no shade to the crops on account of erect nature and light foliage. If leguminous crops are grown in between the tree rows, then there is an advantage of adding atmospheric nitrogen to SQil, which ultimately helps in improvement of soil fertility. lntercropping in plantations Any type of agricultural crops can be grown suc -cessfully in poplar plantation e. g. cereals, legumes and fodder crops. Short duration and quick growing crops can also be grown e. g. vegetables like, Bhindi, Potato, Lobia, Tomato, Musk-melon, Water-melon, Guar and Groundnut etc. Inter-cropping of these crops depends upon the type of soil, irrigation facilities and climate of the location. Advantages of growing pop,lars as Farm-Forestry tree 1. Easy to propagate. 2. Very fast rate of growth. 3. Remains leafless during winter season. 4. No loss to the pr.oduction of fie~d crops. On the basis of above points, it can be predicted that farmers can adopt poplar as a farm forestry tree and inter-cropping may be done.in between the plantation of this tree. I Essentials of selection of Inter-crops There are numerous general considerations to be followed at the time of selection of inter-crops in a poplar plantation. Some of them are as under: 1. Inter-crops must be fast growing. 2. It shouid not be harmful to poplar. 3. It should provide good soil cover. 4. Insect pests and diseases tolerant varieties of agricultural crops should be inter-cropped. 5. Inter-crops should have the shallow root system. 6. Crop rotation should be followed. 7. Water requirements of both the crops (inter and main) should be same. 8. Try to choose the leguminous crops. Economics This species is a good source of income. The annual income per acre has been estimated Rs. 4,000/-. If, inter-cropping,is adopted, the growers can get additional income. The best example of this is wheat. It has been observed that where wheat has adopted as inter-crop, the' grain production obtained was 35 q/ha and on an average wheat production does not exceed to this limit. Similarly, the other agticultural crops can also be adopted as inter-crops in poplar plantations..january,

14 How and When to Plant an Orchard -v. P. AhIawat, B. S. Daulta add A. S. Dabas Deptt. of Horticulture, HAU, Hissar Planting an orchard is a long term enterprise and any mistake committed initially will remain a problem throughout the life of an orchard as the same is difficult to remove at later stage. Thus, it becomes imperative to have a proper and systematic planning with regard to selection of site location, fruit tree to be grown and other internal layout of building and plantation. Such a planning will facilitate ease in cultural operations, harvesting handling and proper marketing of the produce. Therefore, a well thought plan should be fonowed while planting an orchard. The purposed plan should provide for the maximum number of plants per acre consistent with sufficient space for the proper development of each tree and convenience in orchard operations. Planting plan and system of layout should be according to the topography of the soil and should also suit the different cultivars depending upon their habit of growth and bearing potentiality. So the growers should choosie that plan which provides them maximum profit with least investment. Generally five systems are adopted for laying out. 1. Square system 2. Rectangular system 3. Hexagonal or equilateral triangle system 4. Quincunx system 5. Contour system. Square' system It is most common and popular system of planting an orchard. Here plant to plant and row to row disi' 12 tance are kept the same. Under this system cultivation and interculture is possible crossway and moreover it is easy to layout and understand. One major drawback of this system is that it accomodates lesser number of plants per acre as compared to other system. For laying out an orchard according to square system the first step is marking and location of base line. The base line is located at half of the planting distance fl'om one side of the plot. This base line, A' B' should run parallel to an adjacent road, fence, wind break or building (Fig. 1). Another base line A' C' is then marked along other edge of the field. at right angle to the first base line, with the help of cross shaft and ranging rods. Similarly other base line C' D' and B' D' are established and staked in the same way. Now with the help of rope, join the marked position of the plants on the opposite.base line both length and breadth wise. The intersecting point will give the actual position of plants whel'e the pegs should be driv:en in. In this way ~ayout by square system is complete. c ,o c' Y---~--*_--"--!I\_--' _-----it( 0' A ~--*---~--*'--"*---~ 8' A L JB FIG. NO.1 SQUARE SYSTEM Rectangular.system This system is same as square system with the,difference that plant to plant and row to row distance is not same. It is also easy to layout. More number of plants per acre can be accomodated here as compared to square system but tbis facilitates cultivation only in one direction. The method of establishing HARYANA FARMING

15 base line is s:~e. After completing the base line the position of the plant is marked (Fig. 2). is then us'eid as base line and whole area is laid out likewise: Quincunx system A _---lif jol'----_je_ 'il B' AL ~8 FIG NO 2, RECTANGULAR SYSTEM This system is laid out in same way as squarr-e system with the addition of one plant at intersecting point of ooa,gonals of a square formeid by four adjacent plants at comers (Fig. 4). The central plant is genel1ally a filler plant e. g; papaya may be taken in between mango as the later will come into bearing late. SO' land oan be util~:red by t'aking income with cultivation of fillelr plant. One drawback of this system is tjh!at cultivation and intercultur,e' is not possible. C ,0 Hexagonal or equilateral triangle system In this system the planting is done on ea~h corner Df a equilateral triangle. So six trees form a hexagon and seventh tree will be in between. W,e can accomodate 15% more plant per hectare than with the square system, but cultivation and interculture is difficult. This system is adopted where land is fertile and expensive. The base line is established in the same way as in case of square system. The position of the plant is marked with the help of a equilateral triangle, whose Dne side is equal to the distance from row to row (Fig. 3). Twb rings of this triangle are kept on the base line the third ring will g~ve the position of tree. This row Cr D I A~--~~--~L---~--~~-- A~ ~B FIG. NO.4. QUINCUNX SYSTEM Contour system This syst1em is followed on hills where the land is sloppy.. Tree rows are usually at right angle to prevent soil erosion. PLANTING OF PLANTS The time of planting is an important factor in successful,establishment of orchard. A~----~~ ~B FIG NO 3, HEXAGONAL SYSTEM.JANUARY, 1981 There are two planting seasons. Ever green plants are planted usually in August-September while decidious plants are planted in January-February. Planting IS done in pit whidh is filled with mixture of sand, soil and Farm Yard Manure in ratio of Before planting, BHC 10% should be addled in the pit and soil around the plant is pressed with hand. The plants are irrigated at an regularly weekly interval. (Contd. un page 16 -h~~. ~.~~~':~".,..~ «: -/._,t;.v'-. '7/ IS \?~ '5 AOC~O.~ :f~

16 ,{?it(;stc;r 19'" SSCW:~ tft. it{ '" 3al~ qr~ :ta:zqhi!n~ ~- (~:rqntcr Ci11~(Cf5) /,- / ~. q",, «l q. Gj1ltJl utt cpr ~ m - ~ fq~61 ~ q\(18r~ ~-'"l0o mj:f Rm qq;~ ""~\$H' i; ~ ~GI&lq)9 ~ 3lfcam ~ ~I. ~~c 'tfit+ffitre-q; Q"~ f~f+{~\s ~ 3/1 arr~ ~r ft~ if~ ~r

17 '"1 (l HOME S<iIENCE J actual it is more nutritious for the new born batby. So it should not be discaoc'ded while giving breast feed to thie child. Mother should eat more than usual amount of cere'als, puls s and plenty of fresh dark green and yellow vegetables and fruits like PaJak, Metihi, Raddish, Carrot, Bathwa, Chu}ai, etc. They should keep one thing in mind tlhat at first they should wash these green leafy vegetables then cut in big pieces instead of smaill cutting. Educating Rural Women about Child Care -Miss La\i 'Yadav add Sbllsbi 'KInta Directorate of Extension Education, B-1 U, HiJsa India basically is a country of villages with 82 per oent population living in the rural areas. Children in the age group 0-14 Y'ears constitute ab(jut 42 per cent of Indian population. The vulnerable group of pre-school and school going children need all attention to attain good! health condition in the). society. India's population is. so vast, diversed and dispersed that no amount of clinical approach to the 1;)rob1em of child heal1jh care is likely to be' effective. So child care should be accorded highest priority in ccuntry's social welfare. It is well known fact that the first six years of life are crucial since 40 per cent of physioal growth and 80 per cent of mental growth are believ id to' take place during these years. Only.one out of every two childh'en expects to readh adult life beoaus~ of many hazards that exist between infancy and IJhildhood. Forty per cent of all dearths occur in age group 0-5 years. One seventh of Indian children i. e. fourteen per cent die before they reach their first birthday. 'I1he most common cause of infant mortality qre undernutdtion and in:ilections. Keeping al,l these in view, here is a valuable set of suggestions for the better he'alth of children in rural areas for rural women, it is as under: When they boil it they should not discard that water. That water should be used eitiher in vegetable itself orr in making the dough of atta for chapatti making. In this way thie loss of nutrients can be saved. 2. Morhlrelr's milk is boot for child as it gives all nutrients to the child, less chances of infection, less time consuming. So breast feeding should be continued as long as poss~ble; but adter the agel of 5 or 6 months this milk is noit sufficient for the child. Some semisolid foods should be introduced e.g. mashlerl potato, mashed banana, dalia, khichdi etc. undiluted cow mi,lk can be given if possrble. These foods must be prepared carefully as the ag~ of ohi1d~en is very ten, delr. The feeding of young children should be at the interval of 4 hours i.e. 5 to 6 times a day wi,th bottle instead of spoon. 3. With the growth of child the amount and variety of foods SihbUld be incl'ieased. Wh ln child is about one year old then 'he should be fed similar foods as are givl Il1 to rest of the family. Solid foods should be given 3 or 4 times a day. The cereal, pulses and green leafy vegetables should be given to them according to their requ~rements. They should be fed these solid foods 3 or 4 times a day. 4. In cooking rice and pulses excessive water shoulld not be used because' if one d['iajined the water after cooking then. the dissolved nutrients. will go waste. So this water should not be discarded as it is nutritious and should be' consumed. 5. Child should be pr 'Vi ll1teqi fr'om six killer di 'seases i.e. small pox, diptheria, tetanus, whooping ClOugh, pertus'sis and poliomyehtis_ by immunisation. This wih make them a little ill but will prevent 1. In moist of the villages women discord colostrum from gettrlng terrjble scars Jate~.and perb.apb dying w:ijth the belief that it is harmful for the ohild. But in also. Child should be imrnunised against the diseas!es JA.NUARY,

18 properly accordij::lg to immunisation schedule below: given RECOMMENDEO IMMUNISATION SCHEDULE FOR CHILDREN Age, As soon after bkth as possible 3rd month 4th month 5th month 9th Month months Ii year 3 year School entry/5 yrs. Mid school year (6 to 12 yrs.) Whenever child leaves school (About years). Vaccine *BCG against tuberculosis. **DPT means Diptheria, Polio, Tetanus. ***OPV means Oral Polio Vaccine. (i) Primary Small Pox (ii) B. C. G. * li) Triple antigen (DPT)*'" 1st dose (ii) O.P.V.*** 1st dose. (i) DPT 2nd dose. (ii) O.P.V. 2nd dose. (i) DPT 3rd dose. (ii) OPV 3rd dose. Measles. Typhoid (To be repeated after every 2 yrs.). (i) OPT 1st booster dose. (ii) Polio 1st booster dose. Secondary small pox (to be repeated after 3 years again). (i) DPT 2nd booster dose. (ii) Polio 2nd booster dose. (iii) BeG 1st booster dose. Tetanus Toxoid. B. C. G. 2nd booster dose. 6. Children should be kept clean properly with soap and water otherwise they will put thei:r dirty hands in mouth which may cause illne'ss. If child is ill then one should not disca:rd :ljeeding but try to give some nutritious and appetising diet according to his illness, age and body require~ent, otherwisl~ he w111 be weak and can be susceptible to Dther diseases. Ohtildren's surmun.clings should be kept as clean as possible. Accidi.ental materials like insecticide or pestidde, any electi'ic equipment etc. shduld be kept out of their reach which causes malil.y problems even sometime death also Mother should wash her hands properly before feeding and preparing food for the b aby. Kitchen and feeding utensils should be kept clean and not allowed to attract flies. Flies mean dirt and,dirt means danger. Clean water should be made available to child as he needs plenty of water. 8. Motiherr should be educated to re,cognise signs of common diseases: cough, diarrhoea-dehydration, fever, running ear, skin diseases, sore eyes and poor. sight and know the management at home or spould seek advice from ANM or doctor as soon as pos:ffib~~ when child is ill then fodd should be prepared moire appetisingly. They will get better if they eat plenty of cereals, pulses and green leafy vegetables. 9. Toys for children should be ve'ry simple, soft and unrisky. These can be prepared with the locally available materials at home itself.. In the end in order to maintain proper health.of children and mother, O!lie should use family planning methodls. In villages some believe that one sho~ld not go for family planning beoause it :is a sin, moteoveir, they feel it God given gift. But practically, one can visualise then it is a problem to manage a lacr:-ge f'amily in this period of more prices and less salary. On one hand appmx!imately 92 mihion children in India live below the poverty line and on the other hand they are the backbone of the nation. So OIlie should taike proper cave of childven's all rou'nd development. (From paige 13) DIST ANCE OF PLANTING Sr. Fruit Plant Distance No. of plants No. in ft. per acre l. Mango grafted 30x Mango seedling 35x Santra/Malta/grapefruit 25x Lime/lemon 20x Grape (Head system) 6x Grape (Kniffin system) lox Grape (Bower system) lox Guava 25x Litchi/Chiku 25x Date Palm 25x Pomegranate 20x Phalsa 6x Papaya 6x6 i Ber 25x Peach/Plum 25x25 70 HARYANA FARMING

19 human di nonspore forming organisms that causes seases, cannot live in human body. Honey-A Sweet or Medicine, -Kaml!l Singh and Gulab Singh Deptt. of Home Science Ext. Edu. and Entomology. HAU, Hissar Most of us are familiar with honey in our day to day life, but very. few of us know about its uses. No doubt, it is the only unmanufactured sweet available in the market, but again it provides many occasions in our life where we use it not only as a sweet but for other purposes, i.e. as medicine. BroadJy speaking, it is an aromatic, viscid and sweet material derivied from the nectar of plants collected by honeybees and modified by them fqr food into a denser liquid and finally stored by them in their combs. It is a liquid in nature but becomes crystalline on standing. It consists chiefly of two simple sugars, dextrose and leulose. It always contains materials like plant colouring pigments, several enzymes and pollen grains because of which it provides us several chances to make use of it. Here in this article, the various uses of honey are highlighted in order to make the common man p,adicularly the housewives familiar with its uses. Source of energy Mountain climbers, deep sea divers, long distance swimmers and athletes use honey to increase their. stamina. It is because honey has a high calorific value. One kg contains calories. There are a few number of food articles which has this much energy. It contains about 80 different constituents (Table 1) and, therefore, increase its calorific value. Antibiotics Antibiotic activity of honey is supposed to be due to its high sugar content or organic adds or enzymes in combination with sugars. Some authors consider these activities due to the product of secretory substances of worker bees. Honey also possesses antimycotic properties i.e. it does not allow the moulds to grow. Becau~e of its high density and acidity, the Diabeties It has been found good in treating sugar diabeties in many cases. It has long been used in medicine not only as a valuable item in the diet, but as a means of heal,ing, in order to cause urination and as a means of e1asing the belly. It was used to' give pleasure and to preserve the youth. Heart In order to make up the energy expanded by the working of the heart muscles, glucose is needed continuously. Honey containing good amount of glucose' fulfils this need. As this glucose is easily assimiliable, therefore, it is good for cardiac diseases treatment. Honey expands the veins and improves circulation through the coronary arteries. With a dosie of 70 gmt day for one month, the heart trouble can be avoided by bringing the blood composition to normal, haemoglobin increase, and cal1diovascular tonus improvement. Digestion Honey keeps the digestive tract in normal working ordet. It reduces the hyperacidity of stomach. It can be used for treating gastric ulcer or gastritis, heartburns, belching, liver and kidney troubles. Nervous system It is used to treat headache, exhaustion and radiation sickness. It is good iri the detoxification and drunkieillness due to nervousness. Eyes It is used for treating many eye diseases i. e. eye burns, inflammations, swelling of eyelids, conjunctiva, sores on the cornea membrane,, lesions on cornea membrane, herpetic and ulc~rous keratitis. For children For child's development, a sensible diet is most important, therefore, honey can be used for the children in their daily food. A teaspoon full of honey be-. JANUARY, 1981 J 7

20 fore bed. is recommended for babies cutrtling the teeth. It reduces the amount of phosphorus in the blood and so eases the pain. It is used to avoid bron,chopeneumonia and diarrhoea in children. Its uses for in:liants arte good because it does not produoe acidk>rrs, l"apidly absorbed and prevents it fu-om undergoing alcoholic fermentation. Lts free acids favour the ahsotption of fats, inorease appetite and peristalsis and fulfil iron deficiency. L'omestic purpo&es For curative purposes, honey is best taken in its natural form, or diluted with water, or eat~n with -bread, milk, cereals, or fruits. It improves the taste and increases the calorific value and digestibility of dishes. It can be used as a subs,titutle for sugar in making mousses and j.a1li.es, stewing fruits CU'l;d making vitamin drinks and oilier be~lerage:s. Honey cakes have the pleasant flavour and atie much more nutritious than when made with sugar. Ioyrish (1974) mentioned about hundred diffurent pr,erparations with honey. It is used for religious purposes in India. Large amol.j.ut of honey go into the making of &looho,liic drinks; meads.and wine; skin and beauty lotions, for stimulating milk yield in dairy cows; for increasing the stamina of race horses, for fattening steers, poultry and fi.sih; for curing smoking pipes, bowls and as an ing,reidient of cigarette and chewing tobacco to improve its flavour and texture. It is also used for chewing gums, for curing ham, sock absorbers of the cars, as the centre of golf-balls, as plant growth r~gul'atot and for preparing poison baits. With the< outgoi.ng diiscujssion, it could be concluded that honey is more a meida.cine than a sweet. TABLE 1 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTlES OF EXTRACTED HONEY Principle components Per cent ~ Water (natural moisture) Sugars of Honey Levulose Dextrose Sucrose Maltose and other reducing disaccharides Higher sugars J "-_ Total sugars Acids (gluconic, citric, malic, succinic, formic. acetic, butyric, lactic, pyroglutamic and amino acids). Total acid calculated as gluconic acid Proteins Asb (Minerals : K. Na. Ca. Mg, CJ. SO, and Silica etc.) Total acids, protein and ash Minor components Pigments (Carotene. Chlorophyll, ~Chlorphyll 100 derivatives, Xanthophylls). Flower and aroma substances (terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and sugar alcohols (Mannitol. dulcitol). Tannins Acetylcholine, Engymes Invertase, Diastase, Catalase. Phosphatase Inhibine (antibacterial substances) Vitamins (Thiamine. riboflavin, nicotin acid, vitamin K, folic acid,~biotin, pyridoxine-in small and variable amounts) Caloric value-l tb. sp. =60 calories or Ilb.= 1380 calories. Read Hi!:ryana. Far:ming now a monthly farm magazine 18 FiARYANA FARMING

21 Rabbit Manure Rabbit Farming Breeds & Reproduction-I The manure forms a very good fertilizer. The Nitrogen, Phosphoric acid and Potash are,1.40, 1.80 and 5.00 per cent, respectively. The manure of sheep and cow has 0.76 and 0.43 pet cent nitrogen, 0.4 and 0.3 per cent phosphoric acid and 0.6 and 0.44 per cent potash, respectively. Breeds -I. S. Yadu and V. P. Sharma Directorate of Extension Education, HAU, Hissar Habbit production can be 'profitable. In comparison to cattle, buffaloes and pigs, the rabbit production requires little space. Rabbits can be kept in the backyard as well as on the farm. They can adapt to a wide ran~ of environmental conditions. For fanners of small land holdings raising of rabbits can bring additional economic giains. Their hutches can be made of scarp lumber, used poultry wire, crates and other sim1li8li' materials that are available at cheaper rates. The domestic rabbits are raised for the production of meat, fu~ skin and wool. Rabbit fur is beling used more extensively than any other kind of skin by the fur wade. The skins are dressed and dyed and a're made into fur garments. The skin trimmings are used for coats and suits. The remaindier of the sign not suitabl'e for garments is used ;as Linings for gloves and fot felts. The adult body weights of rabbits reared for wool production ltary from 2.5 kg to' 3.5 kg and yield from g :If wool annually. The wool from rabbits is unusually warm and light when made into garments. Rabbit Wool is Viecy costly. Due to the high cost and fluffy 1ature it is used in combination with other fibers. There are a lar~ number of breeds and varieties of I1abbirts in the world. But only 38 breeds and 87 varieties have been well established. The farmers can choose breeds fdr wool Dr for meat/fur production. The following breeds are important: For meat/fur production: FDr the production of fur and meat, medium and l,arger sized animals are better suited. The adult body weights of these breeds ar& between kg. These include Flemish, Newzealand white, Californian, American Chinchilla, Grey Giants, Satin, Rexes, Beveren, French Silver. White rabbits that are satis:ilactory meat producers are most desirable because the,ir skins bring higher prices in the market. The American whit!, Americ'an blue, Newzealand Red and the White Flemish are imporlant for meat and fur produ~ion. Wool production: AngO'I"aJ rabbits are suited to our conditions. They are usually white and Alb~nO' in colour. Two stra,ins of this breed are well recognized. 'Dhese are French and English. The wool of the English slti'lain is silky but that of the French strain is coarse. French strains are heavier than the English strains. The ajdiul:t body weight is 2.5 to' 3.5 kg. Selection of the' stock Breeding stock should be purcihased from a government farm or from some well reputed rabhitry. While selecting the stock,/animals should be carefully examined. The ears should be erect and free from. mange. The eyes should be fuh and bright. The feet and the tail should be straight andj sharp. They should They are weaned at 6-8 weeks of age. At this age theyattlain 1!-2 kg of body weight. 'TIhe car:cass is about % of the body weight. Males and females that have served their period of usefulness-when properly conditioned for the market gives a "carcass of per oent of their live weight. The broiler rabbits are finished at 12 weeks of age. The meat is palatable and nutritious. The efficiency of feed conversion is about 2.5 kg pet kg live weight gain up to 12 weeks of age. show no siigns of snuffles, such as sneezing and! discharge from the nostrils. The paws shqiuld nqit be soiled. Long coarse claws may be an indication of old age. They shduld have a good record of the size of litter, production, we,ailling weights, dressing percen- ranuary,

22 tage and wool production. The Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Division of Fur Animal Breeding Garsa via Bhuntar, Distt. Kulu (HP) is raising the following breeds of rabbits : (i) Angora rabbits for wool (ii) Soviet Chinchhilla for meat and fur (iii) Soviet Grey Giant for meat and fur (iv) Soviet White Giant for meat and fur (v) Newzealand White rabbits fo'r meat and fur The Head of the Division of bs Institute can be contacted for the availability of rabbits. Reproduction Rabbits mature at different ages depending upon the breed, size and nutrition. On an average the bucks an:d does mature when they are 5-6 months old. The does when ready for mating show sigms of restlessness, nervousness, an effort to join other rabbits i? nearby hutches, and rubbing the ohin on the feed mangers.,:!,here is no regular recurring heat period and matings may be made over a period of time provided the does are no't diseased O'r in molt. The doe should be taken to the buck's hutch for service. Mating should occur almost immediately on placing the doe in the buck's hutch. After the buck mounts and :lialls over on his side, mating is accomplished and the doe should qe returned to her own hutch. One buck is. sufficient fiqr 5-6 dioes. Mature vigorous bucks are used 2 Oor 3 times a week. One service is sufficient. In order to determine whether the does have conceived or not, they should be tested. If the doe gmwls and avoids the buck on being placed in the hutch, the dde is pregnant. They Should be test'ed a few dlays and again days after the mating. The :liaise pregnilpcy ~s evidence by noting that the does at this time pu!l fur an~ make attempt to make a nest. The. gestation period from mating to kindling i.e. giving.birth tlo young opes is qays. Does no!i' ~ally bree.d. until they are 2!-3 years of age.,!,he size of the littr~ is 7-8 young Qn~s. The young ones are weaned at 6.,.8 weeks eof age. Four to five 20 cycles are possible in a year. At bd;rth, the eyes of the young ones are closed and the eyes open at 2 weeks of age. At birth they weigh between g. At we1aning, sexing may be done and the males an:d females may be kept separately. The doles nurse their young ones f:bom their eight mammary gllands only once daily in the morning. Care during pregnancy and at kindling I A pregna~t doe should nlot be handled unless it is absolutely necessary. Her hutch need not be' open~d except to supply her with fresh water and feed. She should not be disturbed by noise and action. A clean nest box should be placed in the hutch about a week before kindling. Plenty hay or skaw for the doe to prepore a place for the young should be placed in the nest. Dry leaves serve this purpose. YO'ung rabbits are born blind and the eyes begin to open at 10 days after birth and completely open on the 16th day. Undue handling or excitement at pregnancy may Jje one of the causes for the does to eat their young ones_, Proper fee~ing durtng pre,glnancy is impo.rt~t to I prevent th:ls tendency. Does which eat their young cnes should be e1iminated. PACKA~E OF PRACTICES, RABI (English Edition) Is On. Sale Price Can be had from " f Counter Rs By Post Rs Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawan, jharyana Agricultural University, Hissar ~, HARYANA FARMING

23

24 HARYANA FARMING Volume X February 1981 No.2 Contents' Pages_. 1. Importance of crop rotation (sequence) in maintaining soil productivity 2. Crops and fertilizer Use for saline and alkali soils 3. APHID-A menace to barley crop 4. Tackling the plant which starves its rivals 5. Ornamental trees for Haryana under adverse soil and climatic conditions 6. Cultivation of poplar (populus) 7. Rabbit farming (housing and feeding) 8. Introduction to some common fish diseases on fresh water ponds 9. Chlamydiosis-An emerging disease of domestic animals -B. P. Singh and Mahendra Singh 1 - M. L. Chaudhry 3 -Zile Singh, Balbir Singh and Azad Singh 5 -British Information Services 7 - G. L Sharma 9 -R. Yamdagni and Maya Singh 12 -I. S. Yadav and V. P. ~harma 14 -N. K. Yadav 17 -v. ~. Purohit and R. K. Paul Gupta Selection of farm machinery -R. S. R. Gupta and R. K. Malik Cover IV Director.of Publicatio'ns: Dr. R. M. Sharma Layout, Kuljit Director of Extension Education: Dr. J. c. Sharma Joint Direciol (Extn.) : Dr. A. W. Sohoni *. Editor V. S. Gupta Assisted by D. C. Yadav * Photo: HAU Photo Unit Yearly Subscription Rs Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, Hissar ,..,

25 Importance of Crop Rotation,i(Sequence) in Maintaining SoilProductivity -D. P. Singb and Mabendra Singb Department of Soils, H. A. U., Hissar Crop sequence here 'means more or less regular recurrent succession of different crops on the same land: It differs from the routine unplanned crop sequence adopted by the farmers. In a well planned crop sequence, some selected crops are grown in the same fashion for definite period according to a definite plan. For higher yield and to keep the soil fertile and pvoductive proper crop sequences/rotations should be adopted by the farmers, as it also gives some diversification to routine agriculture. Diversification in crop sequences is the need of the day as it meets the multifarious demands of the growers as they can: get gl"ains as well as feeds, oilseeds, fibres, vegetables and forages for their daily domestic use. Keeping in view all these factors, some important crop sequences were tried at the research farm of Haryana AgricultuI1al University, Hissar, to find out some suitable crop sequences/ rotations for small and marginal farmers of bajrawheat gro,wing area. A good crop sequence/rotation has many advantages as mentioned below: Better use of time If a farmer is adopting two or three crop rotations and growing 2-3 crops in a season then he can make better use of his time and 'labour throughout the year. In other words, he can keep himself employed, for a greater part of the year. Complementary enterprise.the ~developmen~ of a complementary e,nt,erprise for. mstance dairy farming, forage 'crops and small gr~m crops which provide balanced ration for' the ammai,s C?l). be. Qbtaine(:L.by adapting\ suitable,' crop sequences. -_, -,~. - j J_,FEBRUARY, 1981 The better maintenance of soil fertility Introduction of legumes in the crop sequences results in the utilization and fixation of atmospheric N and economy in the use of inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers. Besides this, maintaining of livestock at the farms will also provide sufficient amount of FYM to meet the demand of organic manures. Reduction of risk There is reduc1lion iii the risk on the failure of the crop, may be due to natut'al calamitlies or due to very low prices. When a farmer is having more than one crop, then the risk is less involved., Protection of the soil It was once believed that it is necessary to leave the land fallow for a part of the time in order to maintain the soil productivity. Now, it has been proved by experiments that a proper crop sequence w1th due attention to essential plant nutrients will bring the same results more eoollonlically. In the regions of high rainfall, there are more losses of plant nutrients from the fallow soil by rains. The presence of a legume crop prevents the erosion losses by covering the land surface and by binding the soil by their roots. In the regions of low rainfall as well, cultivation of leguminous crops during summer also prevents the soil losses against wind erosion. Alternation of crops Crop sequence may prove the alteration of deep a~d shallow rooted crops, leguminous and non-legummous crops and thus allow for a more rational mining of the soil nutrients. Alteration may also improve the physioo"'chemical propei1ties of the soil' and subsoil. It permits better drainage through the channels formed when the deep roots decay and maintains organic matter status at a relatively high level by means of root residues.. ~ Balanced removal of(n~trients Balanced removal Of plant nutrients from the soil is allowed by adopting, a proper crop sequence. riifferent'type of crop plants remove' various nutrients from the soil in diffevent proportions when prope.cly al~ernated. T:hey may remove I the different nutrients fron; the Soil in,a more aesirable, proportions. Continuous cultivation of a single crop that feeds heavily 1

26 on one group of nutrients at one particular depth while another group of nutrients might be used in large p~oportions by other crop is used only sparingly. So, it is always desirable to rotate the crops which have different type of roots and nutrients requirement. ","r; Crop sequenc1e helps in the control of weeds, insects and diseases With each crop, certain typical" weeds appear whic~ are much,l~ seriqu~ W. the other: crops. These w,~:eds multiply r~apidly if a crop ~s,grown :continuously pn the same land but ar~. subdued by a change of crop sequence. Many insects trouble only one plant specie or only one plant group. Changing crop sequence is an effective method of checking":drunage-'from' 'insects. Similarly, there are many soil borne diseases that injure one cr-op but are not harmful to other crops. Potato scab may become serious if the potato crop is grown on the same land every year. Crop sequence also improvlel'5 the crop quality. The 'cultivation of legumes preceeding wheat improves the protein content of the wheat grain. To find out a most suitable crop rotation for small and marginal fanners various crop sequences were tried 'at research farm of Soils Department of Baryana Agricultural University, Bissar. TABLE 1 Crop rotations tested S. No. Summer Kharif Rabi 1. ]owar (Fodder) Bajra Wheat 2. Jowar (Fodder) Bajra Gram 3. Maize (Fodder) Bajra Wheat 4. Maize (Grain) Bajra Wheat S. Guar (Fodder) Bajra. Wheat '10. Ii. 12. Source:.. Results of these experiments indicate that in bajra-w'heat crop sequence, if a summer crop is to be taken, then more paying would be a fodder crop. If the summer crop is grown for grains, the net profit will be reduced. Out OIf the tested fodder crops, jowar fodder gave the maximum. net profit whether it was preceded by wheat OIr gram, followed by maize fodder. ~ (, \ \., It is also clear from the data that if a legume' f?dder is to be gt.owrt then cowpea fodder should b~ preferred as its cultivation gave comparatively more profit. which was followed by guar-fodder, while moong was found lowest paying. These experiments I ; ~ ~. \ J I".. I 1 J. results also lndicate that if, moong is to be grown in summer, then it should be grorwn only for grain production and not foor fodder..' Inclusion of potato crop in the crop sequence enlarged the net profit. The guar J?otato-wheat crop sequence' proved better than maize (gtain)-pbtato-wheat, clearly pointing 'out that illclusion of a legume in the crop sequence increased the potato yield and ultimately the net profits. But potato followed by maize (grain) was at par with maize, guar and cowpea fodders followed by bajra-wheat rotation. Cultivation of a summer crop in eight crop sequences prov"ed better than to keep the fields fallow in summer in bajrawheat crop sequence....,. _.. " "~....~ J... On the analysis of soil samples from the fields where these crop sequences were tested, it was found that cultivation of pulses enriched the soil nitrogen content as the leguminous crops are capable to fix atmospheric nitrogen ill the nodules present in their roots. On the basis of these results, it may be concluded that to keep the soil fertile, productive and to fetch more net returns, inclusion of a pulse or summer fodder is must in bajra-wheat crop sequence.. To grow :potato in place of bajra is also paying, if a farmer has 6. Goar (Foqder) PotatQ Wheat. money in his hand to spend in advance. Cowpeas (Fodder) Bajra. Wheat Maize (Grain) Potato Wheat Cowpeas (Grain) Bajra Wheat Moong (Fodder) Bajra Wheat Moong (Grain) Bajra Wheat Fallow Bajra Wheat Annual Progress Reports of All India Coordinated Agronomic Research Scheme. Read Haryana Farzning 'now a monthly farm magazine 2 HARYANA FARMING

27 Crops -and F~rtilizer Use for Saline arid Alka.li Soils -M. L. Chaudhry Directorate of Extension Education, H. A. U., Hissar Salt affected soils in the Indo Gangetic Plains are potentially productive soils. These soils occupy nearly 2.5 million hectares area and most of these soils occur in low lying areas in those. districts where the average rainfall is more than 60 cm and the ground water usually contains low amount of salts but presence of excess salts in the roots cannot be ruled out in areas where excess salts have been deposited on the surface and mast often the sub soil water has high amount of salts. Although, the State wise break up of the salt affected soils is available in litelrature (Table 1) the extent of area under saline and alkali soils is not available. Systematic soil surveys are required for delineation of different groups of salt affected soils. TABLE. 1 Approximate salt affected soils in different states of India (Abrol & Bbumbla, 1971) State Uttar Pradesh Gujrat West Bengal Rajasihan Punjab "', Maharashtra Haryana Orissa Kamatka Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Delhi Kerala Bihar Tamil Nadu Total. FEBRUARY, Area occupied by salt affected soils (Million hectares) S _ ; , 0.,094, APP A glance at Table 2 will reveal that" within Haryana, to a greater extent salinity and alkalinity is confined to three main d}stricts (pre-organised) namely, Karnal, Hissar and Rohtak. Distt* TABLE 2 Area affected by salinity/alkalinity in Haryana Kamal Hissar Rohtak Gurgaon Jind Mahendragarh Ambala Approximate area (Thousand hectares) '" Area for various districts in Haryana. is for period prior to the reorganisation of districts. It is clear from above tables that a sizeable area is lying, unutilized in a country which needs increasing food production for its teeming million population which is growing annually by about 4 per cent. ~ As already stated these soils are quite proq.uctive but all the nutrients are' not in a balanced form. These.soils are characterized by the.lov.;'.organic matter content and high ph.in alkali'. soils.. AJ.kaliIlity affe'cts air water' relationships-and aff~cts the tl18nsformaticjn and availahility of applie:d nutrients. l\1ana$ement of nitrogenous fertilizers requires speciaj care as nitrogen in the form of NH3 gas, ' is likely to be lost when the source of N has not been properly selected for such soils. Crops grown in re'centiy' 'reclaimed soils are likely to resporiid: to higher levels of nitrogen than those growl). in' notmarsoil1;. -~M~r-eol\Tet;- ammonium SulpD..ilte proved to be. a better source of :N than either calcium ammonium nitrate olurea in sadie soils of Hacyana. StilI losses of N are higher in sodie soils than in non 'sodli~ non saline'soils,and it is recp,mmended t,hat about 20_per cent extra nitrogen be; ~dded in the;_se soils to o;yercome nitfo~em deficiency ~ in these soil~...,. I.,j Among micronutr.ients, zinc deficiency is. wid~ly met in_sqils of high~_pr.a large_nq. _of, experiments conducted by the Central Soil Salinity Hesearch Institute K'arnal have demonstrated the beneficial effect of a heavy dose of zinc sulphate (5,0 kg/ha) particularly in the 1st year after reclamation of soil to paddy crop.,.. 3

28 This dose may be decreased to 25 kg zinc sulphate per hectare in the subsequent year but it has to be applied to paddy fo'r atleast 3 years. Results of such an experiment are given in Table 3: 4 TABLE 3 Effect of application of zinc, gypsum and FYM on tbe yield of paddy (I. R. 8) grown in sodic soil. Treatment Paddy yield (q/ba) No zinc Zinc Control FYM 25 tons/ha FYM 50 tons/ha Gypsum 11 tons/ha Gypsum 11 tons FYM 2S tons/ha Gypsum 11 tons FYM 50 tons/ha For higher yields and quicker reclamation of these salt affected soils (alkali) the most profitable rotations are as under. Rice Dhaincha (G. M)-Rice Dhaincha (G. M)-Rice Wheat Berseem Berseem/wheat 1st year 2nd year 3rd year As already stated ammonium sulphate is a better source of N for these soils and if urea has to be applied, it should be applied in splits or a part be applied by foliar spray for getting maximum efficiency. Results of such experiments are given in Tables 4 and 5. TABLE 4 Effect of sources of N on paddy yield (q/ba) in an alkali soil Nitrogen Sources of N (kg/ha) Amm. Sulphate CAN -_ - Urea , Mean ~ 43.0 LSD at 5% Sources lO 3.90 Levels TABLE 5 Effect of soil and fouar application of orea on tbe yield of paddy wheat 'grown in a partially reclaimed alkali soil Treatments Mode of application Grain yield (q/ha) Nitrogen (kg!ha) Paddy Wheat Control Soil one split Soil two splits Soil two splits Foliar 2 sprays Foliar 4 sprays TABLE S Relative tolerance of crops to excbangeable sodium (sodic soils) Tolerant Semi tolerant Sensitive Bermuda grass Wheat Cowpea Para Grass Rice Sugar beet Barley Sugar beet Spinach Rape Cotton Barley 'Oats, Raya Senji Berseem Sugarcane Millets Cotton TABLE 7 Relative tolerance to salinity (Tolerant) Pomegranate Wheat Oats Rice Sorghum Maize Sunflower Potato Gram Groundnut Lentil Mash Mung Pea Maize Cotton (at germination) Citrus Cowpea Gram Peas Groundnut Guar Lentil Mung As regards phosphorus application, it has been found that these soils do not respond to phosphorus application in the 1st two years after reclamation. In the subsequent years, a reconunended dose of 60 kg P20s/ha may be applied to wheat crop only. The source of P that has been found best for these newly I. (Contd. on pagel19) HARYANA FARMING

29 APHID-A Menace to.barley Crop -Zile Singh~ BaIbir Singh and Azad Singh Department of Entomology, H. A. U., Hissar 1 Wingless Female 2 Winged Female BARLEY LEAF APHID 3. Last sta,ge of nymph of winged form Barley occupies an iinportant place amongst rabi cereals in Haryana. With low inputs it can fetch substantial economic returns. The yield of this crop, however, usually remains low. One of the key factors I1esponsible for low yield of the crop, is the damage by insect-pests. Of these, the aphid is the most serious and is often a limiting factor in the successful cultivation of this crop. Distribution The barley aphid is reported to be worldwide in distribu tion. N aturle of damage Like other sucking insects" the young ones (nymphs) and the adults of the barley aphid suck the cell sap from the leaves. It is usually found on t:he centl1al whorl of leaves but under severe infestations, the whole plant is covered with nymphs and adults. The leaves may get yellowed, mottled and distorted, and new growth may be dwarfed. The inflorescence, when suffidently damaged, becomes sterile. Honeydew production is qulte prolific in bad infestations. It is a vector of sev iral virus diseases in cereals and other crops such as mosaic disease of sugarcane, yellow, dwarf virus of barley and dwarf mosaic virus of maize. The infestation usually starts in the last week of January or first week of February and population increase takes place quickly. Extent of damage The mean avoidable losses under. Haryana con'di, tions in the recommended varieties of barley_ Were per cent, The losses were per cent in C - -," FEBRUARY, , per cent in BG 105 and per cent in BG25. Life-history The adult aphids produce nymphs instead of laying ~ggs and this shortens the life cycle. A generation j.c; completed in about eight days. Adults may be winged or wingless and are about 2 mm long. The aphid is pale to dark green in colour. Several gene'rations are completed in a season thus resulting into rapid increase in population within a short period. Control 1. Avoid late planting of the crop. 2. When aphid population builds up, use anyone of the following insecticides in 625 litres of water per 'hectal'e: ~i) 625 ml methyl demeton 25 EC (Metasystox) OR (ii) 625 ml fenitrothion 50 EC (FoHthion/Sumithion) OR (iii) 1.25 lit. endosulfan 35 EC (Thiodan/Thiotox) OR (iv) 1 lit. Malathion 50 EC (Malathion/Cythion) Note: Dimethoate (Rogelr;) or phosphamidon cron) can also be used. Repe'at the spray at 1Q-20 days interval. if necessary. (Dime- 5

30 Aphids are a m~nace to mustard Get rid of them effectively, quickly with. ""'~l- ROGOR The deadly Aphids attack mustard within a month. from sowing. The infestation lasts from December right up to February. Aphids suck the sap of the young'mustard plant from the underside of.ieaves thus causing the plant to die ultimately. These minute yellowish green insects cause curfing of leaves downwards and gradual ve1iowing As extensive field tetu prove Rogor offers the only effec11ve al1ct pfofit~b(e protocticj) frol?l Aphids. Onee the infestation is detected-or as It preventive measure when the plant is a' month old -3 sprays of Rogor are recommended at 10 to 15 days interval. Rogor should be mixed with water in the basic proportion of 1 ml Rogor: 1 litre water. Recommended dosage IS 200 to 300 ml of Rogor per acre depending upon the growth of the plant. Rogor should be sprayed all over the plant thoroughly for the most effective action Rogor has two-fold action: systemic and contact What's more. Rogor IS backed by continuous Rallis R&D and international know-how... Rallis India limited '.';~~ Fertilisers & PestiCides Division 21. Raveline Street. Bombay '-----' N,.. 6 HARYANA FARMING

31 Tackling the Plant which Starves its Rivals A plant which starves other plants to death and probably poisons them as well is the subject of research sponsored by Britain's Overseas Development Administration (ODA). The plant is Striga, also known as witchvleed. Striga has a deceptive~y pretty flower, usually pink, red, or red with orange underneath or white. It is related to foxgloves, as a member of the figwort family. Striga. parasitises grain and grasses, particularly sorghwn, millet, maize and rioe. Some var1eties also parasitise sugarcane, legumes and tobacco. Striga is found in South, East and West Africa, the Far East, the Indian 'sub-continent and parts of North America. Its seeds are mmute, but under favourable conditions they are germinated by the presence of a stimulaillt secreted by the roots of a host plant or by another plant. Striga is usually seen late in the season when it is fairly dry. It grows on the roots of its host, starving it of mineral salts, water and carbohydr:ates. There is also some evidence that Striga may produce a toxic effect. Its seeds can lie dormant in the soil for as long as five or 10 years before germinating, but once the plant emerges and is clearly visible the damage has already been done. Work in India ODA, through the Weed Research Organisation, is supporting the Interniatio1lIai Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in Hyderabad which is studying.varieties of sorghwn and millet which are resistant to infestation by Striga. Scientists from ICRISAT are wori~ing in both India and Africa on this problem in collaboration with the Weed Research Organisation (WRO). FEBHUARY, 1981 The WRO's work has included laboratory studies on the germination of Striga types and testing the degree iif res1stance shown by some sorghum and millet variet1es. Studies of thjei ~actors affecting the severity of the parasitism are alsq being made. Dr. Susan Woodhead, a biochemist from the Centre for OveI'Slelas Pest Researeh, a scientific urtijt of ODA, has also worked on this, problem and has discovered some evidence which indicates that phenolic compounds in the roots of sorghum are associated with the resistance of the grain. Other evidence seems to indicate that resistance depends upon climatic and other factors. This is based upon the fact that resistance tests carried out on laboratory-grown sorghwn have shown that it has a lower phenolic content in its roots and a lowler degree of resistance: At present Striga cannot be destroyed readily by any chemioal. In any case this would probably not be available, or be too expensive for smali farmers in the Third WorI.d. When the plant appears, it should still be pulled up to prevent seed production, but many farmers tend to leave it to flower, which perpetuates the situation. If possible, farmers should rotate their crops, leaving out cerea1s which are susceptible to infestation for two or three years, but this would not always be possible :fior fanners who depend upon a staple grain crop for their food or ~ Courtesy: British Information Services PACKAGE OF PRACTICES, RABI (English Edition) Is pn Sale Price f. Coonter Rs.5.00 By Post Rs.6.20 Can be had from : ~.. ~ Director of Publications, Gandbi Bbawan, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar

32 profec:t paddy crop,~,~ against,rests.. from,~ransplantatlon/ till uharvest. j Longer' protection, Fewer times, of application: ' More economy No harmful residues Sevin and Sevidol are the registered-trademark, of,.. prot~,~, ~, ~~easeour cr'/oor9p. 011_,.. -,.'_~_ ~' Union Carbide Corporation, U.S:A. ' _'... """" 8 HARYANA FARMING

33 Ornamental Trees For Haryana U~der Adverse Soil And Climatic Conditions -G. L. 'Sharma Landscape Officer, H. A. U., Hissar Tall add cylinder trees should be plaoted 00 roadside in Dlultlple rows... Within their cool and friendly sh ade We may find peace and rest And look into a quiet green place where birds make melody Thb is GOd's greatest gift to man-the glory of a tree." -Patience Strong Haryana has diversity of climate, It lies between the Himalyas and the Thar desert far away from the Arabian sea and bay of Bengal, out of tropics and just on the margin of Monsoon region in the north west of India. The annual rainfall increases gradually from less than 300 mm in the south west region along Rajasthan bbrder to more than 1250 rom in north eastern parts. Relative htunidity is low in greater part of the year, lowest in April and May and highest iii August with high rate of evaporation. The southern, western and south western parts comprising the present districts of Gurgaon, Mohindergarh, Hissar, Jind, Bhiwani, Rohtak 'and Sonepat form the arid :lione. The climate is characterized by low rainfall with extremes of temperature. In hot months it rises to 47 c C and in winter it falls below O C at certain places. High velocity dust storms are frequent. In the western parts of Sirsa Hissar, MohindeTgarh, Bhiwani and Rohtak which border Rajasthan, desert conditions prevail. There are marked variations in the nature of soil; topography and other physical features. In the western pari the texture is generally light to medium and in the eastern })art relatively heavier. Saline alkali soils -are met with at different places where the ph ranges from 6.5 to 9.5. At several places' water logging condit;oils also p:rnvail FEBRUARY, 1981 Planting of trees is closely related to plant ecology. Therefore, its study is very essential in order to achieve succes;ful results in tree plantation. The climate of a place, which is determined by combination of temperature, intensity of.light, amount of rainfall, humidity and the chemical composition and texture of the soil, controls the physioklgical activities of plants and pl~ys an important role in their growth. There are species which thrive only in moist climate. However, if means of artlificial irrigation are available, these may be grawn in dry areas also. But the trees will never acquire the same stature as they do in moist areas, Some trees suit the dry areas and dry hjls whereas some can be grown successfully in sandy soils. There are some trees which are salt resistant and can be grown in acidic and alkaline soils. The trees are, thetefore, required to be chosen very carefully and judiciously keeping in view the soil and climatic conditions of the area where they,are to be planted, which alone dictate the selection of right type of trees. India is rich in plant wealth and has the largest number of ornamental flowering and ornamental foliage trees in the world. For an amateur it becomes difficult to make out the list. The trouble is what to have not and not, what to put in, whe_1 the environmental conditions are- suitable. But for areas having ad~erse soil and climate conditions it becomes difficuit to make the list of trees to be put in. Therefore, a list of selected trees with their horticultural characteristics and desiign qualities suiting to the adverse conditions of soil and climate is given as on pages 10 & 11. 9

34 ..... ~ ~;E 0:1... ~~... u 0.0 "0-0:100 uc._ a'a; 0 '" ,.2.. "fi~ c: <0... u..o.~ u",.id0 ;::::~ "Ou... ", o~ uo u'" Cu ~ii 11.>'" -u._ 1:>.", '"... u -", ::l", 8 c Q, cu U~._ e u c U~ ~< "'c ~~ 00 til e:.- e: v.l.~ '" I:>. :J 0", 60"0 0:1... =0 00, til 0'.,..."0,I, 00..r N C U I:>. o e.e "0 "Oc:: U::l ~8 ooe: C~ 00 --u...._ 8- ::leu u "0._ UC ::g8..::. CCI" ~o o z vl...; --.~ GIl C - ot; "'0 -..c:: <u * '" -...._ =.e:! o "'- ::lu U~ li.._ 0) ~s._ '".. ::J U,o "' ~ ~t2 "00) CoS 01'"... 0 ole U._ - ~8.n

35 ... o 0. (.: o g Cl. ~. -0 ~~ u cu o _,~,~ on ~ M'O \0'0',I,,I ON 010 N~ ' o C'" 11.1'0 ;;.CU ~o 11.1" -g ~~._ 0 I:f.l..... o en 0. e ::l y ~-;;. '" c: 8 - I:f.l'" ""... o ~ 0'" N'- 1'0 _ 00 e,?;- till eo g.::... '" -t'd "" I _ 00'0 '<1'-. ~ O.~ "1"0 0""..._ ::: 0", ",'0 c.." ::10 0" "c co iii:.!:is '" 11.1 ~. cuu 8:0 '';:: ~u... g c -'"... 0'" CO <!:: t'd eo.q u _ tllliil: ~~ Otlll ""... c'" 3,s :>1)>. ~ cu«t 0.8 '0 Q til, 0'- '".,.,'0,I, ~~.;, ~ o.c: "'iii: So... 0" 0 '0 eo U Q ~... '0, s- o~ o.~ a 00 ; ~a... _,.r:; 0- t'd" ~~,.r:; o v :; 1::1 "'0 0 ""'... o o.!:!.s 1~.~ I:l ~'a. \0'... '" 'is o -'" 1:>1)'-._ c:'" =t: );0,.r:; 0. '" o '" 0... S'OQ.- c: ~~ * 11.1 Vl o -< ","-' 'i:j o c_ "'~.- ~ ~U,_.._ 0 Q..,o.." '" o.r: -~ C u t'd._ ,8S p...".~ ro :i~ 0'" "'0 I:f.lu 00 N _... ~ o z

36 Preparation of cuttings Cultivation ~f Poplar (Populus) -R. Yamdagni and Maya Singh Directorate of Extension Education, H. A. U., Hissar Poplar ofiers itself as a tree to be grown with agr,icultural crops by virtue of Lts flast rate of growth, ease in propagation leaftessiliess during winter and consequent less competition with agricultural crops and also the host of end-uses to Which the wood can be put. Suitable clones for cu1tivation are populus deltoidis G-3 and 1. C. Selection of nursery site NURSERY TECHNOLOGY The nursery should be located in area where iitigation is available. The soil should be loam, deep fertile with ph value not exceeding 7.0 and free from any under lying Kankar/Clay pan. The nursery area should not be under the shade of trees. Water logged or poorly-drain site should also be avoided. Preparation of the soil The nursety area should be well ploughed and the clods, stuble and root stumps should be removed. Sunken nursery beds of suitable sd.ze depending upon the level of the area and the iitigation system should be prepai"ed. Farin yam manure at the rate of 20 tons/ ha should be thoro~ghly mixed. 80 kg of DDT/ha should. be added while preparing the. beds as an anti-termite measure. Planting material Planting material of the c16nes G-3 can be obtained irom Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar. Nurseries of Haryana Forest Department and WIMCO Ltd. Bareilly. Other clones like I.C. are also available with the WIMCO Ltd. 12 Cuttings shou.ld be taken from well grown, disease free plants of known identity. Cuttings should be cm in length and mm in diameter. In case the cutting,s ate required to be transported over a long distance, their ends should be dipped in paraffin wax to avoid desication. Planting of cuttings in the nursery The cuttings should be put in the nursery beds at a spacing of 60 em x 60 em. Almost" the whole length of the cutting should be inserted vertically in the ground leaving only one bud above the ground. The soil around the cutting should be compacted we'll. SOIil should be moist at the time of putting the cutting:s in the nursery beds. In case the cuttings are inserted in dry soil, the nursery beds should be irrigated soon after putting the cuttings in the beds. The planting OIf cuttings should be done after leaf fall and should be completed before February end. Where cuttings are stored after preparation, they should be soaked in water for 24 hours before inserting in the beds. Paraffin wax coated ends should be cut before soaking in water. As soon as the cuttings are made, th2y should be given a point mark to identify the clones. It should be ensured that the cuttings of different clone,s do not get mixed. Irrigation and weedings Poplars do noit tolerate weeds in the nursery stage. However, first weeding should be postponed till the buds sprout and throw out initial few leaves. There after weedlings should be done at 15 day intervals. Irrigation schedule should be regulate'd to suit the type of soil and the prevailing weather. The soil should be kept moist and not too damp during the period of sprouting. There after irrigation should be given at 10 day intervals. Excessive irrigation should however, be' avoided. Training of the plants When a number of shoots grow out from each cutting, these need to be thinned to leave only one well grown shoot per cutting. The extra number of shoots should be cut with a sharp knife. HARYANA FARMING I

37 Where the plant is about a meter in height, syste'- -manure and 10 gins of 5% aldrin dust should be added matic removal of buds from the axil of the leaves. per pit at the time of planting. Planting party should should be done so that no b~anches develop on the consist of two persons, one person to' hold the plant lower 1/3rd part of the plant "from the ground level. straight and the o,ther to fill the soil carefully in the 3-4 such de-budding may be -necessary during the year. pit. It is not necessary that the cobar of the pi:ant should be at the ground level as is the general practice Fertilizer application for 9ther species. On the other hand, it should be burrijd deep: 'Soil should be compacted after :f;illing the - 50 kg nitrogen/ha should be applied in the 'form pits. of urea in two equal dozes,' one to- be applied in June and the-other "in early August. Spacing Size of the planting stock FIELD PLANTATION I One year old plants should be used for planting. _ J The plants less than 2.5 m in height and less than 2.0 cum collor diameter should be. separated and us~d for preparation of cuttings for stock multiplication. The plants whieh look apparently diseased or are affected by shoot borer or have a dead terminal bud should also be discarded. Preparation of Ithe plantin!i stock The plants from the nurseries should be taken out with care. A trench about 66 cm deep' should he dug out along the width of the nursery bed and the pliants should be taken out. The taproot should be cut with sharp spade. Tap-root should be ptuned to '\ le~ve only 30 em tap-~o(}t and ~n~y a few selec~ed la.,} teral roots not exceedmg 10 em m length should be left. Size of the pits. Poplars' cari be raised only in such areas wher2 assured irrigation facilities are either available or can be provided 'before planting. With assured irrigation the pits of the size of 60 em x 60 cm should be adequate. The pits should be dug about 2 months in advance to anow the soil weathering. Planting technology.. Planting should be 'done in January in no case ~ la!e_r than 15th February. About ane kg of farm yard Spacing for single line planting along the field bcundaries may be 3 m. Fer block planting spacing of 5 m x '5 m may be adbpted. Irrigation Irrigation is needed soon after plantil:)g. So the planting of poplars in agricultural ~elds hav:ing s~anding. crops s.hould precede irriga.t:oij. to be given the. agricultur~l crops, in the field., Thereaftel', irrigation wi~l be done along with the agricultural crop. During summer season when there will be no ~agricultural crop, fortnightly irrigation should _be _dode till the commencing of monsoon rains for the first two years. Pruning of plants Pruning should not be done during summer as it enco~rages fungal infections. It should be. done with sharp saws in the months of October and November. Epicornic branches appearing after pruning should be removed. Pruning of side branches should be as per schedule given below: (a). _ Upto two. years _after planting or till-the pi-ants attain 8 cm d~ameter. (b) From two to five years. Lower 1/3rd of the stem to be pruned. (c) From 5 to 10 years. Lower 1/2 of the stem to be pruned. (d) After 10 years. Lower 2/3rd of the stem to pruned.,. be FEBRU A'RY 1981, 13

38 RABBIT FARMING (Housing and Feeding). -I. s. Yadaf and V. P. Sharma Directorate of Extension Education, H. A. U., Hissar HOUSING Rousing is an impovtant aspect for the efficient and economical rabbit raising. The land on which rabbit hutches and shelters ai1e to be constructed shoula! be well drained. Therre should be some trees near the hutches to provide shade in summer. Rabbits can stand both hot and cold weather but they require protection from direct winds, min, and brig~t sun light. 'lrhe location of the rabbitry should be away froin thickly populated area and smokes. The rabbitry should be well protected from dogs, jackals, cats and other,_ predators. The building should be adequately ventilated. The chief structures in the rabbitry consist of: 1. Houses or shelter. 2. Hutches: 3. Nest boxes. 4. Colony Pens. Houses or Shelter ',The houses or shelters can be made like the' building of 'the poultry sheds. The floor should be of concrete. There should be overhead ventilation. They should be 9' high.in the centre and 8' on the sides. The cross ventil'ation area should?e betw len per cent of the floor area. The floor area for a rabbit of me'clium si2le Should be about 3 sq. ft Hut-ches A. simple standard hutch size is to allow one sq.u.~e foot floor _ space per pound body weight. The average size breeding hutch should have about square feet of floor space. The standard hutch is 4' 14 long, 2r deep and 2' high. The hutches are frequently built in two tire system. The hutches can bel built of wire meshes having trays under the floor. The faeces and urine drop get collected in the trays. The hutches are provided with feed hoppers and waterers. The floor of the hutches should preler.a.bly be 2-3 ft. higher than the ground. The b\1cks and does are kept separately in the hutches. Depending upon the number of rabbits the hutches in two tlire system can be arranged in rows. The inter-rows width should be 4'. Nest boxes are pl'aced in the breedling hutches. The ll,tter is reared in the nest boxes. Nest Box A nest box for a medium s~ze doe. should be 16// x 12" x 8" size with opening 6" x 6// size in front of it. The nest box can also be made of the bamboos and wiremesh. Its floor should be provided 211_3" bedding for the young ones. The bedding can be olf the hay, dry le'aves and bhoosa etc. Rabbit after being weaned can be raised in cages or colonies. Cages Wire cages of 24" x 18" x 18" size in 2 or 3 tires system can be placed in the shelters or houses described above. The opening of the wiremeshes should not be too sma1l to allow the passage of the faecal material and they should also be not so large for the feet to be caught. The rabbits are kept individually in the cages. Colony Pens Normally rabbits weighing 2 kg require 1 sq. ft. floor space in colony: Rabbits weighing kg l'equire 2~ sq. ft. The young ones particularly, of thfo> broiler type after being weaned are reared in colony pens. It is never desri.l'able to have more than 30 young ones together as accidents may occur through panic. For a group of 30 young ones a pen of the size of 12' x 3' will be sufficient. The pens of this size can be built by introducing wire mesh partitions in the house or shelter. FEEDING Rabbits oonswne a variety of feeds. A ration may be made up of grains and hays. Whole grains, oats, whea,t, sorghwn, barley and rye are palatable. Legume hay, green feed or root crops are also fed. The leafy HARYANA FARMING

39 green feed and root crop should be given fresh. Minerai and vitamin deficiency is less likely to occur if the animals are supplied with a variety of feed that include two or more gl"lains, a plant protein supplement and a good quality legume green. The legume haysilialfa (lucern), clover, sweet clover, cowpea and peanut are palatable. A variety of green feeds, including lawn clippings, rape, cabbage and waste from garden ve'ge1jables are offered to the rabbits. Food Requirements The dielts of the rabbits normally contain 15 per cent crude protein, per cent total digestible nutrients and 90 per cent dry matter. The dry matter consists of 60% conoentrart:es and 40% roughage. Feed Conswnption The efficiency of feed conversion of the feed having the specifications given above is about 2.5 kg per kg live weight gain upto 12 weeks of age. On an average an adult rabbit takes 150 gram of feed daily. Composition of Some Rations: Ration-l 1. Wheat grains 2. Barley :2 parts. 1 part. 3. Linseed meal 1 part /45 kg. Alfalfa hay (lucern), green feed or root crops. Ration-II 1. Barley 2 parts. 2. Wheat 2 parts. 3. Linseed cake I part. 4. Salt 75 g/45 kg. Lucern, clover or soya bean hays, green feed or root crops. Rabbits eat more at night than during the day. Dry does, herd bucks and growing does and bucks should be fed once a day one of the grain and protein mixtures that they will consume in minutes. Doos and nursing litters should be fed ad Jib. A good quality legume hay should be kept before the rabbits at all times. Green feeds or root crops (45-50g) should be given daily. Grain and protein mixture and green feed may be offered in the morning and hay all the FEBRUARY, 1981 time. The young ones start taking roughage+cereal" between 3-4 weeks of age. Qnantity of mixtures of grain and protein to be fed daily to a kg. doe after kindling Week following Grain and protein to be fed to kindling Doe Each of the young one (g) (g) 1st 140 2nd 155 3rd 170 4th th th 170 '55 7th th For the first three we:eks the young ones are fed only with the milk of the doe. They are weaned at 8 weeks of age and are then separated from the doe. Water Requirement Rabbits can loose nearly 'all the fat from their bodies and more than half the protein and can remain alive. But a loss of 10% of water from the body will cause death of the rabbit. The water requiremelilt of rabbits varies with the age. The requirement of the young rabbits is higher than the old rabbits. Thus, a.shortage of water and even a restricted amount of water may oause retardation of growth. A kg doe alongwith her litter may take alxlut 4! liters of water dlaily. Rabbits should have access to the pure and fresh water at all times. In general, rabbits will not drink excess amount of water. Caprophagy Rabbits re-ingetst part of their faeces, This they do usually in the early morning when they remain unobserved. They re-ingest only the soft ma.tter ot faeces which they pass. The act of re-ingesting is termed as Pseudo-rumination. Some breeders believe that this is a vice and others think it due to nutr~ent deficiency. The breeders should not worry to see this habit of the rabbits. It is normal in rabbits and it increases the nutritive value of the feed when it passes second time through the dige,stive system..! 15

40 o TOLKAN effectively controls Phalaris minor, Wild Oats and Broad-Leaved weeds, together. TOlKAN is safe for use In a\\ '\IClITlt1:'\les of wheat grown in Haryana and Punjab TOLKAN also increases wheat yield. Per hectare, use 2 kilo of Tolkan m;j(ed in 750 litres of water ' days after sowing or about a week after the first irrigation, is the best time for <.lpplication. For spraying, use FLAT FAN or FLOOD JET NOZZLE~ For Enquiries: May &. Baker Chaudhary Bldg. 'K' Block, Connaught Circus, New Delhi For Further Details write to-regd. Office-Bombay.MN May&Baker I May&.Baker (India) ltd. May Baker House Bombay

41 Introduction to Some Common Fish Diseases on I Fresh' Water Ponds bones, blindness, inflammation of liver or intestine etc. In some acute cases, entire tailor fin may also be eaten off, the hind region Df the body swells up resulting in the death of fish (Fig. 1). -N. K. Yadav Department of Zoology, H. A. U., Hissar Haryana state come~ under sub-tropical condition. May and June aret the acute summer months and a frequent mortality among fresh water fishes is prevailing particularly during these months when the water level is usually low a.nd stagnating. There are several kind of paras.ites which affect pond: fishels and resulting in their death. The fry and fingerlings of carps which suffer from frequent handling during collection, oonditioning and transport are more liable to be infected than adults. Moreover, infestations are more liable to occur in ponds which are heavily stocked, since such congestions provide a favourable situation for rapid spread of infectidn among the fishes. The occurrence and the magnitude of infections are closely related to the sanitary conditions prevailing in the water. The study of fish diseases requires a wide knowledge of the environmental conditions of water and parasites. Therefore, some common fish diseases may be classified under two headings: (i) Parasitic infeotion oaused by:- Fungi, Bacteria, Protozoa, Worms and Crustacea. (ii) Non-Parasitic diseases:- Asphyxiations (gas disease) and Miscellaneous. The following are some common fish diseases which usually cause mortality among the ponds Dr fresh water fishes: FINROT This is a common disease among pond fishes caused by bacteria, fungus and water mould (Sprolegnia). Fry, fingerlings and adults of major carps which get mechanically injured or bruised during the transportation over long distances or even by rough handling, are liable to fungal attack. Because of bacterial or fungal attack, the fins are usually affected, their margins being gradually' eaten off, fish becomes weak and lethargic and thus hampering normal movements. Tq~ fish gradually dies after ulceration or exfoliation 0: skin followed by haemorrage, exposure of t~e. jaw ( Fig, 1 ) Treatment A simple treatment may be given to the infected fish, dip them in 3 per cent common salt solution or in 1: 2000 solution of copper sulphate or 1: solution of potassium permanganate for 5-10 minutes or until fish shows distress. Repeat this treatment every day until the fish regains sound health. GILLROT This is another common disease caused by filamentous fungus (Branchiomyces sanguinis) which.ohstructs the veins in the gill filaments. The disease occurs especially to the young frys and finger lings of the major carps in the hottest t;me of the year due to excessive organic matter such as putrefying vl:lgetctiion or dung in the pond and also shortage of water. rin Ithe beginning, 11 red flecking' on fish gill filament appears, which at later stag~ becomes greyish white or a white round nodule which may finally fdrop off altop: Ither leaving the cartillaginous support exposed. Such fish die of suffocation and may be seen.gasping for the air at the surface (Figs. 2 and 3). Treatment. If the infection is limited to few specimens,1then t~eatment for 5 to 10 minutes in a bath of 3 to 5% common salt will cease the infection. If the infedion is due to bacteria, a similar bath in a week potassilnn pe rmanganate solution (5 ppm) gives encouraging results. :FEBRUARY 1981,,~. 17

42 \. ( Fig. 4) DROPSY This disease is very common especially in the ponds where high density exists in the pond water. This is infectious epidemical disease affecting the young and adult major and minor carps. The pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas Sp.) are responsible for the disease. Accumulation of body fluid inside the body cavity, scale protrusion, ex9ptpalmic condition, inflammation of intestine and bulging out of the body cavity are some common symptoms of this disease (Fig. 5).. (Fig.3 ) ULCER DISEASE This disease is caused by bacteria, it has been observ.ed esrecially in major carps at an early and adult age, Pr.esence of open sores or ulcers on the body of the fish ~hich increase in size gradually and ultimately exposing the muscles especially on the qorsal side of abdomen and near the fins CFig. 4).. Tre'atment It.$ always better to destroy the badly infected fish and then the pond water should be treated with 0,-.5 to ~ ppm solution of potassium permanganate, and give a dip treatment for half to one minute in 1:4.000 copper sulphate solution for 3-4 days in case the fish i~ at early stage of infection. 18 (Fig. 5) Treatment. A thorough disiniection with 1 ppm potassium permanganate solution may be effective at an. early stage of the disease. A dip treatment in 10 ppm ofthe HARYANA FARMING ", I

43 \ l... same chemical for on~ minute :;,will also be effective. The badly infected fish should be destroyed. The fish may be starved during the treatment. EYE DISEASE Lo This diselase is not very common at an e?rly age to major c. and minor carps; but affecting _ the medium and large sizced fish especially?bserveq in Rohu and Catla. It is caused by the bacteri~m (Aeromonas liquefaciens). The infected sites are: eye,s, optic nerves and brain of fish. At the initial stages, cornea of the 'eye becomes vascularized and later becomes opaque; gtadually the eye ball gets putrefied, than the fish losses its balance in swimming and subsequently leading to..death (Fig. 6). (Fig. 6) Treatment As soon as eye disease is diagnosed in the pond, disinfect the pond water with 1 ppm of potassium permaljganate. At the initial stage of infection, chloromycetin (10-15 mg/l) bath for 30 to 40 minutes should be given for 2-3 days, if possible; replace some volume of fresh water i~ the pond and if plankton are not sufficient then replace it with artificial feeding.. WHITESPOT.DISEASK This disease is usually observed ih major, minor and common carps at fingetlings and adult'stages cau:' sed by cilliate protbzoan (Ichthyophthirius multifiiis) whicn irfects the d'ifferent regiofls of the body externally. k"small wh;tish cyst -(1 mm in diameter) is formed on the skin. gills and fi"'~ caused due to simple hyperplasia of tpe 'eplderrilal cells :arnund' the site of infecfioll, thus causing" formation of pustules. Treatment Give a dip treatment in 0.5 ppm copper sulphate solution for 1 to 2 hours or 1: 10,000 formalin solution for 4-5 hours daily for 6-10 days will show a good re.sult; or 2-3% common salt solution batb}or days will also help in restricting further infection of the disease. r - The, pond water should be disinfected with 'II -, -., quick-eme at the rate of 100 kg!ha. as a_ preveintiy~ measure. (from page 4).) reclaimed soils is water soluble sour-ee of P which can be had either from single or triple super phosphate or DAP and other mixtures having th~ir P in water soluble. form. Nitro Phosphates are not expected to yield good results in these '~oils of high ph and are, therefore, not recommended for even calcare:ous soils. Potassium application has been found to be advantageous for growing crops in recently reclaimed soils as it counteracts the harmful effect of excessive sodium both in the son solution and On the exchange complex application of 60 kg K20/ha is recommended for rice as well as wheat crops to be grown in such soils. Method of NPK application: Effect of different methods of fertilizers application on the yield of wheat, barley and oat has revealed that in salt affected areas with high salinity at the surface, fertilizer should preferably be applied at lower depths (20 cm) by drilling; Placing of fertilizers at 20 em depth in saline soils of IARI New Delhi increased the yield of wheat, barley and oals by 30.6, 28.0 and 36.6 per cent. respectively over that due to broadcast. A few important points for getting good yields in saline or alkali soils are as under: 1. Select suitable crops for these varieties (Tables 6-7). 2. Use adequate amount of FYM to open up the soil and provide crop nutrients. 3. Extra irrigation be given to minimise the salt effect, 8-9 irrigations of 4" are recommended for.', wheat crops Green manljrjng is always beneficial for- stich s0'ils (grow dhaincha). 5. Apply adequate amount of nitrogen and zinc but P and K' have to be appliea if soil is deficient in these nutrients as well.. 6. Rotations which need more water are useful.. 7. Use about 20'per cent" extra seed of wheat. barley and' older seeding's of 5-6 weeks for paddy. 8. Apply' ~fl fertiiizers by drilling.

44 The following are the important clinical manifestations observed : Chlamydiosis-An Emerging Disease of Domestic Animals -v. D. Purohit and R. K. Paul Gupta Department of Vety. Pathology, H. A. U., Hissar (i) Abortion,: Chlamydial abortion mostly occurs in cattle, sheep and goats during the last third of gestation. In natural conditions generally no clinical signs are observed in infected pregnant,animals except slight rise of temperature initially for about 10 days. After aboi1tion the dam usually recovers without any ill effect. Death of the dam may occur in cases with retention of placentas and other complications. The off-bprings are generally still born, or weak. Affected animals may abort in subsequent pregnancies also. ChlamydJiosis comprises a group of disease conditions caus,ed by Chlamydia psittaci an obligate intracellular organism which multiphes in the cytoplasm of the host's cells. This condition has attracted increasing attention of veterinarians during the last few years in the country. The disease assumes a significant role mainly due to two :flactors. Firstly, because it causes various clinical manifestations, like, abortions, pneumonia, encephalomyelitis, polyarthritis, intestinal disorder and keratoconjunctivitis mainly in cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats as well as pigs. Besides, it causes heavy mortality in poultry as well. These conditions amount to heavy economic: losses as a result of mortality and by way of stunted growth, poor weight gain and decreased milk, meat and wool production. Secondly, this condition play an important role from public health point lilf view mostly through infected birds. Mode of infecrtion The disease is generally contracted through direct (animal to animal) or by indirect contact. In direct spread the disease is due to various factors like improper disposal of in eded carcases, aborted foetuses/ placenta etc. Unrestricted entry of infected animals in anns and migration of animals from one place to another in an indiscriminate manner also' contributes to fhe disease transmission. Improper cleaning of utensils, equipment, beddings etc. of cattle and sheep farms besides contami :np.ted feed and water are also responsible for its spread. All body excreta/discharges are potentially infective in nature. Aerosol mode of infections has also been reported to occur in this condition. ;.20 (ii) Pneumonia: Chlamydial pneumonia is more common in sheep, goiats and swine. The onset of pneumonia is either sudden with chills, fever, anorexia, sore throat and photophopia or it may develop gradually with mild mucopuralent nasal discharge alongwith difficult breathing. High fever may be observed in the initial stages of pneumonia: In uncomplicated cases animal recovers from this condition. However, death may result wherever secondary bacterial infection like Pasteurella haemolytica or E. coli is involved. (iii) Encephalomyelitis: It is observed commonly in cattle, sheep and horses. This clinical condition may be seen alone or alongwith other clinical syndromes like pneumonia, abortion or poly!arthritis. Initial signs of nervous involvement are depression, marked fe,ver two weeks after exposure, excessive salivation, dyspnea and mild diarrhoea. In advanced cases animals feel difficulty in walking, stiff gate and tend to stagger and circle. The affeded lambs become weaker and may exhibit signs of paralysis. This condition is generally seen in young animals of two to three yelars of age. Death rate is very high particularly in calves and lambs. (iv) Polyarthritis: It is more common in calves and lambs and may occur alone or in combination with any other syndrom~s: Initially high fever, stiffness:! lameness anor~ia develop and some of animals may show conjunctivitis. In advanced cases swelling of almost all the joints of the limbs may be observed and on palpation of the affected joint signs of pain are evident." In some oases affected calves and lambs may die suddenly without showing any other signs. Occurrence of other clinical conditions like intestinal involvement and keratoconj'unctivitis are mild and \.', I HARYANA- FARMING

45 not frequent. Avian chliamydiosis is not of common occurrence in this country. Control measures ContrDI depends upon elimination of stress factors together with ensuring good hygenic environffil2nt. proper management and feeding. Th: following measures/precautions when' adopted judiciow:>ly, help contli'ol of the spread of this condition: 1. Restriction on the movement of diseased animals and separation of the affected animal from healthy stock. 2. Quarentine practices be followed while allowing new animals to any organised cattle or sheep farms. 3. Proper disposal of carcases, aborted foeti, bedding and other contaminated materials etc. is very essential. 4. Over crowding of birds should be avoided in poultry farms. Disease and sick bird should be sacrificed and their proper disposal ensured. Treatment No effective vaccine is available against this disease, however, following preparations are found to be effective for treatment of uncomplicated cases: (i) Crys-4 (Squibb);- Large animals-4000 units/kg body weight 24 hours intervals (intra-muscularly) for 10 days. Small animals-2 to 4 lac units at 24. hours intervals (intramuscularly) upto 10 days. (ii) Dicrysticin-S (Squibb);- To each vial add 7.5 ml. of distilled water and administer at the rate of 2 ml/50 kg body weight (intramuscularly) daily for 10 days. (iii) Pronapen (Pfizer):- 1 ml/25 kg body weight (intnamuscularly) daily for 10 days. (iv) Teramycin (Pfizer);- 2 ml/25 kg of body weight (intramuscularly) daily for ten days. Reports of anim:als suspected to be suffering from such conditio:1s may be communicated to Prof~ssor & ~eaa; Dent!, of Vety. Pathology for further investiig~t;otis. Swine Breeding and Management -R. S. Malik and R. S. Singal K. G. K., H. A. U., Hissar Most exotic gilts reach puberty at eight to nine montl:s of age. The weight is about 80 to 100 kg at this age. Whenever practical, the gilt should produce bell" first litter by the time she is a year old. As a rule, large litters are produced! when g,ilts are bred at their second or third heat period rather than their first heat. The oestrous cycle in case of swine varies between 19th to 22nd days. The duration of heat period is three days in case of sows and two days in gilts. Mating should be done after the first day of the onset of heat. lone serviae per female is sufficient for conception. However, if there are few animals to be bred, a service both in the morning and evening may be allowed for better fertility. A boar is fit for service at the age of one ye!ar and one boar is enough for breeding sows. Signs of heat.1. The female is off food, wanders about to be close to a boar, mounts other sows or becomes unusually docile and permits pressure on its back. There may be redness and swelling of the lips of vulva and frequent passage of urine in small amounts. 2. Most gilts will show swelling of the vulva three to four days before on set of heat. 3. The actual heat period lasts from 36 to 72 hours. Gilts have a shorter heat period than sows. The sow/gilt ovulates about the middle of the heat pe!riod. Mating It is advisiable to take the sow to the boar and watch it being mated properly as sometimes the penis is directed in the rectum instead of vulva. Mating in sows is not a quick process as in cattle. A boar usually takes from 5 to 20 minutes to serve. If the sow does not return to service after 3 weeks, it is considerred as conceived.

46 Selection of Farm Machinery, J, -R. S. R. Gupta and R..s. Malik Department of Agril. Engg., H. A. U" Rissar The ~achinery is a costly input required for crop, pr,oductio~ so while purchasing the machines for different ag'ricultural operations, a very care.ful selection should be made to minimise the cost of production. The following are the main considerations that will have impol't~nt influence on selecting one machine over another: Trade Mark The machine bearing tl'ade mark of a finll having gdou re])uta\lcff:t give::. an 'l.nulcat'l.dll that th-e l'i... ~'i'r,i?& turer of such a machine will stand behind that particular piece of machinery. Such equipment should be pn:lferred over others having no trade mark. Tmde Name It is the name by which an article is Benerally known and distinguished from the one prodtlced by other companies. A well-known trade name is valuable from sales stand point. Model Each manufacturer has his own special system of designating models. It may indicate a type of machine, a size, an improved or new design, a. special purpose machine etc. which help in selecting an equipment for specific requir~ment. Ear.e of op'eration The ease of operation is mainly dependent upon the correct adjustment. While operating the implement successfully it should not require unnecessary amount of power and labour. Ease of adjustment While selecting, new implement, careful stu,qy should be made of the methods for adjusting the various parts. Devioes designed, to simplify the adjustment are time and labour saving. The operataii' of equipment should not take much time to understand all the adjustments needed. Facility for repair While in use, there is likely to be breakdown of parts, wear of components necessitating repair and reqla.c.emenl Therefore, the reqair fa,cillties and. availability of spare parts at the nearest place should be given due preference. Quick c,hange for hitching and dismounting The time and labour required to hitch and unhitch the equipment wi,th power unit should form one of the important considerations. l\laneuverability While operating the implement, it should have easy maneuverability in lifting, turning, transportation ek. Safety The equipment should! have built-in safety provisions for both the operator and the machine. Moving parts, such as PTO should be provided with shields. Design Machine should have adequate safety devices. All components should be strong enough. Machine &hould have good' appearance and ease of lubrication etc. Adaptability to work under difier,ent conditions A machine may work wen in one locality and be an absblute failure in another because it is adapted to certain soil conditions or types of crops grown.. So it should be suitable for soil oonditions and types of crops to be grown. -~------,_ Size ami topography of the farm It will govern the size of equipment, its type Le. mounted or trailed one. Power requirement The implement should be matching with the available power unit. Dther factors Other factors to keep in mind are initial cost, exp2cted service life, economic considerations in selection to the size of the farm, work to be performed etc. ---'----, Printed and published ~y Dr. R. M. SharD;la, Director of Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhri, Press Manager, at tile HAU Press, OD Feb. I, 1981.

47 8 19 ~T~ MARCH 1981 eo Pat e

48 HARYANA FARMING Volume X March 1981 No.3 Contents 1. Better use of water resources with sprinklers -D. S. Tanwar Pages 2. Housewives combat stored grain insect pests-i -Gulab Singh. KomIa Singh and Zile Singh 6 3. Perennial weeds and their control in Haryana -So P. Singh, R. S. Ba/yan and V. M. Bhan 4. Select suitable variety for kharif vegetable crops - V. K. Srivastava and Man Singh Moonia Guidelines for the establishment of small sheep unit in rural a,eas -Balbir Singh and A. K. Batabyal Gobar gas plant ushers in a new era in rural life -So C. Aggarwal and T. R. Sharma Proper care and handling of vegetables at home -Mrs. Indu Grover Crop weather prospects -0. P. Bishnoi and S. K. Katyal Care of vegetable crops during March -v. K. Srivastava, M. P. Srivastava and 20 S. D. Chaudhury II OWNER'S STATEMENT In respect of Haryana Farming monthly Journal of HAU Place of publication Periodicity of public~tion Printer's Name Whether citizen of India? Address Publisher's Name Whether citizen of India? Address Editor's Name Whether citizen of India? Address FORM IV (See Rule 8) Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar Monthly Dr. R. M. Sharma Yes Director of Publications, HAU, Hissar Dr. R. M. Sharma Yes Director of Publications, HAU, Hissar V. S. Gupta Yes Directorate of Publications, HAU, Hissar Names and addresses of indivi- Haryana Agricultural duals who own the newspaper University, Hissar and partners or share-holders (Haryana) holding more than one per cent of the total capital. I, Dr. R. M. Sharma, hereby declare that the particulars given above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief. Sd/- DR. R. M. SHARMA Publisher Director of Publications: Dr. R. M. Sharma Layout I Kuljit Director of Extension Education: Dr. J. C. Sharma Joint Director (Extn.) : Dr. A. W. Sohoni * Editor V. S. Gupta Assisted by D. C. Yadav "" Photo 1 HAU Photo Unit Yearly Subscription Rs Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, Hissar-1250~4

49 Better Use of Water Resources With Sprinklers, B. S. Tanwar Deputy Director Haryana State Minor Irrigation Tubewells Corporation, Kamal Haryana has l~i,ted water resources. It has to struggle hard- in providing irrigation facilities to even 55 per cent land. -The state has to depend substantially on transfer of water from the adjacent states of Himachal and Uttar Pradesh because surface reservoirs are not feasible within Haryana. The eastern part with 500 to 1500 mm rain is endowed with the moderate water potential but the western part with 200 to 500 mm rain appar,ently faces a _ difficult Foblem of the water scarcity. Looking to the immense shortage of, water the betterr management and conservation measures are inevitable. MODERNISATION The first phase of the World Bank Programme ( ) for modernisation of the irrigation system is currently under active execution which embodies the lining of canals and field channels and construction of deep augmentation tubeweus. The second phase of the programme ( ) envisages continuation of the works of lining and deep tubeweus and wide use of sprinkler irrigation with some experiments on drips. The state further excogitates increasing the capacity of impounded waters in lakes at Bibipur, Ottu, Kotla, U jina and Jhahajpur and completion of small reservoirs across Sahibi, Tangri and Markanda. Nevertheless, the extensive undulated sandy soils in the western semiarid and arid tracts will remain devoid of irrig~tio'll as the surface irrigation is impracticable. Water loss is heavy in light soils. Sprinkler and drip irrigation systems thus determine potential scope for better use of water resources which are in a fixed quantity of about 2 million h~ctare metres. MARCH, 1981 SPRINKLERS The sprinkler irrigation has been in use for more tha~ three decades in the USA, continental Europe and middle east countries.- 95 per cent of the total irrigated area in Israel is under sprinklers. India employed sprinklers in early 1950s principally for- high value plantation crops of tea, coffee and cardamom but its use on conventional agricultural crops stayed due to lack of energy source and high capital input ~eyond the reach of a common farmer. Haryana farmer knew of sprinklers only when the Agriculture Department distributed some demonstration sets after More than 2500 sprinkler sets have now been procured by 'the private well owners mostly in the drought prone belt of Mahendragarh and Bhiwani. A few progressive farmers of Gurgaon, Rohtak and Hissar have also come forward for application of the sprinkler irrigation. The state government provides 25 per cent subsidy to motivate the cultivators for the purchase of sprinklers but due to high capital investment exceeding Rs. 20,000 the procurement rate is very slow. One sprinkler set commands about 4 hectare land. Besides installation of sprinklers by the private enterprises, the Irrigation Department has taken a pioneer initiative' in expe'fimenting the working of sprinklers on the canal system. About 100 sprinkler sets each at a cost of Rs. 80,000 to 1,38,000 were procured and most of them have been deployed on the Loharu, Jui and Siwani lift system and the Fatehabad Branch and BMB flow system during sprinkler set commands about 40 hectare land. One 1

50 PERFORMANCE Table 1 gives the comparative performance of the sprinkler sets on private wells and canals. A sprinkler set comprises of the aluminium pipe line (mams and laterals) with essential fittings viz., Sprinkler heads, co'uplers, bends,\ tees, end stops, valves, stands, and risle1r pipes with tripods, etc. The sprinkler head is an important component which consists of a twin nozzle (range nozzle for maximum throw of water and spreader nozzle for water distribution), swing arm, heavy duty spring, pivot pin and pivot support. 8 to 12 sprinkler heads are provided at a spacing of 12 to 18 m on the lateral line. One sprinkler head produces the spray in a diameter of 27 to 33 m at 2.8 to 4.2 kg/cm 2 pressure. Better field condition The land levelling is seldom required which involves an expenditure of about Rs. 4,000 per hectare. 20 per cent of the land is saved in sprinkler irrigation as the field charmels and dowls are omitted. The weed. growth is found to be low and the soils remain soft due to equitable distribution of moisture in the soil profile..plant protection The overhead irrigation causes cleaning of entire, plant structure thereby providing self protection o{ plants from diseases. In winters, the temperature occasionally drops down and the frost protection can be achieved by spraying water on plants and soils. The pattern of sprinkler irrigation is followed in such a manner that the maximum sprinkler rain is given at the pres owing stage and minimum rain during first irrigation when the evapotranspiration is low. Subsequent waterings from second to' fifth or sixth stage require gradual increment in rain with highest at the crop maturing stage. Indeed, a careful irrigation IS needed at the flowering stage otherwise it may adversely affect the crop production. One watering with sprinklers takes about 4 to 8 hours and the gap between each watering may be 10 to 30 days depending upon the type of crop irrigated. 29 to 56 per cent of the saving in water has been reported as a result of sprinkler irrigation in Haryana. Consequently, 50 to 100 per cent of the additional area can be irrigated. Thus, it is obvious that extra irrigation potential can be increased without creation of additional water resource. ADVANTAGES The sprinkler irrigation is highly beneficial in the hot,desert areas wher.e water is a scarce commodity and the land comprises of undulated soils with high percolation losses. Once barren land, no'w with sprinkler irrigation has even started producing wheat. Haryana farmers have experienced the following advantages of sprinkler irrigation: 2 Water resource conservation, The sprinkler irrigation obviously saves the water resource and provides higher; water use efficiency. It is possible to regulate the rate of flow through sprinklers and thus the wells with poor yield can be efficiently operated without depletion of water. Electri{: charges are based on the flat rates as such the sprinklers can be run constantly without extra charges as long as the electric supply is available. 100 to 200 per cent of the intensity of irrigation is achieved with sprinklers and further the brackish groundwater with tolerable salt concentration can also be used during night irrigations. Low consumption of pesticides The pesticides can be sprayed through sprinklers quickly and without involvement of much labour. The frequency of spray of pesticides is less as the washing of plants is a routine phenomenon during each watering by overhead precipitation. The low consumption of pesticides is thus an added advantage in sprinklerl irrigation. ' Minimum labour needs One man is adequate for operation of 'sprinklers against a requirement of 4 to 8 persons in the case of HARYANA FARMING

51 surface irrigation with the Wllined carrier channels on private wells or canals. Higher crop production Food grains do not yield higher production except 10 to 20 per cent on being efficiently managed but fodders and vegetable crops like potato, onion, cabbage and radish etc. may certainly grow more under favourable conditions with sprinkler irrigation. The increase in crop production is chiefly due to the fact that additional area is covered under agriculture and improved seeds could be sown. BOTTLENECKS One may ostensibly. feel amazed as to why the sprinkler irrigation has not gained momentum when there have been number of advantages. The paramount h,mdicaps seem to be the higher capital cost and the shortage of electric energy. Higher capital cost The estimated comparative cost of sprinklers with different farm sizes is presented in Table 2. It is assumed in analysing the cost structure that the water source lies at remote side of the farm. The analysis implies that the maximum cost of irrigation per hectare at 200 per cent intensity of irrigation may 'vary between Rs. 528 to 1,616 depending upon the size of the individual sprinkler chaks, the low cost being for larger chaks. If the water source lies at the centre of the farm, the cost of irrigation may decrease to about eo per cent. The farmers feel reluctant in making high investment for the sprinkler sets which have life span even less than 10 years. Haryana has no choice but to make the best possible use of her land and water resources and to extract from each acre of land the very maximum that it is capable of producing, whether this be in the form of crops or vegetables or grasses or trees. It is expedient to take 'hard' decisions of far reaching significance to adopt and set in motion a viable strategy of using sprinkler irrigation or even drip irrigation in widespread semiarid or arid areas for improved resource utilisation. It is, there- fore, relevant to consider higher rates of subsidies to the private as well as public enterprises to an extent of 65 per cent to motivate them in real sense for the purchase of sprinkler or drip sets.. Shortage of electric supply Flat rates are charged on the electric supply for operation of pump sets. Electric supply is, however, erratic and is limited to 6-12 hours. The state is alive to the situation and the short or long term measures are underway. The Thermal Power station at Panipat will be in full swing; the Hydroelectric Power Station at Tajewala is WldeT construction; the Microhydel Power Stations on major canals are being planned; and the Nathpa-Jakhri Power Project in Himachal Pradesh has been sanctioned by the Union Government at the instance of Haryana. Hence, the problem D'f electric power may perhaps be exonerated in the near future. NEW STRATEGY The improvement in utilisation of existing capacity of surface and groundwater irrigation makes a better economic sense than the creation of new capacity whose accomplishment is extremely difficult as the potential sources have fully b2en tapped. The water budg~t of the state will continue to attain higher deficit with growing demands in agriculture, industry, commerce, livestock and household. The forging of a viable new strategy for optimum management of land and water resources is a vital need. Indeed, a perception of a system concept is necessary so as to abdicate complacency in the 'Water Surplus' belt and earnestly follow strict water conservation measures in the 'Water Deficit' belt as an explicit policy. Sprinkler and more recently developed drip system may greatly influence the performance of irrigation. The ultimate task is to extract from each acre of land the very maximum that it is capable of producing and to achieve a continuous rise itt the farmer's income per unit volume of water. Haryana's agricultural problems are indeed of such staggering proportid'ns that she cannot afford to rest till she has achieved standards of land and water management which would bear cd'mparison with the best in the world, whether these are found in Japan or Californi1a 0'1' Israel. MARCH,

52 TABLE 1 Performance of sprinklers on pri"fate wells and canals in Haryana Sr. No. Description Private Wells Canals 1 : Location of sprinklers Numbers (approx.) Duration of installations Water well features Well type WelJ depth (m) Well level (m) Sprinkler design specifications Main line (m) Lateral line (m) Sprinkler head (number) Nozzle size (mm) Pressure (kg/cm 2 ) Discharge (lpm) Spacking (m) Diameter of spray (m) Water application rate (mm/hr) Electric motor (HP) Sprinkler irrigation One watering (mm) Time period per watering (hr) Time period per hectare irrigation (hr),irrigation interval (days) Type of land under sprinklers Size of irrigation command (ba) Crop 'grown with sprinklers Kharif Rabi Sensitive crops for sprinklers Districts of Mahendragarh, Bhiwani, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hissar Dug cum bored/shallow tubewells (75 mm) ~ 10 Monoblock/two and Sandy loam/sandy undulated or plain land in arid tracts 4-45 Bajra, Jowar, Moong, Moth, Guar, Groundnut Wheat, Barley, Sarson, Gram, Carrot, Berseem, Methi, Toria Gram, Sarson, Tobacco, Mirch, Gobi Districts of Bhiwani, Hissar and Sirsa Canal/tank 1"': (125 mm) (75 mm) Monoblock /30 Sandy loam/sandy mostly undulated in arid tracts of Jui, Sewani & Bhakra Canals Bajra, Jowar, Cotton. Wheat, Barley, Gram. Not much choice. HARYANA FARMING

53 Description TABLE 2 Estimated comparative cost of sprinklers with size of irrigation command Command area (ba) Cost of sprinkler Main line 200 mx75 mm 270 mx75 mm 400 mx75 mm 1100 mx 125 mm RS Rs Rs Rs Lateral line (2 sets) 110 mxso mm 170 mxso mm 220mXSOmm 340 mx7s mm Rs.5760 Rs.8960 Rs Rs Pump unit 2.S HP 3HP S HP 12.5 HP Rs. 2S00 Rs.3000 Rs.4000 Rs.6000 Pump house Rs.1000 Rs.4000 Rs.4000 Rs.SOOO Total cost Rs Rs Rs Rs Cost per hectare (Rs.) 100% intensity % intensity Annual expenses Electric charges 100% intensity % intensity % % Labour aod maintenance Operational cost (one hectare) At 100% intensity At 200% intensity Source of water at uncertain location in the command area. Energy crisis is a big problem today and we should try to make use of ways and means by which the energy consumption can be reduced and cut. In the home the women can play an important role in saving fuel by keeping simple points in mind. The amount of fuel saving can be upto 40 per cent and the same fuel can last longer. Whenever cooking operation is being conducted get organised by keeping all the things required like vegetables, pulses, water, spices, utensils etc. within easy reach so that the flame is not kept burning unnecessarily. If you are going to use a stove check if there is enough Imrosene and the wicks are at proper and equal height. Once the vegetable or the pulse etc. is being cooked cook with a lid and reduce the flame once the boiling starts, as increased flame does not reduce cooking time. The amount of flame required MARCH,1981 SAVING COOKING FUEL should be enough for boiling. This way you can save uptro 30 per cent of the fuel. The water quantlty should be just kept enough for cooking as surplus water consumes extra fuel and renders food less tasty and less nutritious. If the dais and pulses like the whole dais and grams which consume more cooking time are soaked in water overnight and cooked in the same water the next day a'lot of fuel can be saved again. Choose the correct vessels for cooking if less food is cooked in bigger vessel it consumes more fuel. By using a pressui1, cooker the cooking time, fuel can be saved upto 40 per cent compared to ordinary cooking vessels, as food is cooked in steam under pressure and is cooked within minutes. Plan your meals in a mannerr that food can be served hot without reheatrng. By following these simple rules a lot of fuel can be saved. - Mrs. Indu Grover College of Home Science, HAU, Hissar 5

54 Housewives Combat Stored Grain Insect Pests-l -Gulab Singh, Kamla Singh and Zile Singh Baryana Agricultural University, Bissar the body. It has long hairy bristles. The intersegmental are'a and the ventral body surface are pale yellow. The adults are 2-3 rom long dark brown beetles with clubbed antenna. Their boody is covered with fine hairs. Maximum damag~ by this insect is caused in summe'r months (July to October). They eat grains near the embryo or at any other weak point. They usually confine themselves to the upper 50 em laye'r of grains in a heap or to the periphery in a sack of grains. In several cases they may reduce the grains to mere frass. It has been estimated that only 30 per cent of the total fogd grains after harvest in India, reaches the market and rest remains in the producers store. This bulk, with the prdducer, is damaged to the greatest extent by sto'red grain insect pests apart from the damage caused by rats, mites, ants, fungi, and high moisture etc. These grains propogate different pests upto several generations and serve as the main source of further infestation. It is estimated that the losses at this stage are 7 per cent 0' to'tal production and worth about 5320 million rupees. Apart from this, these pests cause unhygenic conditions by leaving their excreta, hairs and dead bddy parts etc. in the grains and make them unfit for human consumptidn. Housewives, who are equally responsible for the safe storage of grains, have the greatest role to play in this field. MDreover, they are supposed to keep every thing in the ho'use safe and intact. TO' achieve this goal, the housewives mus,t be made familiar with atleast the serious stored grain inse'ct pests and their control measures. This series of articles is, therefore started to provide some knowledg,e to' the housewives to reduce the losses of stored grains and unhygenic conditidns, caused by stored grain insect pests, rats and househdld pests other than rats. 1. KHAPRA BEETLE (Trogoderma granarium Everts) It is a very destructive pest of wheat and other fodd grains, i.e. soorghum,.barley, gram, maize, pulses and dry fruits. The' larva of this p'est causes much daii):age particularly in the northern regions of our ~untry. Newly hatched larva is about 1.5 rom long. white in oolour, and have brnwnish head. When full grown, it increases to 4 mm in length and attains brownish body cdlour with yellow transverse bands across Khapra Beetle ( Trogoderma granarium Everts) A. Adult, B. Larva 2. R,ICE WEEVIL (Sitophilus oryzae L..narius L.) and S. gra, It is the commonest and most destructive pee'lt of stored grains in our state. It feeds upon rice, wheat,' maize and other grains. Both the adults and grubs cause damage. Larva, when full grown, attains the length Oof about 5 mm. At this stage, it is a pulpy, fleshy, legless and white creature with yellow brown 6 HARYANA FARMING

55 head.' The adults are 3 mm long. They are small, cylindrical, reddish brown weevils with a long slendrical curved rostrum. Their elytra bears 4 light reddish or yellowish spots and their thorax is fitted with round depressions. This insect does maximum damage during monsoon months. I~ has the habit of destroying more than they eat. I on intact grains therefore, feeds on flour flour, products, and damaged grains. They like to!ive in dark places. With severe infestation, the flour turns greyish and mouldy with pungent smell and, therefore, becomes unfit for human consumption. 8 Rice Weevil ( Sitophilus oryzae L.) A. Adult, B. Larva 3. RUST RED FLOUR BEETLE (Tribolium castanium Herbst and T~ confusum (DUV) This insect is a serious pest of wheat flour but also feeds on pulses, dry fruits and prepared cereals, i.e. cornflakes. L,arva as well as adult cause damage. The newly hatched larva after full growth in<:reases to 6 mm in length. The matured larva is reddish yellow in colour and bears hairs on its body. Its head, appendages, and last segments are darker. The adults are 3.5 mm long and reddish brown beetles. The antennae are bent an~ bear club formed by 3 terminal joints. Maximum damage by this insect is caused during hot and humid monsoon season. It cannot feed MARCH, 1981 t Rust Red Flour Beetle ( Tribolium castanium Herbst) A. Adult, B. Larva 4~~ ;I_i4.., 4. LESSER GRAIN BORER (Rhizopertha dominica F.) It is a very common pest of wheat and other grains i.e. rice, maize, sorghum, lentil, barley, biscuits, dried potatoes, cornflakes, beans, pumpkin seeds and millets etc. The larva as wen as adult cause damage to the above crops. The full grown larva is about 3 mm long:, dirty whit~ with light brown head and has oonstricted elongated body. Adult is also about 3 rom long and 1 mm wide. The adults are dark brown or black with a deflexed 'helad covered with a cronulated hood shaped pronotum. Antennae are 10 segmented and terminate in a prominent tripartite club (first 2 segments are triangular and the apical is oval). Both the adults and grubs cause serious damage to the grains by feeding inside them. The infested grains are reduced to mere shells and have many irregular holes. 7

56 Adults are powerful fliers and may migrate from one godown to another causing fresh infestation. In severe cases, the adult produce a considerable amount of frass, spoiling more than what they eat. The flour so produced serves as nourislunent for the young grubs until they are ready to' bore into the grains. B black with a longitudinal white s.treak. These species cause maximum damage during April to Sept,ember. The pulses are infested to a high degree and become unfit for human consumption because of the off-flavour. Both the larval as well as adult stages cause damage. A large number of other species have been found infesting the grains in the stores, but they are not of fignificant importa.pce.. Few of them to mention h.ere are, dhora (Callosobruchus maculatus, C. phaseoli), flat grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis), long heladed flour beetle (Tenebrioides mauritanicus), tobacco beetle, (Latheticus oryzae), almondmoth (Cadra cauteila), Indian meal moth (Plodia interpuntelia), and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) etc. Lesser Grain Borer ( Rhizopertha dominica F. ) A. Adult, B. Larva 5. GRAM DHORA (Bruchus chinensis F.) Dhora is a sedous pest of gram, moong, moth, lentil, cowpeas, peas and arhar. It is also reported to feed upon chick pea, cotton seeds, sorghum and maize. The newely hatched larva is white in colour and wlth light brown head. Latelr on, it aquires a creamy colour and measures about 6-7 IIl!ll. Adults of this species are 3-4 mm long, oval,' chocolate, or reddish brown and have long serrated antannae. The important identification marks are a pair of white elongate prominces in the middle of the hind margin of the thorax) a spine on each of the inner and outer edges of the end of the hind femur, and a truncate elytra which is not covered with pygidium. Another species B. analis F. 'has got 3 white streaks on 3 sides. The eixposed pygidium is 8 Gram Dhora (bruchus chinensis F. ) A. Adult, B. Larva HARYANA FARMIW'"

57 A. Precautionary Measures CONTROL MEASURES 1. The moisture percent level of grains at the time of storage should not exceed 9, as the high moisture level (upto 14%) is very favourable for the development of different pests. 2. The transportation vehicles should not have any stage of these insect pes.ts. 3. The godowns or granneries should be fr:ee from insects (any stage i.e. egg, larva, pupa, or adult). There should not be any cracks and crevices or rough surface in the' stores. The walls may also be painted with coaltar from the ground upto the height of 4-5 fe:et. 4. Gunny bags if used for storage should be free of insects. 5. Godown walls, flour, Md ceiling should be disinfested either with malathion (0.5%), methyl parathion (0.05%), or by fumigating with aluminium phosphide (7 tablets of 3 g each), EDCT (10 It.), or EDB (1. 7 kg) per 1000 cu. ft. Godowns should remain closed at least for 7 days after fumigation: Gunny bags should also be dipped in 0.1 % malathion solution for 10 minutes before using. 6. Old grains or any debris in the stores should be removed before storing the fresh grains. 7. Recommended storage structures i.e. Pusa bin and different structures fabrioated by Hapur Grain storage institute. If possible, grains should be stored in bulk as. the insect infestation is less in this case. R Other Measures 1. The infestation of any species at the initial stages could be reduced by drying them in sun for 2-3 days. 2. In case of bulk storage, 2-3" layer of fine sand at the top may prpve very effective in controlling the entry of new insects. 3. Stored g!rains, if have heavy infestation, i.e. above the Economic thresho~d of 10 insects/kg, should be fumigated with any of the recommended fumigants i.e. 1 lit.!q., Aluminium phosphide, phostoxin, or 7 tablets of 3 g each per 1000 cu. ft., or 1. 7 kg/looo cu. ft. The fumigation should be done in an air-tight structures and only by trained personnels. RATS AND PLAGUE Different species of rats are responsible for producing several dreadful and fatal human diseases. They have caused untold suffering among human population since the time of primitive man. Rats disturb the vitality and health of hwnan-being and their livestock I)y producing about forty diseases. Plaque is the most {:.rominent disease caused by rats. In 1665 almost every person fought against the' war of plaque. It is caused by the bite of the rat fleas infected by the plaque bacte ria. Flea, a parasite of rats, serves as the carrier of plaque bacteria. Fleas are parasites of rat's blood and these bacteria are found in the bodies of rats. These pathogenic bacteria are got by the fleas While sucking the blood of host. These harmful bac- MARCH, 1981 teria get in the bodies of rats through ingestion of blood. In the bodies qf fleas these pathogenic bacteria get a congenial opportunity to multiply. When the rats die the fleas flave the bodies of hosts and transfer themselves to other hosts-human beings, cattle and other useful animals and infect them by their bite. Plevention (1) Destruct the r~ts and their harbourages. (2) Bury the dead rats deep in the soil. (3) Avoid fleas by keeping the house and locamy meticulously clean. (4) Innoculation. - S. S. CbandDa K.G.K., Bhiwani 9

58 Aphids are a menace to mans-a:ard Get rid of them effectove quickly with The deadly Aphids attack mustard within a month from sowing, The infestation lasts from December right up to February, Aphids suck the sap of the young mustard plant from the underside of leaves thus cau'sing the plant to die ultimately. Thes.e minute yellowish green insects cause curl ing of leaves downwards and gradual yell~wing As extensi..,e field teeu prove Rogor offers the only effective aad. "rofit~b(e Prot(Jcticf1 fro~ Aphids Onee the infestation is detected-or as a preventive measure when the plant is a month old -3 sprays of Rogor are recommended at " 0 to 15 days interval. Rogor should be mixed with water in the basic proportion of 1 ml Rogor: 1 litre water. Recommended dosage IS 200 to 300 ml of Rogor per acre depending upon the growlh of the plant Rogor should be sprayed all over the plant thoroughly for the most effective action 'Rogor has two-fold action: systemic and contact What's more, Rogor IS backed by continuous Rallis R&D and international know-how ~,~ Rallis India Limited rm... ~ Fertilisers & Pesticides Division l..- l 21. Raveline Street, Bombay 'l<sr'co--" 1

59 Perennial Weeds and Their Cont~ol in Haryana -So P. Singh, R. S. Balyan and V. M. Bhan Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar Besides the annual weeds, there are a number of perennial weeds which infest cropped and uncropped land in the sfate. These we,eds are not easily controlled. Most of them multiply by seeds and by vegetative means as well. Also they grow actively during dif'ferient seasons and remain dormant for the remaining period of the year. For example, Baru and Kans grow profusely during summer and kharif seasons and remain in dormant condition during the winter months. A brief account of the biology and control of the major obnoxious perennial weeds is given below: Baru (Sorghulll hale-pense) It has become a problem weed of the cultivated fields, orchards, pastures and waste lands particularly in the semi-arid and arid tracts of Northern India. It grows luxuriously during kharif season and infests most of the kharif crops. When infestation is very high, it does not allow cultivation of any other crop. Besides seeds, it reproduces by underground rhizomes which are concentrated! in the top 50 em of soil. For any successful weed control programme, it is necessary that the aerial parts and rhizomes are completely destroyed. Deep cultivation during summer season is quite helpful in desiccating the rhizomes. Rhizomes should be picked up and burnt. Wherever possible, tall and thick growing crops like jowar, bajra, sugarcane, etc. should be grown, which may compete very well with baru. Dalapon and Round up (Glyphosate) have been found quite effective for the control of this weed. Spray 1 % solution of Dalapon (80% WP) to wet the foliage and repeat the spray once or twice at an interval of 3 to 4 weeks. Round up (50% EC) at 2 to 3 litres per hectare in 500 litres of water or 0.5% solution may be sprayed on full grown Baru plants. Instead of a blanket spray, give spot treatment of the chemicals in the infested pockets. Kans (Saccharum spontaneum) Large areas in our country are badly infested with this weed, Haryana is no exception to it. It grows in dive["se type of soils of humid, semi-arid and arid regions. It multiplies rapidly by seeds and rhizomes; Cultivation of crops is most difficult in Kans infested lands. The rhizomes are mostly present in the upper one metre of SQiil. However, they may go as deep as 10 met;res. It grows profusely during rainy season. Deep ploughing during April to June will remove top growth and expose rhizomes to sunlight. Repeated ploughings will exhaust the rhizomes of their food reserves. As much as possible, the plant should be collected and burnt. Fast and thick growing crops should be taken during subsequent kharif and rabi seasons, which will not allow Kans to multiply. Dalapon (80% WP) at 8 to 12 kg/ha may be applied in 500 to 800 litres of water when the plants are actively growing. For spot treatment spray 1 % solution of dalapon. Two to three sprayings at an interval of 3 to 4 weeks may be required to ehminate the weed completely. Baisuri (Pluchea Ianceolata) It is a deep rooted perennial weed of low rainfall areas and light soils. It propagates by roots and seeds. The root system is of two types, horizontal and vertical. Vertical roots may penetrate upto 10 metres de1ep into the soil. Baisuri grows profusely during winter and summer season and with the onset of rains the aerial portions dry up. Mechanical measures are not effective to control this weed. It is sensitive tc flooding. Spray 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T (2: 1) at 4 kg/ha in 400 to 500 litres of water during the active period of growth and flowering stage of the weed in fallow lands. In crops like wheat, barley and oats spray 2,4-D ester at 0.5 kg a.i./ha as done usually to control broadleaf weeds in these crops. Doob (Cynodon dactylon) It mostly multiplies by creeping stolons and underground rhizomes. The root system is confined to MARCH,

60 15-25 cm of soil. During summer months plough up the field to expose the propagating parts for sun drying. Small patches may be dug up with spade or Kasola. Use of dalapon with wetting agent at 5 to 10 kg per hectare in litres of water during growing season may prove helpful in controlling this weed. In case of regeneration, repeat this treatment after 20 days of first spray. Water hyacinth (Ejchhornia crassipes) It is a perennial free floating aquatic weed which grows in ponds, lakes and slow running rivers and canals. It multiplies vegetatively at an enormous rate during summer and rainy season and remains dormant during winter. Seeds are also produced at rate of a few to 5000 per plant which remain viable upto 15 years. For the control of this weed chemicals like 2,4-D, Gramaxone and Round up have been found quite effective. Spray 2,4-D amine at the rate of 2.0 to 2.5 kg a.i./ha or 2,4-D ester at 1. 0 to 1. 5 kg a.i. per hectare in 600 to 800 litres of water. This will eradicate the we~d completely within 15 days of application. Gramaxone or Round up at 1 to 2 kg a.i./ha can also be used for the control of water hyacinth. Cattail (Typha angustata) It is an emergent perennial aquatic weed which normally attains a height of 1. 0 to 1. 5 metres within 4.0 to 45 days and grows as tall as 3 meters. This is also posing a big problem particularly in low lying areas, and in irrigation and drainage canals. Due to the infestation of this weied thousands of hectares of cultivated land have been converted into waste land. It spreads and multiplies both by seeds and underground rhizomes. Wherever it grows, it does not allow other species to, flourish. If the shoots of cattail plants are cut close to the ground and the stubbles are kept submerged under water fo'r a period of 4 to 5 weeks, then complete contro~ can be achieved; Cattail can be controlled by two repeated applic<;!tions of dalapon' at an interval of 25 days at the rate of kg+30 litres diesel oil in 1000 litres of water per hectare. Two applications of R(:mnd up at the rat'e of 2.5 and 1.5 kg a.i./ha with surfactant in 600..:;800 lures of water at, 25 days interval will prove as effective as dalapon application. Addition of surfactant in the spray solution is absolutely necessary, as it helps in the retention and translocation of the herbicides. _12 Select Suitable Variety For Kharif Vegetable Crops -v~ K. Srivastava and Man Singh Moonia Directorate of Extension Education, HAU, Hissa; Are you g:oing to grow summer vegetables in this season? If it is so, please select the high yiel!ding varieties recommended for the state. You should purchase the seeds from reliable source, for being sure for the quality. The details of the varieties are given below for different crops. Tomato Pusa Ruby: Plants tal] g'rowing and sturdy. Fruits are medium sized. Average yield about 180 q/ha. US-101 : Plants dwarf, multi-branched and sturdy. Fruits round, medium sized, uniform in shape and colour. Average yield 250 q/ha. HS-I02: Plants dwarf, very early, bears fruits even at high tempe'rature. Fruits round, medium sized and ripe uniformly. This is a suitable variety for autumn and winter seasons. Average yield about 250 q/ha. HS-UO: Plants are semi-indeterminate, late in maturity, suitahle for both se'asons. fruits large, jointless, fleshy, suitable for transport. Average yield q/ha. Punjab Chuhara: Determinate, late in maturity, fruits pear shaped, suitable for transport, pericarp thick. Average yield q/ha. For one hectare of field about gram of seed would be sufficient. Brinjal BR-U2: Extremely early, plants bushy, fruits round with light purple colour, fleshy. Yield about 300 q/ha. HARYANA FARMING j

61 Pusa Purple Long: Heavy bearing variety. Fruits long, thin and purple coloured, fleshy. Yield about 300 q/ha. PH-4,: Heavy bearing variety. Fruits long, thick, ileshy, shining dark in cqlour. Average yield 230 qjha., FOor one hectare of' land, about gram of seed will provide ample seedlings. Chillies NP-46-A: Heavy yielding, medium sized fruits, av;erage yield of green chillies about 90 q/ha. Pus a Jwala: Heavy bearing, medium sized fruits. Virus disease tolerant variety. Plants dwarf with prolific bearing. Average yield of green chillies q/ha. For one hectare of land 1 kg of seed will provide sufficient seedlings. Rhindi Pus a Saw ani : Most suitable variety for planting during June-July and February-March. Average yield about 100 and 60 q/ha from rainy season and summer crops, respectively. For summer season about kg of seed is requ~red while for rainy season crop about kg of seed would be required for one hectai'e. Muskmelon Pusa Sharbati: Early, ripes within days of sowing. Fruit mediu1j1, TSS 8-10 per cent, fruit skin pink coloured. Yields 65 q/ha. Rara Madhu: Late type, big sized fruit. A~erage fruit weight about 1 kg, very swe,et, flesh thick, green and juicy. Average yield about 125 q/ha. Punjab Sune.hri : This variety has been developed by the Punjab Agricultural University. The fruits are of medium size, fle.sh colour is orange, juicy and fruit sweet. It is medium late in maturity. For one hectare about 2.5 kg of seed is sufficient. MARCH, 1981 Waterme.lon Charleston Grey: Large fruited, flesh red and thick, small number of seeds. Average yield about 250 q/ha. Sugar Baby: Small to medium sized fruit, flesh dark red, larger number ()f seeds. Average yield about 150 q/ha. For one hectare of land about 4-5 kg of seed would be required. Sweet Potato Pusa Lal : Red skin with whitish flesh inside, tuber medium sized and thick in the centre. with good keeping quality.. I Pusa Safed : Whitish, medium in size, and heavy yielder tubers. For sweet potato crop the cuttings of the stem of the plants are used. About 60,000 to 70,000 cuttings are required for one hectare planting. For this purpose about qtls. tubers are SOwn in nursery for raising the stems to be used as cuttings. Bottle-Gourd Pus a Summer Prolific Long: This variety has long g!een fruits :which are high yielding. It is suitable for summer and rainy seasons. During summer the average yield is 125 qu. whereas during rainy season average yield is about 200 q/ha. Pus a Summer Prolific Round: This variety has round fruits which are green in colour and high yielding. This variety can be used during both the seasons, Le., summer and rainy seasons. The average yield during summer is 125 q/ha and during rainy season about 200 q/ha. ( For one hect.are of land about 4-5 kg of seed is sufficient. Bitter-Gourd Coimbatore Long: It is a high yielding variety and the fruits of this variety are long and white at 13

62 different stages. This variety is suitable for rainy and summer seasons: The average yield during summer is qtl. and about 100 qtl. during rainy season per hectare. Pusa Domausami: This variety is suitable for both seasons. It has got green at different stages and is prolific bearing. The average yield during surruner is qtl. and during rainy season about 100 qtl. per hectare. average yield of about q/ha depending on' the season. Bikaneri Green; It is a good yielding variety with It green tender fruits giving an average q/ha yield. For sowing one hectare of land 5 kg seed is n~quired. Cowpeas For sowing of one hectare area 5 kg of seed is needed. Luff-Gourd Pusa-Chikani: This variety has got the capacity of he1avy bearing. The fruits are deep green in colour and smooth. This gives an average yield of about q/ha. Pusa Nasdar ; The fruits of this variety have got ridges, light green in colour. The average yield of this variety is about q/ha. Tinda- About 5 kg of seed per hectare is sufficient. Bissar Selection-I: The fruits of this variety are of light green colour and good yielder. They give Pusa Barsati; Suitable for rainy season, pods b.i~, whitish green in colour. Crop matures in rd~j", Average pod yield 45 q/ha. Pusa Do-Phasali: Suitable for both summer 'and rainy season plantings. Pods greenish, tender and thick. Average yield q/ha. For one hectare of land about kg of seed is required. Cluster Bean Pusa Nav-Bahar: Suitable for spring and rainy seasons. Pods greenish and tender. Spring and ratiny season crops start fruiting in 45 and 55 days time, respectively. Average yield about 50 and 70 q/ha from spring season and rainy season crops, respectively. For one hectar~ of land about 15 kg of seed IS required. SAVE SUGARCANE FROM TERMITE AND SHOOT BORER Sugarcane is one of the important crops of Harya na. The average cane yielld per hectare is vehy loy as compared to the Southern States. One of the reas ons for low yield is the damage by insect pests. Itlils attacked by many insects from the time of germinatio n till the harvest of the crop. In th~ early stages th~ aamage is caused by termites and the shoot borer (K ANSUA). This is the high time for their control,~ls this is the sowing time for this crop. I Damage: The damage is during February to June. At the germination stage many buds are destroyed b3,; termites and th~ infested young plants may dry up completely. Plants attacked by the shoot borer show. characteristic dead hearts.. CONTROL: Mix 6.25 litres gamma BHC 20 EC or heptachlor 20 EC in 2500 to 3500 litres of water per ha and apply in furrows over cane setts' with a sprinkling dm. Furrows should be covered immediately 'after treatment. 'In case of ratoon crop rake into the soil 10% BHC kg/ha and irrigate the field, -Balbir Singh Chhillar Ext. Specialist (Entomology) HAU, Hissar 14 HARYANA FARMING

63 Guidelines for the Establishment of Small Sheep I Unit,in Rural Areas ( - Balbir Singh and A. K. Batabyal Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar When scarcity condition develops, protein is supplemented through concentrate at the rate of 200 gms per pregnant ewe and 500 gms per male during mating season having 16% DCP and 75% TDN. 1 Disease control Routine vaccination of sheep against enterotoxaemia and sheep pox is to be carried out to prervent any outbreak in the flock. To ensure good growth of the animals deworming has to be undertaken in every three months with' onthelmentic. Protection from ectoparasite is possible by givingl medicinal dip (0-2% BHC) after a week of shearing. Screening for TB, JD and brucellosis should also be done once in a year. Sheep raising rn,' Haryana State particular ly in Bissar, Sirsa, Bhiwani and Mahendragarh districts has an important role in the economy of landless and downtrodden people. Sheep can thrive on draught prone areas. Sheep owners, being uneducated and mostly ~landless, lack resources for scientific rearing of this small sized flock. The following guidelines will er: sure better returns from small livestock holdings for 'such persons. I'.Management Housing: Sheep are very much susceptible to heat..so they must be protected from heat by a bad conductor material in the roof. In rural areas, sheep are. :reared in thatched houses. The beltter way, if possii'hle, to keep the animals under asbestus roofing with ibrickwalls. The space required per animal is 10 sq ft. A shed 10 ft. long x 20 ft. wide x 8 ft. high can accomod ate 20 sheep. The males should be kept away from females. The space needed per male is 15 sq. ft. The house should be built on raised platform and parti,cularly on high level. Feeding: Feeding plays an important role in maintaining healthy flock. In India, sheep live on grn.zing wild grasses, herds and agricultural waste products. Sheep requires one or two kg of leguminous hay per day depending upon age and body weight. Availability of sheep for breeding The purebred Nali sheep can be had from Sirsa and Hissar districts. The exotic animals, if required, are available from Indo-Australian Sheep Breeding Farm, Hissar and CSWRI, Avikanagar (Rajasthan). The crossbred animals of Russian Merino and Corriedale may be had from the Haryana Agricultural University, Bissar etc. Breeding behaviour Sheep are good converter of agricultural waste and poor quality feed into meat and wool. So, they will continue to be of gr:eat utility for the human society. The local sheep, Nali produce one lamb weighing approximately 20 kg at market age (7-8 month) and will yield 2 kg wool per year. The sheep are seasonal breeders. The mating is usually done in these areas during summer (March-April) and autumn (Sept-Oct.) seasons. The shearing is usually carried out twice a year before mating. The ewes are poly oestrous. The oestrous cycle is repeated at an interval of about 17 days. Onset of heat is characterised by a reddening and swelling of the valva and on olfactory attraction of the ram. The duration of heat is about homs and ovulation takes place towards the end. The mating should be done <;luring this period. The length of gestation has considerable individual variation ( days) but the average is 150 days. MARCH,

64 Economics to maintain 20 sheep unit The economics of maintaining one ram and 20 ewes unit is given below: "_.,_ Investment Economics of one sbeep unit consisting of one Ram and 20 ewes 1. Cost of / animal 2. Cost of one Rs. 150/- 3. Cost of thatched shelter 4. Cost of equipment Expenditure Total Investment: 1. Interest on 10% 2. Depreciation on the cost of 10% 3. Depreciation on the cost of Ram 20% 4. Depreciation on' 20% 5. Expenditure on medicine 6. Grazing of sheep in pastures of forest deptt. 7. In the absence of pasture supplemental feeding with gram Bhoosa Total Expenditure: 2500/- 150/- 500/- 300/- 3450/- 345/- 250/- 30/- 100/- 200/- 200/- 200/- 1310/- Income 1. Income from wool of kg 120/- per Rs /kg 2. Income from mutton of 6 male 396/- 6 Rs /kg 3. Income from wool of adult 940/- 2 Rs /kg 4. Income from culling of 6 adult ewes which 600/- has been replaced by young female sheep produced in the Rs. IOO.OO/each S. Manure 150/- 6. OffaIs, heads, skin of 6 ItOO/animal 48/- 16 Total Income: /- 7. Net profit at the end of year 844/- Note: Profit in a year is under the conditions when facility is 75% and mortality less than 10%. The flock will be maintained by the family himself and utilizing the fallow land of village and pasture of forest department. Gobar Gas Plant Ushers in a New Era, in Rural Life J I -So C. Aggarwal and T. R. Sharma Haryana Agricultural Univers_~ty,,Hissar Since 80 per cent of the population in India lives in villages and Indian economy, therefore, is based on agriculture and animal husbandy. Much attention has been given to improve Indian agriculture and success has been achieved to a large extent by constru~ting dams, providing improved, varieties Df seeds, use of fertilizers etc. Our annual import of nitrogen and phdsphatic elemelrlt' of f~rtilizer is 7.5 lakh and 23 lakh tonnes, respectively. India can become seh sufficient in these two fertilizer elements and thus can save a huge amount of foreign exchange if our farmers realise the IDSS they are bringing by burning the cattle dung as dung cakes. Although cattle dung has been used by the farmers as manure from times immemorial but due to non-availability of alternative fuel for the kitchen, Indian farmer is t,empted to' use cattle dung as source of fuel, probably due to lack of understanding the importance of growing firewood trees for this purpose. Thus, cattle dung is recdgnised more as fuel than manure by Indian farmers, with the result abdut one third to half of the cattle dung is burpt every year. Cattle dung was used either as kitchen fuel or as manure through compo sting but not for' two p1u'poses stmultaneously. IARI in the year 1939 worked out a simplest design of gobar gas plant in which {the two aspects of providing kitchen fuel and manure.drom the cattle dung could be reconciled. The latest' technology Df fermenting the dung under anerrobic condition to pmduce methane gas, has' provided ideal fuel for kitchen and fermented slurry as manure for the cultivated fields without any loss to its manurial value. Further improvement and modifications in the design of gobar gas plants were undertaken by many agencies. HARYANA FARMING

65 The Khadi and Village Industries Conunission being pioneer is providing free technical help. Installation of gobar gas plant, however, requires an initial capital investment, whi,ch may be well beyond the reach of an ordinary farmer. Recently with the increase in the Pl)'1ces of neptha and phosphatic fertilizers, the State Gbvernments and Central Government have included in their annual plans the work of installation of gobar plants. To popularisfr the GQbar Gas plants Govt. has provid d subsidy, with the result" their installations han"e become easy and within the reach of an ordinary.farmer. Since gobar gas plants require organic material such as cattle dung and farm waste so it should be confirmed that sufficient dung is available daily, only then the gas plants should be installed. Secondly, a technically developed design should be adopted while installing a gobar gas plant. Various agencies engaged are, The Rama' Krishana Mission, The Khadi and Village Industries Commission, The Planning Research and Action Institute, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Agricultural Universiti~s, National Committee on Science and Technology, ICAR, and The Gobar Gas Research Centre etc. Cheap and lasting design of the' gas plant which is suitable under varying agro-climatic conditions can be obtained from any of the above mentioned sources. A conventional type of gobar gas plant consists of: (i) Mixing Tank, (ii) Digester, (iii) Gas Holder, (lv) Spent Slurry Tank and (v) Gas Carrier Pipe including kitchen applianc~s. Mixing Tank: It is a small tank, generally 2' x 3' X 2' in breadth, length and height, built with brick and cement mortar on slightly raised platform. This tank is connected to the digester with a pipe which runs up to the bottom of the digester. Digester: Generally it is a sort of a well of masonary work, dug and built below the ground level. The depth of t~e well varies from 12' to 20' depending upon the quantity of material to be fed in. This well has a ~artition wall in the middle dividing it into two semi ~lrcular compartments. The well is so designed that It can hold the material for about 50 days before going out of the plant as a slurry: Initially the digester is to be fined up with cattle dung slurry. MARCH, 1981 Gas Holder: It is a drum constructed of mild steel sheet. It rests inverted on the top of the digester with its open ends dipping in the slurry. This drum collects the gas which bubbles out from the slurry in the digester. As the gas is colleoted in the gas holder, it rises. The gas is taken to the kitchen with the help of flexible pipe fitted to the gas holder. The chinese type gas plant differs from the conventional plant by having an under,g:round dome made of cement and bri~ks. It is enamel painted from inside with a sloping masonary inlet and a rectangular plastered outlet. Spent Slurry Tank: The slurry fed into the digester through the mixing tank reaches the bottom of the digester where it pushes up the previous days slurry upwards and equal quantity comes out from the outlet pipe l This should be carried away at some distame into a storage and drying pit. Gas Carrier Pipe and Kitchen Appliances: The gas stored in the gas holder is carried to' the kitchen through pipes. It may be rubber pipe, plastic pipe' or steel pipe, it is connected to gas hold f on one side and to the burner in the kitchen on the other side. The life of the plant is 10 years approximately depending upon the quality of material used. As already stated that the gas plant gives gas as a source of the fuel and di~sted slurry as a source of organic manure. The organic manure obtained from these plants ar,e rioh in plant nutrients in comparison to organic manure obtained from other sources.. Table below shows the comparative nutrient composition of organic manure obtained from different sources. Source Farm yard manure Town compost Biogas manure Per cent Nutrient Composition P,.o6 N to KIO In addition, the gobar gas plant provides secondary ben 'fi.ts such as it helps to solve the problem of environmental pollution, indiscriminate falling of trees. The rural kikhens are wen known for the. spread of the smoke which in turn causes diseases of' the eyes and lungs in the rural areas. The gas produced from the gobar gas plant is free from smoke and is claimed to be safest 'fuel for the rural kitchen. 17

66 ENSURE A WEED-FR~EE WHEAT CROP WITH Dosand BOIP. :.- a powerfur selective weedicide that gives complete protection against PHALARIS M!NOR, WILD OATS, ( CHENOPODIUM and other broad-leaved weeds. Fo, Funher details, write to:. Atgochemicaf O;v;s;o. SANDOZ {INOIAI LTD SANDOZ HOUSE 0,. Annie Bssanr Road. Worn BOMBAY 400 OlB '---'" " 18 HARYANA FARMING

67 Proper Care and Handling of Vegetables at Home -Mrs.lndu Grover College of Home Science, HAU, Hissar Crop Weather Prospects -0. P. Bisbnoi and S. K. Katya1 Deptt. of Agronomy, HAU, Hissar On examining the past data and the current weather features it is clear that weather will, r:main ~ry Vegetables are a item of use in every ~ousehold. upto NOViember. The lemperature~ hu1mdit~, wmd The problem in their use is that they are highly p~n- and evapocation will be normal dunng the rabl season. shable and have a short,pqst harvest storage hfe. ~ There is likely occurrence of rainfall of the order of 20 Their life can be increased and ~he foo~ values preser- to 300 mms in February-March, 1981 period. Frost ved by proper care and handl~ng. ThIS proceaur~, as occurrence having spells of 2 to 3 days will occur folwell as the me-thod of cooking lnfluence~ the nutntive I 'lowing the' days when the sky is highly variable and value, palatability and colour of the fimshed. ~rodud. there is sudden decrease of minimum temperature and The moist vegetables suoh as ~eas~ carrots, cauhflo~er, Wi.ll be reported with day to' day observations. Then radish etc. should be kept moist m a da~p cloth ~n a. minimum temperature of 1 to 30C will prevail during cool, dry place while the dry veget~bles like the omons I January and during the rainy spells in March, and the potatoes should be storied In dry open baskets The maximum temperature of the arder of 20 c C WIll af tins. So~t out the v.etgetable~ ~d use first the 0~1 'S prevail in January and first fartnight af Febru~r~, and which have cracked skins, are m~ured or are rottmg from some part. To increase the hfe of vegetables p~el there will be increase of temperature upto 28/30 C by end of the February. The temperature conditions will them and place in perforated polythene bags havmg I be highly variable in March 1981 between 24 to 350C. ~ew holes. Such vegetables stay for a long t~me, as ( The protection of crops from short spells of -adverse the respiratian rate is incrl lased and the transpiration I weather conditions in the lat'rer phases will be highly rate is loweted. I' desirable specially in the districts, Sirsa,., Hissar, Before coaking, the vegetables must be prepared Bhiwani, Mahindergarh, part of Rohtak and Gurgaon. well with care. They must be washed well before cooking. During peeling process, peel as little as possible or adopt to scraping as a large amaunt af vitamins and minerals just lie benelath the vegetable skin and go' waste in peels. As far as possible cook vegetables with their skins, where possible. During the eu tting process cut the vegetables in large pieces as cooking losses are reduced as less cut area is exposed to air and boiling water. As far as passible do not wash out vegetables but make a practice to' peel, wash and cut vegetables. Do not soak cut vegetables in water as the water soluble minerals and vitamins get dissolved in water and the same is lost if the water is thrown away. While cooking vegetables, reduce the flame once the boiling pro' cess begins as low flame is enough to' keep the food boiling and the cooking time remains unchanged whether at this stage the flame is more or less. Always cover the vegetables with a lid while cooking as it takes. less time and the nutrients are also preserved Which would atherwise espace with the steam. A vaid the Use of cooking soda as it destroys some of the nutrients. Cook vegetables when they are required to be served and avaid reheating as it destroys nutrients. Contd. on 3rd Cover) MARCH,1981 The farmers are advised to take up timely field aperatians in view of the abave mentioned prevailing weather during the current season. The protection of crops from frost and law temperature may be dane by irrigatian or by burning fuel around fields an the day I)f appearance af bright Sun after a couple of cloudy days. The intensity of frost will depend an the brightne~s of the day light. There are good passibilities for the development of Aphids and pawdery mildew in Rabi crops. N ecessary steps should be taken as per the recommendations of the HAU. There are chances of few light shawers in January and February and this rain should be efficiently utilized, in the standing' crops. The maturity/drying of the crops will suddenly shoot up by the end of March and will affect the harvesting of crops. Due to the law temperature trend February-March as compared with the normal feature the planting of sugarcane will be delayed by 15 to 20 days. 19

68 Care of Vegetable Crops During March -v. K. Srivastava, M. P. Srivastava and S. D. Chaudhury Directorate of Extension Education. HAU, Hissar TOMATO The spring.crop of tomato would have been transplanted during the last month. This crop will need regular irrigation and hoeing and weeding. Irrigate the crop at an interval of about 8-10 days time. The dead seedlings may be replaced. After three wieeks of transplanting, top dress the crop with 35 kg of nitrogen (140 kig Kisan Khad) for one hectare of land. After application of nitrogenous fertilizer, do not forget to irrigate the crop. For the control of virus disease and fungal dise'ase the crop may be sprayed regularly with one litre Malathion 50 EC and 2 kg Dithi:me M-45 in one hectare of land at an interval of about three weeks. You may need about 625 litres of water for the spray of these insecticides and fungicides. The virus infected plants should be remoy:ed from the field. This spray will take care of other harmful insects like Hadda Be,etle, Jassid, and White fly. If required, these sprays may be done at an interval of ten days. If the seedlings for summer crop have not been transplanted during the previous month it can be done now after proper preparation Gf the field as described durmg the last month. BRINJAL The crop transplanted during February will need r-egular 'irrigation and hoeing and weeding. The dead seedlings may be replaced by fresh ones. After three weeks of transplanting, the crop should be top dressed with 35 mg of nitrogen (140 kg Kisan Khad) on one hectare of land. After application of nitrogenous fertilizer, irrigation is very important. For the control of vir!!l infection, it would be desirable that the crop is sprayed from the initial stage.. If the crop of previous season, has been kllled by frost the plants may be pruned (the damaged shoots). aqd by giving proper irrigatlon and manuring early crop by this method can be taken. CHILLIES The crop transplanted during the last month may be top dressed with 20 kg nitrogen (80 kg Kisan Khad) per hectare of land after 3-4 weeks of transplanting followed by irrigation. Regular hoeing, weeding and irrigation of the crop would be needed. The crop of chillies are usually infected by virus disease and i! would be desirable that 625 ml of Malathion in 625 litres of water be sprayed regularly to kill the vectors who are responsible for spread of this ~iisease. POTATO If spring crop of potato has been planted it should be properly cared. During this season crop is. se~erelyinfested by insect pests and diseases and the yi'eld is also low. Before digging the crop, use of insecticides and fungicides should be stopped at least two weeks befoire this. The crop may be harvested at proper ~tage, cured, cut and diseased tube'i's should be discarded and then after proper curing may be sent to cold storage or to market for sale. PEA If the pods are available in,the field they tnay be> I picked up. Irrigations may be required depending on I' the conditions of the Crop. After harvesting, the field may be ploughed and may be' used for planting ather crops. CAULIFLOWER, CABBAGE AND KNOLKHOL The crops may be- regularly irrigated and matured heads may be harvested and sent to market for sale. During this month these crops are usually harvested as rise in temperature causes deterioration in quality of these crops. ONIQN AND GARLIC These crops may need regular irrigatqon, and some' limes weedings. The exposed bulbs may be earthed up. For the control of disease and insects the recommerndations of the last month may be followed. RADISH During this month seeding of the radish variety Pusa Chetki may be done. You may try it on a small piece of land. It would he desirable that the se.edtng is done on small ridges which are prepared at a distance of about 30 ems. I PALAK The crop in the field may be harvested and sent to market for sale in proper bundles. Regular irrigation is desirable. If the crop for su!i)mer season has not been planted it can be done now. For one hectare of land, about 20 kg of seed would be required. Use high yielding varieties like Jobner Green, All-greern or 20 HARYANA FARMING

69 HS-23. The seeding may be done in prepared field in lines at a distance of about ems. BHINDI Bhindi can be sown during this month also. The field should be prepared as detailed during the last month. Use Pusa Sawani variety. It should be sown in lines about 30 em apart and. keep the distatlce between pla~ts ~g o.f seed.; It ~ould be desirable that for good germmatlon, the seeas are soaked in clean water for over night before, seeding. For the control of root rot, the seeds may be treated with Bra~sicol at the rate of 2.5 gm for 'every kg of seed. The crop sown during February will need regular irrigation, hoeing and weeding and top dressing of the crop with 35 kg of nitrogen (140 kg Kisan Khad) p,2r hectare of land after about a month of seedillg. Irr1- gation after application of nitroglenous fertilize,r is important. H would be desu'able to use insecticides for the control of jassids, cotton boll worm and white fly. For the integrated control of these pests apply ten sprays of the following insecticides at 15 days interval. The doses are on hectare basis. For first and third spray use 1, 1:25 kg DDIl' (WP) in 500 and 625 litres of water respectively: For 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th spray use 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, Malathion 50 EC in 500, 625, 750, 875 and 1000 litres of water J:'espectively. For 5th, 7th, and 9th spray use 750, 875, 1000, Carbaryl 50 WP (Sevin/Hexavin/Carbavin) in 750, 850 and 1000 litres of water, respectively. Do not use DDT when plants start fruiting. All fruits should be picked before spraying. WATERMELON AND MUSKMELON These crops should be regularly irrigated and kept free from weeds. After about a month oj seeding th.ey may be top dressed with 70 kg Kisan Khad (17 kg NItrogen) per hectare of land followed by irrigation. The crop should be protected against Red }lumpkin b.eetle just after the germination of the crop by dushng with 6 kg of 10% Sevin dust after mixing in 20 kg of Ash or fine soil in one hectare of land. Spray of 250 g carbaryl 50 WP in 250 litres of water is still m?re effective. For the co:1trol of aphids, ja.';sids and ~ltes the crop may be sprayed with 625 ml malathion ;)0 EC in 625 litres of wa!elr at an interval of about 10 days. OTHER CUCURBITS. The seeding of other cucurbits can be done during this month also. The la,nd preparation, planting dis-. tance and varieties etc. have already been described durmg the last month. The crop sown during February should be properliy irrigated and kept free from weeds. Top dress crop with 79 kg of Kisan Khad (17 kg Nitrogen) in every hectare of field followed by irrigation. For the control of insects the insecticides indicated with water melon and muskmelon should be used for these crops also. For the control of powdery mildew the crops may be sprayed with 2 kg of wettable sulphur. CALOCASIA Calocasia can be seeded during this month. For the preparation of land apply tonnes of well rotted FYM of Compost. Before seeding apply 40 k.g Nitrogen (160 kg Kisan Khad), 50 kg Potash 85 kg Phosphorus (300 kg Single Super Phosphate) and 50 kg Potash (85 kg Muriate of Potash) in one hectare of land. Seeding may be done in lines at a distance of about em and keep the distance in between the plants at 30 cm. For one hectare of land, about 800 and 1000 kg of rhizomes would be required for seeding in one hectare of field. If the seeding has been done during February the proper care of the crop like irrigation weeding etc. may be required. OTHER VEGETABLES Guar can be seeded during this month also. Lobia C2n also be seeded. If sweet potatoes are to be grown the tubers should be sown in nursery fer getting the stamped guidance. Other vegetables may need proper care depending on the crop. (From page 19) Do not keep the vegetables on slow fire for long periods of time as this results in loss of nutrients, and may result in mashing or breaking. Never overcook v,2geiables. It is a good practice to consume raw vegetables as carrots, cucumber, radish in the form of salad to get maximum nutritipn. The point here to remember is that th.e vegetables for salad should be cut just before serving, because if cut early it may result in loss of nutrients and the salad will not look fresh on being served. Make a practice of using fresh vegetables as dropy vegetables may loose some important nutrients and do not have a good taste. Lemons and other citrus fruit should be cut and served immediately.

70 HAU Welcomes the farmers at its Yearly Feature.... HARY ANA KISAN MELA being organised on 17, 18 and 19 March, 1981 at Haryana Agricultural University Farm Balasmand Road, Near HAU Farm Gate, Hissar SALIENT FEATURES * Guided visits to university farm, by vehicles. to see bumper standing Rabi crops like Wheat, Barley, Gram, Rapeseed and Mustard, Lentil Berseem, Sugarcane, etc. raised. with the latest scientific t~chniques by the I, university scientists. * Visiting farmers will be exhorted to the latest methods of sowing, hoeing, seed t"eatm~nt. soil reclamation, judicious use of water and fertilizers, plant protection measures, proper handling of farm machinery and implements etc. of different K barif crops. * Farmers will be apprised of the techniques of inter-cropping. conserving soil moisture, dryland farming etc. * Most attractive feature-agro-industiual EXHIBITION-in which farm machinery and implements, insecticide-pesticides, and other farm use material will be displayed by the Agri-businessmen, dealers, manufacturers, etc. * Priced and free agriculture literature, both in Hindi and English. * Seed sale of different Kharif crops. * Free soil and water testing service. Please bring samples with you. * Home-scale fruit and vegetable preservation. * Buzz-Session on an the three days from 2.00p.m. onwards, in which the farmers can get solutions of their field prob~ems from the scientists. * Free lodging for night stay in the }asan Ashram. Farmers can stay in Farmers' Hostel also by paying nominal charges of Rs. 3/- per night. Farmers are requested to reach the reception booth at the Farm Gate at 8.00 a.m. on either days. For enquiries and informa_tion pl~ase contact or write to : Director of Extension Education Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, Hissar Farmers may contact the District Extension Specialists of their District Krishi Gyan ;Kendra for detailed information Printed and published by Dr. R. M. Sharma, Director of Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhri, Press Manager, at the HAU Press, on March 2, 1981.

71 60 Paise APRIL 1981

72 HARYANA FARMING Volume X April 1981 No.4 Contents Pages 1. High yielding green fodder crops for dry farming areas of Haryana State 2. Method of producing wheat and barley quality seeds 3. Arhar-its cost and returns analysis 4. Diseases that affect desi cotton S. Herbicides and their safe use 6. Housewives combat house rats-ii 7. Tips to growing tinda 8. Grow sarvoo for social forestry 9. Rabbit farming (Common diseases) 10. Clothes for your babies 11. Remove stains-save your garments -D. S. Malik and Stirlnder Singh -R. K. Rana, C. R. Bainiwal and R. R. Karwasra -So S. Guiiani, K. C. Bishnoi and H. C. Bhatia -M. P. Srivastava -Jai Parkash and V. M. Bhan -Gulab Singh, Komia Singh and Zile Singh -V. K. Srivastava -So S. Sagwal -V. P. Sharma and l. S. Yadava -Krishna Khal/1bra and Saroj Kashyap -Miss Shashi KanIa ana Mrs. Lali Yadav II Director of Publications: Dr. R. M. Sharma Director of Ext en sf on Education: Dr. J. C. Sharma Joint Director (Extn.) : Dr. A. W. Sohoni, * Editor v. S. GUpta Yearly Subscription Rs Layout! Kuljit Assisted by D. C. Yadav Photo : HAU Photo Unit Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, Hissar-J25004

73 High Yielding 'Green Fodder Crops for Dry,Farming Areas of '11 aryan a State' Depl~" -;D. S. Malik and Surinoer ~ingb oj Dry/and Research, HAU, Hissar Livestock producuion plays a very rmportant role in agncultur:al economy 01 dry tanmng areas of Raryana ::>tate. 'l'hel[, p,roper mamt '11ance could contribute upto 50 per cent lamlly mcome Dr especially small and marginal farmers. Lack of availability of green fodder IS one of the mo.:;t importano constramts lor proper mamtenance of the cattle. been obtained from the (Bajra-l-Cowpeas) fodder when the crop was fertilized with 40 kg N/ha. The cowpe'as mixture not only incre'ases the fodder 'yield, but also improves the quality of the fodder. TABLE 1 Effect of cowpeas and guara crop combination and nitrogen doses on the fodder yield of bajra when sown under dfyland condition Crop combination Bajra alone Bajra+ Cow peas Bajra+Guara Mean Fodder yield (q/ba) 'Nitrogen levels (kgjha) Control 20 kg 40 kg Mean Some palatable green fodder crops have bee'll identlfie:d which never fail even in scarcity years Df rainfall, whereas traditional dryland gram crops like oajm, mustard and gram either completely fail or give unremunerative yields. Bajra and mustard whiah oocupy more than 50 and 30 per cent area as grain crops during kharif and rabi seasoons, respeotively have been also identified as valuable green -fodder crops. Sometimes when there are good premonsoon showers during the months of May and June, farmers st.art sowing of bajra crop. lt has been observed thwt on acoount -of early sowing, the bajra crop shows good vegetative growth and comes to earing at the peak season of rainfall. In this early sown crop, harvest of green fodder after 20 to 25 days of sowing helps not only in :getting extra fdddm' (50 to 60 q/ha), but also helps in getting good.glrain yield by avoiding the earing at the peak rainy season. In t.he event of aberrant weather on a.ccount of moisture stress conditions more than 400 q/ha of bajra-j-cowpeas green fodder was obtained when the rainfall was only 166 mm during The perusal Df da.ta in Table 1 shows that even during moisture stress condition the.ertjhzer gave good response in increasing fodder yield. One 'rupee spent on fertilizer use produced the fodder yield worth Rs. 6. Further, the harvest of bajra-l-cowpeas as green fodder is more economical than keeping it for grain yield,' as the grain yiel,ds remain low in moisture stress condition. The maximum yield has APRIL, 1981 SE± 16.4 C. D. at 5% N.S. For crops For nitrogen For interaction N.S. During rabi, the chances of rainfall are low and the yield of the crop depends moore on the profile soil moisbul'e oonserved during the rainy season. Even with limited supply of moisture in soil and good green fodder crops of 8affiower and Gobhia Sarson could be raised. A good yield of fodder (4,00 -to 500 q/ha) firom the new strain of sarson (Gobhia sarson) and (100 to.125 q/ha) safflower has been obtained during this year (Tables 2 and 3). Both these crops have a good regeneration capacity and can produce the.grain after harvesting green fodder (70 to 75 days after sowing). After the harvest of gr.een fodder, during moisture stress condition (moist.ure below 150 mm/melre depth) these crops may show r,eduction in grain yield, but this reduction in grain yield has not only been compensat.ed by the high green fodder yield obtamed earlier but also gave the green fodder to cattle at the scarcity period of green fodder in arid and semi arid regions. It has been seen that Gobhia sarson comes to flowering during the first fortnight of Fehruary and a good quahty of green fodder (150 to 200 q/ha) can be obta~ned by taking 2nd cut, after 40 to 45 days of first cutting (Table 2). Considering the high yield returns of these crops, it is clear that these hardy craps have a great soope to be popularised among the farmers of arid and slemi arid regions. 1

74 TABLE 2 TABLE 3 Effect of time of'harvesting on the fodder yield of Gobhia sarson Effect of nitrogen doses on the foddet of safflower under dry land conditions when harvested after 80 days No. of days Fodder yield (q/ha) Total Fodder yield of sowing after sowing 1st cut 2nd cut (q/ha/day) after 45 days Nitrogen doses of 1st eut 75 days days days 443 No second cut C.~D. at 5% 76.2 N.S. ControT~ ~. 20 kg N/ha 40 kg N/ha Fodder yield (q/ha) C. D. at 5% 23.5 I 98 ~~/ For Bumper Harvest BUY HARY ANA SEEDS HSDC Sale Counters at : *' HISSAR YAMUNA NAGAR * * KARNAL HAlLY MANDl * * SIRSA ROHTAK * * PEHOWA BHIWANI * * GURGOAN JIND * * SONEPAT HARYANA SEEDS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LTD. S.C.O , Sector B-C, CHANDIGARH Quality seeds of PADDY WHEAT. COTTON GRAM BAJRA POTATO FODDER PULSES OIL SEEDS HARYANA SEEOS are Certified having high genetic & physical purity and germination, free from diseased.& weed seeds. HARYANA SEEDS are pre-tested & packed in sealed bags with MONEY.BACK GUARANTEE.. 2 HARYANA FARMING

75 Method of Producing W~eat and, Barley 'Quality Seeds -R. K. Rana, C. R. Bainiwal and R. R. Karwasra Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar 2. K. Son a 3. WH WH HD-2009 Dwarf, dense ears with red glumes, small and amber grains. Dwarf, thick ears with compact heads, medium sized amber grains, erect broad leaves. Dwarf, well filled ears, hard bold amber grains, dark green erect leaves. Dwarf, thin tapering ears with short awns, medium sized amber grains. Thin stem and leaves, red auricles. I Pure seed or quality seed is a most important factor in agricultural production. To have a good crop yield, a farmer needs good quality seed of a required varrety. For this, he knocks at the dio-ors of seed producing ag!encies every year. These agencies though produce thousands of tonnes of quality seleds but are still unable to meet the demands of all the farmelrs. Thus, many farmers waste their valuable time, money and energy hither and thither in search of quality seed every year. In this connection, it will be quite appr'opriate t'o tell the farmetl"s that they themselves can produce quality seed of their requirements by their own effor:ts and care. They can purify the crops standing in their fields. All crop varieties have definite chajracte~istics and differ from one another with r,espeet to these characteristics. These varietal characteristics can very well be identified at various stages of crop growth and the variety can be purified by rogueing off type plants which do not resemble the general outlook of the variety. Here citation of method of producing quality seed would be advantageous for the farmers to produce their own seed. First the farmer must know all the distinguishable characters of various cultivated wheat variet,ies which a:re given below: l. C-306 : Tall, white hairy glumes, medium bold, hard and lustrous amber grains. 6. S-308 Semidwarf, ears loosely filled with red glumes, early maturing, uniform bold amber grains. These distinguishing characteristics show that all these whelat variehes differ from one another with respeot to height, ear, grain and foliage characteristics, maturity etc. On the basis Df these characteristci.cs, farmers can purify any variety at maturity by taking oub all these plants which differ from the main bulk of the variety. The plants affected by smut and the weeds in the field should be immediately rogued out to' secure healthy produce. After t,hat harvesting and thl1esh1ng should be done separately w1th a thoroughly cleaned thresher. The seed thus obtained will be pure seed. This seed should be further graded and the bold, healthy and cleaned seed will be the quality seed which should be stored and protected from pests. This quality seeid will give rise to a pure healthy mop. Thus, farmers can produce their quality seed&, every year according to thelr requi1rements. They need not purchase quality seed at a very high C0'st every year from the seed producing agencies. These agencies also produce the quality seed in a similar manne/r as described above. Farmers can maintain quality of seed of a variety once purchased and they should only purchase the seed when they are unable to maintain the seed quality. In this way, the farmers oan produce their own quality seed of wheat and barley by following the abdve said simple method. APRIL,

76 Arhar-Its Cost and Returns Analysis -So S. Guliani, K. C. Bishnoi and H. C. Bhatia Haryana Agricultural University. Rissar Pigeon pea, commonly known as Arhar, is an impoi'tant kjharif Legume crop for semi-arid tropics and mainly grpwn as a pulse crop. In Haryana state, which has about 50 per cent unirrigated area, the importance of a deep rooted crop like arhar needs no ovisr emphasis. Its deep and penetrating ~'oot system makes lt valuable as an efficient user of solil moisture and checks the soil erosion. In the past, the pulse crops in general and arhar in particular have not received adequate attention from agricultural research workers and producers. It is only now that under the changing cropping pattern, arhar is gaining popularity in the Haryana Stat,e, where agricultural seientists and farmers are thinking in terms of having i:t as a substiltute for bajra and cotton because of its inherent plartl protection problems and uneconomic returns in these crops. Before its cultivation is taken up by the farmers, an important economic question arises about its econorric feasibility, cost of cultivation, g,ross income and net return.:;, yield poternti1al per hectare and COSlt of production pe'r quintal ek Keeping this in view, an ClJtte~npt has been made to provide useful information on tr.e abc,ve mentioned economic aspeds so as to enable the farmers to take ratioinal decisions in 2)l,o::alting their sca:r:ce resources... An apalys;,s p'as been done by taking dat1a from ~he farmers on whose fields demonstrations were laid out during the kharif 1978 by keeping half an acre as control i.e. farmers traditional practices for raising the crop and on the a 'her half the recommended palckage cf practices were adopted. For working out the cost of cultivation, the opportunity costs fcr owned inputs and 2dual prices paid 4 by tlhe farmers for purchased inputs wer,e considered. The il'r,igation, labour, machmery charges and rent,al va:lue of land have been calculated at prevailing r<lites in that locality. To work out returns; the actual prices received by the farmers Welre taken for this purpose. The detailed H:sults are discussed be,low: I Yield level per hed~re An average yield level of 8.26 q/ha was obtained, under traciliional practices as oompared to q/ha under rec;;mmended packag.e of practioes, thus giving an increase of about 40 per cent. However, there was il large variatiu.l in yield level obtained both under t'i1adijtional as well as recommended practices, the range being 5.00 to q/ha 'under tradltional practices and 7.40 to q/ha under recommended prac-, tlices. This variation in yield may be attributed to differenoe in soil type"initiai fertility status and aptitude of the farmers with which they adopted 'tjhe practices. Cost of ~ultivation per hectare The c'ost of cultivanon included cost of all the elemehits of inputs involved in the production of a crop from the time of preparatory tillage to the collection 'Of produce in tthe form olf grain and by-product. It has been found that on an average, the cost of cultivamon of arhar crop was Rs per hectare ~n case of tradit10nal praotices as compared to Rs with recommended package of praotices. Gross and net returns The gross returns per hectare in oase of traditional practices turned out to be Rs. 190G.33 as compared t<[ Rs with recommended practioes. After deducting total cost of cultivation from the gross returfs, the net returns worked out to be Rs under Jrad~tional practices whereas it was Rs under recmnmended package of practices, showing pe:r cent inc:r;ease in net returns. Additional cost and returns I,t has been found that when recommended package of practices were adopted by the farmers, they. I f -, ". HARYANA FARMING

77 spent an additional anlount of Rs. 33~. 23 per hectare for the purchase of inputs. By spending this additional amount, the farmers obtained ~an additional net re1turns of Rs per hectare, the net rate of return being Rs per rupee spent on additional investment. Cost of production per quiptal On the basis of these demonstrations, the average cost of production per quintal of arhar (wit!iout taking the value of by-product) worked out to be Rs when recomme:nded package of pracbi~s were adopted by ~he farmers whereas in case of traditional practices, it turned out to be Rs However, on individual farmers' fie~ds, cost of production varied between Rs to Rs per quintal in case of traditional practices as compared to Rs to in cas,e of lielcommended package of practices. The reasons for such large variations in the cost of production may be attributed to variations in initial soil fertility, soil type, soil moisture and yield levels obtained. The analysis showed that there is a subst'antial scoope for increasing the production and income through the adoption of recommended pa:ckage of pr,actices, like sowing seed of recommended variety such as UPAS- 120 and Prlabhat; inoculation of seed with rhizobium culture; seed treatment with Aldrin, phosphorus application based. on soil test value, weeding within 4-5 weeks after sowing, post-sowing irrigation in low rainfall years and adopting plant protection measures. Male Rats Prey to Female Rats Various methods of rodent control are in vogue these days. Important chemicals which are employed in rodent control are: Zinc phosphide, Aluminium phosphide, Barium carbonate, strichnine, Vacor, Ratex, Warfarin, Rodafarin, Ratafin, Pival and Tomorin etc. etc. Some of them are. coumarine derivatives while others are indandiones. But the rodents do not take them easily due to bait shyness. Rodent control training camp for 2 days was organised at Central Arid Zone. Research Institute, Jodhpur in the month of June, Rodont specialists are leaving no stone unturned to ov.ercome this problem of rodent control. It is the law of nature that a malo having normal characters is always ahracted towards a normal female. Male rats are even attracted towards the urine of female rats. If we place urinei mixed with poison at some suitable place the male. rats take them and they die. It was further confirmed at CAZRI Jodhpur (Rajasthan) that mixing 4 per cmt Zinc phosphide, which is a greyish black powder having garlic odour, in the urine and their consumption by male rats eventually lead to their death. Atltraction is due to the production of Pheromones alongwith the urine Pheromones are chemical substancei3 secre:ted by the bodies of rats which have got olfactory influence. A single pheromone may be functional in the absence of producer. So, the urine having pheromone and mixed with poison can be effective in the absence) of signaller female rats. Urine and genital secretions contribute to the odour trails and the trails are followed by male rats. -So S. Chandna lui Canal Development Division, Bhiwani APRIL,

78 Diseases that Affect Desi Cotton Grey mildew: This disease; was observed about 3 years ClJgo, though in southern part of the country it is a common and widespread disease o:f Desi cotton. In general, it appears when the crop almost reaches maturity. IIowever, its early appearance in the season may cause,heavy reduction in yield due to heavy defoha:iion of affected leaves. The mildew is noticed in the form of small white angular spots mostly under, the lowell' surface of the leave:s (Fig. 1). -M. P. Srivastava Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar This disease is caused by the fungus, acriola, air-bjrne in nature., I Ramulm:ia Cotton is an important cash crop and th.e only fibre crop of Haryana. The crop is attacked by a large number of diseases. Desi Cotton, in g.eneral, is more tole'i1ant to diseases in oontrast to narma, the American Cotton. Amongst the di,seases that affect desi cotton are-root rot, grey mildew and stenosis. Of th~se, rool rot is quite common and widespread while gr'ey mildew and stenosis are posing a threat foor the last few year's. Prevention of these diseas,es lies in their proper identification and adopbion of timely control measures. This can be controlled by dusting the crop with sulphur dust mixed with 5% DDT in the proportion of 3: 25 kg/ha. Root rot: This is observed in patches in the fields. Wilting of the plants within 24 hours wahout any discolouration of the leaves is an important cllaracterisitic of this disease. Affected plants can ea;ily be pulled out. Such plants reveal rotting and shr2dding of bffi'k of the ro'ots. This disease is caused by fungi like Rhi~octoI!la batc Heola and R. solani, which are soil-borne in nature and have a wide host range. They attatk Desi &S \V 2H as American cotton. Some protectjion from this dise,ase is POssible if the feed is treated with 5 gjkg set-_d, The fungi'cide may be thoroughly mixed' dry with the seed in a s~ed tr~ating drum or an earthen pot. Re'lb.ember earthen pot need not be used for keeping any eatables or grains etc. after seed treatment. The most effective method would be' to follow crop rotation if the disease has been observed in a severe form last year.. J C)war or bajra may be cultivated for 2-3 y.e ars in place of cotton. This will be helpful in m~nimising the inoculum responsible for the disease. 6 Fig. Stenosis: This disease has been obserwd to be of regu14r o,ccurrence in varying degrees for the last about 5-6 yealrs. It is more serious in Desi cotton than (Contd. on 3rd COover) HARYANA FARMING

79 Herbicides and their Safe Use -Jai i'arkash and V. M. Bhan liaryana AgrjcuJlllral Universily, Hissar I Several chemicals are' m use these days to coilitrol weeds in crops and other pla.ces of utility. Th~e chemioals are known as herbicides o,r weedicides. These chemi~als are toxic in nature. This inherent toxicity of herbicides may prove harmful to man and animals also if they are not handled carefully. Suitable precautijons and measures should be followed' to avoid any accidental injury. Sources of exposure and types of injury to man. and animals 1. During application: Most of the herbicide's are us:ed as aqueous sprays and during spraying some of the spray may fallon the body of the operator. Some of the spr,ay may be inhaled by the operator and some may enter the eyes. 2. Utilization of treated plant material: Some of the chemicals used for spraying may remain on the surface and within the treated plants for quite sometime. These will enter the human and animal body When such products are consumed. 3. Through water and orsanisms growing in wat.er : Some of the chemicals used for weed control in water sources and 0'the.rs which reach such water scurces as runoff from fieilds with rain and dramage water may reach animal and human system if this contaminated water is used. Fish and other water plants as wajer chest-nut may accumulate these chemicals and when such products are consumed they reach the animal system. The extent and type of injury depends upon the length of exposure and the dose of chemicals. Greater the length of exposure or higher the dose g'reater is ~~~., Some herbicides cause irritation in skin and eyes. ~ome cause respiratory disorders. To avoid any in JUry due to hea:-oicides following steps should be fol- IO~ed.. HOW TO USE HERBICIDES SAFELY A. General precautions 1. Follow all the instructions and directions given on the packing label of herbicides. APRIL, Do not smell or try to inhale herbicides during opeolilmg of herbicide containers. ::l. Do nolt allow herbicides to fall on skin, try to avoid touching herbicides with hand. 4. Do not eat or smoke during sprayll1g of herbicides. 5. Use protective clothing, glasses on eyes and gas marks for inhalation as there is danger of h6rbic.des drift while spraying. o. Do noit store hea."biclcies near eatables and other farm chemwals like fertilizers, inseoticides etc. Some of the volatile herbicides may contaminate them and cause toxicity to susceptible crops. 7. Never clean sprayer nozzle etc. by blowing tnrough mouth. H. Pl'ecautions to be followed while spraying herbictdes in the field. 1. Use only those herbicides Wlhi.ch a.re recommended for the particular crop. Try to use selective herbicides. 2. Use recommended dose in suggested volume of water at appropriate time, otherwise either the crop will get damaged or proper weed control will not be achieved. The volume of water could be adjusted with spraying machines. J. As some of the herbicides are formulated as wettable powder, the spray solution should be stirred r tgiularl!y to maint,ain proper concentmtion. 4. Check all spraying equipment for leakage etc. and calibrate bef0're starting the spraying. Defective equipment will make uneven spr,ay and cause damage to the crop. 5. Use fiat fan or flood jet nozzle and keep the nozzle at a height of 18 inches from,ground level to get a uniform spray. 6. Do not spray when there is high wind. This is necessary to avoid drift of spray solution to other crops which may be susceptible to that herbidde. 7. Always spray solution in a row. This can be achieved by putting pegs on each side of the field and tying a rope. This precaution will avoid double spraying of a particular region. Double spraying 0'r to and fro movement of nozzle gives uneven spray which may result in inj ury to crop or weeds may not get controlled uniformly. 8. Destroy all cartons/tins of herbicides. Do not use them for any other purpose. 9. Do not use outdated chemicals. They may not rglive effective weed control. 7

80 They breed all the year round with a gas tat jon,penoa or ~U-~::i uays. 'lhe!r young ones are called, lillers l:l g) Willen are bllld, hairless, ana wltm closed ears. 'l:neji ears open alter two ana eyes after uays 01 birth. 'lney start movmg alter ~1 da;ys. 'l'he1r Housewives Combat wej.gl1~ usuauy illcreases at tne rate or 1 g per day. lhe mcloors come out lfl l:l and molars 111 1'd-;)5 days. House Rats-II - 'J.ne gel1elalla aeveiops In 1b days, 'J.'ney preler dark- -Gulab Singh, Kamla Singh and Zile Singh Rary,ma Agricultural University, Rissar Scientists have estimated that there are more than 10,000 million rats in our country that nibble away approximately 26 million tons of food annually. Accordmg to some calculations, six rats consume one man's food in a year. They have not even spared patients in public hospitals, eggs in poultry sheds, and clothes in the houses. Their teeth are always grawing and they may eat even metals. stones, cement, cloth, papers and wood. It is very surprising that while government makes a hit to fight rats, tt'aditional Hindus continue to feed them. Government efforts to control rats alone will no be sufficient in a coun,try Me ours, unless the people's participation is extended. However, the participation of housewives in rat control, particularly in the houses, is most important because they remain in touch with them for almost 24 hours. Keeping in view the role of this nuisance cl'eature, this article has been coined to provide the knowledge about the life of rats in he'uses and their remedial me'asures. IMPORTANT-CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSE RATS ness and SIlence. 'ruey can consume ~ Kg grains In, War IJ.re and may llve Without wad :tor is days. 'l'hey usuauy become more actlve at the age at Itl mont:b$, wnen they c:11mb even trees, plpes, and walls. A palr of rals l:ail merease Its nuinber to,127u ra:ts. CONTROL MEASURES Hat contr'ol 'Operations can be divided into followmg oategor,ies : 1. hat proohng of stores anp. buildings ) This is the best way to control rats in grain stores and houses. 'l'he stores should be so constructed that rats may not enter mto them. For achieving this objeotive, the floor of the stores and houses should be cemented and elevated from the ground level. All the doors, window's, and,water outlets should be titted w1th wire netting. The doors should lit well in ordtt to avoid their entry in the houses. Branches of trees, poles, wlres, ropes etc. should not touch the houses from any sid~. Rats c.a.nngt survive moire than few days without water, therefore, all sources of standing watelr near and ins,tde the houses should be exterminated. Two species of house rats (Rattus rattus-house rat, and Rattus norycoilus-brown rat) and one species of house mouse (Mus musculus) are found invading the houses for most of the time in our country. House rats, in g~neral, are colour blind, but have, got well developed sense of smell, taste, and heming. They are?s long as field rats, but have the tail relatively l<;mger than the body. Their ears are papery and eyes are not bulging'. The snout is comparatively more pointed' and the belly white. House mouse is ligh.t brown with a tail as long as body. Other characteristics are same as that of house rat. They are hosts of plague vectors, i. e. rat fieas. Besides plague, they also spread typhus, amebiosis, t.richinocis, jaundice ek. n. Fumigating stores and houses It is a very sure method but requires extremely c~reful operatiqn as most of the fumigants are deadly '/ poisonous. Before fumigating, the stores and houses,;. should be air tjght lither with mud or by any other. means. Moreover, in the houses, this should be done only in very acute cases. The Lamily members should keep themselves away in other hquses at least Lor a period of 7 days. CommQnly used fumigants a.re calcium cyanide (cyanogas or cyamag), CS2, methyl bromide, celphos (auwniniwn phoispharte), and quickphos etc. 8,, HARYANA FARMING

81 III. Poison baiting This method is most pracllcal and efficient. Again the material used as actl\lt:; 1Il:5TE>cllellt III these chemicals lqr baits is hazardous tb man and animals, therefore, should be used care1ully. roison baltwg cons1s,s of 3 phases-pre-baitmg, poison baiting, and postpoison baiting. Tll.e pre-balting consists of unpoisoned food for 2-3 days to aocustom them to feed readily when the poisoned food i::; supplied. The moi'(:} attra,ctive the pre-bailng, the more successful is!;he control. In stores, meat. ush, tre:sh frults and vege{ables etc. make attractive baits. In houses and godowns, wet, baits an~ preferred over the dry ones. Some effective baits are soaked wheat, damp biscuits, sugajr meal, bl'ead, and soaked gram dal etc. Poison baiting are of 3 types- (i) burrow baibng (effective and safe), (ii) container baiting (provides lelss chances of contamination and therefore. used in houses), and (iii) surface baiting (1aid directly on the' run w,ays). Post poison baiting with unpoisoned food is done only to know that whether the poisoned baits have been eaten by the rats or not. If not, then it may be repeated )'Vith some modifications in the pre-baiting and poison baiting. Common poisons used in poison baiting are zinc phosphide (5% in atta, oat flakes., cut melons, apples, or ground meat etc: with sugar in the I1atio 1:4U:3), Warfarin (can be used wi.thout 0.025% m solid and 0.005% in liquid baits),.antu, Thallium sulphate (1.5%), Barium oarbonate (2%), Arsenic oxide (1-2%), and Sodium fiuoroacetate (0.5%). Other rodenticide", available in the market and may also be tried are Pival, Tomorm, Red Squill, CastJ"ix, Muritan, and Racumin etc. lv. Rat trapping Its effectiveness entirely depends on proper placement of traps (along walls, stacked material) and selection of the attracting materials. Common traps availabl'e in the market are break back treadle type, dead fall, wire cage type, and barrel traps. The attracting materials used in pre-baiting serves here too. Natural enemies like, cats, dogs, kites, crowns, owls, and snakes although contributing much.for rat contrdl but still their alarmingly increasing population needs careful handling by the house1wives to combat them. Ridratan appliance with ultra-sonic impulses IS the newest technology to avoid rat entry into the houses and stores. GRAM BLIGHT-A SERIOUS MENACE Gram blight, caused by Ascochyta rabiei was, in general, usually observed in the districts of Kuruk &hetra, Kamal and Ambala. This yoar the disease has been observed at several places in the state including Hissar. In some of the fields, the diseas(. has devclloped very fast and has affected more than 50 per cent of the plants due to prevailing wet and cloudy wehther during F,ebruary-March. The disease is characterised by production of circular brown spots on the leaflets which later gflt studded with dot like fruiting bodies of the fungus. Elongated, brown coloured lesions are also observed on the &tocns. Pycnidia may also be noticed on them. The entire shoot above the blighted branch dries. Secondary spmad of the disease is due to dissemination of spores through wind and rains. Under prolongfld wet' and windy spell, the disease may take a heavy toll. In order to check the secondary spr,ead, the farmers are advised to spray the crop with captan or zineb 0.2 per cent. This should be undertaken only in those fields where the disease. has just initiated. However, in most of the places the crop is likely to be harvested or being harvested. Hence, spraying may not be a practical proposition. For prevention of this disease in the coming years, it is advised that gram crop should not be cultivated for two years ii1 those fields whew the disease has been observed this y.ear. The seed of the affeded crop should also not be taketu for cultivation next year. Residues of the -diseased crop should be burnt after harvest,. -Dr. M. P. Srivastava Plant Pathology Extension Specialist HAU, Bissar

82 Tips to Growing Tinda -v. K. Srivastava Haryana Agricultural University. Hissa, Tinda is"3 swnmer season vegetable which is grown for its tender fruit used as cooked vegetable: They are mainly grown during summer season and rainy season. This crop will n()t tolerate frost as the plants all' > killed by low temperature. The cultiva,tion of this crop is comparatively easy and a good harvest can be expected by a little timely care. For a successful crop, the following practices should be adopted under Haryana conditions : 'For summer season crop the seeding should be done in the month of February and March and for the rainy season crop it should be seeded during June and July. 'Use high yielding recommended varieties like Hissar SelectlOll-l and Bikaneri Green. *For cultivation in one hectare of land about ;) ~g of seeds would be sufficient. *The field should be tho['oughly prepared well in time of seeding. Beds about em wide sh{)uld be prepared and seeding should be done on both sides of beds at!l- distance of 45 to 60 em. At one place two seeds should be sown and it should be placed at a depth of about 4-5 em. *For one hectare of land. about 15 tons of organic manure, 75 kg single super phosphate, 40 kg mu~ riate of potash and 70 kg Kisan Khad should be c%dded at the time?f se,eding. The standing crops should be top dressed with 130 kg of Kisan Khad, two times, half the amount when the crop is about " 3-4 weeks of age and half amount of Kisan Khad should be top dressed when the crop starts flowering. Irrlgation of the crop is important aher application of Ki:san Khad otherwise the plants would be injured and sometimes even killed. *The crop sh{)uld be regularly irdgated and weeds should be kept under control by freciuent weeding spedauy during the early stages of growqh. In summer months irrigation may be required at an inter val of one week and during the rainy season it should.be applied in dry spells. *Broper protection of the crop from insect is essential. During initial stages of growth, the crop is attacked by red pumpkin beetle which should be control1~d by dusting the crop with 6 kg of sevin 50% pow?~r after mixing in 18 kg of ash or fine dust. The other common insects attacking this crop are aphid, jassids and m~tes. They can be effectively controlled by spraying the crop with 625 ml of Malathion 50 EC after mixing in 625 litre's of water in one hectare of crop. If the crop is affected by fruit fly attack, the crop should be sprayed with a mixture of 0.05% Malathion and 1 % Gur (20 ml mala't:)1ion 50 EC and 200 gram gur in 20 lit res of water) i? one hectare of field. Before spl1aying the in: eded fruits should be picked up and destroyed. The crop should not be consumed up to one week after spraying these inseotricides. *The common disease: attacking this crop is powdery mildew which could be effectively controlled by spraying the crop with 2 kg of wettable sulphur in 1 heotare of field. 'The spray can be repeated after about 10 to 15 days time if need be. *The pricking of the crop usually s~cts after 15 days of seeding. Tender fruits should be picked up and sent to market fo r sale. It would be desirable that frequent packing is done at an interval of 3 days time. *In one hectare of land, the average yield of 80 to 120 quintals is obt,ained with an av:erage income varying from 1000 to 2000 rupees per hectare. Read Haryana Farmi~g' now a monthly farm magazine 10 'j :-, HARYANA FARMING

83 Grow Sarvoo for ~ocial Forestry -So s. Sagwal Department of Forestry H. P. Khshi Vishva Vidya[aya, Pa[ampur SARVOO Casualiana eqisitifolia) is a tall and straight stemmed evergreen tree. It belongs to CasuarianaceaB family. The ends of branches are thtckly set with a number of long slender leaves~ The leaves are also known as modified leaves. The f'fuits are achenes. l<~lowering occurs in December and January..1 Frui1ts are developed by the end -01 February and are > ready for colledion o seed during the month of March. Climatic requirements As it is weu known fact that it is a hardy tree. It grows best in moist climate as its water requirement is high. But it can be grewn anywhere provided some iri1ig;ation faciliti2s are available. It can be grown easily upto 1500 m above the sea level. As a whole, it oan be grown both under the irrigated as well as unirrigated conditiions. Soil requirements ~1 It can be grown on a variety of soils. At the ini :'I tial stages, forr its well establishment it requires some moisture in the soil. It Cian withstand the variations in». so'il salinity, rainfall. frost etc. It does not prefer to acidic soils. Therefore, it should be avoided for sowing under such conditions. Collection of seed The seeds are very small about 40,000 to per kg of weight. The achenes ar.e collected and dried in an open and clean place and are thrushed to drop the seed. Then the seeds are collected b)t winnowin ct the thrushed achenes. The viability of seeds is abou~ a year and beyond this period, there seems to be a di1c!1stic lqss in the viability of seeds. APRIL, 1981 Storage of seeds For storage, the use of tin boxes is recommended. The seeds are kept in closed containe;rs. By doing so, the seeds can also be saved from the attack of stored grain insect-pests. But it should be remembered that the seeds should not be stored more than one year. Nursery practices It is sown. in nurselfy in the month of Novembe!T December. Nursery for Sarvoo is formed in a standard bed of 12.5 m x 1.5 m. But sometimes, the length of the nursery beds may be increased and the breadth is kept the same because it facilitates in weeding and other operations. The nursery is raised in both the ways viz., the Sleeds can be sown direct in the nursery and sometimes the seeds are sown in polythene bags. For better establishment, the seedlings raised in polythen! bags, slhould be used. Germination occurs within a week. Germination percentage is about 20. Seed- - lings are transplanted in bags when they at1tain the height of 15 to 20 cm. Sometimes, naked seedlings are transplanted in the planting site itself. For better growth of the seedlings in the nursery, about 10 gm of urea per polythene bag should be incorporated about a month after getmination. To ensure the good getmination, regular irr!igation should be given and side by side the weeding should also be dqne. Planting-out: Planting-out is performed the following headings :- 1. Time of Planting-out under The best time of planting-out of Sarvoo is early monsoqn. Generally, planting-out is done in the month of July }Vhen the plants are about cm hilgu1. During this period, ther,e is enough moisture in the soil which helps in the establishment of seedli~gs in the soils. It has been seen that the seedl,ings give good response in establishing when planted on the rain.y day. Hence, after the shower of rains, the p1anting-out should be carried OUit. 2. Size of pit As plants are generally supplied in 12.5 cmx 22.5 cm polythene bags, so therre is no much use of digging the large sized pits and similarly, the seedlings are

84 supplied naked ones. For this purpose at each stake a pit of 0.3 m x 0.3 m x 0.3 m is dug. The pits should be dug at least days belfore the planting is done. 3. Spacing Spaamgl depends upon the purpose of planting. If it is planted for timber tt.e..l more spac~ ~s requir,ed and when 1t is plant,ed for show-ups and fuel, then a less spacing is given. For timber pmposes, a spacing of 3 m x 3 m and for other purposes 1. 5 m x 1. 5 m or ~ mx 2 m is given. After care Delep soil working and frequent weeding is necessary for better performance. Soll working helps in preventing the evaporation of sub-soil moisture. It is watered in first year and where water table is deep, watering is done for one or even two years more during the hot weather of May and June months. About 5 litre's O'f waltelr is needed per plant. About 50 gm of urea should be incorporlated per plant at the tiime of iri1igation about one month after planting. Later on, _the doses of fertilizers can be increased. J Harvesting In 6 to 8 years, the plants attain a good height and about 45 to 65 em girth at d. b.h. Harvesting can be doine at any time after 5th year of planting in the fi~ld depending upon the CLlrrent demand. If bigger sizes are required, then a long period is ahowed for growth. Trees are easy to' fell. Needles (leaves), roots and small bmnches are used for sale as fuel. Yield For fuel purposes. 25 to 30 tonnes per hectlare is obtained after 6 to 8 years. The fuel is Rs. 150 to 200/- per tonne. Similarly, a good amouht 9f tixpbe!r wood is obtained which is used for many purposes. Uses It is trained and trimmed to form any sort of hedge or border. The wood is used for building constructions. It is a best fuel with: high calorilfic value. It is also grown as cash crop. Economics Cost of sowing and planting-out etc. Cost of felling operations Cost of transport etc. Output per hectare will give Rs. 500 Rs. 250 Rs. 550 = Rs. 4,000 (approx.) OLDEST FOSSIL BIRD Birds also have evolved fvom the animals which possess teeth. New species have been formed from the older' ones by modifications. Fossil birds have become missing links between birds and toeth possessing animals. One such example of fossil bird whose distmction of being the "oldest" has so far belonged to' Archaeop,teryx lithograpbica which was ound by a G rman miner working amongst 140 million yo'lr old rocks in Bauaria 1,30 million years ago. The fossil bird collected by palaontolgists in Andhra Pradesh in India has been christened R.ota bird a~ter the name of the rocks. It consists of a completely pwserved skull, jaws with small conical teeth in sockets, forearm with claw, wish bone and feather imp'ression. It is perhaps th l oldest fossil bird found in 170 million year old rocks at Mukalpet, in Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh. It has been discovered by Mr. P. Yadgiri of the Geological Survey of India. I The Kota bird has the very important unique character of hollow bone, a comparatively evolved clja-' ractler in con.trast to Archaeopteryx. The wish bone;and small conical teeth also are indicative that the Kota bird though found in the rocks older than those in which the Archaeopteryx was coueoted possess comparat~vely evolved bird characteristics than Archaeopte.ryx. -So S Chandna Jui Canal Development Division, Bhiwani

85 Rabbit Farming (Col!lmon Diseases) -v. P. Sharma and I. S. Yadava Han'ana Agricultural Universify, Hissar The coat is a refted.ion of the health of the rabbit. A dry, dull and patchy coat shows that all is not well and that there is something wrong. The coat should be lustrous. TJ1e healthy rabbit is active and ii does hot stt huddled' in a corner. The eyes should be bright. There should be no discharge from the eyes or from any part of the body i.e. from mouth, Dostrils, anus and teats~ Rabbits can suffer from a number of diseases. The incidence of the disease can be reduoed by adopting measures of disease oontrol i.e. good sanitation, adequate balanced feeding, removing manure, soiled bedding and contaminated feed daily at frequent intervals. Somel of the common diseases are given below; Haemorrhagic Septicaemia This disease is also known as pasteurellosis. It is caused by pasteurella multocida. The infection may be acute or chronic. It causes a good deal of loss. In acute cases the animal may die within a few hours without showing symptoms. In other cases there is an inere.ase of temperature and rate of respiration. Nasal discharge is copious, eyes become watery. The inflammation of the lungs bronchi and nasal sinuses G.evelops. Individual animal may be treated with a combination of 400,000 units of penicillin combined with 1/2 gr. stl1eptomycin to each 2 ml. Give 1 m] to young and 2 ml to adult intramuscularly on alternate days. SnufHes or Rhinitis This is one of the most common diseases in young animals. It is caused by the infection of nasal sin- APRIL,1981 uses by pasteurella muitocida or BardeteUa bronchi S'2ptica. Thick or th.in nasal discharges, sneezing, rattling noise in breathing and coughing are the clinical symptoms of the disease~ The rabbit may rub the nose and face and the hair on inside of the front feet are found matted. The same treatment as prescribed for the Haemorrhagic S.epticaemia is given. Pneumonia It is due to the b.adt.erial infection of the lungs. The.infection may be caused by PasteureHa multocida, BordeteUa bronchi-septica and staphylococcus and streptococcus species. The clinical symptoms are labored breathing with nose held high, bluish colour of eyes and ears. Lung's show congestion. The same treatment as prescribed in the above diseases is eifeotive. Tuberculosis The rabbit is susceptible to all forms of tuberculosis-bovine, human and avian but the bovine orm is very common. In the' chronic form there is loss of condition and appetite, welakness and usually diarrhoea. Breathing is difficult and cough develops. There is no treatment but the incidence can be greatly decreased by adopting the disease control measures. ljrine hatch burn It is caused by the infedion of the membranes. It is manifested by the external sex organs and anus. The areas may form crusts and in severe infections even the pus will be produced. Spirochetosis or vent disease Similar lesions as produced in the above disease are seen. The disease is caused by spirochete-ireponema cuniculi and is transmitt.ed by mating. The animals can be treated by injecting mtramuscularly 100,000 units of penicillin. The rabbits may nat be bred till the lesions heal. Viral diseases The important viral diseasles from which the rabbits may suffer are only four. Three of them are 2 xtremely rare being a particul,ar type of tumour, encephalomyeiitis and weybridge disease. The other is myxomatosis. In myxomatosis, the eye Hds swell 13

86 considerably and the eyes are closed. SwelLing may be seen on other parts of the body particularly at the base of the ems. Mortality is very high and death occurs within 12 days of infection. Coccidiosis This disease is responsible ior loss and low production. It is caused by several species of 'Eimeria coccida which include Einlel'~a perforans, E. magna, E. medla, and E. irrisidua. The symptoms vary according to age and the severity of the infecuon. The common symptoms are diarrhoea, loss in weight gain, loss of appetite, rough hair coat, loss of condition. In SBlvere cases the rabbits adopt a typical huddled attitude and show PlOt belly. Pneumonia is often secondary. The disease can be controlled by keeping the fioor clean, dry and removing droppings frequently. Prevent contamination of feed and water. Feed 3 to 4 weeks with feed having per cent sulfaquinoxaline. The flock can be treated by giving sulphamezathine 16% (Diadine) tetracyc1ine/chloramphenical wat'er soluble solution. lviucojd enteritis Cause is unknown. There is loss of appetite, little activity and the eyes are dull. Fur is rough and animals may appear bloated. Diarrhoea or mucus droppings mixed with blood is often seen. The d~sea5e can be treated by feeding furzzoladine (50 gr per ton feed), water soluble chlorotetracycline or oxytetracyd ne at a level of 450 gram in 450 to 675 litr'2s of water. SkiL' diseases Comn::.on skin diseases are Ear mange, Eczema, ring worm which are caused by parasites, fungus and dust allerg~nt factors.. The animals exhibit unrest, scretchi!1g the affected part, pulling hairs, developmefl,t of ulcers, abscesses and scale. formation. For mite infection ascabiol lotion can be applied. In fungal infection white field ointment with antimyeo tic ointment can be applied. For the treatment of the mang'e, the animals can be dipped i,n per cent lime sulphur bath, prepared by mixing commer- 14 cial 30 per CE:.nt lime sulphur concentrate 240 gram, laundry detergent one table spoonful in 40 litre of luke warm water. Wry neck This is an inner ear infection usually caused by pasteurella multocida. The maih clinical symptomsl are head twisted to one side, animails roll over, difficult walking and imbalance. Sore hocks Caused by wet fioors, irritation from wire or nervous "stompers" but the dise,ase is mainly genetic. Bmad spectrum antibiotics like tlerramycine or tetracycline can be useful. Conjunctivitis Mastitis or Blue breasts r,t may be caused by the infection of pasteurella; multocida and may also be due to irritation from dust, sprays or fumes. The main clinieal symptoms are irjlammation nf the eye lids, discharge may be. thin and watery or thick or purulent. Fur around the eye may become wet and matted. For treatment the, eye-lotions and antibiotic eye ointments can be applied. Caused by staphylocoecus or streptococcus infedion. Breasts become feverish and pink, nipples red dark. Breasts turn black and purplish. The animals can be treated by inje'cting 100,000 units of penicillin intramuscularly twice each day for 3-5 days. Pc>ralYlled bind quarters Caused by injury resulting in broken back displaced disc, damage to spinal cord or nerves. It is generally fqlund in mature d02s. The symptoms are draging of the hind legs, cannot support weight of pelvis, and not able to stand. Urinary bladder GUs but does not,empty. The prevention lies in preventing the animals from disturbing factors. HARYANA FARMING

87 feelings from the way he is dressed, because certain parts of his body are always covered. Clothes for your Babies -Krishna Khambra and Saroj Kasbyap Directorate oj Extension Education, HA (/, Hissar Clothes are basic necessities of human. life. The way you dress a baby makes qulbe a differ.2nce to.his comfort, his health and perhaps even to his personality. A real baby compiams 'loudly if he is. not confortable. He does not lie still while you dress and undress him, he squirms and wiggles. Choosing clothes for ~ baby for proper season and of proper quality is very Importa~t from bi.rth eve.n.. A laye.tte needs careful planning. The clothes a mother gets ready before a baby is born are caned a layette. All clothes near ille baby's skin should be absorbent. Because cotton soaks up moist1ure easily, it is a good choice. The cloth tihould also be soft and pliable; no baby wants a scratchy lace ruffle at his neck. All baby clothes should be made of durable cloth that can be washed many times by hand or iil a machine. Most of them should need no ironing. The baby likes clothes that are put on and taken off easily. Some knitted garments button or snap along the shoulder or else stretch enough at the neck so you can get them off his head easily. The size and weight of the baby ar,e more important that his age, when it comes to buying clothes for him. Clothes that allow for a baby's growth are an especially welcome gift. Clothes must be safe. A baby's clothes must protect his health and safety. Drawstrings or long ribbons at the neck should be avoided becaus2 they might pull too tight as the baby twists and turns. Cloih~s and blankets that are furry or very fuzzy are not good because the loose fibres might get into the baby's nose, throat Or eyes. Button on baby clothes should be small and flat and sewed on securely. Baby may try hard to pull them off, and if he does, he is likely to put them in his mouth and swallow them. Clothes may even influence the baby's development. A baby also.develops cerbain attitudes and APRIL, 1981 How many clothes a baby needs will depend on the season. The kind of garments a baby needs to wear or use indoors: diapers, shirts, gowns, blankets and sheets. To wear outdoors in cold Wleather, a baby will probably need a sweater or sacque and possibly o knitted cap. Diapers should be soft, absorbent and quick drying. A double gauze fabric is the most commonly used diiaper cloth today. It dries quickly. There is also a much used and more absorbent diaper cloth made in a blrd's eye weave. Outing flannel is sometimes used for diapers because it. is soft and absorbent, but it is not qmck drying. Some cotton knit diapers on the market that are suitable, but they are more expensive than other types. A lew readymade diapers have \i.e fastei1ers but the usual method is to use sa:f'ety pins. At times (especially when the mother is travelling or when he is expect:ed to have bowel movement) mother find disposable diapers convenient. These are made of paper or non-woven fibres and are not usable a second time. Shirts keep the baby's chest warm. Knitted undershirts are warm and absorbent. They stretch when necessary and they are easily washed. They come in different styles and are made of all cotton, all wool or a mixture of fibres. Soft absorbent cloth is good for summer wear. A baby's blanket can be used as a crib cover or as a wrap when the baby is taken out of doors. Light weight blankets-knitted shawls or fiannellebte squares are useful. For cold climates, blankets of wool or synthetic fibres are good as long as they are warm with (Jut being too heavy. The baby's bed needs protection. He needs sheets and mattress pads. Most crib sheets are. made of mus- 1m, sometimes these are covered with water proof material. Mostly the top and sides are made of plastic and the bottom of heavy muslin. Quilited cotton pads can also be introduced for comforts. Sweaters and sacques keep the baby warm. Knitted or crcheted sweaters made of wool, nylon, or or Ion yarn are comfortable because they stretch as the baby moves. A sacque is a loosely fitted garment with a 15

88 front opening; it is like a wrapper except that it is short, usually coming- just to the waist. It may be made of outing flannel or light weight wool. Extra baby clothes are col1venieni; to have for tile different ocoasions like fol' festivals, functions and other ceremonies. These are mostly made of thin material which add beauty to the child. These dresses are worn only for best. For the boys knitted suitsare made. These suit~ are made of wool, cotton or a synthetic fibre. Socks and bootees are company clothes which are made of wool. These add warmtn to the baby's body in winter. Clothes for the Toddle!'s When a baby starts getting around by himself, he needs different kinds of clothes. By the time he is a year and a half, he is walking. He is what we call a toddler. A toddler needs special kinds of clothes for his new independence and his larger social life. At lhis age the baby is beginning to express his likes and dislikes and to exert his independence. He has little patience and is likely to get cranky if he is bothered by his clothes. Like an infant's clothes, a toddler's clothes should be comfortable. They should be easy to put on and take off, and they should be easy to take care of. Thus, more active baby needs clothes that allow space for his rapid growth and Ig!iv~ him plenty of room for h ~edom of movement. These clothes need to be Weill constructed and tough, too. They will have tid stand a lot of climbing and sliding and crawling. Overalls and rompers ar, : everyday clothes: The clothes for overalls should be smo'oth and firm in texture and it should n<.:ed no ironing, seer sucker! l corclurg], COttO.1 knit -fabric, terry cloth and denim are all good. 'l'oddler's dress should. hang from the shoulders. Because she is too big around the waist so only shoulders give support to the straps. Until a baby stacrts to walk out,doors, he wears only socks or boote'es on his feet and then only when 1t ls', I very cold. A baby's first shoes help to protect. his feet and give him a firm base for walking. A baby's first shoes will probably hilve semi-soft soles. Baby's. shoes should fit snughy at the heel and lace firmly at.the ankle. There should always be a half inch or more of empby space at the end of the toes when the baby is standing. The shoes should be O'f so'ft leather..~.:_ Nutritional Significance of Fermented Food Fermentation of food is an important method of imj::toviug the nutritional quality of our diet. Such goods are consumed in some parts of India in the form of dhokla, idli, dosa, kulcha, bhatura etc. but is not -l cornman method in the North Indian homes. The nutritio;1al value of food improves dur.ing this pi1o:~ass. The important vitamins such as riboflavin, thkmine and niacin are increased by fermentation. The anti-nutr~tional enzymes,.such as, tannis "and phytates which interfere in the utilization of various nutrients are brown down and destroyed and the quali:ty of protein in the diet is thus improved. Such. food is light, easy to digest and adds variety in iqur 16 diet The food stuff like atta can be fermented by keeping the dough for about 24 hours and the process can be enhanced by adding curd, lassi and buttermilk etc. Idli is another example of fermented food in which fennentation takes place without the addition of any activating agent. In this case the rice and the urad dal mixture is allowed to ferment overnight, cooked in idli stands next day and cooking takes place within 7 to 8 minute's. It is recommended that puch foods should be consumed more frequently in" the diet. After the food is fermented it is a good 'practice to cook the :DODd by steaming process and' the method of deep frying should be, avoided. -Mrs, Indu Grover Asstt. Prof. Col/ege of Home Science, HAU, Hissar HARYANA FARMING

89 Remove Stains Save your garments I -Miss Sba,sbi Kanta and Mrs. Lali Yadav Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, Clothes can contribute to that djftlcult-to derlne quality called charm or personal attra~tiveness. Bei~g well dressed for the occasion, and bemg aware of It, is an advantage physioally, psychologicaby, socially and economically. What constitutes being well-dressed pose big questions. The value of clothing in meeting certain human needs-physical protection, modesty, and decorationhas long been recognized. More recently, greater awareness of the place of clothing in satisfying other human needs is evident. Clothing can be influential in meeting psychological needs, it is of value in meeting communication needs, which are vital in developing social relationship; and it can contribute to the need for self acceptance and self-expression. A knowledge of textile is valuable in stain removal. The eas1est time to temove a stain is hefore It dries in the fabric. It will save the time, energy and the fabric as well. Stains are simple to remove when they are fresh and difficult or even impossiole without damag,e to the fabric when old. Stain is spot or mark of discolouration left on fabric by the contact and absorption of some foreign subst'ance. The discolouration may be due to the staining substance sticking on to a surface, or due to chemical reaction between the staining substance and the surface. And-to- bring to the original brightness or beauty in the garment, it is essential to remove the stains. Stains are of various types. These are as follows: Animal: Blood, egg, milk, meat juice etc. All animal stains have protein so while removing them APRIL, 1981 R"j avoid heating in order to prevent them from fixing on the fabric. Vegetable: Tea, cocoa, coffee, fruit and wine. These are acidic in nature, so remove by alkaline reagents. Greese: Greese spots or greese+eoloured material, butter, curry, oil, oil paint, varneesh, tar etc. I)ye: Acidic or alkaline. The nature of stain is ascertained before specific use of removing reagent. Minerals: These are compound of metals and dyes. First treated by acidic reagent to act on metal, then alkaline reagent to neutralise the acidic reag~nt. For example irlon mould, ink, black ink and medicine stlains. General rules for stain removing 1. Remove stains when fresh as then they are easy to remove with simple method. A stain gets more stubborn as it ages, and many often require strong treatment which could weaken the material. 2. Study the nature and texture of fabric specially when chemical reagents and bleeches are used as these have an injl}rious effect on wool, silk and synthetic fabrics. Oh animal fibres, dilute,solution should be used. For wool and silk use dilute solution of H202 and fabrics must be rinsed thoroughly after tre1atment. 17

90 2. Steep in dilute solution of ammonia. 3. Steep in dilute solution of so.dium perborate and H202 for 15 minutes. Wash and blee:ch in sun. Tea, co{[ee and chocolate:,1: Wash stain with I"oap and hot water. 2. Spread borax over the stain and pour bollirig" water. Le:ave it for few minutes and rinse it off anti'! see. / J. Soak the stain in glycerine if it is an ol~ st,ain. Greese: 1. Wash with soap and hot water. 2. Treat it with greese solvent lor example petrol, ether and Benzene. 3. Treat known stain with specific reagent and method. 4. Unknown stains should be treated with simple method-steeping in hot or ooid water and washing with soap. Bleech only when all other methods are not applicable. Reagents should be immediately washed after removing s1.iains in order to pre.!vent any damage to fabric. 5. All the reagents should be neutralistd. 6. While removing the stain, sponge or treat the stain with solution working in a circular movements starting from the outside edge of the stain to jots centre: This prevents the stain from spreading. Methodology to remove the various types of stains Before removing the stain from we should keep three things in mind. 1. The nature oj the stain. ' 2: The nature of the fabric. the garments, 3. For unwashable material, press the stain with blbttmg paper and i~on. Mud: Wash with soap and water and if don't r~move then tmat with exalic acid and KMn04. Grass: 1. Soak in alcohol or kerosine oil. Wash with soap and hot water. 2. If don't remove then use 10% Ammonia. hon rust: 1. Soak the fabric in dilute citric aci~. and acetic acid like lemon and vmegar. Pour boiling water on it. : 2. Soak it In exaiic acid and rinse in Borax solution. This procedure is used till the stain is removed. Curry stain: 1. Wash with soap and hot water. 2. Apply soap on stain and bleech it in sunlight. / 3. And the use of proper remover. Blood: l. Steep in salty cold water and wash with soap.and luke warm water. 18 HARYANA F'ARMIHG

91 3. Bleech with javelle water NaOCl. 4. Spread washing soda on slain and pour boiling water. Shoe polish: 1. Apply greese, soap and hot v;ater. 2. Soak in kerosine or turpentine. Lamp black'or stove Epot: 1. Soak in Benzene or kerosine oil then wash. with soap and hot water. Marking ink: 1. Steep in iodine solution followed b~ sodium thiosulphate solution. Nail polish: 1. S~ak in acetone, but on Rayon don't use, but use methylated spirit. Lipstick: 1. Soak in methylated spirit or alcohol and wash with soap and water. 2. Treat with JavE.;lle water or H202. In case gf old stains, use glycerine to soften them. Lead pencil: Wash with water and soap and treat with oleic acid and deep it in warm NH3 solution. Medicine: 1. Steep in ethyl alcohol or methylated spirit. 2. Treat with~acetic acid followed by rinsing in hot water. Carbon: Treat with methylated spirit or alcohol. Tar and oil paints: Treat the stain with turpentine oil first and petrol afterwc..rds. Press with an iron by placing the fabric between blotting papers, equal volume of benzene and aceton is good for the stain. JaveI1e water 250 gm washing soda. 475 ml boiling water. 725 gm chloride of lime. 950 ml cold water. Ball point: Rub with methylated spirit and treat with boric acetic acid. Red ink: Steep in bomx solution, steep in Ammonra solution and bleech according to fabric. Dissolve the washing soda in boiling water and chloride of lime in cold water. Strain both the solutions, shake well. Filter the solution and store in dark coloured bottles, keep in dark place and Javelle water is unst:able to light ~- Nutritional Significance of Sprouting Pulses Pulses constitute an important item in the Indian diet. The protein content of pulses varies between 10 to 30 per cent. These pulses are usually cooked by the boiling method. Research has proved that if the pulses are sprouted by keeping in a damp cloth for?,4 ot 36 hours, a number of changes take place, which make it more nutritious and palatable. In fact, the raw ungerminated pulses do no't have vitamin C but during germination, the vitamin C content is increased enormously. Similarly, the enzymes present in the seed become aetive and improve t.he nutritional value. The vitamin B complex content is enhanced. The anti-nutritional factors which interfere with the utilization of various nutrients, such as, the tannis r- APRIL, 1981 and phytates are bown down. The enzymes activated -during the process further improve the digestibility and assimilation of protein and iron in the body. Sprouted pulses reduce the cooking time and further add variety in our daily diet. The whole pulses, such as, bengal gram, g~een gram and moth beans can be sprouted by the following method given below. Clean the' dal, wash it and soak in water overnight. Next day drain the extra water and tie the soaked pulse in a clean muslin or any thin cloth and leave for 24 to '36 hours according to the season. Cook the sprouted pulse in enough water and Use in curd for mita or season W1th ghee, spiees and few drops of lemon juice. -Mrs. lodu Grover Asstt. Prof. College of Home Science, HAU, Hissar 19

92 Cotton Growers' For better quality and higher yields control bollworms from. flowering stage SEVIMOI: SEVlI Carbaryl Insecticide Carbarvllnsecticide Sevimol, a combination of Sevin and molasses, effectively controls bollworm moths by attracting them through its palatability and kills them even before. they lay eggs. Longer protection Fewer times of application More economy No harmful residues Sevin and Sevimol are the registered.trademarks of Union Carbide Corporation, U.S.A. For the best control of young larvae 8S well as grown-up bollworms and other major cotton pests, apply anyone of the formulations: SEVIN 50WP, SEVIN 85 Sprayable, SEVIN 100 and SEVIN 50. HARYANA FARMING

93 (From page 6) American cotton. The disease causes sevete reduction -ip the si~e of the leaves (Flg. 2) and height of the Prices of Various Makes of Tractors Diseased plant }<'ig 2 Healthy plant plants. Floral parts get malformed ~leading to pairtial or invariably total sterility. -Flowers normally are abortive and if at all boll is formed, ij is one fourth or one third in size and normally does not bear any seed. This disease is' caused by Mycoplasma like organism which possibly is transmitted by certain insect. The most effective way to check its further spread would be to uproot such plants,!3;~ their first sight and spray the, crop with agrochemicals having tetracycline - base like Agrimycine-100 or 75 gm/ ha. HP '> ' 52 7S Name of Model Prices as on (in Rs.) Tractor G ] Swaraj Sartaj CO.00 Swaraj 724 5t HMT (Zetor) Harsha T Eicher Good earth Escorts. ~ E Escorts l. E-34S HMT (Zetor)'. 351\ Interna tional,b Pittie Swaraj Tafe MF-I Pittie Kirloskar D-4006 K International IH Ford Tafe Tafe HMT (Zetor) Kirloskar K R K. Malik Extension Specialist (Agricultural Engineering) HAU. Hissar, ". Higher Yield iii. Bottlegourd by Maleic fi,ydrazide Sprays The yield of bo±t1egourd has beejn enhanced by tile. use O'f Maleic Hydrazide (MIl) in bottlegourd as per the recent recommendations of Hi;'U. Why don't you try it? The crop of bottlegourd is sprayed with a solution of 50 ppm MH (2.5 g of MH in 50 litres of water/ha) at-two-fruej leaf stage and four-true leaf sitage. Some sticker should als~ adped in these solutions for uniform distribution on leaf surface. This will increase the no. of female flowers in the plant and ultimately the yield of the plants. - -v. K. SrivastavlII Extension Specialist (Vegetables) Haryana Agricultural University. Bissar o

94 I,t quick knock down properties prove deadly to stubborn pests, EKALUX EC 25 has a prolonged residual action-this not only means long. term protection to the crop against repeat attacks. but also greater economy due to fewer applica tions. EKALUX EC 25 is compatible with most non alkaline insecticides and fungicides-this gives it greater adaptability. For further details or technical assistance. writ. t01 \ SANDOZ (INDIA) LIMITED AgroehemicaJ Division Sandoz House Or. Annie Besant Road - WOIIi.60MBAY f'kalux ~is the register' edlrademarkol Sandoz limited. Bnle. Switzerland. of which Sancloz,(India) Limited are the licensed users in India. Printed and published by Dr. R. M. Sharma, Director or Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of Haryan8 Agricultural University, Hissar, Haryana ([ndia). Printed by B. R. CQ~\Vdrri, Press Manager, at the HAU Press, on April I, 1981.

95 60 aise May. 1981

96 HARYANA FARMING Volume X May 1981 No. 5 Contents 1. Improved varieties of kharif oil seeds -T. P. Yadava, S. K. Thakral and Parkash Kumar 2. Grow arhar with improved management practices -D. P. Singh and S. S. Mann for higher yields 3. A safe feeding chute for power threshers 4. Insect-pests of cucurbits and their control S. Housewives combat household insect-pests-iii 6. Grow soybean for summer forage 7. Agro-technology for summer moong 8. How to get maximum cotton yield under drought condition 9. Buckeye rot of tomato 10. Mango malformation-problem and solution 11. Lasora-an important fruit for arid regions 12. Mini dairy scheme in Haryana 13. Bcr-a fruit crop of salt affected soils -Sudama Aggarwal and R. K. Malik -BalbiT Singh and Zile Singh - Kamla Singh, Gulab Singh and Zile Singh -D. R. Dahiya, D. S. Malik, R. S. Hooda and D. P. Singh -D. R. Dahiya, R. S. Parada and R. C. Singh -A. S. Dhindwal. K. L. Chhabra and B. P. S. Lather I - M. P. Srivastava -M. P. Srivastava and J. K. Dang -Sunnel Sharma and R. Yamdagni -A. C. Gangwar -So S. Dahiya and M. S. Joon Pages 1 / / Director of Publications! Director of Extension Education I Dr. R. M. Sharma Dr. J. C. Sharma Joint Director (Extn.) : Dr. A. W. Sohon; * Editor V. S. Gupta Yearly Subscription Rs Lsyou' I KlIljit Assisted by D. C. Yadav * Photo I HAU Photo Unit Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Dhawan, HAU, Hissar

97 Improved Varieties of l\-harif Oilseeds -T. P. Yadava, S. K. Thakral and Parkash Komar Department of Plant Breeding, HAa, Bissar India is facing acute shortage of edible oils and the country has to import about 13 lakh tonnes of :oil involving 800 crores of foreign exchange. ThEl present production is about 9.3 million tonnes. whereas the target for the year is about 11 million tonnes. The research work conducted at this universiey has ~ I shown that this gap can be bridged and self-sufficiency In edible oils can be attained in oil seed crops by the US! of improved varieties alongwith the new production t K!hnology. The names and characteristics of improved varieties of kharif oilseeds are given below: 'J\1H-2' (Mungphali Haryana No.2): This variety has been developed through single plant selection from a strain 'Dwarf Mutant'. It is an extremely dwarf variety (10-15 em) belonging to bunch group and suitable for cultivation in sandy loam soils. This variety is more suitable for sandy loam soils under irriga1ted conditions. Its branches and needles am lightly pigmen ted, leaves are normal in size, dark green in colour, senescence of leaves takes place at maturity which is, the index of ripening. Pods are shining: yellow in ili l colour, cylindrical and long possessing 1-3 kernels. '. Pods are born in a bunch just below the soil surfacel and vary from 15 to 20 per plant. Kernels are small in size (33 g/loo kernels) having red testa with 50 per cent oil content. It has a shelling outturn of 72 per cent and resistant to tikka disease. On an average, this variety yie[ds 40 qtls. pod per hectare at a closer spacing of 15 x 15 em and matures in days. 'MH-I' (Mungphali Haryana No. 1): It is a bunch variety recommeitlded for general cultivation in sandy loam soils of Haryana under irrigated conditions where irrigation facilities exist and the growing of spreading varieties is not economical because of poor recovery. On an averag!e, it yields about 2200 kg pods per hectare and matures in 120.days. Leaves are normal in size, light green in colour and srnescenee of leaves takes place at maturity. E-ach plant has about 16 pods with 1-3 kernels per pod. It has a shelling outturn of 70 per cent, 100 kernel weigh.t of 48 g and oil content of 50 per cent. This variety is susceptible to tikka disease. '1\'1-145' : It is a semi-spreading variety of groundnut recommended for cultivation in sandy soils under well distributed rainfall or irrigat'ed conditions of Haryana. It requires 3-4 irrigations in low rainfall areas and 2-3 irrigations in arelas with medium rainfall. Its leaves are dark green.in colour, pods long and pointed at the end, light yellow in colour containing 2-4 kernels per pod, kernels reddish purple in colour, sweet in taste and possesses 50 per cent oil. It has a shellingi outturn of 75 per cent and 100 kernel weight of 48 g. On an average, this varie.ty yields about 2200 kg pods per hectare and matures in 125 days. It is resistant to tikka disease. 'HT-l' (Haryana Til No.1): It is a single plant selection from variety NP 6-3 of IARl, New Delhi. This variety is characterized by erect growth habit, e1arly maturity (77 days), medium height, 1-2 capsules per leaf axil, upright branches, dark gre m leav,es with white and bold seeds, resistant to leaf. curl and phyllody. Its seeds contain 49 per cent oil. Its average yield is 6-7 qtls. per hectare. I 'eh-i' (Castor Haryana No.1): A dwarf variety ( cm) having short internodes, pink colour stem, dark green leaves, closely placed giving 'roseltte' appearance during ve:getative stage and profuse branches bearing 5-8 spikes per plant has been developed through the single selection from a variety 'Gujrat Castor Hybrid-3'. The spikes of this variet.y mature in days. The number of capsules varie-s from 75 t'o 100 on each spike and each capsule possesses 3 smail seeds. Its average seed yield is 16 qtl. per hectare. The 100- seed weight of this variety is 27 gm and its seed contains 49 pelt cent oil. Read Haryana Far:ming now a monthly farm magazine MAY,

98 Grow Arhar with Improved Management Practices for Higher Yields -D. P. Singh and S. S. Mann Department of Soils, HAU, Hissar Due to virus problems in moong and urd, arhar is assuming greater importance among pulses during kharif season. Also arhar is one of the! highest yielding pulse crops and has a very wide range of agroclimatic adaptation. With the release of short duration varieties of arhar in recent years, this crop has beoome very important among pulses because after harvesting this crop, wheat crop can very easily be taken: This promising pulse crop can also very easily be grown in rainfed areas due to its hardiness and can also be, i)uccessfully grown in intensively cropped areas. The low ytelds in pulses in our country is not only due to lack of high yielding VariEjties hut also due to inadequa:te agronomic practices. In a short duration crop, sowing dates, distance between the rows and doses of fertilizers are very important factors which may reduce or enhance the yield significantly. So, it is always be tter to plant the crop at proper timel with a proper distance and recommended fertilizer dose using an improved variety seed. Improved varieties available Prabhat: This is a medium tall variety with erect habit of growth, few branches and matures in about 120 days from seed to seed. Its pods ar e borne in bunches concentrated towards the apical end of the plant. The pods'are relatively small to medium in, size and bear seed of medium size. It has de~,erminate habit of growth with a considerable gap between first and second flushfls of flowering. It is suitable for cultivation where it is desired to take up wheat after this crop.. Average yield is about 12 quintals per hectare. UPAS-120: This is also medium tall in height a.nd this too matures in about 120 days from <:eed t.o seed. It 2 is very much different in plant type from Prabhat. It has higher number of branches which almost droop at:, maturity. Its pods am well distributed along the len- J gth of branches and unlike Prabhat, they are not concentrated at the t.op of the plant. At'the time of flowering, the entire plant begins to flower simultaneously. Other features are,similar to Ptabhat. Soil and its preparation Well drained lqam to light loam s.oil is mare/sui-, tablfj. Giv~ 2-3 ploughings followed by planking for the control of weed~ and to remove the clods in the' fields. Time of sowing Sowing time is the most important fa.ctor which contributes towards yield in shdrt duration variety of arhat. A number of experiments were laid out at different experimental reisearch stations, and it Wa.s found that under irrigated conditions where double cropping system is followed, the best time of sowing is middle of June. The delay in sowing beyond last week of June will reduce the yield considerably (upto 40%). However, under rainfed conditions all the recommended varieties should be sawn as early as possible after the onset of monsoon. Inoculation of seed Like oth lr pulse crops, arhar seed should also bel inoculated with its Rhizobium culture. It should be done just before sowing. Seed rate and spacing For pure crop, all the recommended varieties should be sown in rows about 40 em apart using 12.5 to 15 kg seed/ha. However, for intercropping the rows spacing should b~) 50 cm. Results of research experiments conducted at various research stations in the qountry have indicated that if the crop is to be planted I near middle of June, then the spacing can be kept 50-,4 60 cm from row to row but if it is to be sown in the first fortnight of July theiil the distance should not exceed 40 em. Because when the crop is planted early, then it has more time for plant's development and growth. The following Table will dearly indicate the) impact of spacing, sowing date and phosphorus fertilization. HARYANA FARMING

99 I J TABLE 1* Grain yie1d q/ba Sowing Inter Rates of Pa06 (kg/ha) Average dates row yield spae ings (em) 10th,June i ,0' , ' / 22.3 Mean th June ~ Mean th June ,8 100 ll Mean th July Mean Average *FertiIizer News (1974), (2) 27 pp. A perusal of the grain yield data reveals thal among all sowing dates, earliest sowing on 10th June gave the hlghest yield beyond which every delay in sowlng gave a consistent and significant decrease. A poor yield in late sowing may be due to poor growth and development of plant. Low temperature prevailing at maturity time becomes harmful for grain formation and maturity, resulting in poor yield. A row spacing of 50 cm produced the highest yield indicating that plant population is an important factor which contributes towards higher yields. Application of 40 and 80 kg P20s/ha increased the arhar gi1ain yield significantly, indicating the importance of phosphorus fertilization in this pulse crop. Intercropping In between every two rows of arhar, one row of moong Varsha or Type 44 or the urd variety T-9 can be planted, which are early maturing types. They can be harvested in about days while arhar continues to grow. This is possible mainly under irrigated conditions or with adequate rainfall arelas. The yield of arhar is not adve~sely affected with int~jrcrop while an additional yield of another pulse crop is harvested within the.same plot. MAY, 1981 Fertilization For getting higher yields with these short duration varieties, phosphorus fertilization is must. On the basis of 'experiments conducted throughout the country, it can be recommended that on the soils which are medium to high in available phosphorus content, 40 kg P205 Iha (250 kg single superphosphate) should be applied while in the fields of low to very low phosphorus content 80 kg P20s/ha should be applied. In casa of mixed crop 20 kg P205 (125 kg single superphosphate) addi tional per hectare at the time of sowing. Normally, there is no need to apply nitrogenous and potassic fertilizers. Apply all the phosphorus fertilizers at sow.., ing time by drilling below the sead. Interculture For the control of weeds, two weedings and hoe' ings should be given after 25 and 45 days of sowing. Irrigation Irrigation, if it is needed by the crop, must be given anca at commencement of flowering and another at about days growth stage particularly when intercrop is taken. Insect-pests The gram pod borer is a serious pest to the pods of arhar also. To cont~ol it, spray the crop with endo'sul:flan (Thiodan or Thiotox or Endocel ml/ha in 750 lit~es of water after 50% pod formation or spray monocrotophos (Nuvacron or Azodrin ml/ha in 750 litres of watfli' after 50% pqd formation. Second spray may be Igiven, if necessary after 15 days of first spray. Some important things to adopt 1. Use seeds of improved varieties only recommended to the area. 2. Use seeds from diseas l free plants. 3. Innoculate your seed with arhar rhizobium culture. 4. Apply recommended doses of fertilizers on the basis of soil t~st report. 5. Control the insect-pests timely and efiectivruy. 6. Always grow arhar in the soils which are very good in internal drainage. 7. Always plant the crop at its proper sowing time. 3

100 A Safe Feeding Chute for Power Threshers -Sudama Aggarwal and R. K. Malik Deptt. of Agricultural Engineering, HAU, Bissa! The traditional practice of threshing wheat by manual labour or bullock treading has been largely r lplaced by mechanical threshing. It has reduced tlime required and weather dependence for threshing. It has also reduced the physical druggery both for humanbeings and animals. However, the power wheat threshers have led th8 operator to various types of accidents. Every year loosing/cutting of limbs of the operator while working with wheat threshers are heard. But by careful operation of a properly selected and well built thresher, these hazards can be reduced. The Indian Standards Institution (lsi) has formulated and published the following standards, which give detailed information about the various factors to minimise thresher accidents, efficient performance and safety in differemt type of threshers. IS : IS : IS : Code of practice for installation, operation and preventive maintenance of power. General and safety requirements for power threshers. Technical requirements for safe feeding system for power threshers. SAFE FEEDING CHUTE FOR THRESHERS It has been seen that most of the threshing accidents occur while pushing wheat crop inside the threshing chamber. So, a safety device for thr.e'shers whil ) pushing the crop inside the chamber is necessary. From the last few years hopper type, feeding ~ystem has come up, but it can be provided on peg tooth type threshing systems only. By and large chute type feed.ing system is provided in au the threshers due to its simple and cheap construction. So, if a bettex type of chute is provided on the thresher many of the accidents can be avoided. A sketch of improved chute for thresh 1t' is provided in the figure. This chute is made of M.S. sheet of 1. 6 mm thickness t o provide proper strength and stability. The chute is of minimum 90 em length and having a minimum 45 em covered portion. The angle of the upper cover with tho horizontal is maintained between 25 and 30 for smooth flow of the crop. The upper cover is rigidly attached, with the. lower portion by rivetting or welding. The width of the chute is to be maintained as per thresher size, while attaching the chute with the thresher it should be inclined by for beater type thresher. It should have a negative slope of 5-10 while attaching with peg tooth type thresher. For the syndicator type thresher, the feeding chute should be kept horizontal for easy feeding, 4 HARYANA FARMING

101 Insect-Pests of Cucurhits and their Control -Balbir Singh and Zile Singh Deptt. of Entomology, HAU, Rissar,.Amongst summer v~getables, cucurbits occupy an important place. They ar \ howevet, damage1d by a number of insect pests which affect the quantity as well as the quality of the produce. It is, therefore, necessary to know the important insect-pests damaging these crops and their contml measures. 1. Red Pumpkin Beetle The beetles are very destructive to cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly during March-April when the cucurbits are in the seedling stage. They injure the cotyledons and the tender foliage by biting holes into them. The grubs damage the plants by boring into the roots. Later the underground stem and sometimes the fruits touching the soil are also damaged. The early sown cucurbits are more severely damage'd and at times they may have to be resown. 250 litres of water/ha, respectively will control the: beetles effectively: Against grubs, apply.1-2 litres 0.1 % Aldrin (3 ml Aldrin 30 EC in one litre of water) around each plant and then irrigate so that the insecticide could reach upto the depth where. the grubs are present. 2. The Melon Fruit-Fly This is another most destructive of the insect-pests of cucurbits. The fly lays eggs by puncturing the tender fruits. Only the maggots cause damage by feeding on the fruits. They pollute and destroy fruits by feeding on the pulp and the fruits towards ripening may rot and become unfit for human consumption. After the first shower of monsoon, the attack is often more severe: The damage is often more serious in tar, Kalitori Karela and Khira. INFESTEO ~ FI=lULT DAMAGE CAUSED BV AI)VlT er:ulf ADULT ADULT PUPA LARVA THE RED PUMPKIN BEETLE Control: Dusting or spraying the crop with carbaryl 25 kg/ha and 250 gin carbaryl 50 WP in MAY, 1981 MAGGOT PUPA THE MELON FRUIT- FLY 5

102 Control (a) The regular removal and.destruction. of the infested (rotten) fruits helps in the suppression of this pest. (b) Apply bait spray containing malathion. This can be prepared by adding 20 ml ma1athio:n 50 EC and 200 gm sugar/gur in 20 litres of water. Repeat the spray at weekly intervals if the damage continues. (c) Plan.t maize plants in the cucurhit field in rows at a distance of 8 to 10 metres and spray tile above bait on lower surface of these plants. This rrlay prove quite effective as the flioo have habit of resting on them. 3. Aphids, Jassids and Mites The nymphs and adults of these may, at times, cause damage from April to June by sucking the plant sap and reduce the fruit bearing capacity of the cucurbits. Due to mite attack, a number of webs are formed on the leaves, giving an chloratic appeal1ai1ce. to them. Control:- Spray 625 ml malathion 50 EC in 625 litres water/ha. Repeat the spray at 10 days interval,,. if necessary. Precautions 1. Avoid the use of DDT, BHC etc. on cucurbits as they may burn their foliage. 2. Use the recommended dosage of insecticid~. 3. Do not dust when leaves are too wet. For Bumper Harvest BUY HARYANA SEEDS * HISSAR * KARNAL * SIRSA * PEHOWA * GURGOAN HSDC Sale Counters at : YAMUNA NAGAR * HAlLY MANDl * ROHTAK * BHIWANI * JIND * * SONEPAT HARYANA SEEDS DEVELOPM:f:NT CORPORATION LTD. S.C.O , Sector 8 C, " CHANDIGARH Quality seeds of.~ PADDY WHEAT COTTON GRAM BAJRA POTATO FODDER PULSES OIL SEEDS HARYANA SEEDS are Certified having high genetic & physical purity and germination, free from diseased.& weed seeds. HARYANA SEEDS are pre-tested & packed in sealed bags with MONEY.BACK GUARANTEE. 6 HARYANA FARMING-

103 Housewives Combat Household Insect-Pests-III -Kamla Singh, Gulab Singh and Zile Singh Haryan~ Agricultural University, Hissar The number of houses are increasing tremendously, year after year, because of the increase in human and cattle populations. Heavy concentration of population creates conditions favourable to the easy spread and development of household insects, as they find an abundance of food and numerous suit,able places to live and multiply. Houses, in the real sense, belong to housewives, therefore, it becomes an important assignment for them to know at least the important hous Jhold insect pests and their remedies. These household pests are classified on the basis of their nature of damage (Table 1). The losses caused by some of the important insect pests common in our area and their control measures are discussed in this article in order to make the housewives familiar with them. I Those carry diseases 3 Flies, fleas, mosquitoes, lice, cockroaches, sandflies, bed bugs, etc. Those sting human Wasps, bees, ants, bedbeings and other pat bug, fleas, etc. animals. Those suck blood twhich cause 'nuisance (they are not serious pests and get entry acciden tall y) Paper pests Betlbugs, lice, fleas, mosquitoes, sandflies, etc. Drainflies, ants, spriogtails, psocids, wasps, bees, earwigs, thrips, ground beetles, etc, Book louse, silver fish, psocids, etc. 9. Those fcause unhy- Cockroaches, crickets, genic conditions houseflies, etc. 10. Those are attracted Any type of insect which by light and other loves light. means 1. Furniture Beetle (Heterobostrychus aequalis and Lyctus africanus), TABLE) ~Important household insect-pests with their nature of damage Ii Pest Nature of damage groups I 2 1. Those attack buildings and furniture Insects included 3 Termites, carpenter ants, woodborers, furniture beetles, etc. 2. Those attack clothes, <;:lothes moths, carpet rugs and upholstery beetles, silver fish, coch- -j roaches, crickets etc.; - 3. Those infest food - Beetles, Imoths, psocids, flies, cockroaches, and ants (stored grain insect pests are already dealt within the first paper of this series) etc.. _ The first species is a very cornmon bover of packing cases, boxes, plywood chests, pannels, furniture, and fillings of buildings. Its adult is a black, cylindrical insect, with its prothoi\ax in the form of a hood, and its elytra bearing curved projections at their hind margins. The latter species is very common in India. It attacks every kind of wooden articles that contain sap wood. It reduces the wood to flour like powder. The fumiture properly varnished and polished or painted remains safe unless it is made of infested wood. Tha infested furniture may be fumigated with methyl bromide or sprayed with 5% DDT. MAY,

104 2; Carpet Beetle (Attagenus spp. and Anthrenus spp;) They are tiny straw coloured moths. Their larvae live in cases made by themselve1s and f,eed on fabrics of animal origin. The adults flutter out of the infested clothes when the latter are removed from closets and exposed to light. They may cause severe damage in continuous darkness. The best way to combat them is to expose the clothes and other fabrics regularly in the sun. Naphthalene bolls prevent these insects to infest the closets. In severe cases fumigation with any good fumigant should be done. 4. Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana L.) CARPET BEETLE A-Full Grown Larva B-Pre Pupa C-Adult They lwe constant menace to fabrics or articles containing dried animal products such as wood, hair ' fur, leather, skin, feathe;rs, horns, bristles, silk, rayon, linen, and jute ek The common black carpet beetle (A. piceus) is uniformly dull black with legs and antennae brownish me1asuring! 3-4 mm in length. Larvae are golden brown, carrot shaped and 12 mm long. They becu" stiff short hairs all over the body except the posterior end which is provided with a tuft of long hairs. The body of spotted carpet beetle is marked by bands of different colours. Its larvae are reddishbrown, with short brown hairs on the back and longer ones on the sides and at the ends of the body. All the infested woolen clothings, fur, brushes etc: should be exposed to strong sun. They should be beaten and brushed several times in the warm weather. Naphthalene g/cu m. enclosed in a muslin cloth should be placed to prevent their infestation at different levels in the clothings. Fumigation with carbon disulphide/ hydrogen cyanide/celphos may be very carefully done in case of severe infestation. 3. Fur moths (Tinea pellionella and T. pachyspila) '... c I I,, \., \ A-Perilanata americana B-BlateJIa gemanica C-Blata oriental is In addition to the above mentioned species the two other common species of cockro'a:ches found in our area,are Blatella germanica and R orientalis. All they are brown or dark brdwn s:b..iny insects with a flattened or depressed body and are nocturnal in habit. They remain hidden during the day time in CI1acks and crevices under boxes and other neglected articles. Both nymphs and adults mainly feed on cereal products, cheese, and every type of starchy material (even book bindings). They feed on human food and spoil it with excreta and by its offensive smen. They may spread some diseases also. They are commonly found in trains, uncleaned khchens, restaurants, musty buildings, and severage openings etc., therefore, these places should be kept clean. If their population is sparse then they may be trapped in a wide mouthed I bottle with the baits of Gur or jam, otherwise the]. large population may be kil1ed by spraying the roan#> with malathion/chlordane/bhc/ddt ([!. 0.2% sprats. 5. House-crickets (Grylloides sigillatlls L. & Acheta domestica L.) I 8 FUR MOTHS A-Caterpillar in the case B-Adult They are nocturnal in habit and remain hidden during the day in cracks and crevices or behind the hanging clothes, wall magazines, pictures, and looking HARYANA FARMING

105 HOUSE CRICKET glass etc. At night they infest the food which ranges from cereal products and green leaves to dead decaying matter. They also damage fabrics like silk and woolen. The adults of A. domestica are yellow brown or straw coloured with 2-3 segmented tarsi, long antennae, and stout hind legs. Their chirping at night causes nuisance. These creatures can be easily controlled by spraying the house with Malathion or 0.2% or by dusting with BHC/Malathion/Carbaryl. 6.. Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina L; and Thermobia domestica Pakard) These are minor household pests, usually found in hot and humid parts of the house such as basement, among old books and magazines. Lepisma saccharina is the common species in our area and it is carrot, shaped, soft bodied, glistering, wingless, 13 mm long and covered with silvery scales. It prefers glue and starchy materials and may eat book binding,s, papers, wall-papers, fabrics, and starched clothes etc. but normally the damage caused by this pest is negugible. Small cupboard pieces pasted with poisoned glue when placed among books serve very effective in controlling this pest. The poisoned baits prepared with whe1at flour (200 parts), sodium fluoride OT white arsenic (16 parts), sugar (10 parts), and common salt (5 parts) also proved better to control them. 7. Book Louse (Liposceiis tunsvalensis Enderlein) They are pale tiny insects which move quickly. They are soft bodied, wingless, with relatively long legs and antennae. They cause very less damage bub may some times damage old rare books. They can be easily controlled by incorporating'mercuric chloride in >the paste for binding the books. 8. Black Ants (Monomorium indicum Forel and M. gracillinum Smith) Ant Camponotus compressus SILVERFISH Although there are several species of ants infesting the households but the above mentioned are very Gommon ones. They feed on every type of food. They form nests in, cvacks of walls, floors and roofs. In addition to these species the carpenter ant (Camponotus compressus F.) also invades houses very oftenly. They are social insects with 3 castes i. e. workers (modified females), males, and queen. Their life is quite lori.g and the queen may live upto 15 years. To control them, the destruction of queen in colony is the best way out. BHC imulsion may be pored in good quantity to their nests to control them. MAY,

106 9~ Wasps (Polistes hebraeus F. and Vespa orientalis L:) WASP They cause nuisance in houses by inflicting pain :upon human being through stinging. The former species is uniformly yellow and the latter is larger and deep brownish with yellow bands across the abdomen. Both the spedes make their nests in protected places in houses and in hollow inside walls or trees. Sug~ar baits with trichlorphan as the poison proved very effective against these insects. 11. Mosquitoes (Anopheles spp, Culex spp, and Aedes spp) They are found near the filthy stagnant ponds and dump cellars. They are very commonly known Vle'ctors of malaria (Anopheles spp female), filariasis (Culex spp), and yellow fever (Aedes spp). They are slender bodied with long legs, delicate wings fringed with scales, and long filamentous antennae. Anopheles have spotted wings and their maxillary palpi and proboscis are of the same length. When at rest the head and the body are at an angle to the surface. Culex spi> have unspotted wings. When at rest, the head and body are almost padallel to the surface they sit on. Spraying of malathion 2%, BHC 5%. dieldrin 0.5%; or DDT 2% may control these insects effectively. Repellents with dimethyl phthalate as an active ingradient, when applied to the exposed body parts proved good to avoid these pests. 12. H\lman Louse 10. Housefly (Musca domestica L.) HOUSEFLY These are the commonest pests found whetever unhygenic conditions prevail. They act as vectors of some diseases like dia!rrhoe1a, dysentery, cholera, typhoid, and other enteric feve!rs. The adult housefly is 6-7 mm long, 13-J5 mm across wings and has dull colour and pale grey wings whh a yellow base, greyish dorsum of the thorax, WIth 4 equally broad longitudinal lines, and a plumose arista on the antenna. Hygenic conditions are important to prevent their entry in the houses. Spraying with 5% DDT, 2% ma1athion/diazinon, '1% lindane/chlordane, 0.5% dieldrin, or 0.5% tl'lichlorphon are found effedive against these pests. Fly swatters, sticky papers and poison baits are also' oftenly used. 10 HUMAN LOUSE They are blood sucking insects and transmit some diseases like rickettsial diseases and t.yphus fever etc. There are 3 common speoies of this insect, i.e. Pe:diculus humanus capitis L. (head louse), P. humanus corporis degeer (body ~ouse), and PMhirus pubis L. (crab louse found in public reg1ion). Their adults ade small ( mm) greyish white, flattened, wingless. and their legs terminate in a silnglle sharp, curved claw for grasping. Malathion 2% and lindane 1 % immulsions are found effective as the de'lousing treatmen.ts. Malathion 5% dust two times at 10 days interval or lindane 0.2% mixed in hair oil is very effective against head and body louse. 13: Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) BED BUG-ADULT HARYANA FARMING

107 They are nocturnacbugs residing in dirty old homes, particularly in the furniture cracks. They suck blood from human beings and other animals. They are brown, wingless, small, pear shaped insects with distinct odour. Before a blood meal, they are flat and active, but following the meal they turn oval and become sluggish. They c~m be controlled by treating repeatedly the furniture and beds with DDT 5%, malathion 1%, or lindane O~ 1 %. 14. Termites buildlllgs as well as the household goods stored therein i. e. paper, fabric, ek They are social insects with 2 forms (i) reproductivle'-queen, king, and complimentary form (ii) sterile-workers and soldiers. Eliminate and prevent the breeding of termites in the viscinity of buildings by removing all sources of infestation to control them. Use termite.resistant timber in the buildings, or treat the wood with 5% DDT emulsion alter scrapping off the soil tunnels built ther~on by the termites. The common species of termites are Microtermes spp. and Odontotermes spp. They attack the work of.first AID IN MILD EMERGENCIES All of us are prone to accidents of various nature in life. Accidents need to be attended at once as delay can prove fatal in certain cases if we keep waiting till the doctor arrives. First aid given in time can help in relieving pain or even prove life saving. Here are some important tips regarding first aid in case of emergencies. If a poison or coin etc. has been swallowed first of all induce vomiting so that the same comes out from the stomach without delay. Vomiting should not, be induced if the patient is unconscious or has swallowed petroleum products such as Kerosene or gasoline etc. In that case a stomach wash from the doctor is advisable as induced vomiting may cause burning sensation or burns in the mouth, trachea and the digestive tract. In case some poison has been inhaled e. g. some insecticide. fumigant, fungicide or pesticide first of all losen the clothing of the person and let him breathe fresh air. Open the doors and windows of the room and do not crowd the patient. If the breathing of the patient is irregular artificial respiration may be given.... Alcohol in any form should nqlt be given. Sometimes a patient may couapse because of the effect of the poison. If so, make him lie down in bed with the foot raised a little and cover with a light blanket. Do not use hot water bottle but give strong tea or coffee. A doctor should be called without delay. If there is skin contamination wash the area well wi'th clean water to which small amount of borax powder or potassium permangnate has belen added. Immediate washing reduces the extent of injury caused. In case of eye contamination wash the eyes gently with clean water keeping the eyelids open. Do not rub the eyes. If a hard head bump has been formed immediately apply cold wet cloth and make the patient take a reclining position and rest. Sometimes many of us land up with pinched fingers which ar0 very painful. Immediately put the fingers under running water and apply pressure after sometime. Nose bleeding is also found to occur sometimes in adults and children. At such times immediately pinch the nostrils and hold the head back. Allow the person tv breathe thro~h the mouth. If nose bleeding has oc'cur~ ed due to excessive atmospheric heat cold water should be poured over the head region. -Mrs. Indu Grover Assistant Professor, College of Home Science MAY, 198,1 11

108

109 Seed-rate and method of sowing Grow Soybean for Summer Forage -D. R. Dahiya, D. S. Malik,,R. S. Hooda and D/P. Singh Depariment oj Agronomy. HAU. Hissar The scarcity of fodder is more pronounced during summer season. Moreover, whatever supply of fodder is available in our country is of poor quality which results in poor health and low output per animal both in terms of milk and work. Among the quick growing forage crops soybean (Glycine max;) is of late introduction which could serve as one of the important fodder legume during summer season because of its short duration, high yielding and quick growing capacity alongwith high protein content and palatability. It has been proved experimentally that potential yteld of soybean as a summer fodder can be achieved by adopting the following judicious crop management practices. Variety Black soybean 'Kalitur' characterised by profused le",f growth and deep green in colour is the only variety of soybe'an suitable for fodder purposes. The crop is ready for green fodder in about 90 to 100 days and gives an average yield of about q/ha., Soil and its preparation It can be grown on a wide range of soils but it does well on well drained sandy loam to loamy soils. The land should be ploughed 2-3 times dependin,gl upon the previous crop, weed infestation and soil type. Sowing time Optimum time of sowing is one of the most important non-monetary factors responsible for higher yields. The crop could be sown from March to April for early availability of ~een fodder. MAY, 1981 Optimum plant population per unit area is the pre-requisite for higher yields of crop. The optimum plants can be obtlained if the crop is sown 30 em apart in lines by using kg seed/ha.. Seed treatment The various yield levels obtained during 1979 and 1980 under the given treatment are presented as below:- Treatments No inoculation Inoculation Green yield (q/ha) It is evident from the data that being a leguminous crop, the seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium be obt.ained from the Department of Microbiology, Haryana Agricultural University, Bissar. Fertilizer use It is suffic1ent to give a dose of 25 kg Nand 50 kg P 205/ha before sowing by drilling in rows. Being a legume, it does not need much nitrogen. Irrigations Besides pre-sowing irrigation (Paleva), first irrigation after 20 to 25 days of sowing and subsequent irj igations at an interval of 15 days are required. Interculture Hoeing of the crop in the early stages is neces Sdry to check weeds and to create soil mulch for good aeration and for minimising the moisture losses through evaporatjon which is very high during summer season. Plant protection Jassid attacks the crop in dry weather. It can be controlled by sprayin~ the crop with 500 rol of malathion 50 EC in 500 litres of water per hectare with a manually operated sprayer. The crop should not be fed to oattle for a week after spraying. 13

110 Agro-Technology for Summer Moong -D. R. Oabiya, R. S. Paroda and R. C. Singh Department of Plant Breeding, HAU, Hissar The prospects of raising moong during summer seem to be more bright after harvesting the sugarcane, cotton and normal sown wheat, and bar ley when fields will be available in the month of March/April. Under irrigated conditions fields can be very well utilized for growing moong for grain. For harvesting a good crop of summer mung the following focal points should be practised. Field preparation After harvesting rabi crops give on~ rauni (Presowing) irrigation. When the land comes to working condition, do 2-3 ploughings fonowed by planking. Planking after each ploughing will be helpful in minimising the moisture loss by evaporation from the soil surface. Selection of moong variety High yielding, quick growing and short duration varieties were tested during summer season. The date pertaining to the performance of different varieties under different dates of sowing are given in the Table 1. TABLE 1 Varieties 17th 4th 15th 7th Mean March April April May H (Versha) mooog 1>S T44(Pusa Baishakhi) S K 85i Mean ' Dates Varieties S.E.m± C. D. at 5% The early sowing On 17th March gave significantly higher yield than all orther dates. Th~ sowing on 4th and 15th April which were at par in yielding behaviour gave significantly higher than that of 7th May sown crop. Variety K851 out yielded all the varieties. The varieties, PS~7, T44 and 8-8 found at par with each other and gave significantly higher seed yield over H Use of fertilizer! The initial soil fertility decides the fertilizer,requirement of a crop. Generally no fertilizer application is recommended for this crop in soils with medium 10' high in fertility. Application of ~gl N and kg P205/ha is, however, recommended in poor soils. Being a leguminous crop, the seeds should be inoculated with Rhizobium culture for getting good start of the plants. Proper sowing time The optimum time of sowing for summer moong is middle March to middle April: A delay in sowingreduced the yield drastic'ally d).1e to reduced fruiting and coincidence of maturity with early monsoon rains. Planlt population, planting p'aitern and seed The optimum plant popullartion will possibly increase the productivity by 30 to 40% over present yield level. To maintain optimum plant stand a spacing of 25 to 30 em ~twelen rows and 7 to 10 em between plants should be maintained by using 20 to 25 kg seed/ha for medium and bolder seeded varieties of moong. respectively. Thinn:ng- and interculture Extra seedlings should be thinned out 20 days after sowing in ol'der to maintain desired plant to' plant distance. This operation improves the branching as well as fruiting. Weeds do not pose a serious problem during summer season, however, one hoeing may be done to keep the field free from the weeds and to conserve the soil moisture as well. Irrigation requirement The required levell of produotion of summer moong I totally depends upon timely irrigation. The first irrigation should be given about 25 days after sowing and subsequent irrigations at an interval of diays. Thus 3-4 post sowing irrigations are requil:-.ed for early sowing and 2-3 for late sown crop. By adopting these crop management practices we can get the higher yield of summer moong. HARYANA FARMING

111 How to Get Maximum Cotton Yield Under Drought Condition -A. S. Dhindwal,,K. L. Chhabra and B. P. S. Lather Ha~yana Agricultural University, Bissar We are facing drought conditions for the last two years in North-West India. There was scarcity of canal water, electricity and diesel for running tubewells in order to irrigate our co,tton crop. Due to scarcity of moisture, the cotton crop could not flourish as it should have been. It was observed that initially the vegetative growth was poor and later on the shedding of squares and bolls adversally affected the cotton yields. Bad opening in many parts of the cotton growing areas was noticed which was also attributed to moisture stress at the boh development stage. We can make maximum use of water available with the help of following key points by conserving soil moisture to get maximum cotton yields. 1. The sowing in sandy areas should be done in the month of April as to avoid burning of young seedlings by hot sand due to hot weather. 2. Use high seed rate (25 kg/ha) as to avoid the risk of seedling mortality to get optimum plant population (60,OOO/ha). 3. Dry hoeing should be done repeatedly in order to conserve soil moisture and weed free soil surface. At iater stages also a weed free soil surface is required to reduce moisture losses through transpiration by weeds. 4. Thinning should be done as early as possible (3-4 weeks after sowing) to avoid the uptake of moisture by extra number of plants. 5. Mulching should be done with straw or husk in order to avoid evaporation losses from open soil surface and control of weeds, which compete with your cotton crop for moi~ture. 6. Use 5 cart load farm yard manure per acre for improving soil physical properties such as moisture holding capacity. 7. Delay first irrigation as you can, so that unnecessary vegetative growth may be reduced and at the same time roots will go deeper in the sub-soil layer to extract moisture. 8. Make ridges and furrows in between two rows of cotton or between alternate rows and then irrigation water should be given in only furrows. By this method we can save 30-40% water without affecting our cohon yields. 9. There are two critical stages of cotton crop i. e squaring and flowering and water stress at these stages will reduce your cotton yield drastically. If possible, make arrangement to irrigate your cotton crop at th2se stages to 3% urea should be applied to crop through foliar spray by using 400 litres of water per acre at squaring and flowering stages.of crop growth. Better Harvest of Bottle-gourd (VAR PSPR) by the use of Maleic Hydrazide Bottle gourd (Ghia) is one of the important vegetable crops grown during summer & rainy season in India for its immature tender fruits. Under normal condition, female flowers in bottle gourd appear very late and at higher nodes. In order to get more number of female flowers at lower node and higher yield ai' bottle gourd, a chemical MH (Maleic hydrazide) has been found effective in the department of Vegetable Crops, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar. Based on the two years observations, foliar aprlication of 50 ppm MH (2.5 MH dissolved in 50 litres of water/hal at 2nd 4, true leaf stages produced more number of female flowers at the lowest node ul timately giving higher yield' than untreated plants. It was observed that female flowers appeared six days earlier than control. MH treated plants produced 62.7 female flowers as against 21.2 in untreated (control). It was also noticed that MH treated plants produced moire than double number of fruits i.e fruits per plant as compared to untreated plants which gave only 4.3 fruits per plant. Based on the average of two years aata, the yield per hectare was raised to q/ha as against q/ha in untreated control. Before making the spray MH should be dissolved in hot water and later mixed whole quantity of water. 1-2 qrops per one litre of solution should be mixed thoroughly for uniform distribution of solution on the leaves. -So K. Arora, M. L. Pandita & A. S. Sidhu Department of Veg. Crops, BAU, Bissar

112 Buckeye Rot of Tomato -M. P. Srivastava Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar Recently a new "disease of tomato was observed mostly affecting green fruits in village Rohat and its viscinity in Sonepat district which was not known earlier to occur in Haryana. The disease appears in the form of water-soaked lesion which gradually enlarges exhibiting one or more fairly broad irregular zones of alternating shades of brown and grayish brown colours. The surface of the well developed rot is usually smooth and the skin IS unbroken. Usually the colour of the affected part appears to be chocolate brown. Apparently there is no fungal growth on the fruit surface but when such fruits were brought to Hissar and examined next day, white fluffy growth of the fungus did appear and fruits showed symptoms of soft decay. This disease is caused by a species of Phytophthora which is soil-horne in nature. Especially in wet and humid weather, when fruits come in contact with the soil, infection takes place. Frequent rains during February and March this year appeared congenial for development and spread of the disease. In fact) due to frequent rains most of the plants could not stand erect with the results fruits invariably in different branches came in contact with the soil and got infe'cted. In order to check this malady farmers have been advised to provide some support to the plants to avoid contact of fruits with soil. However, this may not be practical where the area is much. For future guidance, farmers should take up tomato cultivation in well drained soil to avoid: water stagnation. Right now the affected fruits be picked and delstroyed away from the field apd then the crop should be sprayed with Dithane 600 gms diluted in 250 litres of water per acre once or twice at 15 days interval. Spraying should be till run-off stage so that all the fruits get covered with fungicide film. For better wetting, spreading and retention of the fungicide mix about 25 gms of Selwett-99 or 100 ml Triton.. 16 Man'go Malformatoin Problem and Solution -M. P. Sril'8stava and J. K. Dang Department of Plant Pathology, HAU, Hissllr I I Mango malformation is serious problem and has beoome a matter of concern to mango growers and the scientists working on it as it causes heavy losse,s in yie1ld. Besides India, the disease has been reported from Pakistan, UAR and USA. It was first observed by a farmer Maries in Darbhanga, Bihar as has been reported by WaH in Now the disease is known to occur almost throughout India. However, it is. widely prevalent in northern part of the country while the incidence in southern part is sporadic. In Haryana 5tate this problem has been noticed, wherever mango is cultivated. Symp'toms Two types of malformations namely-'vegetative malformation' and 'Floral malformation' are observed. Vegetative malformation produces bunchy top symptoms on young seedlings which originate from the outgrowth of the axillary bud on the apex of the main and secondary shoot. -The apical dominance of the t rminal bud is destroyed, which then "lead to outgrowth of the axillary buds. The large numbe'r of small leaves and stem which are characterised by substantially reduced internode, get crowded together inio a compact head resulting in witches broom like appearance of the terminal shoot. Floral malformation transforms the flower bud into Vegetative buds and large number of small leaves whigh get aggregated together to give malformed appearance which usually do not bear fruits. Causes Different opinions have been expressed by different workers from time to time regarding the causes of this malady. HARYANA FARMING

113 Some people consider it as a physiological disorder resulting due to (i) heavy irrigation throughout the ytear as opined by Maries (ii) deficiency of micro and macronutrients (iii) imbalance in C/N ratio and (iv) fluctuation in temperature during panicle development. However evidences,how go in favour of a fungus, Fusarium mo~iliforme a~ the cause of this malady. The fungus is carried by eriqphy~s mite, Aceria mangiferae to the growing shoots or inflorescence producing malformation. It is also believed that due to attack of the fungus or otherwise harmonal imbalance is al!3o created. Control measures 1. Remove the affected shoots and inflorescence 6-1t' below the point of attachment followed by spraying with a mixture of fungicide (Captan 0.1 %), a miticide (Akar 338 or malathion 0.1 %) and sticker (Tenac) to provide a better residual effect. Benomyl can also be used in place of Captan. 2. Spray Naphthalene Acetic Acid 300 ppm in first week of October and deblossom the panicle at budburst stage in the month of January and February. 3. Vigorate the plants with desired doses of nitrogen and potash. CHEMOSTERILANTS FOR RODENT PEST CONTROL Although a variety of rodenticides are in common use, none has succeeded in complete eradication of these pests. With increasing use of rodenticides such as WARFARIN, rodents in Denmark and Britain have developed resistance to them. Success with these rodenticides during and after the World War II was impressive both in the developed and developing countries. At this stage it has been realized that these chemicals have some undesirable side effects. During manufacture, packing and applying a chemical, workmen receive significant exposures. Among the safest and the most useful methods deve~oped recently, are, rodent chemosterilants, which make use of rodent's olfactory capabilities. The chemicals which induce sterility in rodent.s are known as chemosterilants. A chemical compound U-5, 897 sterilizes the male Norway Rat by blockmg the ducts from which the sperm leave the testes. Surpdsingly this blockage does not seem to effect the LIBIDO i.e. the desire to mate with an estrous female. An estrous female that mates only with sterilised male en ters a pseudopregnant state which lasts until her next estrous, a period of about 2 weeks otherwise an estrous female enters the reproductive state. In the same way the! sterilized rodents cannoot reproduce and at the same time the further control reproductions by competing with the remaining fertile individuals in the natural populations. Rodents can also be sterilised by using radiation usually (X-rays), but the technique is too expepsive. Latest researches have resulted in a new method of rat control which consists of oral feeding of c'ertain chemicals like Furadantin and Colchicine too rats in one dose for rendering them sterile for Hfe time. The application of chemosterilants is (a) to check the production of ova or sperm (b) to cause the death of sperm when combined with the ova after fertilization and (c) to produce changes similar to radiomimetic substances i.e. mutations or injuring the genetic materials. -so S. Chandn8 lui Canal Division Bhiwani MAY,

114 It grows luxuriantly in sandy loam soils. A spacing of 5m x 5m would be quite adequate. It is a good wind break. Lasora-An Important Fruit for Arid Regions -Sunnel Sharma and R. Yamdagoi Deparrmenl of Horricu[rure, H AU, fjissar Lasora (Cordia myxa Linn.) is one of the minor fruit crops that grows wild in arid regions of India. Fruits of Lasora have been used by local people since ages. It belongs to the family Boraginacae to which also belonged Helitrope-an ornamental plant. A related species (Cordia gharaf) is found growing in the arid regions and seems to be indigenous to this region. It is locally known as Gondi. Its fruit is a drupe, cvoid in shape, yellow or redish brown in colour and used as gum. Lasora is medium size, decidious tree with crooked branches. Leaves are simple, thick and glossy m nature. Flowers are white in colour, occur in clusters and are sweet smelling. Nutritive value of Lasora Moisture Protein Fat Minerals Fibre Carbo-. hydrates (per 100 g edible portion) --~ Data sho,wed that fruit contains good amount of fat and minerals as compared to many other fruit crops. In fats, only almond, apricot (dry) and Cashewnut-exceeded this figure. Soil and clirnatic,adaptability Lasara is drought tolerant because of which it 1S adap.ted to the harsh agro-dimate of the arid zone. r..asora grows well on all types of soil even on saline and alkaline soils, where other crops cannot be grown. ]8 Information on fer:tilizer requirements and irrigation schedule are yet be worked' out. However, 50 kg rotten Farm Yard Manure per tree should be applied in December-January. Propagation:- It can be propagated through seed as well as stem cuttings. Being a Cross pollinated crop, propagation through cutting is preferred to maintain genetic purity. Cuttlngs aile generally taken from one year old shoot. P!antin,g of cutting is done dur~g July-August. It takes 3-4 years for flowering -imd fruiting. Varieties: There is no well established variety known in this fruit crop. As.it is propagated through seed, a lot of variation is found in plants. But two types of Lasora are generally found one having big size and another one having small size fruits. Blg size Lasora fetches more price in the market. Therefore, big size las ora type should be preferred / for plantation. Flowering and Fruiting Generally flowering takes place in March-April and green fruits are available by May-June and are used as vegetables and for making pickle. On full maturity, the fruits turn yellowish brown with mucilaginous sweet pulp. Yield A tree of 15 years approximately yields q uin tal fru i t. Insect-Pest:- Due to its hardy nature, no insectpest has been found damaging this fruit crop. Lasara on account of its various qualities can ~1 grown at places where other fruit crops cannot b~ grown successfully. It can also be planted as wind break around orchard, where it gives fruit as well as protects orchard from dry and hot wind. HARYANA FARMING

115 Eligibility Mini Dairy Scheme In Haryana i -A. C. Gaogwar Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar With a view to provide employment opportunities to educated men/wom~n, ex-servicemen, farmers, schedule castes and to' exploit the potentials of livestock industry in the state, the Government of Haryana has initiated a scheme popularly known as Mini Dairy Scheme. Each mini dairy unit shall be comprising Df 5 milch animals to' begin with. The scheme envisages capital outlay of Rs. 23,000 Dn an average (Rs. 15,000 for cattle-heads and Rs. 8,000 for the cattleshed) fdr one unit. The dairy units are proposed to be set up in clusters of 10 units each Dn the milk route of surplus milk from the dairy farmers. The scheme is being implemented by special cadre of Department of Animal Husbandry, Haryana under control of Deputy DirectDr and Assistant Dire'ctDr to ensure effective supervision and guidance. Objectives (i) To pro\tide self employment to educated unemployed, under employed rural youth and ex-servicemen; (ii) To raise socio-economic standard of the weaker section of society; (iii) To increase the production of milk for satiating requirements of the consumers in general and milk plants of the state in particular and (iv) To meet the requirements of balanced diet to all sectidns of people both in urban and rural areas for adequate nutrients. The following beneficiaries will be eligible for setting up of Mini Dairy Units under the scheme: (i) The beneficiaries should be atleast matriculate unemployed rural youth, ex-servicemen and schedule castes, who will be able to' set apart atieast one acre of land with assured irrigatidn facilities for growing latest varieties of green fodder. (ii) Farmers owing upto 5 acres of irrigated land or owing not mdre than 7 acres of irrigated land. Fifty per cent of the physical targets are reserved for schedule castes, ex-servicemen and rural educated unempldyed youth, out of which 20 per cent are exclusively reserved for s,chedule castes. The beneficiaries shall undergo successful training in dairy farming for 21 days and be sponsored by the state Department of Animal Husbandry. It has been further provided in the rules that the beneficiaries shall have to execute a bond of 3 years with the state department to sell their surplus milk to the nearest state milk plant and 50 per cent of sale prdceeds of milk will be credit'ed towards repayment of loan. This is necessary to' avail the benefit of interest and insurance subsidy. Financial assistance 'and margin The eligible beneficiaries shall be fmanced for purchase Df cattle and for constructio'n of the shed and the loan component. would be up to' Rs. 19,550/- per unit (Rs. 12,750/- for purchase of five milch animals and Rs. 6,800/- for construction of shed). This would entall 15% of the proposed capital outlay i.e. Rs. 15,000/- for purchase of cattle and Rs. 8,000/- for construction of shed: The rel'axation in margin from 25% to 15% has been accorded in view of inability of the potential beneficiaries to offer the requisite quantum O'f funds Le. 25% from their own sources belonging to the lower rung unemployed segment of the society as they are. Further the beneficiaries may be asked to contribute in ca,sh only in the purchase of animals and their labour component may be considered towards margin in the construction of shed. MAY,

116 Disbursement The financial assistance shall be released direct 1.0 the suppliers of animals alongwith margin contribution of the beneficiaries towards the' cost of animals: The loan for constr.uction of shed shall be released in three stages and shed shall be constructed preferably as per guidelines indicated in the model design. Purchase of,animals The animals may be purchased in two lots for keeping the milk production continuous. Further animals should be purchased by a sub-committee comprising of the beneficiary, state deptt. official and bank. official preferably from cattle fairs being held in the Stlate at various places. Insurance - The animals purchased shall be got insured and the oost of premium shall be claimed from the State Deptt. of Animal Husbandry. Rate of 'interest Regular rate oi 10% shall be appljk!d, however, since the state Govt.. shall subsidize' the interest. The differential amount of interest over and above 4% shall be got reimbursed from the State' Department. ATTRACTANTS FOR RODENT PEST CONTROL An attractant is a substance which causes a rodent to move towards it. The food eaten by rodents may be influenced by some properties such as water content, flavour etc. Wet food is essential for rodents. The presence of free water even if severely contarrllnated attracts them. They quickly find sources of water such as leaking tap or pipe. In addition soaking dry or hard food in water often increases acceptance. Use of food attractants, such as arachis oil and a piece of garlic make carbohydrate mixture more acceptable rodents such as house rats prefer food sweetened with sugar or saccharin. The attractants are mixed with rodenticide'so that rodents attraded towards it are killed. Besides the food attractants there are sex attractants also. Many of the rodents respond to sex attrac- tants (called :pheromones). Pheromones are the chemical substances secreted by the body and has got olfactory influence. It has been confirmed at CAZRI, JODHPUR that rodents are even attracted towards the urine of female rodents. Attraction is due to the production of pheromones alongwith the urine. Even a single phe!fomone may be functional in the absence of producer. Mixing 4% Zinc Phosphide in the urine of female rodents and their consumption by male DOdents eventually lead to their death. Urine and genital secretions contribute to odour trails and the trails are followed by male rodents. Scientists have isolated sex pheromones from rodents and synthesized chemicals related to the attractants that have proved highly successful in regulating the population of rodents. -so S. CblOdOa/ lui Canal Division, Bhiwanf 20 HARYANA FARMING'

117 Ber-A Fruit Crop of Salt Affecte~ Soil -So S. Dahiya and M. S. Joon Department of Horticulture, HAU, Hissar ~ i Cultivation of fruit crop~ in Haryana is handicapped by several factors, most limiting of which is the salinity of the soil and water. I}esults of experiments at Haryana Agricultural University. Hissar have shown that fruit trees ate relatively salt sensitive as compared to cereals and forage crops. Since then, a great deal of research has been conducted on the tolerance of fruit crops 'to 'various saline/alk~line conditions. Based on findjngs fruit crops have been Classified into three categories in relation to their relative salt tolerance. Date-palm and ber have high sah tolerance; pomegranate, fig, olive and grapes are medium salt tolerant; and pear, apple, stone fruits, citrus, avocado and straw!;jerries are l1ighly salt sensitive crops. In Haryana, about 15% (O.G million hectares) of the total cultivated land has already been affected by salinity/alkalinity and there is a serious danger of morre land becoming saline due to rising ground water table in the central and western parts of the state where the ground water is brackish. 'Ehe most common ions in saline soils' are calcium, sodium, magnesium, chlorides and bicarbonates. Too much O'f salt in the soil affects plants in two ways: firstly by making the soil moisture less available and secondly by enerting a direct toxic effect on plants. Excess of exchangeable sodium in the soil causes deterioration of the physical condition of the soil. Work at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal has shown that saline-sadie soils can profitably be used for crop production by leaching and incorporanng gypsum etc. where good quali~y, ground water is available for leaching. But it is very difficult to reclaim these soils by leaching, especially unde:r fruit cultivation, as the roots of 'fruit ci:9ps penetrate deep into the so'il. Thus, the onry '~it:ernativ~ left is to gro'w salt tolerant fruit crops. ' Ber gives more economic ie'turns pel:- acr'e as compared to field e~ops. Moreover, this 'fruit crop is of natural occurrence in arid and semi.!arid regions. Where soil salinity and low rainfall are the characteristic features. It has been a ne:glected fruit until recently when its nutritive value was recognised. It is a rich source of vitamins, minerals and sugars and ranks only next to Aonla In ascorbic acid content. Ber is also relatively a hardy crop and proves successful under adverse soil condltions of salinity and aridity. Ber is generally seen growing in waste salt affected lands along road sides, railway tracts and in forests. Experiments have shown that moderate le.vel of soil salinity improves the growth of ber and wen est!ablished ber seedlings can withstand high salinity conditions as it could be grown satisfac;torily even in a highly saline soils of 10 mmhos/cm ECe. Seedlings should be raised by sowing the seeds ill manured and wen prepared plots in normal soil. Seed sowing should be done in 1st we,ek of April and thus the root stocks will be ready for budding by August or September. The budded seedlings thus raised can oe transplanted in salt affected soils. In this way by planting an orchard of ber in such soils fanners can get good returns as compared to other crops. GET HIGHER YIELD OF CHAPPAN KADDU BY USE OF ETHREL Summe'r squash (Chappan Kaddu) is the important cucurbitacous crop in this region for production of a very early vegetable during spring. The yield of this crop depends upon the number of female flowers appearing on a plant and earliness depends on the position of female flowers. In general the female flowers appear very late and at the higher nodes. A chemical, Ethrel, has been found very effective for the produdian of more number of f emale flowers at the lowest node and to get earliest fruit set in chappan kaddu. Studies conduded in the Department of Vegetabie Crops, HAU, Hissar have shown that Ethrel is effective in inducing female flowers and improvement of early and total yield in summer squash. 50 % dissolved in 50 htres of water ha) on the leaves of chappan kaddu plants at 2 and 4 true leaf stiages induced female flowers quite early and' at the lowest node number. It was found that aver-age number of :Demale flowers per plant from ethrel ltreated plants were 38.8 as compared to 12.7 in unjrea:ted plants. The avt:'rage number of fruits harvested from 250 ppm ethrel treated plants were about three. times of (15.2 fruits/plant) untreated control plant (51.1 fruits/plant). Ethrel treated plants produced female flowers sever days earlier and yield was improved to q/ha a~ against q/ha in untreated (control). Before spray ing Ethrel on the leaves, Tween-20 1-~ drops per Dne litre of soultion should be added for umform distribut,ion of solut.ion. A few plants after ev rj Based on the two years observations, it was found 3 or 4 rows of ethrel treated plants should be left un that oliar application of 250 ppm Ethrel (25 ml Ethrel sprayed for pollination and fertilization. -So K. Arora, M. L. Pandita and A. S. Sidbu Department of Vegetable Crop~l HAU, Hissar ~----~~----~~"~"------

118 secause:\ EKAlUX ~ EC 25 contains Quinalphas - one of the most potent. new generation insecticides known-developed bv Sandoz research for the effective control of various pests on cotton. paddy. groundnut. tobacco. d fruit. vegetables and other.., crops. EKAlUX EC 25 is a contact insecticide with a wide spectrum of efficacy. Kills Heliothis sp. Diamond-back mgths. Prodenia sp.. Stem-borers. Leaf-rollers. Red Hairy caterpillars. Paddy Gall midge. Sorghum midge and other hard-to-kill insect pests. Also sucking pests like aphids. jassids. thrips and mites. EKALUX EC 25 at recommended doses is non-phytotoxicit can. therefore. be used safely in nurseries and on _~"_~."nl,,_~ ultivated garden. and plantation crops. EKALUX EC 25isquickacting; has a powerful stomach and contact action. Its exceptionally good penetration and properties prove deadly to stubborn pests. EKALUX EC 25 has a prolonged residual action-this,not only means long-term protection to the crop against repeat attacks. but also greater economy due to fewer applications., EKAlUX EC 25 is compatible with most non-alkaline insecticides and fungicides-this givgs it greater adaptability. For further details or technical assistance. write tol,~,,#" SANDOZ (india) LIMITED Agroehemical Division Sandoz House Dr. Annie Besant Road Worli.BOMBAY f'kalux is the registered trademarkof Sandoz Umitad. Basle. Swiizerland.of which Sandoz.(India) limitad are the licensed users in India. PriDted and published by Dr. R. M. Sharma, Director of Publications; and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf or Haryana Agricultural University, Bissar, Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhri, Press Manager, at the HAU Press, on May 1, 1981.

119 Paise June 1981 / /. J

120 HARYANA FARMING Volume X June 1981 No.6 Contents I. Soil and water management practices in rice -c. v. S. Malik al14 D. S. Malik 2.. Effect of different input factors on arhar production -D. S. Malik, J. P. Singh and S. S. Saini 3. Improved technology in bajra production for more -B. S. Tomer profits and employment 4. Successful kharif onion crop - V. K. Srivastava 5. Citrus cultivation -B. S. Daulta, V. P. Ahlawat and M. S. Joon 6. Grow bardy phalsa - Suneel Sharma and R. Yamdagni 7. Water economy in sheep and its effect on production -Narinder Singh and S. P. Agarwal and reproduction under arid conditions 8. Food fads and nutritional problems of Hissar 9. Tips for prevention of bacterial blight of paddy 10. Every mother needs to know 11. FAT slimming you -Yashpa/ Dhaliwal, Vidya Sagar land D. P. Sharda -M. P. Srivastava -Mrs. Lali Yadav -Ms. Rita Gupta Pages [ f, Director of Publications: Director of Extension Education: Dr. R. M. Sharma Dr. J. C. Sharma Joint Director (Extn.) : Dr. A. W. Sohoni * Editor V. S. GUpta Yearly Subscription Rs layout: Kuljit Assisted by D. C. Vadav" Photo: HAU Photo Unit Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawao, HAU, Hissar

121 $oil and Water Management Practices in Rice I...:.c. V. S. Malik* and D. S. Malik Department of Agronomy, H:4U, Hissar Among the several agronomic practices like use of healthy seedlings, timely transplanting, optimum plant population, judicious manuring, timely interculturefuse of herbicides necessary for obtaining higher yield, water plays a very important role in controlling rice production. Water affects the pbysical condition of the plant, nutrient status of the soil, nature and extent of water growth. In view of the importance of water, about 4S per. cent of OUf water resources are diverted to rice crop which occupies approximately I J3rd of the irrigated area in the country. Even then our country is not in a position to satisfy entire water requirement of rice crop. It is because of large quantity of water is lost through evapotranspiration', percolation and seepage. It is estimated that 25 per cent of the water is lost in the main canal and its distributories and rest 20 per cent in field and channels. On the other hand, water requirement of rice crop itself is very high and varies between 1190 mm to 2650 mm in general. It is further calculated that 1800 gallons of water are used to produce one lb of rice in India in contrast to 600 gallons in Japan. Daily water requirement of rice has also been estimated and it varies from mm. Moreover, during rainy season the precipitation is irregular and erratic in time, space and quantity thus causes either 1, drought or flood both of which adversely affect the rice plant. It has been observed that rice farmer is very careless in water management; rather crazy for deep flooding. There prevails a misconception that rice field should remain flooded right from field preparation uptil maturity. No doubt, there are certain benefits with respect to increase availability of certain plant food nutrients by providing reduced conditions by way of flooding, but they do not realize that continued flooding for longer time produces harmful substances also like H 2 8, Methane gases which damage the roots and inhibit proper functioning of the Principal. College of Agriculture, Kaul. plant. Water is, moreover, a very costly input, so shoulp be applied only when crop needs it. There are certain critical stages in the plants life when it should not be allowed to suffer for want of water; but here again deep flooding is not required: On the other band, there are stages when soil should remain just saturated. If the water is applied keeping these things in mind, not only the cost of production wjjj be reduced but higher yields will ~lso be obtained. Continuous fioo~ing (shallow flooding) is alright for sandy soils. But rice is mostly grown on heavy soils baving poor aeration and low permeability. For such conditions continuous flooding should be avoided. The farmer can get higher yield of rice through the adoption of the following soil and water madflgement practices: 1. Arrange assured water supply. Where crop is dependent either on rain or canal, alternate arrangement should be provided to meet the water supply through tubewell/pumping set etc. 2. Clean channels should be maintllined with proper slope. Side channels may be provided alongwith main channels to collect and redistribute the seepage water. 3. Select heavy soils or those of hard pans in sub surface depth to reduce permeability. The soils. having percolation below 5 mm/day are good for rice cultivation. 4. Providate bunding around the field. S. Prepare well levelled small plots. 6. Do tborough puddling to reduce percolation losses and enabling the soil to retain water for longer time. 7. Transplant seedlings in upright POS!ti9n in shallow water (4-5 cm). Water in excess of it may be drained out before transplanting.. 8. Apply water 3 days after transplanti'ng, otherwise seedling may, be uprooted and get collected in a corner in the field. Maintain shallow submergence upto about 30 days after transplanting. It will facilitate control of weeds by way of providing reduced conditions, unfit for weed seed germination and weed seedling growth. And it promotes tillering JUNE

122 in the crop plants and favourable conditions for crop growth. 9. Apply no excess water or very little water after final emergence of bearing tillers to spikelet differentiation state i.e. 42 days before heading to 20 days before heading. During this period tbe plant should not be allowed to wilt and whither, that is all. 10. Keep water standing (shallow) from 15 days before heading to about 20 days after heading. This will reduce degeneration of spikelets. Promote number of grains per.plant, increase percentage of ripened grains and tbe weight of individual grain. 11. Again drain out excess water 15 days after heading. Maintain just saturation of the soil. Then about a week before harvesting allow the soil to dry and let it be in "Battar" condition at harvest for preparing soil for sowing of the next rabi crop. 12. In case of direct seeded rice crop' where enough w~ter ~s n?t a~ailable for ~u~dling of the fi.elds, it, WIll be au fight If the field IS Just kept moist and weed free by mechanical means. The crop should not be allowed to suffer due to shortage of n!oisture atleast at the time of providing initial and fertilisation. For Bumper Harvest BUY HARYA'NA SEEDS HSDC Sal~ Counters at : * HISSAR YAMUNA NAGAR * * KARNAL HAlLY MANDl * * SIRSA ROHTAK * * PEHOWA * GURGOAN BHIWANI * JIND * * SONEPAT HARYANA SEEDS DEVELOPMENT' CORPORATION LTD. S.C.O , Sector a c, ('r, CHANDIGARH Quality seeds of PADDY WHEAT COTTON GRAM BAJRA POTATO FODDER PULSES OIL SEEDS HARYANA SEEOS are Certified having high genetic & physical purity and germination, free from diseased.& weed seeds. HARYANA SEEDS are pre,-tested & packed in sealed bags with MONEY.BACK GUARANTEE. 2 HARYANA FARMING

123 Effect of Different Input Fac10rs on Arhar Production -D. S. Malik, J. P. Singh and S. S. Saini Departrrzent of Agronomy, HAU, Hissar The yield of pulses is low because they are grown mostly on poor and neglected soils and the recommended package of practices are not followed by the farmers. Mung, urd, cowpea and arhar are the important kharif pulses. The yield level of mung, urd and cowpea is low. In kharif pulses, arhar is a crop which can give sufficiently high yield in case proper care of this crop is taken. Previously, long duration varieties of arhar were sown which used to be generally damaged by frost during winter. Now with the advent of short duration varieties which mature before winter starts, the danger of frost damage has been eliminated. Operational research trials were conducted on the farmers' fields during kharif, 1978 in 5 selected villages near Dry Farming Research Centre, Bawal to popularise short duration arhar varieties and their improved technology. The components of package of technology and improved practices consisted of combinations of fertilizer use, seed treatment with Rhizobium culture, weedi ng and plant protection. Further details of practices alongwith grain yield and economic returns are noted in Table I. TABLE 1 Effect of different input factors on grain yield and economic returns from arhar crop Village Control Inoculation Phosphorus 40 kg P ha Inocu.+ Phos. Inocu.+ Phos.+ Weeding Inocu.+ Phos.+ Weed+ Plant Protection Measures Tihara Sbahpur Bawal Karnawas Total Average yield (q/ha) Additional yield (q/ha) over control % increase over control Additional expenditure (Rs./ha) Additional income (Rs./ha) Variety used-upas Rhizobium culture Rate of Arhar=Rs. 200/-per qtl Rs. 2/-per pack 3. SSP 2.5 Rs. 65 per quintal JUNE Labour rate Rs. 8/-per day 5. Endosulfan 35 EC 1.2 Rs. 75/70 per litre 3

124 Perusal of grai~ yield data in Table 1 indicates that full package of practices including treatment of seed with Rhizobium culture, application of 40 kg P.0 6 /ha, timely weeding and plant protection measures produced an average yield of q/ha as compared with an average yield of 7.00 q/ha in- the control plots. Package of improved technology increased yield over control by 7.47 q/ha (106.7% increase) and net income over Rs. 1000/ha Application of rhizobium culture costs a farmer an investment of Rs. 51-per ha with additional profit of Rs. 25t-per ha. The ratio between input and output is 1 : 5. This ratio may vary from soil depending upon the intensity of rhizobia present in the soil but in no case, the gain in yield will be less than the cost of the culture. Improved Technology In Bajra Production fo~ More Profits and Employ~enr Application of 40 kg P per hectare produced an additional yield of 2.17 q/ha (31% increase) and in term of monetary return it gave an additional income of Rs per hectare after deducting Rs as the cost of fertilizer. Besides low level of soil fertility, lack of timely control of weeds is the most important limiting factor that stands in the way of realising the potential yield of crops on the farmers' fields. Perusal of data in Table 1 reveals the fact that timely control of weeds alone contributed about 40% increase in the yield of arhar on the farmers' fields. It is all the more important to note that without proper weeding it will be waste of costly input of fertilizers. So proper and timely weeding is the first and basic requirement to obtain proper response of other factors of production. Like proper and timely control of weeds, timely plant protection measures especially against pod borers are equally important in successful production of arhar crop on the farmers' fields. In the present study, timely plant protection measures bruught about an increase of about 33 per cent in yield of arhar. -B. S. Tomer Krishi {iyan Kendra, Nornaul I Bajra crop in Kharif season occupies the major share of the total cropred area in the district of Mohindergarh, Haryana. During Kharif out of the thref! crops of the season i.e. Bajra, guar and Jowar which are usually grown in the district, Bajra alone accupied more than 80 per cent of the area devoted to these crops. Last year i.e , the author worked out.. the economics of Bajra (Haryana Farming-June, 1980) and it was paying the farmer a very low return of only about Rs. 50/- per hectare. _ Based on the demonstrations on Bajra organised under "Lab to Land Programme" this year again cost and returns from bajra crops are estimated. Economics of Bajra of the district has also been worked from the data collected from the 4 villages repre- In crop production there is a synergestic effect of senting the different zones of the district. Ten farmers various factors ~f production including improved variety, of three size groups were selected randomly from each fertility management, plant stand, timely weeding' and plant protection measures. If one factor remains limiting due to one reason or the other, it will not allow other 'factors to produce their full beneficial effect. It is, therefore. very essential that the farmers should adopt all the components of package of practices to realise the potential yield of arhar crop. village making the total sample of 40 farmers. The data were collected by survey method for the year J The economics of eight demonstrations on Bajra of one acre ("ach organised on farmers' fields under 'Lab to Land Programme' adopting the improved technology of Bajra production has also been worked out and the results are shown in Table 1. 4 HARYANA FARMING

125 ,TABLE 1 Cost and return from Bajra on common and demonstration farms S. No Item of cost Tillage including hoeing etc. Irrigation (No. of Irrigation) - Fertilizers (Nitrogen in kg) (P206 in kg) F. Y. M. (Quantity in qtjs) 11. Net return :i 12. Employment per hectare, Human labour days Bullock labour days Tractor hours 1.23 (Rs. per,'hectare) Common farms (0.75) (15.82) (--) (84.75) Harvesting and thre- 308,87 shing Rental value of land Seed, interest and other miscellaneous cost Total cost Production (qtls) Main product By-product Gross return Demonstration farms (--) 320,00 (37.50) (28.75) (125.00) , U 12, Table 1 indicates the three distinct variations in the cost and returns in Bajra production on common and demonstration farms. The first is the total cost of cultivation of Bajra per hectare which on demonstration farms is about 50 per cent higher than the common farms. This higher cost of cultivation on demonstration farms is mainly on account of higber use of fertilizers for optimum application, use of hybrid seed, insecticides and higher use of labour days due to good crop on these farms. JUNE 1981 The second aspect is the yield, which is about two and a half times more 00 demonstration farms than on common farms. For this reason, almost a similar tr d is also seen for gross returns per hectare on these two kinds of farms. The higher yield of Bajra on demonstration farms than on common farms is mainly attributed for adopting the new technology of Bajra production i.e. use of Hybrid seed (BJ-I04), application of recommended dose of fertilizers and use of insecticides on all demonstrations. While on common farms only about half area was under hybrid Bajra, there was use of less than half amount of nitrogen 'of what is recommended for even rainfed areas and no use of phosphatic fertilizers and insecticides. Table I reveals that on common farms; growing of Bajra crop is incurring a net loss of Rs. 316/- per hectare. While the same crop of Bajra is paying a net return of Rs. 530/- per hectare to the farmer on demonstration farms. The higher net return on demonstration farms is mainly due to increase In yield (two and a half times) than an increase in the cost of cultivation (one and a half times). Further Table I also indicates tbat labour days use is also higher on demonstration farms. While the employment for human labour has increased by about 70 per cent. There is about 30 per cent more use of bullock labour days (includinlz tractor bour use) on demonstration farms than on common farms. The higher employment on demonstration farms is mainly due to more use of human and bullock labour in harvesting and threshing the good crops on these farms. The foregoing discussion suggests that the adopting of new technology in Bajra production not only makes the growing of this crop a paying proposition in the district but also provides greater employment to the farmer and to his draught animals. Read Haryana Farming now a monthly farm magazine s

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127 Successful I(harif,Onion Crop -v. K. Srivastava Haryana Agricultural UniversitJ(, Hissar Now it is possible to grow onions during kharif season and ultimately a good return from the crop by following the recommendations given below :- * Select the only suitable variety for kharif season, known as N-53. This variety bas a characteristics of bulb formation even in high temperature. Other varieties will not give results in this seaso~. * For one hectare of land procure about kg of seed, wbich should be obtained from a good source. * A comprehensive care of the nursery and seedlings during growing is essential. The best time for seeding of this variety is during second fortnight of June. The nursery beds should be raised and about 50 nurseries of 3m X 1m will be sufficient for growing the seedlings from kg of seeds. The seed should be treated with 2.5 gms for every kg of seed. Proper care of the nursery is essential which includes regular irrigation, protection of nursery from heavy rains and care against outbreak of diseases. Seedlings are ready in about 6-8 weeks time. * Thorough preparation of the field should be done and such fields should be selected for its cultivation which are not low lying. In one hectare of land add about tonnes of well rotted organic manure about 3 weeks before transplanting. It should be thoroughly mixed in the field by ploughing and planking. Before transplanting add about 180 kg of Kisan Khad (45 kg of nitrogen) and 250 kg of single super phosphate (40 kilogram of phosphate) in one hectare of land. The seedlings are transplanted in the field during mid of August. The distance between lines should be about 15 cm and from plant to plant about 8-10 cm. It may be desirable to transpla~t the seedlings on small ridges. * The seedlings in the field should be regularly irrigated in the absence of rains. After heavy rains, it is essential that arrangement for proper drainage in the field may be done. Regular weeding is es.'iential and 2-3 weedings may suffice on an average. For weed control, Tok-E-25 may be 6-8 It. per hectare after 10-]2 days after planting. The crop is to be top dressed two times with 160 Kisan Khad (40 kg of.nitrogen) per hectare each time followed by light irrigation. If the bulbs are exposed, it may be desirable to cover them with soil. Propel moisture in the field is essential specially during bulb formation stage. ' * Care of the crop against pests and diseases are essential. For the control of Thrips, the crop may be sprayed with 750 ml of Malathion 50 EC after mixing in 750 It. of water per hectare of field. The spraying may be irrigated after about 10 days if need be. Sometimes the disease, purple blotch, is also noticed in this crop and for the control against this crop spraying of Fytolan are Dithane 2 kg per hectare of the field is recommended. Before use of these insecticides and fungicides, it may be desirable to add some surfactant in the solution. * The crop is ready for harvest in about 5 months time i.e. during November and December months when the temperature is comparatively low. At this time the irrigation of the crop should be totally stopped and the branches should be turned down manually or by the use of a plank. The bulbs should be removed from the field and after curing for 4-5 days time they are sent to market for sale. This variety does not have good keeping quality and therefore cannot be properly stored for a long time. Therefore, efforts are always desirable to dispose them off as quickly as possible. * On an average from one hectare of field about qtl. of onion bulbs are prod uced. Housewives Combat Household Insect-Pests-III May J981 The figure given under the heading Furniture Beetle (Page 7) shoul~, instead, be read under the heading Mosquitoes, on page 10. JUNE

128 Selection of the plants Citrus Cultivation -B. S. Dauits, V. P. Ahlawat and M. S. Joon Department o/horticulture, HAU, Hissar Sweet orange, mandarin, sweet lime, kagzi lime, and grape fruit come under the group of citrus fruits. The different aspects with regard of their cultivation are given below Climate Sweet orange and grape fruits: The sweet orange and grape fruits thrive better in sub-tropical dry climate having well defined summer and winter season and low rainfall areas. Sweet.oranges jf grown in the region of heavy rainfall and high humidity do not ripen properly with the result that become insipid in taste and the colour of the rind also remains green. Mandarin: Mandarins prefer more humid and tropical summer climate, warm winters and higher rainfall. Extreme cold and extreme heat are not desirable. Lime and lemons: Limes and lemons are tropical in their climatic requirements. Situations which are warm, moderately moist and free from strong winds are immediately suited. They are susceptible to frost. Soil The ideal soil is loam or sandy loam without any impervious sub soil. The most satisfactory ph for citrus ranges between 6.0 to 6.5 it can be to grown upto 7.5. Saline or alkaline soils and soils having lime nodules or "Water logged conditions should alwa"s be avoided. The soil must be well drained and wa ter table should not be high. A fluctuating water table which comes about 1.75 metre in some season i~ highly undesirable. Suitable varieties' 8 Sweet oranges Grape fruit Mandarin. Lime Lemon. Jaffa' and Pineapple Ducan, Foster Pin\< and Marsh Seedless Kinnow Kagzi Kalan Bara Mashi The plants should be from the pedigree trees and of known variety. They sho-qld be free from virus, insect and fungus infections. Bud union should be smooth and atleast 25 cms above the ground level. Propagation and rootstock Rootstocks are raised from freshly extracted seeds and sown in the month of August-Sept. If the sowing is delayed, the cold weather sets in and the germinati~n will be poor, / 'T' budding is the commonest method of propagation in sweet oranges, mandarin, grape fruit etc. Budding is generally done either in spring or in ~ept.-oct. The rootstocks commonly used aie Jamhiri, Rough lemon and Kama Khatta,. Planting and care of orchard The budded plants are ready f~r transplanting',~n the field in about a year's time. Citrus is planted in pre- viously dug and filled pits measuring i x i x i metres. These should be filled after miking the top soil from the pit with 25 kg of F.Y.M. B.H.C. 50% 200 grams.should also be appued in the pit to check white ants. The plants should be set in the field in February or in Sep.-Oct. Take earth round the ball thoroughly to avoid air space. Care should be taken to keep the bud union always 25 em above the ground.ievel. Irrigation The field should be irrigated just after the planting. Young plants upto the age of five years can be irrigated by ring method, while the other ones should be irrigated by flooding or furrow method. In summer, the plants are watered at days interval while in winter the irrigation may be given after every three or four weeks. During the rainy season water is rarely needed and arrangement to drain excess water should be made. Over irrigation should always be avoided and,the irrigation water should not co,me in direct contact with the tree trunk. It can be done by raising soil around the trunk. Hoeing and weeding Complete absence of tillage in the citrus orchard is better than deep tillage. The feeder roots of tbe citrus trees are very shallow and are easily destroyed by deep tillage. Keep the basins clean of weeds all the time. HARYANA FARMING J l

129 Cboice of intercrops In choosing the intercrops, avoid those crops which require heavy irrigation, especially in winter, lik.e berseem etc. Cultivation of intercrops like beans, cowpea during hot months, if sufficient water is available, is very beneficial. It would increase the orchard humidity during this period and reduce the fruit drops. Growing of green manure crops like sunhemp, or guar during the rainy season would keep the we~ds under check and help in the transpiration of excessive, water from the field after heavy rains. Manuring The manure as suggested below may be added Before planting 20 kg o,r one basket of F.Y.M. or ~ompost-t- 1 kg of superphosphate to each pit and mix thoroughly. After Planting till flowering Age of the tree Kilogram per tree F.Y.M. Ammo- Super- Muriate nium sui- phos- of phate phate potash i" <r i".. 4" <r '[ l{ 3 4" Bearing trees 60 kg of F.Y.M.-t-2}kg/Super phosphate gm of Muriate of potash-t- 2{ kg Ammonium sulphate. The above mentioned fertilizers should be split in two equal doses, first before January and the rest after fruit set followed by irrigation. F.Y.M. should be supplied in November-December. Pruning and training Training to build up a strong frame work begins from the nursery. All branches that start within a few inches of the union are removed leaving about It to 2 feet of clean straight stem, retaining four or five well spaced branches. All the diseased, injured or crossed branches and dead woods should be removed periodically. JUNE 1981 Water shoots arising from the base of bud union shoulp always be ripped in the young stage. The pruning wounds should be covered with bordeaux paste, which contains copper sulphate (1 kg), lime (ll kg) and water 15 lit res. Nutrient deficiency and dieback of twigs Chlorosis of young and old leaves is common. The leaf size is reduced and dieback starts. It may be due to deficiency of zinc alone or combination of manganese copper and iron etc. A spray, of the following ingredients is most useful. In order to secure maximum effect, the application should be done after the major flush of leaves has expanded to atleast 2/3rd of normal size. Zinc sulphate Copper sulphate Manganese sulphate Magnesium sulphate Ferrous sulphate Boron Lime Urea Water Prebarvest fruit drop 2{ kg Ij kg 1 kg 1 kg I kg { kg 3 kg 5 kg 450 kg Preharvest fruit drop may be serious problem especially in case of mandarin and sweet oranges. It can be minimized by spraying 10 ppm (I gm in 100 litres of water) 2, 4-D and 2, 4-5-T in May and August sprays. Harvesting Harvesting of fruits starts from August, September (lemon, lime etc.) and December (Sweet orange, mandarin and grape fruit) and it requires some special precaution, while picking the fruits, the stem end should be cut close to the fruit without damaging the ring. Insect pests and diseases Citrlls leaf minor (Phyllocnistis citrella) : The leaf minor is the larva qf a tiny moth which lays almost invisible egg on the leaves and shoots hatching the larva bores under the epidermis and feeds on the plant cells by weaving a serpentine tunnel on to the young leaves and terminal growing shoots. It can be controlled by spraying the plants with 0.1 % metasystox or 0.1 % parathion. (Contd. on page 17) 9

130 Grow Hardy Phalsa Suneel Sharma and R. Yamdagni Department of Horticulture, HAU, Hissar In Haryana, a large area is barren and salt-affected and is unfit for crop production. In these soils, phalsa cultivation has good scope due to its hardy nature. Phalsa is a fruit crop of Indian origin. It has been growing in all parts of India. Being quite hardy, it thrives under various soil and climatic conditions. An excellent squash can be prepared from its juice and serve as coo], refreshing drink throughout the summer months. This fruit crop can also be used as filler tree among mangoes or litch~ plantation. Fallow land near orchard road and in kitchen garden can be utilized effectively by growing phalsa. Climate and soil Phalsa is a subtropical fruit and can be successfully grown in hot and dry plains. It is a quite hardy plant and can withstand occasional drought and water shortages better than other fruit plants. Phalsa is not exacting in its soil requirement and can grow successfully on all types of soils. But plants grown on rich loamy soils produce fruits of excellent quality. Propagation Phalsa, is usually propagated from seed. Seed looses its viability very quickly. Seeds should be sown immediately after harvesting and extraction of seeds. Generally sowing is done in end of May. After three months of sowing, plants are ready for planting in orchards. Plants are planted at a distance of 2 x 2 metre. Pruning It is the most important practice in phalsa cultivation. This operation is done in January when all thedeaves shed from plants. Phalsa should be pruned at a.heigbt of one metre from tbe ground level. This en- courages more vegetative growth and high yield. Phalsa bears fruits in the axil of leaves on the shoots produced during current season. This means that the old wood does not produce any fruit. It is, therefore, necessary that the phalsa plants are pruned regularly every year; Cultural practices Regular weeding and judicious application of 'manures and fertilizers would help higher production. A full grown phalsa plant sbould receive 2 kg of calcium ammonium nitrate per bush annually. The fertilizer ii usually given after pruning and mixed with soil. A light irrigation is given after the plants are pruned. From March to May, fortnightly irrigation is given. Flowering and fruiting Under Haryana condition, fruits start ripening in the end of May. The attainment of deep radish brown colour and the sweetness of fruits are the indications of their ripeness and they should be picked' up at this staie, In this fruit crop, all the fruits do not ripen at one time and several pickings are, therefore, necessary. The fruit picking is usually done on alternate days. This naturally involves lot.of labour and increases the cost of production. This problem can be overcome by application of 60 ppm gibberellic acid (60 mg/litre of water). Two sprays are done. First spray is done at the time of blooming and the seco,nd spray at fruit set stage. Yield Under optimum conditions a pbalsa bush yields O.D an average about 4-5 kg of-fruits. Insect-pests There is no problem of insect-pest in this fruit crop due to its tolerance n&ture. However, bark eating caterpillar damages the tree to some extent. It can be controlled by painting the bark around the borer holes with the solution containing 10,ml mono- I crotophos 40 BC or 10 ml methyl parathion 50 EC in 10 J Htres water. The holes may be plugged with cotton plugs soaked in the solution containing 40 g. carbaryl 50 WP' or 10 ml Folithion in 10 Htres water and after this the holes may be plastered with mud. 10 HARYANA FARMING

131 gradually intended to be raised for improvement in both agriculture and animal husbandry to raise the standard of living of the farming community in this area. Water Economy in Sheep and its Effect on Production and Reproduction Under A.rid Conditions I -Narinder 'Sj~gb aod s. P. Ag~rwal Deptt. of Physiology and Pharmacology, HA U, Hissar Water is the most crucial limiting factor for life in the desert. The desert area of Rajasthan which covers an area of approximately 1,80,060 square kilometers, lying between 24.0oN and 30SN latitude and 700E and 76.2 E longitude, is characterised by very high day temperature, particularly during the summer and cool nights with temperatures frequently going below freezing point in winter. The wind velocity is often as high as 110 km per hour. The rainfall is low and erratic. The average annual rainfall is about 350 mm and there are frequent spells of droughts. Most of the annual precipitation occurs during the July-September monsoon season. Droughts recur almost regularly every third year. When the monsoon fails, the water level usually goes down to a great depth. The underground water is of a limited quantity and is often saline. Most of the Western Rajasthan is covered by heavy sand dunes. The shifting dunes pose one of the major problems of tbis region. Due to scarcity of rainfall, tbe vegetation is very poor. Since agriculture is mainly depend~nt on the monsoon rains, crop production is necessarily confined to a bare 3 months period. Animal Husbandry is, therefore, a year-round occupation of the village population and is a major source of income for these people. Rajasthan is the home of some of the best breeds of cattle and sheep. This is due to several reasons, the main amongst them being the interest of the people in maintaining superior breeds of strains of livestock, as animal production is one of the major sources of their income. The husbandry conditions in this region are, however, most primitive. The animals usually feed on stubbles left in the field after harvesting and during the drought they are migrated to adjoining areas. The principal crops grown in the region are Guar (Cyamopsis tetragon%ha) used as concentrate for livestock feeding and Bajra (Pennisetum typhoides) for human consumption. This land-animal-plant relationship has existed for centuries in this tract at the subsistence level and this is JUNE he sheep population of Rajasthan is 8.8 million ( census) which yields 40 per cent of the total wool produced in India. There are 8 districts breeds of sheep in Rajasthan and these are: Marwari, Chokla, Pugal, Magra, Jaisalmeri, Nali, Malpuri add Sonadi. The quality of wool from these breeds varies from coarse to medium and is often known all over the world as superior carpet wool. When the livestock migrate to adjoining areas, they escape from the scarcity of water in Rajasthan. Wherever animals are not migrated, it has become customary to offer the available water at the farm but where the animals have to walk over long distances to the watering hole, they are watered after every 3 to 4 days. This practice has been followed here since time immemorial. Recently it has been reported that there are no physiological ill effects if the water holds are located far off but if the water is available nearby, the animals may be given 3/4 of their normal water requirements. While there can be no doubt that water is a very important factor for life particularly in the desert, it is quite surprising tbat here an ecological balance between the animals and the local flora has been struck in such a remarkable manner that the livestock has not only managed to servive but has al~ flourish,ed. A recent study at Central Arid Zone Research Institute has shown that during the dry period of the year in summer when water is under very short supply, sheep instinctively go out in search of succulent feed and in particular, the pods of Prosopis cineraria which has a water content as much as 65 per cent. These studies have indicated that the animals will be able to live without free water for the entire summer wherever Prosopis cineraria trees are in abundance. Sheep have flourished even where the water is saline. Experiments conducted at Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur have shown that sheep can safely withstand a salinity level of 1.0 per cent in the drinking water. The sheep flocks in Rajasthan desert normally graze on natural pastures. During the monsoon in normal years, there is lush growth of both annual as well as perennial grass and legume species providing abundant green feed to the animals. After the monsoon, the sheep are grazed on the stubbles of the harvested crops. The most common grasses that are available in the desert for sheep are Sewan (Lasiurers sindicus), Bhurat (Cechrus catharticus), Anjan (Cenchrus ciliaris), Karad (Dichanxthium annulatum), II

132 Murat (Pancicum turgicum). Aristida Juniculata. Eleusine compressa and Cenchrus setigerus. However, the grass production is never enough and the climate is too harsh. As a consequence it is but natural that the animals physiological adaptive mechanisms are taxed to the extreme for mere survival. There is a considerable interest among the biologists to improve the reproductive efficiency of the livestock. As in case of other species in sheep too, a detailed knowledge about reproductive behaviour is of utmost importance to breeders and farmers for profitable level of' production. So it is interesting as well as useful to study the effects of with-holding drinking water on production and reproduction in arid climate. But no systematic work has been done so far to see the effects of water restriction on reproduction. As experiment conducted at Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, has shown that pregnant ewes subjected to dehydration for 4 days in summer and 15 days in winter, nearly 50% of the animals had abortion on 4th to 5th day during summer and J 2 to 15 day without water during winter. Nearly 30% of animals died on 4th day without water during summer whereas during winter no death was recorded during the experimental period. There were no deaths in unmated ewes, when they were subjected to dehydration for the same number of days during summer as well as in winter. In the temperate climate of the Armidale area where mean daily air temperatures during summer do not exceed 25 C and rain usually fall in each month of the year, drinking water was withheld from grazing pregnant and non-pregnant Merino ewes for a period of 12 months. The reproductive performance observed is presented in Table I. supplied. There was a significant reduction in the birth weight of the lambs of ewes witbout drinking water. Lactation together with a low pasture content and moderately high thermal loads in late December, resulted in 25% mortality of the mated ewes without drinking water and the subsequent death of their lamb.s Removal of the rem'aining ewes and lambs to green pasture immediately stopped the deaths aithough no drinking water was supplied. There were no deaths in the unmated ewes. Table 2 shows the work done at the Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Malpura watering schedule and its effect on wool production and its quality. TABLE 2 Watering Schedule Every day Every 2nd day Fleece weight (kg) 2.27 ' Total crimpts, Every 3rd day J Staple length (em) :5 Fibre diameter (microns) Medulation 52, From the above mentioned table it is evident that the giving water every third day instead of gtving water daily has no ill-effect on wool production and its quality, under semi-arid climates during summer when water is the limiting factor. TABLE Minus water Plus water No. of ewes No. of lambs Average lamb bir..th weight No of ewes death 14 1 No. of lamb death 10 6 No: of lamb stilborn 4 3. There was no reduction in the wool production or Jive weight of, or the number of lambs born to, ewes without drinking water as compared with ewes with water 12 IT PAYS TO ~DVERTISE IN HARYANA FARMING HARYANA FARMING

133 studies at National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad (NIN) have shown that malnutrition during first year of life of a child may lead not only to physical, but mental changes also. Food Fads and {Nutritional Problems of Hissar, -Yasbpal Dbaliwal*, Vidya Sagar and D. P. Shards. Department of Animal Nutrition, HAU, Hissar Food has a lways served the cultural, social, emotional, religious and biological needs of the human beings. Some of our ancestors, who were instrumental in opening the avenues for present knowledge in the discipline of nutrition, had to sacrifice their lives. During this process they deve loped some food fads and fallacies which often prevail over the scientific facts. Faddiness for some peculiar foods consumed at any phase of life ought to be removed not because of monetary considerations but for health point of view also. There is no food without fad and the nature of food fads and beliefs vary from area to area and region to region. They are conveyed by the mothers to their daughters who subsequently transmit the same to next generation. Last year a dietary survey was conducted in some selected villages and suburbs ofhissar by the Department of Foods and Nutrition, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar. Food fads were studied as a part of this survey. The findings of this investigation were very interesting. Only a few of these fads which have a bearing on the nutrition of expectant women have been explained below. It was a very common belief in these areas that expectant women should eat less particularly during last quarter of pregnancy. Discussions with such women revealed that they advocate reduced diet during pregnancy, so that the size of the infant at the time of delivery may be. smah, thereby minimising the delivery risks. It is a wrong notion and should be discouraged. Nutritional Another important belief was that mothers should avoid feeding of colostrum during first few days of the infants life. As we all know that colostrum is very rich in globulins, which form antibodies and by its feeding the infant can develop natural imm!lnity against infections. PeopleAn interiors use desi ghee, if available and avoid use of any other type of vegetable ghee, they would prefer to use even an oil particularly mustard oil. They feel vegetable ghee is an inferior fat than desi gnee, but it is a well founded fact that as far as energy content of these fats is concefiled there is hardly any difference worth mentioning. Desi ghee may contain vitamins A and D in addition. Vegetable ghee can be fortified with these vitamins at a lesser cost. Apart from free fatty acid and flavour these is no other difference in nutritive value of these ghees. Therefore, there is no justification of incurr ing almost double expenditure for using desi ghee only for a little more of free fatty acids and aroma of our choice. It was also observed during the present investigation that these women increase their financial burden by purchasing some prestigeous foods for the family. Such an expenditure is not a wise step on the part of these women. The nutrients contained in these foods can be easily obtained from other foods which are cheap, nutritious and locally available at the same time. These appear to be some minor points, but certainly have a wide practical application. Therefore, these points should be discussed on all the plateforms and on all occasions whenever we get an opportunity to be with the persons from the interiors. Most of these beliefs are simply due to ignorance, which if continue, may lead to a number of nutritional disorders. This situation can be overcome with\)ut much extra expenditure on the food, leading ultimately to better.health and prosperity of the masses. *Department of Foods & Nutrition, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar. JUNE

134 Protect paddy crop against p'ests from transplantation till harvest. Ltfdll/ SEVlI Longer protectiof, Fewer times of application More economy No harmful residues Carbaryllnsecticid~ Sevin and Sevidol are the registered trademark~ of Union Carbide Corporation, U.S.A. prot~t your crop.... llcf'ease your profit. HARY ANA FARMING

135 it would be desirable that nurseries are so located that the contaminated drainage water from early transplanted field as avoided. Tips for Prevention of Bacterial Bligrt of Paddy, -M. P. Srivastava Haryana Agricultural University, 'Hissar ~ Bacterial leaf blight of paddy (Xanthomonas oryzae) was observed in epiphytotic proportion in intensive paddy growing belt of the state during Kharif, The disease was severe in timely or early planted crops. Short duration varieties such as ~atna, Pusa 2-21 and Palman 579 were Jess attacked or at pjaces escaped jnfection, Crop fertilized heavily with nitrogenous fertilizer suffered more damage. The disease is usually observed during August in the form of water soaked lesions from the tip on both the sides of the leaf margin progressing downwards in a wavy manner leaving green' areas around midrib. These lesions later turn white or straw colour. In certain cases, the midrib gets affected and margin remains green. Bacterial exudate in the form of yellowish droplets may be noticed in the morning hours, which dry up later and fall in the water below in the fields or splashed by rains. The disease assumes serious proportion in areas with good rainfall coupled with high humidity and high temperature of 30-35"'C. Control of the disease becomes practically difficult once it has appeared in a severe form. However, adoption of the following precautionary measures may be helpful in its prevention. I. Seed treatment Though it is not definitely known that seed is the only source of primary infection, yet it would be absolutely necessary that farmers over larger areas treat the seed or use healthy seed. The seed may be treated by soaking 10 kg of seed in 10 litres of water containing 5 gm of Emisan or Aretan' and 1 gm of Streptocycline. Seed treatment will also take care or Baclerialleaf streak which too was quite serious lastseason and is on the increase; 2. Nursery management Since, s~edling infection is highly conducive to stem and stool infection and, consequent wilt phase (Kresek), JUNE Adjustment of time of sowing/transplanting It has been observed that fields transplanted earlier were more severely affected therefore farmers should be advised to delay sowing and transplanting to reduce the disease incidence. 4. Care during uprooting of seedling and transplanting Injuries to root during uprooting should be avoided by wetting the nursery bed well in advance of uprooting. When seedlings become tall due to delay in transplanting farmers often go for clipping. This is highly conducive for wilt phase and hence should not be practiced. 5. Fertilizer and water management Green manuring followed by heavy application of nitrogen enhances tbe severity. Particularly, when the disease has already appeared, further application of N should be avoided, and flooding too under such situation should be avoided, 6. Host resistance Jaya, IR 8 and PR 106 are predominantly grown varieties and are also known to be highly susceptible to bacterial bligqt. Their extensive cultivation may lead to epiphytotics under favourable conditions. Some of the short duration varieties as mentioned earlier were less attacked or even escaped infection last year and as such it would be desirable to diversify the varietal pattern to cope with the problem. Last.)ear a number of agronomic lines/selections were identified with various level of tolerances to the disease of which IET 4t41, PR 107 and Prasad appear to hold immediate promise. Performance of such varieties is to be watched carefully this kharif by research/extension 'Yorkers before they can be considered for release. 7. Diversification of cropping pattern Wherever possible, the area under other crops should be increased,in place of paddy. keeping in view the increasing severity of blight. _ 15

136 Every Mother Needs to Know -Mrs. Lali Yadav Directorate of Extension Education, HAU, Hissar Children are the most vulnerable human resources and best hope for the future. The child health should be accorded highest priority in the countries socia! welfare and general health services, is now well recognised. Many plans based on the importance of health of the future builder of tbe nation, their large number tender age for any development-physical or menial for dynamic personaiity have attained maximum importance. The care of child may be said to begin from the moment of conception. Tbe foundations are laid for the normal healthy child so that he can have higber chance of servival. Duning prenatal period, care should be taken about the health of mother as well as the child which is to be born. Prenatal care should be taken by the mother keeping the following objectives in mind: 16 (1) To reduce any complication which may rise during the period of pregnancy. This will help in reducing the mental and foetal mortality. (2) To ensure that the foetus development is normal in the uterus. (3) To edu~ate and advance the mother about the proper diet, hygiene, clothing-exercise and rest during pregnancy. (4) To ensure that labour will be normal and to avoid operative intervention as far as possible, or if labour is expected to be abnormal, to make necessary preparations for dealing with the ~omplications. (S) To make her aware about the various misconcepts about pregnancy and clean the doubts, remove anxiety from her mind.,(6.) To impart knowledge about the proper care of the infant and enable her to look after the newly born baby in a better and effective manner. (7) To convince the prospective parents about the responsibility as regards the size of family, spacing of future children or the limitation of their family if they already have the desired number of the children. Prenatal Care -when and How (1) The mother-to-be should visit the doctor in the first trimester of pregnancy. (2) In the third trimester of pregnancy again she should visit the doctor for proper advice.,, / (3) She should eat more than as usual amount of cereals, pulses, plenty of dark green and yellow leafy vegetables and fruits whereas there, is no need to' add more calori during pregnancy. No doubt an increase in protein and foods rich in calcium, phosphorus iodine and vitamins such as milk, egg, green leafy vegetables and fruits are necessary. She should avoid alcohol, tobacco, drugs, excess of tea and coffee. (4) During pregnancy, sbe should avoid heavy manual labour, violent exercise and swimmin5' Regular morning and evening walks in the open fresh air aids in maintaining the tone of muscles and help in digestion. As a result, mother will be cheerful which will have positive impact on the child. Sufficient amount of rest and sleep is equally importa.nt. (5) Proper care should be taken regarding the clothing during this period. She should not wear tight and heavy clothes rather light and loose clothes should be used. (6) Personal hygiene and environmental sanitation is another important point which she should keep in mind. Regular daily bath and clean clothing are necessary for proper development of I infant and mother's health. Surrounding should be kept clean which will reduce the scope for dirt, flies, mosquitoes. This will automatically reduce several communicable infections. I (7) Sexual intercourse should be avoided during last ; three months of pregnancy and if there is a history' of previous abortion then it should be" avoided throughout pregnancy. (8) Mother should have pre-arrangement for this period. She should be instructed what to take with HARYANA FARMING

137 her in hospital such as, (i) her own clothes, sanitary towels and toilet articles, (ii) baby clothes like napkins, vests, clothing according to weather, binders and toilet articles. The room should be airy and clean in which she is staying during this period with the infant. (9) Mother should be instructed regarding the need for regular breast feeding, cleanliness of utensils used for feeding the infant with water or fruit juice, bathe the baby care.,of cord, clean loose warm clothing, taking the infant for outing lin the open air. (10) Importance of immunization should be told to mother for protecting the child from communicable diseases. Immunization should be done. Above all, child should be provided with proper care, love and tenderness which are baby's basic right. (1 ]) To keep the well-being of mental health of the mother, she should be prepared with all the situations. She should avoid tensions and feel happy dudng this period. (12) The importance of family planning and family size with space should be told to her so that she can lead a better healthy and happy family life. Postnatal care with these objectives in mind (I) To provide the complete food to the infant, mother should feed breast milk as long as possible. (2) She should introduce semi-solid foods from 5 to 10 months. Cow's milk may be given jf possible. The preparation of these foods for the child must be prepared carefully. According to the growth and the development of child, variety of food should be increased. (3) Feed the young babies 5 or 6 times in a day to maintain the proper health of the infant. (4) Don't reduce the food of the child in illness. To prevent the child from various diseases, immunization should be practised. (5) Use better health services available to keep the child healthy. (6) Proper attention should be paid to the child with respect to hygiene and sanitation. Don't let excreta lie around where baby may be playing. Remove it quickly to place out of his reach. Hands should be washed before eating and preparing the food and before holding and feeding the baby. (7) Food should be covered so that it can be saved from flies, dirt, dust and other such elements. Plenty of clean water should be given to the child according to the requirment. (8) Encourage the child to play with simple household articles and things which he can get in the neighbourhood. (9) Mother should not have more than two or three children, 2 to 3 years apart. In this way, she can have a proper size of the family with!lppropriate spacing. (10) Use more do's rather than don'ts mother should tell the child, what to do, rather than what not to do. Using the do's rather than dont's is very difficult, specially if adults already have the don'ts habit. (II) Always talk with tbe children not at tbe children. Talking at the child is one sided conversation wbereas talking with a child is two-way conversation-talking to him and then listening to what he says. Mother's knowledge has an important role to play for proper health of the child. She can maintain her own health and safety of her baby with great sense of achievement and fulfilment by knowing all above tips in mind. (From page 9 ) Citrus psylla (Diaphornia citrii): Both the adults and nymphs at the pest, suck the sap from the tender part of the buds, leaves and branches and inject into them toxic substances. In the event of severe attack, leaves get distorted, become sickly, curled up, withered away and ultimately fall off from the plants, resulting in complete defoliation of the plants. It can be satisfactorily checked by spraying the plants with 0.1 % or 0.02% endrin. White fly: While fly nymphs and pupae are found on the under surface of leaves. They cause serious damage by sucking the sap. Spray 0.1 % parathion. Trunk borer (Indorbela sp.): The caterpillars bore into the wood and damage them by eating the bark. The most common control measflres for Inderbela caterpillars consist of injecting the holes with fumigants like kerosene, petrol and carbondi sulphide. Injection of 0.013% dichlorophos or 0.05% Trichlorfon or 0.05% endosulfan or 10% kerosene soap emulsion are also effective and cheap. Citrus cankor (Xanthomonos citri): It is the most commonly prevalent disease of kagzi lime during the rains. It affects the leaves, twigs, thorns and fruits. The lesions appear as small yellowish spot, which enlarge to a diameter of 3mm and become raised and rough or spongy and turn brown. The infection can be. largely prevented by removing the infected branches and spraying the plants with Bordeaux mixture (5: 5 : 50) or spraying 3-4 times in a season with antibiotic the streptocyline (Hindustan antibiotics) at the rate of I gm in 10 Htres of water or intermittantly spray of a suspension "Neem Cake" at I kg in twenty litres of water.

138 FAT ~limming You -Ms. Rita Gupta [)eptt. of Foods and Nutrition, HAU, Hissar Food and drink are often used as solace for anxieties, as compensation for misfortune, as relief from boredom, also as reward, or for celebrations. At tbe same time, labour saving devices, mechanical transport and central beating help to reduce energy expenditure; affluence and successful food technology help to increase the inta,ke. Excessive intake or reduced output results in a,surplus of energy wbich is stored as fa t, adding body weigh,t. Surplus weight bas become a serious problem in most industrialised coun tries, affecting between 1/5th and I f3rd of the population. This weight gain due to deposition of fat is explained on the ground that any defect in metabolism and excess consumption of carbohydrate foods (instead of fat) leads to laid down of carbohydrates as fat. Moreover, individuals may not respond overeatldg by increase in metabolic rate. All this creates a problem of overweight and obesity which are associated with other nutritional diseases like diabetes, heart-diseases, high blood "pressure, gall stones as well as increased surgery risks. Despite the obvious incentives, people find it difficult to persist either in changing their food habits or in continuing with a stimming regime. That is why a great choice is advocated for slimming from time to time.viz. Dietary modifications, formula diets, exercises, substitutes for will power, metabolic stimulants, appetite depressants (drugs). The underlying objectives of all slimming regimes have been to reduce calorie intake either by eating less food or by eating foods of low calorie content. With tbe result, all fatty foods were advised to restrict in the diet. Soon, it was realised that a restricted diet that leaves the individual hungry is difficult to continue. One of the most successful method_s is high fat-high proteill intake with restricted carbohydrate intake. This a voids hunger by allowing the subjects to eat as much [ls one likes It is said that carbohydrate craves to eat more owing to block the fat metabolism by faulty oxidation of pyruvic acid which piles up ultimately as fat, otherwise energy released would have been used for muscular activities. Moreover by inhibiting fat mobilization, it is accumulated in the fat stores and one cannot get it out easily. Rest of b.ody tissues suffer a relative deprivation of nutrient and naturally one feels hungry arid eats more. Habit, re~nforced by cheapness and ready avaija,bility of starchy and surgery foods, ensures that one attempts to satisfy one's hunger with yet more carbohydrates, which in turn fo~ms more fat and still leaves one hungry. This vicious circle goes on and one gets fatter. On the other hand, exclusion of carbohydrates. in diet helps to slim. Protein food strokes up metabolic processes and thus removing excess HaO from body through urine, prespiration, etc. Besides protein mobilizes fat and helps to fire the extra calories.. Protein and fats are absorbed as amino acids and fatty acids from gut. Amino acid in liver may be used as fuel source of muscular activities besides speeding up metabolism. Fatty acids alongwith providing body heat may be stored up as fat, if in excess. But in absence of carbohydrates, oxidation of fatty acids causes mild ketosis which strokes up body fires and burns more fat, to be used as fuel for body activities. On a diet devoid of carbohydrate, there j's little stimulus to the fat organ to make fat. High fat intake depresses the manufacture of fat in the body while increasing its utilization, as fuel. That is why often said fatty tissues can only become over weight through making fat from carbohydrate. Upto 60 gram of carbohydrate! day is compatible with effective weight reduction on high f~t high protein diet, drawing one's body fat stores in the process. Paradoxically, one will eat fat and grow thinner. Thus, one need not to feel starved. Quantity of diet may be safely left to the natural appetite as it is the quality only which is essential to abate and cure corpulence. It is excess carbohydrate and not calories only that fattens. It is proved that a fat man may maintain one's weight on low calorie diet, it is taken mainly as carbohydrate but one will lose weight 00 a much higher calorie diet provided one eats mainly in form of fat and protein. Hence, proportion of calories from carbohydrate is more important than total calorie intake. Nourishment from fat and protein 'in the ratio of 1:3 by weight is recommended., But question arises why high protei'n is recommended when fat is the least fattening among all? This is because: l. Proteins are essential for health because without them body cannot make certain hormones, enzymes (Chemical regulators) concerned in energy exchange reactions, growth and repair. 2. Protein draws up body fires (increases metabolism) and hence, burns up fat stores by its specific dynamic action. 3. Fat cannot be made from protein in tbe body to an appreciable extent. Protein alone without fat makes a person ill, however, it gets weight off quickly. That is why fat, too, incorporated in slimming regimes. But it crops up certain objections regarding high fat consumption. 1. High fat diets are nauseating and make one bilious. 2. Fat may cause ketosis. 3. Fat is consumable, in high amount only in winters. 4. Diet becomes ill balanced and causes nutrit'ional deficiency disease. 5. High fat can lead to beart diseases. Remember such recommendations are not for sick, childreq, people of normal and constant weight, and people who though overweight, have no metabolic defect and who develop symptoms of hypoglycaemia, when carbohydrate is cut down from the diet below a certain level. In the light of immense liberty of quantity of diet consumed three culprits hold fat people back to original situations. These are: I. Expensive food. 2. Prejudice against fat. 3. Immoderate craving for starch and sweet things, which may fat people feel tbey can never do without. Printed and published by Dr. R. M. Sharma, Director of Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of Haryana AgriCUltural University, Bissar, Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhri, Press Manager, at the HAU Press, 00 June 1, 1981.,,

139 60 Paise JULY 198:

140 HARYANA FARMING Volume X July 1981,No.7 Contents Pages 1. What to grow during kharif under dryjand condition -Surinder Singh, D. S. Malik and R. S. Kar~asra, Minikit programme,...in' rice.."" -D. V. S. Panwar, Ajmer Singh, Rattan Singh and Rishi Pal 3 3. Grow improved seed (BJ I04) for maxim\lm profit -D. S. Malik and Surinder Singh.fm1J'.fuj[o..iP..rl'j'lUwl t 4. Hybrid \mixture-gives higher productivity and -R. L. Kapoor and H. P. YadC!v provide~ safeguard against epidemics Grow sesamum successfully 6. Bajra cultivation-an economic aspect 7. Growaonla for vitamin C 8. Simple ways to improve upon your diet 9. What to do this month - V. K. Ka/ra, S. K. Thakral and J. C. Kaushik --So S. Guliani and K. C. Bishnoi -Suneel Sharma and P. C. Jindal -Neelam Khetarpaul , ' '~, Director of Publica lions: Director of Extension 'Education; Dr. R. M. Sharma iijth' Dr. J. C. ~harm~ JointDirector (Extn.) : Dr. A. W. Sohoni * Editor v. S. GUpta Yearly Subscription Rs LjJyout! Kuljit Assisted by D. C. Yadav Photo: HAU Photo Unit Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bbawan, HAU, Hissar

141 What to Grow Iduring I(ha~if under Dryland Condition -Surioder Sillgh, D. S. Malik aud R. S. Karwasra Dry/and Agriculture Research Project, HAU, Bissar Wise man is he, w.ho can take right decision at right time. Selection of a crop under irrigated condition is not difficult. It is really a hard task to select a crop under dryland conditions during kharif season. The total quantum of rainfaii is not tbe only criteria of selecting a crop, but it is the distribution of rainfall which is more important to decide about the choice of a crop. The social requirement of a farmer is to have both feed and fodder crops. The Southern districts of Haryana are receiving 250 to 350 mm of rainfall round the year and as such the choice of a crop depends on the quantum of water (rain) received during tbe season. Different crops at different moisture levels and at different fertility status have been compared and the yield potential with their water and fertilizer requirements was determined. Last year only 167 mm of rain was received during the kharif season and the monsoon ceased by the middle of August. It is very important to present the last year yield data of different kharif crops in order to identify the arid drought resistant crops for the better judging of crops/varieties. The yield of different crops/varieties and their duration are given in Table I. The perusal of data in Table I clearly show that all these crops can be divided into three categories: 1. Short duration crops/varieties :-Moong (K-851 and 8-9); Urd (8aloni and T-9); Cowpeas (Charodi); Bajra (Local and BJ-104), 2. Medium duration crops/varieties:-til (HT-l and PT-l), Moth (T-3 and T-2), Sunnhamp and Cowpeas (HFC 42-1), and Bajra BJ-I04 gave the highest grain yield in addition to the dry fodder yield for animals within 77 days. The gross income was also highest in case of bajra (Bl-104) closely followed by moong (K-1:!51), Cowpeas (Charodi) and moong (S-9). The short duration (64 to 68 days) of these two crops (moong and cowpeas) [luther provide the possibility of taking second crop during the same year at the event of late monsoon or winter rains. The water and nutrients requirement of these short duration legume crops is low and in -addition they add to the soil fertility. The work done so far,at the Dryland Centre, Hissar suggests the possibility of inclusion of short duration moong and cowpeas in dryland areas where bajra alone is under cultivation. It is not the case during all the years to come, the guara, arhar, urd and sunnl:!amp also do well under moderate to high soil moisture levels. These crops mature somewhat late and require more water as compared to moong, cowpeas and bajra. During last year also gross income from sunnhamp and arhllr was also quite high (Table I) and showed the possibility of introducing these crops under dryland conditions of Haryana. It is worth to mention here that moong crop never produced less than 5-6 q/ha grain yield during the last 10 years at this place. The second advantage is of saving nitrogen dose and increasing the income as indicated by the data given in Table 2. The bajra grain yields obtained under different tre_atment (Table 2) suggest the possibility of getting higher returns in terms of grain as well as fodder when intercropped with cowpeas for fodder (HFC-42-1) during both the years of investigation, cowpeas being a legume fixes atmospheric nitrogen, sowing of nitrogen fertilizer is evident from the higher yield obtained over bajra alone during Read Haryana Farzning 3. Long duration crops/varieties :-Guara (FS-277 and now a monthly farm magazine No. 72), Arhar (Prabhat and UPAS-120) and Castor (RC-8 and Aruna). JULY

142 TABLE 1 The grain and fodder yield (q/ha) of different crops/varieties and the gross income/ha under dryland condition during 1980 Crop/variety No. of days Yield (qjba) Rates (Rs./q) Gross income (Rs./ha) taken to maturity Moong S K ~ Urd Saloni , T Cowpeas Charodi HFC-42-J Bajra Local Grain Straw = 1876 BJ-104 Grain Straw =3593 Til HT-l PT-l Moth T T Suonbamp Grain Fibre = Guara FS No Arhar UPAS-120 Grain Stick =2384 Prabhat Grain Stick = 19!59 Castor RC Aruna lsi TABLE 2 Effect of intercropping of mooog and cowpeas fodder in bajra on its grain and straw yield during 1979 and 1980 Crop combinations Yield (q/ha) Bajra Moong grain/ Bajra Moong grain/ Grain Straw cowpeas Grain Straw cowpeas fodder fodder Bajra BJ-I Bajra BJ-I04+Moong (S-9) Alternate paired rows of each crop Bajra B.J-I04+Cowpeas as fodder* 'I' (HF:C-42-1) one row of cowpeas fodder in between the two paired rows of bajra *Cowpeas fodder was harvested after 50 days of sowing, before cowpeas form tendrils. 2 HARYANA FARMING

143 Minikit Programme in Rice 2. To acquaint the extension workers with the new material before it is actually released. 3. To speed-up the adoption of superior varieties. 4. To build-up seed stocks at farmer's levels. 5. To feed-back information to researchers. 6. To step-up country's rice production. -D. V. S. Panwar, Ajmer Singb, Ratt~n Singb Over the years, tbis programme has played a pivotal and Rishi Pal role in the national rice scene to increase rice production and productivity. During the initial years of the programme, the varieties were grouped according to their Rice Research Station, Kaul maturity for conducting the demonstration. Later on, Rice is one of the most important food grain crops with the availability of suitable varieties from the research of India, which covers 23 per cent of the gross cropped area organisations for toposequences as also for problem of the country and one third of the world's rice acreage. It situations of the different regions iu the country, matching contributes about 40 per cent to the total annual fo()d grain minikit demonstration programmes were formulated and production oftne country and 16 per cent to tbe t<)ta[ dee implemented throughout the country. production in the world. It has now become an important food grain crop of Haryana also which was otherwise Over the years, a large number of rice varieties for considered as a non-rice growing state. Consideting the various situations have been demonstrated through this importance of the crop, the emphasis was given to boost programme. An overwhelming number out of these up its production by way of developing high ~ielding varieties has subsequently been released/recommended varieties and working out the best agronomic practices. As a result, a number of high yielding strains have been developed and released for general cultivation. As the breeding of superior strains over the existing ones is a continuous programme, the efforts are continueci at the. various research centres to develop the superior strllins. The strains developed by the various research centres are tested in All India Coordinated Rice IDlprovement Programme. The promising strains are identified by discussing the performance of these strains at the All India Rice Research Workshop which is held annually. The promising strains are then recommended by the workshop to test them at the farmers fields under a scheme known as 'Minikit Programme'. The new department, Directorate of Rice Development under Government of India, established at Patna, takes care of the promising strains by way of testing them at the farmers fields. This Directorate launched a central sector programme of Rice Minikit Demonstrations from the Rabi/summer season of to expose the newly evolved promising rice varieties to farmers conditions and situations. The main objectives of this programme are as follows : 1. To identify and, popula rise the new high yielding pre-release/released varieties. for cultivation by the Central Variety Release Committees! State Departments of Agriculture. The rice minikit programme in the country has resulted in the identification, release and popularisation of over 130 rice varieties throughout the country. Infact, now it has been possible to assess farmers opinion and also to pin-point 2 to 3 varieties or more through this programme for many situations including a few problem areas. With the passage of time, this programme has been reinforced with necessary modifications and refinements to meet the changing pattern of requirements. As of now, almost all the States and Union Territories have been encompassed under tbis programme. It may be observed that there has been an accelerated interest both from the farmer's and extension agencies to assess the performance of newly evolved varieties. Taking into consideration all the minus and plus deviation in the number of demonstrations conducted over the years, there has been an average increase of per cent per annum. P~esently, the number of rice minikit demonstrations in the country bas touched a record figure of approximately one lakh. Layout of Minikit Demonstrations Two kg seed of each of the released/pre-released varieties to be tested under this programme is JULY)981 3

144 supplied to the farmers who plant the new varieties alongwith his own local variety. The plot size for each entry is kept as one Kanal. The layout of these minikit demonstrations is done as shown below: C I I I II I C 1_-=-_ Precautions = Minikit variety I II=Minikit variety II C=Control (local popular) The minikit variety should aim at replacing the local variety with low yield. Not more than 2-3 minikit varieties should be supplied to each farmer. The duration of the minikit varieties as well as the control (local) shcmld be the same. The date of sowing/planting and cultural practices adopted should be same for all the plots including the control. 5. The farmer's reaction should be recorded in the prescribed proforma (called farmer's reaction card) 1. supplied, so as to enable the research workers to. of plant protection chemicals, better water management and weed control etc. The layout of the demonstration can be done as shown below :! C=No N+poor management I=No N but good management 1I=~N+good management I 111= Full N+poor manage- I ment I I II! III I Iv'l C! I IV=Full N+good manage-, i ment (maximisation)' ~~~--~----~--~~ From this, the farmers can be demonstratively pro~~d that: The new HYVs perform better than the local even at no N and poor management, better management alone can step up the productivity, high yields can be reaped even with the application of half of the recommended dose of N and very high yield targets can be achieved with prqper management of all inputs' used. Precautions Management mini kit demonstration should be laid out only in farmer's fields who are resourceful. get the feed back information on the performance of the variety. 2. The demonstration should be directly supervised Redesigning of minikits by the ADO and each and every operation should be personally di rected by him. Considering the fact that rice is cultivated under different stress situations like low rainfall uplands, flood prone and deep water areas, pests and disease endemic areas, saline and alkaline soils and also under high altitudes, the size of kits bas been increased to 5 kg each to make a reasonable assessment on the performance of the new variety. This has been so particularly in the case of direct sown uplands and paddy grown under deep water conditions where germinability and survival of seedlings are generally poor. Management minikits It has been established beyond doubt that 'more adoption of high y'ielding varieties' "HYVs) does not ensure high productivity even though the performance of, HYVs is mostly superior over the local variety at low levels of nitrogen. This is possible by adopting better management practices such as shallow and close planting, using 2 3 seedlings/hill, split application of N.fertilizers at critical stages of crop growth, need-based application 4 3. The variety used should have already been accepted by the farmer. 4. Field day must be organised at the time of harvesting and as many farmers as possible be invited. Management minikit demonstrations have successfully been laid out in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. I Some of the States like Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra have taken up Block Demonstrations, Large Scale Demonstrations and Pilot Projects, respectively from the experience gained through rice minikit demons- I tration. However, all these States continue to implement. minikit demonstration programme.. Ways to get comparative results 1. The efforts should be made to select uniform well levelled fields for conducting these demonstrations. HARYANA FARMING

145 2. The equal plot size should be kept for each entry. general performance and incidence of diseases and insect pes ts. 3. The set of entries of one group (early group or late group) should be tested at ODe place. 8. The efforts should be made to avoid rat damage, 4. The planting should be done in lines with the same otherwise it disturbs all the results. spaci~g to keep the equal plant population in all 9. The crop should be harvested at maturity. After the entries. thrashing, the produce should be dried, cleaned, 5. The agronomic practices should be followed uniformly. 6. Due care should be given to raise the nursery of all the entries in good/uniform conditions. 7. The extension worker should inspect the test entries frequently and take the visual observations for its checked for moisture content and weighed. The yields obtained should be adjusted to the standard at 14 per cent moisture level. 10. The agronomic characters such as panicles/sq m., grains/panicle and looo-grain weight should also be recorded to explain the reasons for the variation in the yields of different entries. For Bumper Harvest BUY HARYANA SEEDS... ~."'~ HSDC Sale Counters at : * HISSAR YAMUNA NAGAR * * KARNAL HAlLY MANDl * * SIRSA ROHTAK * * PEHOWA BHIWANI * * GURGOAN JIND * * SDNEPAT HARYANA SEEDS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LTD. S.C.D Sector a-c. CHANDIGARH Quality seeds of,., PADDY WHEAT COTTON GRAM BAJRA POTATO FODDER PULSES OIL SEEDS HARYANA SEEDS are Certified having high genetic & physical purity and germination, free from diseased.& weed seeds. HARYANA S EDS are pre-tested & packed in sealed bags with MONEY.BACK GUARANTEE.. JULY

146 Grow Improved Seed (BJ-I04) for Maximum Profit from Bajra in Dryland -D. S. Malik and Surinder Singh Department of Dryland Research, HAU, Hissar Bajra is the most efficient, quick growing and high yielding food as well fodder crop in arid and semi arid regions of Haryana State. The total area under bajra during the last 5 years is fluctuating between 870 to 1000, thousand hectares. Out of total area of bajra not more than 7 to 9 per cent area receives irrigation. The state average yield of bajra crop is very poor. It is as low as 2 to 3 q/ha in adverse years of rainfall. In normal year of rainfall, the average yield remains 5 to 6 q/ha with traditional system of planting, whereas this crop is yielding 10 to 15 q/ha during dry years and q/ha during normal years of rainfall at the research farm and in field demonstration under Lab to Land programme. The figures show a wide gap between the two production levels. Thus, there is lot of scope to increase bajra production in Haryana state with the adoption of improved package of practices. The water (rain or irrigation) is not only the constraint which is holding the yield back, the other factors which have been identified are the improved seed,. germination. and use of fertilizers. A t present improved seed of bajra (BJ-I04) is available from Haryana Seed Development Corporation (HSDC), the cultivation of which is highly economical and gives maximum return per rupee spent on various input factors. One extra rupee spent on hybrid seed may fetch high cost benefit ratio (l : 24.30), prov-ided the. soil is fertile. The poor gern~ination of bajr~ crop is the main handicap for higher yields. Either big gaps or cluster. of seedlings at one place are commonly seen at the farmer's field. Transplanting sometimes becomes difficult on. account of failure of timely rains, sowing with the help of ridger seeder not only improves the germination but also helps in better survival at the time of transplanting and also helps in situ water harvesting. This conserved 6 moisture helps in better utilization of water at the time of maturity in the event of failure of late rains. The paired row system of planting led to higher grain yield, additional monetary return (1 : 6.8) and efficient utilization of soil moisture and nutrients from the deeper layers of the soil profile than the conventional or uniform row system of planting. It has been observed that, invariably, the farmers are not using the fertilizer for this crop, specially in the dryland conditions. To some extent, this may help the,u in reducing the cost of cultivation, but, definitely the use of improved seed will give them a higher economic return even with the higher rate of fertilizer use. The improved seed (BJ-I04) has been observed to give better yield not only with use of fertilizer but also without the use of fertilizer even in dryland conditions. A cost benefit ratio of 1 : 2 is not uncommon in most of the agricultural crops and comes out to be true bere also when bajra is grown under dryland conditions. Here the cost benefit ratio is I : 2.6. When these benefit ratios were calculated separately for local and BJ-I04, they come out to be in th~ ratio of 1 : 2.4 and' 1 : 3.;5, respectively, showing thereby that the benefit is more in case of BJ-104. The above practices clearly bring out the need for educating the farmers for adopting the improved technology for increasing the production of bajra under dryfarming conditions. (Contd. on page 7) Increase Bottle Gourd Yield by Growth R~gulators Spray You can enhance yield of Bottle Gourd by using 50 ppm Maleic Hydrazide (2.5 gm in 50 litres of water per ha) at 2 and 4 true leaf stage of growth of the plants. Tbis can also be done by using 100 ppm Ethrel (10 ppm of ethrel 50% in 50 litres of water per ba of land). Tbis is also to be used 2 and 4 true leaf stage of growth of the plant. Use of some sticker/spreader would be ~eneficial.. Chemical Weed Control in Okra Chemical weed control in Okra is possible py using, 1.5 to 2.0 Htres of Basalin per ha of field. This t, chemical... should be sprayed in the field three days before seediag followed by raking so that this chemical is incorporated at a depth of about 3-4 cm. -Dr. V. K. Srivastava Extension Specialist (Vegetables) HAU, Hissar HARYANA FARMING

147 [From page 6/ TABLE 1 Effect of improved technology over the existing practices on the grain and straw yield of bajra during different years Treatments Yield (q/ha) Variety Mana~ement Fertilizer (kg/ha) Grain Straw N P _----_. Local Seed Normal practice.0 0 ] Sowing on ridge and furr()w BJ-I04 Normal practice Sowing on ridge and furrow C. D. at 5% 2, TABLE 2 Yield and economics of bajra crop at various factors of management under rain fed conditions Treatments Yield (q/ha) Additional Grain Straw income* (Rs./ha) 1. Seed: Extra cost of improved seed over local is Rs. 40/- per ba. A. Local Seed Mean B. BJ-I Mean ] Method of planting: Extra cost of sowing on ridge furrow system is Rs. 60/-per ha. A. Local method Mean B. Ride and Furrow Mean Use of fertilizer: Extra cost of 60 kg N/ba is Us. 288/- per b'cl. A. Control '. Mean B. Use of 60 kg N/ha Mean *Price of bajra and of 20/- per q. JULY Cost benefit ratio 1:24.3 1:8.8 1:2.6 7

148 Hybrid Mixture-Gives Higher Productivity and Provides Safegaurd Against Epidemics -R. L. Kapoor add H. P. Yadav Department af Plant Breeding, BAU, Bissar Bajra is a major crop of the vast dryland tracts of India. The evolution of bybrid bajra HB-I and HB-3 marked a new era in the varietal improvement of this crop. Tbe cultivation of these hybrids resulted in increased production and productivity. Thus, record production of 8.04 m tons was achieved in tbe year This production was almost double than the best achieved earlier than 1965 through tbe cultivation of local varieties. The replacement of a large num ber of locally adopted land races (desi varieties) by a few widely adopted genetically uniform hybrids made the crop vulnerable to diseases. This was in turn largely responsible for the downy mildew epidemics of early seventy s. The entire production trend got a serious setback. The key lesion from this downy mildew epidemics, as also in case of other crop diseases, is that genetic uniformity leads to epidemics. In view of this the cultivation of genetically heterogeneous populations (varieties, synthetics, composites) bas been advocated in recent years in tbis crop. However, such populations because of their variable nature, present seed certification and acceptability problems and are also in general comparatively- less productive than the hybrids. The salient features of the hybrids visa-vis populations are summarized in Table I. TABLE I Salient features of hybrids vis-a-vis populations Sr. Attribute Hybrids Populations No. 1. Productivity MOTe productive Relatively less productive 2. Genetic uniformity Uniform Variable 3. Reaction to Vulnerable to Not diseases diseases able vulner- 4: Seed certification Easy Difficult 5. Acceptability Acceptable Farmers need to be educated 8 An experiment using blends (seed mixed in equal proportion by weight) of some elite widely grown downy mildew resistant hybrids such as BJ-104; CJ-104 and BK 560 and one susceptible hybrid namely NBB-3 was conducted tbinking that this technique (the use of hybrid blends) might combine the advantages of higber productivity of the hybrids and genetic heterogeniety of the populations and eliminates the disadvantages of both. The results are discussed below. Increased productivity The yield data presented in Table 2 revealed 'that combinations of BJ-I04+CJ-I04, CJ-104+BK-S60 and BJ-I04+CJ-104+BK-560 had recorded an average yield of and 30.5 as against 28.2 q/ha of BJ I04 and were far superior to tbe two populations, HSr 1 and WC C-75. Furtber, the mean yield of the blends (30.3 q/ha) was 2.6 q/ba higber than the mean of their individual component (27.7 qjha) grown separately in pure stand. Interestingly the reduction in productivity of resistant+ susceptible blends as percentage of the resistant constj.,.. tuents was hardly any. TABLE 2 Grain yield of some eight hybrids in pure and mixed stands Sr. No. Pedigree I. BJ I04 2. CJ-I04 3. BK BJ-I04+CJ-I04 5. CJ-I04+ BK BJ-I04+CJ-104+BK,:s60 7. HS 1 8. WC-C-15 a) Mean of resistant hybrids (1, 2, 3) in pure stand b) Mean of resistant (4, 5, 6) blends c) Per cent increase of (b) over (a) Drastic reduction in disease incidence Grain yield (q/ha) =27.71 =30.29 = 9.31 The downy mildew data given in Table 3 showed al drastic reduction in observed disease reaction in the blends of resistant+susceptible hybrids as compared to the expected value based on the mean of their individual constituents in pure stand. Thus, for instance the observed disease reaction in case of BJ-I04+NHB-3 and BK- 560+NHB-3 was recorded to be 10.81,8.15 and 6.10 as against 23.90, and per cent of the correspon- HARYANA FARMING

149 ding expected value, respectively, which shows that the resistant constituents act as an effective shield. Thus, in situation where the resistance offered by a component in a mixture breaksdown, the spread of the disease will be substantially less and the stings of a davastating epi demic would be blunted than, the one expected if such an eventuality arises otherwise. Further it has been es tablished that bajra pollen interferes with the ergot in- ) fection process. The ~taggared availability of pollen in case of blends would r~sult in heavy reduction in ergot incidence as compared to the individual hybrids grown in pure stand. TABLE 3 Observed and expected disease reaction of some resistant + susceptible blends Sr. Pedigree Downy mildew No. (%infected plants) Observed Expected 1. BJ-104+NHB CJ-I04+NHB BK-560+ NHB BJ-l 04 +CJ-I 04+ NHB BJ-I04+BK-560+NHB CJ-I 04+ BK-560+ NHB BJ-104+CJ-104+BK NHB-3 Resistant hybrid in pure stand (Mean)= 2.90 Susceptible (NHB-3) in pure stand =44.02 The variation with respect to plant height and maturity in case of blends although slightly higher than their components grown separately, was less than the one observed in the two populations HS-I and WC-C-75. facilitating their better acceptability for commercial cultivation. It is, thus, evident that the cultivation of blends not only resu"lts in higher productivity but also provides for a better safegaurd against disease epidemics. Further, the blends possess the characteristics of greater stability of production and larger varietal life. The concept of ule of bybrid blends, therefore, not only provides a basic method of combining the advantages of higher productivity of the hybrids with heterogeneity of the. populations minus the disadvantages of both, but would also be superior because of the synergestic effects in addition. The technique of blending is very simple to adopt. The seed sold by the various agencies is generally packed in bags of 3 kg each. All that the farmers need to do is to buy a bag of each hybrid and mix the seed before sowing. The large scale testing of blends of BJ-I04, CJ-104 and BK-560 in demonstration plots in the coming kharif season in the state has been recommended by the Agricultural Officers Workshop held in March, "1981 at the HAU, Hissar. Select Recommended V arieties of Kharif Vegetables Sr. Name of crops & varieties Seed Rate No. I. Tomato Pusa Rubby, HS-I01, HS-I02, gm/ha HS-I10 and Punjab Chuhara 2. Briojal BR-112, Pusa Purple Long and gm/ha Ph 4 3. Chilli NP 46 A and Pusa Jawala One kgjha 4. Bhindi Pusa Sawani kg/ha 5. Bottlegourd Pusa Summer Prolific.Long and 4 5 kg/ha Pusa Summer Prolific Round 6. Bittergourd Coimbatore Long and Pusa Do 5 kg/ha Mausami 7. Luffa Gourd Pusa Chikni (smooth) and Pus a 5 kg/ha Nasadar (Ridged) 8. Tinda II. 12. Hissar Selection-1 and Bikaneri 5 kg/ha Green Lobia Pusa Barsati and Pusa Do Fasli Gusr Pusa Nav Bahar Sweet Potato PUsa La! and Pusa Safed (it can be obtained by seeding qtl. of tubers) Kharif Onion N kgjha 15 kg/ha 60,000 to 70,000 cuttings/ ha kgjha -Dr. V. K. Srivastava, Extension Specialist (Vegetables), HAU, Hissar JULY

150 Important Insect-Pests and their Control 1. Til pod borer and leaf roller (Antigastra catalaunalis) Grow Sesamum Successfully -v. K. Kalra, S. K. Thakral and J. C. Kaushik Department of Plant Breeding, BAU, Bissar Sesamum, a kharif oilseed crop of tropical and subtropical regions of India, has an important place in the economy of the country. In some parts of Haryana too, it is grown as pure crop, while in other parts, it is cultivated as mixture with other kharif crops like cotton, ~ maize, bajra and ground nut. The low level of production at present is due to lack of availability of high yielding varieties and attack of various insect pests and diseases on this crop. The research work conducted at this university has resulted in the development of a high yielding and disease resistant variety named Baryana Til No. 1. This insect attacks the crop in August and continues throughout the season. The young larva is pale yellow which becomes green and develops black dots all over the body. In the initial stages of attack, the apical leaves are folded and larvae feed inside these folds. With the formation of pods, the larvae attack the pods and feed on the cieveloping seeds inside. The full grown larva measures mm and the light brown coloured adult moth is 2 cm on wing expanse. Control i) It can be effectively controlled by spraying the crop. twice, with endosulph.an 0.07 per cent (one litre Thiotox or Endocel 35 E. C. in 500 lit. of water/ha), at I ~ days interval. ii) The infested apical leaves and pods should be plucked and destroyed. /, I Distinguishing Characteristics Haryana Til No. I (HT-l) is a single plant selection from variety NP-6 from LA.R.I., New Delhi. This variety was selected under the most epidemic conditions of three important diseases of this crop viz., leaf curl, phyllody and root rot, for three years under field conditions. Selection was followed simultaneously both for yield and resistance against these diseases. This variety is erect growing with medium height and early in maturity (77 days) bearing 1-2 capsules per leaf axil. The branching is upright having simple, narrow and dark green leaves with white bold seeds. It is comparatively resistant to leaf curl and phyllody diseases. On an average, it yields 5 q/ha having 49 per cent oil content. This variety is recommended for sowing in well drained sandy loam soils under rainfed conditions of Haryana. Sowing time Seed rat~ Plant population Fertilizer 10 General Hints for Cultivation Second week of July 5 kg/ha Row to row distance-3d cm. Thinning is required to keep the plant to plant distance-lo to 15 cm. 35 kg N/ha 2. Hairy caterpillars The red and Bihar hairy caterpillars, commonly called katra or kufra, sometimes pose serious threat to the crop. The adult moth lays eggs in clusters on the leaves and the young caterpillars confine themselves to a few leaves. However, the later stages of the caterpillar spread throughout the field, defoliating every plant on their way. The full grown caterpillars measure 3-4 em in length and have a coat of dense hairs on their body. If their march is not checked, they may migrate to other fields as well and complete defoliation of the ~rop may result. Control i) The egg masses and gregarious phase of the larvae should be collected and destroyed. \ ii) The later stages of the larvae can be controlled by spraying 500 ml endosulphan (Thiodan or Thiotox or Endocel 35 E. C.) or 350 ml methyl-parathion (Metacid 50) or 1.5 kg carbaryl (Sevin 50 WP) mixed with lit. of water per acre.. iii) Dusting with aldrin 5% 15 kg/acre also provides good control.,. iv) Migration of larvae to other fields can be checked by applying a 6" band of BHC to % dust around the infested fields. HARYANA FARMING

151 v) Heavily infested fields should be ploughed up deeply to expose the pupae to sun. 3. Til hawk moth (Acherontia styx) The attack of this insect is not so common in HaTyana, however, in certain years it appears in severe form. The larvae (S to 6 cm long) feed voraciously on the leaves and may completely defoliate the plant. ControJ i) Its population can be suppressed by hand picking tbe larvae in tbe initial stages of attack and also by ploughing up tbe soh in winter. ii) Spraying the crop with contact insecticide like endosulphan 0.07 per cent (one it. Thiodan or Thiotox or Endocel 3S E. C. in 500 lit. of water/ha) can provide effective control. Important Diseases and their Control 1. Pbyllody (Causal Organism: Mycoplasma) This disease is transmitted by an insect vector Orosius albicinctus. It manifests itself mostly in tbe flowering stage transforming tbe flowering parts into~ profusely growing green leafy structures, resulting in the sterility of tbe flower. The ovary is malformed into elongated structures, resembling a shoot. The leaves and internodes of the diseased plants are shortened which result into chlorotic vein clearing symptoms and stunted plant growth. Control Phyllody can be controlled by spraying systemic insecticides like dimethoate (Rogor 30 E. C.) or methyl demeton (Metasystox 25 E. 1 mill lit. of water. 2. Cercospora leaf spot (C. O. Cereospora sesami Zimm.) This i3 both externally and internally seed borne disease. It first appears as water soaked lesions, which enlarge to form round to irregular light brown to white (5-1S mm) spots on both leaf surfaces. Later on these spots become dark grey coloured. The common parts of infection are leaf petiole, stem and pods producing linear, dark coloured and deep seated lesions. An early infection may result in blighting. Control i) Seed treatment: For externally seed brone fungus: Agrosan ON or -} h soaking in 0.5% CUS04 solution. JULY 1981 ii) For internally seed borne fungus: Hot water treatment for 30 min. at I 28 P. Secondary infection can be checked by fortnightly spray of Dithane Z-78 or Dithene M-45 or Benlate (0.2 per cent soln.). 3. Pbytopbtbora blight (C. O. Phytophthora parasiliea var. sesami.) This disease is characterised by the appearance of water soaked spots which increase in size and destroy the whole leaf. The lesions are brown in the beginning but later turn black. Pods on the affected branches are poorly formed and seeds are shrivelled. Wooly growth of fungus can be seen on pods during continuous humid weather. Control The disease can be controlled by spraying of fungicides like Bordeaux mixture (3: 3 : SO), Dithane Z-78 and fytolan (0.2%). 4. Leaf Curl (C. O. Virus) This disease is transmitted by an insect vector, Bemisia tabaci. The main symptoms of this disease are puckering, dwarfing and curling of leaves towards dorsal side, mottle, vein clearing, stunting and partial or complete sterility of plant. Control No definite control measures against this disease are known. However, timely control of the insect vector witb systemic insecticides like dimethoate (Rogor 30 E. C.) or metbyl demeton (Metasystox 25 E. 1 ml/lit. of water and plucking and burning of the affected plant parts help in keeping the disease under check. Among other minor diseases, Alternaria blight and root rot also infect this crop. The former can be controlled by spraying Difolatan or Dithane M-45 (0.2%) and the latter by field sanitation measur~s like cutting the diseased plants and burning them. IT PAYS TO ADVERTISE IN HARYANA FARMING 11

152 Bajra Cultivation An Economic Aspect If this trend continues it is feared that area under this crop may further decrease and farmers may take up the cultivation of other competitive crops having more economic returns. Hence, an effort was made to throw light on the economic aspect of this crop. The economics presented in Table 2 is based on the data collected from farmer's fields. - s. s. Guliani and K. C. Bisbnoi Haryana Agricultural University, Bissar Bajra is an important kharif crop of Haryana ranking third and fourth in area and production, respectively among the food grains of the state. It contributes per cent of kharif production in rain fed areas, particularly Mahendragarh, Bhiwani, Gurgaon, Hissar, Rohtak and Jind districts. At present, out of total 9 lac hectares area under this crop, about 2 lac hectares is- under high yielding varieties. In the initial stages in 1966 Hybrid Bajra No.1 and Hybrid Bajra No.3 have revolutionised bajra production in Haryana. Subsequently, these varieties were found susceptible to diseases and attention was paid to evolving new bajra varieties. Though new high yielding varieties like BJ 104, HS-I, PHB-14 have been introduced for increasing bajra production but the last four years ( to ) data in respect of area, production and productivity (Table 1) show that the results achieved have not been encouraging so far rather a consistent decline was observed in all the respects except a slight increase in production and average yield during the year over the year Table 2 clearly' shows that during the years under study, net returns from bajra (hybrid) and bajra (desi) have, either been very low or negative in some of the years./ Unfavourable weather, incidence of diseases like ergot and lack of adoption of improved cultural practices may be some of the factors responsible for the 100~er yields (and also low product prices) resulting in less returns in this crop in comparison to other dry area crop like guar. For instance, taking economics of bajra crop for the year 1979 into consideration, a net return of Rs was received from hybrid bajra which is very low" as compared to a net return of from guar crop. / Since Bajra is a major fqod and fodder crop of the State, the farmers should try to maximize income from this crop by adopting improved package of practices ~iz; obtaining fresh seed of hybrid bajra every year from trusted agencies, sowing the crop in time, seed treatment, adopting proper sowing method to ensure good germination; applying recommended dozes of fertilizers; if possible transplanting spare seedlings in patchy fields to maintain uniform optimum plant population and finally adopting timely plant protection measures. TABLE 1 Area, production and average yield of bajra crop in Haryana State (Source-Haryana S~a!istical Abstract, ) --- Year Area ('000 ha) Production ('000 tons) Average yield (kg/ha) : TABLE 2 Economics of Bajra crop in Haryana State during the years (Source-Package of Practices for Kharif Crops, HAU, Hissar) 1975 Avenige Grain Yield (q/ha) Gross R~turns (Rs./ha) Total Cost (Rs./ha) Net Returns (Rs./ha) 88,47. Bajra (Hybrid) Bajra (Desi) SI HARYANA FARMING

153 Grow Aonla for Vitamin C --;-Suneel Sharma and P. C. Jindal Department of Horticulture, HAU, Bissar Aonla (Embica officincllis) has been well known for its medicinal properties. The fruit is used fresh or as a preserve. Aonla is one of the richest source of vitamin C. It contains 500 to 750 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g of pulp. This is much more than the vitamin C content of guava or citrus fruits. Only the Barbados cherry exceeds this figure. It is ii'\digenous to India and belongs to family Euphorbiaceae, to which also belong many orna mental plants. Climate and soil It is one of the hardiest fruit plants and does not need any special attention. It can be grown in all types of soils except sandy soils. Frost and dry winds do not affect the tree much. But the dry winds at the time of flowering are harmful which reduce fruit set. Variety Important aonla varieties recommended for cultivation are as under: Banarsi aonla : It is one of the best variety of aonla. The fruit is fairly large, resembling a small apple and yellowish in colour. The fruits are good for preserves and pickles. Green-tinged variety: The fruits are fairly large with green colour. This variety is also suitable for the preparation of pickles and Morabba (Preserve). Red-tinge~ variety: Fruits of this variety are comparatively smaller in size having attractive red blush near the base. Propagation Aonla has for long been grown from seeds. Trees so raised bear fruits of inferior quality. Now vegetative methods of propagation have been employed to multiply superior strains yielding big sized fruits. The propagation JULY 1981 methods employed are inarching and budding. Inarching technique is somewhat tedious and gives a low percentage of success. Therefore, budding is generally preferred over inarching. Among different buddings, shield budding is generally done. One year old seedlings having pencil thickness are taken as rootstock and care is taken to select healthy and plump buds from new growth. Best month for budding is June. After three weeks of budding the stock is headed back. The poor returns from old trees of inferior types. have been the main cause of the limited aonla cultivation so far. These can be top worked to bear good quality fruits. For top-working, tbe inferior trees are headed back to a height of 1.5 metres above the ground in March, when they are not active in growth. Coltar is applied to cut surfaces to avoid insect-damage. After sometime, each stump gives rise to a number of healthy shoots. Only 3 or 4 shoots are retained on each branch and others being rubbed off in early stage to avoid crowding and weak crotches. These shoots are then budded with scions of improved varieties after attaining suitable thickness in June. Planting and care The budded plants are planted 9 X 9 metre apart in field. The pits are dug in summer for planting and filled back with three to four baskets of compost in the last week of June. Transplanting is done in July-August and plants selected for this purpose should be quite healthy and have a perfect union. No irrigation is given in rainy season except when there is a long dry spell. In the summer months. fortnightly irrigation is essential till the plants get fully established. Once the trees are established, they do not require much care. Flowering and fruiting. Seedling trees come into flowering very late as compared to budded plants. Flowering occurs in spring season, when the new growth is coming up. In this fruit crop, two types of flowers are found i. e. male and female. Generally male flowers are more in number as compared to female flowers. Therefore, a type baving sufficient female flowers should be preferred over the one which has more male flowers. Mostly, the fruit ripens in winter. (Contd. on page 18) 13

154 balanced diet with no more cost but by thoughtful planning only. Simple Ways to Improve Upon Your Diet -Neelam Khetarpaul Krishi Gyan Kendra, Rohtak There is a saying 'Tell me what you eat and r will tell you that what you are.' It means that not only good health is directly dependent upon the kind and the amount of food we consume but food exerts a profound influence upon our whole outlook of life. In other words, our physical and mental efficiency depends very largely upon a well balanced diet. Malnutrition is widely prevalent in India. Poverty is one of the reasons but above it is the ignorance, illiteracy, lack of knowledge regarding the importance of a well balanced diet among the masses. People are mostly ignorant as far as their knowledge regarding the requirement of nutrients per person per day, importance of judicious selection of cheap and nutritious food items from each food group to make a well balanced meal etc. is concerned. Extensive food surveys conducted in India over the past few years have shown that even the well-to-do and educated people are not taking proper nutritious foods. A large majority of our pepole are satisfied by filling their stomach with some food stuff. They are not concerned about what.theyeat. No doubt, while in the economic and social circumstances of India, a high dietary standard cannot be :u-lopted but we can certainly improve our existing dietary pattern by a wise selection of available foods to combat with the prevalent malnutrition. The most important fault in our Indian dietary pattern is an excessive consumption of carbohydrates which sh~uld be corrected. It is more beneficial for the health to plan a mixed basal diet which is likely to balance'the nutrients more easily than monotonous diet consisting of cereals, pulses, and insufficient vegetables. Hence, use of mixed cereajs at a meal is nutritionally better than a single cereal. Combination of wheat, rice, various pulses and beans if supplemented with milk, curd, green leafy vegetables, raw-vegetables and fruits will give you a satisfactory well 14 A north Indian diet is mostly wheat based and the practice of sifting wheat flour generally i~ highly objectionable from the nutrition point of view. Wheat bran should not be removed as it contains, most of the B. Vitamins. In South India, where the diet is rice based, people should use un,milted or home-pounded, parboiled rice to avoid the loss 'Of B. Vitamins. While cooking, rite should not be soaked for a longer period and more washings of rice can also be avoided so as to retain maximum water soluble vitamins. Due to superstitions, religious beliefs or taboos, some people do not include animal foods in their diet which are the rich sources of high quality protein necessary for the growth, care and repair of body tissues. Therefore, vegetarians must include one or the other pulse, milk and milk products in their diet to get quality protein. It will be more beneficial if pulses are cooked after germination and fermentation. With no cost, sprouting and fermentation will add up more Vitamin-C to your diet and can very well replace citrus fruits. Besides, it germinated pulses provide more easily digestible protein too. Milk and milk products are the good sources of protein and should constitute a part of a mixed diet, Vegetarians can safely take milk and milk products instead to eggs, meat, fish etc. Milk is both an economical and protective food and is especially a rich source of calcium and phosphorus in the diet. Even a partial increase in its supply can greatly reinforce the faulty and ill balanced diet of the majority of the people of India. A diet must include a proportion of good fats. In villages, it has been observed that people pay too much emphasis upon the intake of more ghee and sugar instead of veget;;tbles, which is a harmful practice. Excess of saturated fat in the diet should be avoided as it can lead to heart diseases. Similarly, excessive use of refined sugar is a serious dietetic blunder and can cause diabe~es. Gur should replace refined sugar in the diet as it is nutiitionally better and contains iron too.., To have a liberal amounts of vitamins and minerals one should never forget to include generous am.ount of vegetables and fruits in the diet, It is advisable to eat radish, potatoes etc. without peeling them as peelings contain nutritious inorganic substances. Vegetables like (Contd. on page 18) HARYANA FARMING

155 1 AGRONOMY' I What to do this month BAJRA Start sowing of bajra with the first advent of good monsoon rains. Sowings should be completed by middle of this month. Use only first generation seed of hybrid bajra BJ 104. In case BJ 104 is not available a synthetic variety HS-l can also be sown. Prepare the field by ploughing and planking to ensure a deep smooth and fine seedbed. A moist seedbed is conducive to good germination. Five kg of treated seed is enough to sow one hectare. Sow the treated seeds about 2 em deep in uniform rows 45 cm apart. For getting good stand sowing may be done in paired rows on ridges with tractor drawn or bullock drawn ridger seeder developed by the Dryland Agriculture Research Centre of HAD. Use recommended doses of fertilizers. PADDY Complete transplanting of paddy varieties IRS, Jaya and PR 106 by first week of July. The transplanting of other varieties could be completed by end of July. Prepare a fine-levelled puddle by 2-3 ploughings and plankings in the standing water. Care should be taken that seedlings to be transplanted are gently uprooted from nursery beds. Make small bundles of these seedlings and keep them in standing water. Transplant about 30 days old 2-3 seedlings per hil1 at a spacing of Dr. S. K. Katyal Dr. R. Yamdagni Dr. V. K. Srivastava Dr. M. P. Srivastava Dr. S. D. Chaudhry Dr. R. K. Sbarma JULY 1981 I I Directorate of ~ Extension Education, HAU, Bissar I I J 15 cm X 15 cm and maintain 4-5 cm of standing water. The seedlings should be transplanted upright and not deeper than 2-3 cm. Do not forget to use recommended doses of fertilizer at the time of transplanting. For efficient control of weeds, use Machete 3 Iitresjha or Basalin 1.25 to 1.5 lit res/ ha or Saturn 3 to 4 litres per hectare by mixing in 100 kg dry sand, and broadcast uniformly in the standing water immediately after transplanting. ARHAR Complete sowing of short duration Arhar varieties like Prabhat, UPAS 120 by first week of July. Use 12 to 15 kg seedjha and sow in well prepared seedbed in rows 40 cm apart. However, increase the row spacing to 50 cm if arhar is to be intercropped with short duration Moong or Urd. Ensure that seed is inoculated with Arhar rhizobium culture before sowing and recommended dose of 40 kg P,Os per hectare is drilled at the time of sowing. GROUNDNUT Complete sowing of Groundnut by 1st week of this month. The seed should be sown by 'kera', 'Pora' or drill of a depth of about 5 cm. Spacing of 15 X 15 em for variety MH 2 and 30 X 15 cm for varieties MH 1, M 145 and M 13 is recommended. Accordingly a seed rate of 100 kg kernels for MH-l and 110 kg for M 145 and 150 kg kernels forr MH 2 and M 13 per hectare will be required. COTTON Give first irrigation if sowing has been delayed and then cotton seedlings to 30 cm distance between plants in the row. In a timely sown crop interculture with bullock drawn blade hoe. Give irrigation to timely sown crop if no rain. 15

156 I HORTJCUL TURE I This is the suitable time for new plantation, applying dose of fertilizers and manures, hoeing and weeding, draining off excess water f~om the orchards, sowing of intercrops and planting of wind breaks. Selection of suitable varieties of recommended fruit crops is necessary and the following varieties are recommended: 1. Mango :-Dashehri, Chausa, Mallika, Bombay Green 2. Litchi :-Rose Scented, Calenttia, Early Large Rea 3. Guava :-Sardar (Lucknow-49) 4. Ber :"":"Gola, Umran, Kaitbli 5. Citrus :-(a) Malta-Pineapple, Jaffa (b) Lemons- Kagzi Kalan, Baramasi (c) Mandarin-Kinnow (d) Grape fruit-marsh Foster Pink 6; Papaya :-Honey-Dew, Washington. Procorement of Plants Seedless, Duncan,.. The following care must be taken during the procurement of plants. I VEQET ABLES I TOMATO Prepare the :field for Kharif crop of tomato. In one hectare' ofland, apply 25 tonnes of organic manure and mix it thoroughly in the field. Before transplanting seedlings, also add 310 kg Single Super Phosphate (50 kg Phosphorus) and 140 kg Kisan Khad (35 kg Nitrogen) in one hectare of area. It would be advisable to apply 85 kg of Muriate of Potash (50 kg Potash) in one hectare of land, in potash deficient soils. Transplant seedling in rows at a distance of 60 to 75 cm and keep the distance.from plant to plan't at about em. For the control of harmful insects, it would be advisable to apply 1 litre of Malathion 50 EC after mixing in 625 litres of water. Virus affected plants should be regularly removed and use of this insecticide will prevent the Leaf shape and size and pattern of growth' should resemble the true plants of the same varieties. 2. These are budded or grafted on suitable root-stocks ' at a proper height from the ground. 3: In case of inarched Mango plants, their stocks/scions are of the same thickness and union is strong. 4. These are not infested with pests and infected with diseases. In Grapes: Train the newly planted vines properly so that their spread is optimum for future fruiting.. Do not allow excess growth. In older vines, keep the excess growth,under control and do not allow the canes to grow beyond cm in length. In Ber: Apply farm yard manure after light ploughing/hoeing around the main trunk and under the canopy of the trees. In Guava: Apply 0.5 to 1.0 kg of calcium ammonium nitrate per bearing plant and place the fertilizer 50 to 100 em away from the main trunk. spread of the disease. The crop will need regular hoeing and weeding and irrigation in the absence of rains. After heavy rains, removal of excess water from the field is desired. The seedling in nursery can also be done during this month and the varieties recommended for iis crop are HS IOI, HS-I02. HS IlO, Punjab Chuhara and Pus a Rubl. BRINJAL From the previous crop, the fruit should be regularly harvested and sent to market for sale. Regular'l,irri-' gation/drainage may b~ required. For the control of insects, regular use of recommended insecticides is desired. For Kharif crop, the seedlings can be transplanted in well prepared field. For preparation of field, apply 25 tonnes of organic manure and mix it thoroughly. Before trans- HARYANA FARMING I I

157 planting, apply 140 kg of Kisan Khad (35 kg Nitrogen) 310 kg Single Super Phosphate (50 kg Phosphorus) per hectare of field. The transplanting should be done at a distance of about em in rows and about em from plant to plant. After transplanting, it should be foljowed by irrigation but however after rains it will not be desire9. J CHILLI ' The transplanting of seedling should be done during this month in a well prepared field. The transplanting should be done at a distance of about cm in lines and the distance from plant to plant should' be kept at cm. EARLY CAULIFLOWER The seedling of early cauliflower (Variety-Pusa Katki) should be transplanted iii the well prepared field. It would be desirable that a transplanting is done on,small ridges at distance of about 45 cm and the distance from plant to plant should be kept at about 30 cm. Regular care of the crop including irrigation/drainage, hoeing and weeding is required I LIVESTOCK HEALTH CARE COW BUFFALOES With the onset of rains, some contagious diseases start flaring up in animals. In the event of an outbreak, it should be promptly reported to the Veterinary Surgeon of the area. Livestock keepers, should cooperate with the Veterinarian in the control of outbreak. Affected animals should be isolated and kept separately from the healthy ones. Disposal of the animals died of a contagious disease should be done by burial at a suitable place outside the village under supervision of the Veterinarian. Record the temperature of crossbred animals both in the morning and evening. When there is a rise in temperature, the Veterinarian should be consulted. Provide common salt at the rate of 50 Gm per animal daily mixed with concentrate ration. Feeding of green fodder to milch animals as a regular practice is very essential. Sowing of Kharif fodders like Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Lobia, Guar, etc. should be completed during this month. The hybrid Napier grass is quite good for feeding to the milch animals. It can be sown from July to August. For this purpose, the roots of this grass are used. Protect young stock from white scour, Navel iii and internal parasites. BHINDI Preparation of the field for the Kharif crop should be done and variety Pusa Sawani at the rate of kg per hectare should be used. Before seeding, seed treatment with Brasslcol at the rate of 2.5 gram in one kg of seed should be done. Seed should be sown in lines at a distance of 45 coo and the distance from plant to plant should be kept at 30 cm.,proper care of the crop is required. RADISH Variety of Pusa Chatki may be sown during this montil. The seed rate 6 to 8 kg per' hectare is recommended. The planting distance in lines should be at about 30 to 45 em and plant to plant at about 5 to 8 cm. It is desirable to sow the seed on small ridges for better root development. KHARIF ONION The crop is to be cared thoroughly in the nursery. Proper care in nursery is desired and preparation of the field should be started. 6. " Before taking the animals to the field, they Rhould be provided clean and fresh water for drinking. Pond water or the rain water collected in ditches should not be provided to the animals for drinking. If there are stray dogs in villages they should be killed with the help of Health Officer of the area. Such dogs are responsible for spreading diseases like rabies (Hydrophobia in men) not only in animals but also in men. SHEEP Protect sheep from Enterotoxaemia through prophylactic vaccination. Drench sheep with a suitable anthelmintic in consul tation with the Veterinary Surgeon of your area. POULTRY Get the poultry birds checked for the evidence of Pullorum disease (rom an expert. Control internal parasites in poultry. When the chicks attain the age of four to six weeks they should be given a suitable anthelmintics once in two months in consultation with an expert. The health and production of poultry depend on the quality of management in vogue at the' farm. When despite proper medication, it becomes difficult to control a disease attention should be paid to improve the management practices at the farm. Culling of the birds which are weak, diseased and give low production should be done. Regular practice of culling adds to economic production.

158 FOR THE ATTENTION OF THE READERS We had carried an article 'Citrus Cultivation' by Dr. B. S. Daulta, V. P. Ablawat and M. S. Joon, in the June 1981 issue of Haryana Farming. It has now been brought to our, notice by Dr. Shankar Dass Chaudhry, Coordinator, Krisbi Gyan Kendra, Hissar tbat recommendations given therein for Insect, pests and diseases are different from the HAU Package of Practices, and are wrong. According to Dr. Cbaudhry, "Such total disregard of tbe HAU recommendations creates confusion among tbe farmers and field staff." The Prof. & Head, Department of Entomology has also pointed out that use of certain insecticides given as recommendations has been banned/withdrawn due to the serious nature regarding residual toxicity and healtb hazards. In view of the above comments and the advice received, we hereby withdraw the,above article published in our June issue. We are grateful to, the concerned scientists for baving pointed out the discrepancies. J (From page 13) Yield Depending upon the variety, soil, climate and management a full grown budded aonla tree yields kg fruits annually. Insect-pest ' No insect-pest of economic importance has been reported. Sometime a caterpillar (Betonsa stylophora) bores into shoots and after reaching the pith, it causes gall formation. Such affected trees should be removed and burnt. Bird In this fruit crop, sparrows damage the fruits con siderably. They eat and cut the fruit and make it unfit for J:luman consumption. For escaping fruits from bird spoilage, the methods like beating of drums or the use of bird scarer etc. should be employed. (From page J4) carrot, radish, tomato, onion etc. can be t,ken raw as salad in the diet to get maximum available nutrients. Green leafy vegetables like spinach, sarson, mint, dhania etc. when available in plenty as in winter season must be included in the diet in Iibe'ral amounts to get minerals and vitamins. Last but not the least we should remember that nutrition is not the same thing as diet that our nutritional condition depends not Qnly on what food we eat but also on keeping the body fit. Hence, proper exercise of the body, a cheerful mind at meal, sufficient rest and sle~p are also helpful in improving, the state of nutrition. Therefore, proper nutrition and reasonable exercise'must go hand in hand as the making of a well built, healthy. vigorous and an active individual having optimum nutritional status. Printed and published by Dr. R. M. Sharma, Director of Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of Haryana Agriqultural University, Bissar, Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhri, Press Manager, at the HAU Press, on July 1, 1981.

159 60 PAISE AUGUST 1981

160 HARYANA FARMING Volume X August 1981 No.8 Contents Pag~s 1. Grow improved S 9 under rainfed. conditions 2. Grow cowpea for quality fodder 3. Mustard RH-30 pays in rainfed conditions 4. Role of non-cash inpqts in kharif crops 5. Possibility of cultivating medicinal and aromatic plants in Haryana -Naresh Mehrotra, R. ~. -D. S. Jatasra and G. P. Lodhi Sangwan and D. S. Malik - R. S. Sangwan, Naresh MehroJra and D. S. Malik -D. P. Singh. S. K. Yadav and D. S. Malik -R. S. Paroda, G. D. Sharma and K. K. Kansal 6. Prospects of growing fruit plants under rainfed -A. K. Gupta and K. S. Chauhan condition 7. Pomegranate-A fruit crop for semi-arid zones 8. Some do's and don'ts for planting of trees 9. Beware of gumboro disease in birds 10. On - Farm irrigation water management 11. Preventing home accidents 12. Factors affecting Jamb production 13. What to do this month -R. Yamdagni and K. S. Chauhan -G. L. Sharma - Rishendra Verma, R. C. Kulshrestha and N. K. Chandiramani - A. C. Goel and R. K. Malik - Veena Sang wan and 1. Grover -Ja; Singh Sharma 3 4 S , f~ IS 17 Director of PublicBtions.' Director of Extension EducBtion; Dr. R. M. Sharma Dr. J. C. Sharma.. Joint Director (Extn.) : Dr. A. W. Sohoni Editor v. S. GUpta Yearly Subscription Rs layout! Kufjit Assisted by D. C. Yadav Photo: HAU Photo Unit Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawftn, HAU, Hissar-J25004

161 Grow Improved S 9 Under Ra~nfed Conditions, -Naresh Mebrotra, R. S. Sangwan and D. S. Malik Dryland Agriculture Research Project Haryana Agricultural University, Bissar Mung is a remunerative kharif pulse crop of rainfed region. Its seeds are rich in easily digestible protein and are widely consumed in ways ranging from dhal to cookies and sweets. Its adaptability for soil types is wide. Although well distributed rainfall is congeneal for high crop productivity, yet mild to severe water stresses during crop cycle is tolerated because of _ i ts deep root system which extracts water from deeper soil layers. Water lodging for long duration is detrimental. Therefore, planting on ridge shoulder in paired rows 30 em apart is advocated in regions likely to have high frequency of cloud bursts. Further, mung improves soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen and, in turn, saves costly nitrogenous fertilisation. Thus, mung bajra rotation is useful. Inspite of these advantages and high selling price; its area, production and productivity (Table I) is not only low but considerable deviations indicate that years of favourable rainfall distribution are not used for its increased productivity. This trend can be controlled by covering area by improved mung variety because like other crops, it is an important component of improved production oriented technology. The research work at the DryJand Main Centre, Bissar has substantiated the superiority of widely adaptable improved variety S 9 (maturity 70 days) because it yielded reasonably good even in severe droughts of 1972, 1974, 1979 and 1980 (Table 2). It is noteworthy that local non-descript mung strains with traditional cultivation failed miserably during these unfavourable years. The variety S 9 is unique for the quality of produce because of Jess frequency of hard seeds even with forced maturity (60 days). It has medium height, 4-5 branches and pods distributed in clusters per plant and lo-i-2 seeds/pod. With 20 kg nitrogen and 30 kg pg.o o as basal fertiliser dose, 45x em spacing, AUGUST 1981 planting in,the first fortnight of July and 2.2 lakh plants per hectare, the average yield potential is 988 kg/ha. This is ab~ut 72 per cent more than 575 ~g/ha average ( Table 1) of the state. Considering Rs. 142, as.cost of per quintal mung production and the most conservative selling price as Rs. 300/q, the net profit with 988 kg/ha from S 9 is Rs Therefore, the truth is that with managerial acumen directed for the economic use of inputs and more so the available soil moisture, the S 9 yield in rain fed conditions c~n be increased. This is possible by using blade harrow (bakkhar) and/or wheel hoe for inter. culture operations. These implements create soil mulch and control weeds efficiently and economically. These less costing implements have been improved by the Dryland Main Centre. At this juncture, it is des'irable to consider briefly the bottlenecks in obtaining high productivity in rainfed conditions: 1. Low plant population density either.due. to less than 30 kg/ha seed r te and/or long drought during germination or early vegetative phase. 2. No fertiliser use. As a rule, with fertiliser application, weed- control is essential, otherwise crop-weed competition and increasing weed problem for future would tend to reduce productivity. 3. Floral shedding either due to drought or strong moist wind reduces pods/plant and yield. This can be coijtrolled by using the improved S 9 variety because of its potential for high pod number per plant. 4. No/inadequate use of plant protection measures because mung suffers from the following pests. and diseases for which control measures have been given; (i) Jassid, white fly Spray; 1 litre Malathion or 625 and yellow mo- ml Rogor 50 EC or Metasystox saic 25 EC or 190 ml Dimecron 100 in 625 titres water per hectare at 2-3 weeks interval. (ii) Red hairy cater- (a) 10% BHC or Aldrin 5% dust pillar when caterpillars are small. (b) Spray 875 ml Thiodan 35 EC L- in 625 ) water/ha on large caterpillars. 1

162 (c) Kill adults in light traps. TABLE 1 (iii) Cercospora leaf Spray Blitox 50 EC or Diathane Area, production and productivity of mu~g in Haryana spots M-45 2 kg/ha in 1000 Iitres water. (iv) Root rot Tre:lt 400 g seed with 2 g Brassicol before sowing. Year Area Production 'Productivity ('000 ha) ('000 tonnes) (kg/ha) (v) Mosaic and leaf (a) Use disease free seeds for f ,3 414 crinckle sowing (b) Spray metasystox as mention ed above It is hoped that improved variety S 9 and above mentioned measures would make mung cultivation a ,750 paying proposition in rainfed regions. TABLE 2 Productivity (kgjha) of S 9 in rainfed conditions Varieties i Average S T 51 (C) Jawar 45 (C) T 44 (C) C=Control Rainfall (mm) June July A August , September :1-.4 Manure ~nd Fertilizers in Early Cauliflower Are you going to grow a crop of early cauliflower? c) The seedlings are to be transplant;;d i:l July but in well prepared and fertilized field, For a good crop, use the following manures and fertilizers: a) Add well rotten organic manure (FYM or compost) 50 tons/ha and it should be thoroughly mixed in field and should be applied about three weeks before transplanting. b). Apply 45 kg nitrogen (180 kg of Kisan Khad), 50 kg pbospborus (300 kg of single super phosphate) and if ne~d be, 50 kg of potash (80 kg of muriate of potash) per hectare before seedling transplanting. Top diess the crop with 4iJ kg of nitrogen (160 kg of Kisan Khad) each time, twice-first after 3-4 weeks of transplanting and again at the time of head for~ mation. Do not forget to irrigate the crop after application of nitrogenous fertilizers.. If the field is deficient in boron and molybdenum (confirm it by soil test), add kg of borax/ha and 2-4 kg of sodium or ammonium molybdate jn one hectare of land.,. The seedlings are transplanted at a distance of 45 x 30 em preferably on small ridges.. -Dr. V. K. Srivastava Extension Specialist (Vegetables), HAU, HiSsar 2 HARYANA FARMING

163 Grow Cowpea for Quality Fodder -D. S. Jatasra and G. P. Lodhi Department of Plant Breeding, HAU, Hissar I The importance of ~0'Ypea as a source of highly nutritious fodder for feeding livestock needs no emphasis. In Northern and Central parts of India an<;l jn many parts of South India, it can be grown throughout the year and thus is available for livestock feeding continuously round the year. Its fodder contains high protein (18%) and so it is considered very useful for milch cattle particularly dueing summer to ma'intain a good flow of milk. Being leafy, it is highly digestible and palatable fodder. Cowpea should be sown mixed with cereal fodders like sorghum, bajra and maize as it not only increases total fodder yield but the quality of mixture fodder is considerably increased (Table 1). TABLE I Fodder yield and quality of some cereal fodders in mixture with cowpea Treatment Fodder yield(q/ha) Crude In vitro Green Dry protein digestibi- (%) lity (%) Sorghum Bajra \ Sorghum + Cowpea Bajra + Cowpea With the adoption of the following improved agronomic practices, its fodder yield could further be increased considerably. Use of improved varieties Following cowpea varieties are recommended for Haryana State : HFC 42-1 : It is erect growing and does not twine with companion crops and hence is most suitable for mixed cropping. It has dark green colour of the leaves. Size of the seed is medium and dull white 10 colour.. The fodder yield is of the.order of 300 to 350 quintal per hectare. AUGUST 1981 F. O. S. I.: It is spreading in nature and forms long thick vines. Its leaves and pods are broad and light green in colour. It has bold seeds of buff colour with dark specks on it. It gives fodder yield of quintal per hectare. Land preparation and method of sowing Land should be levelled and well drained. Loam soils are found to be conducive to goed crop growth. The cross barrowings followed by planking should be done. Cowpea can be sown a~y time frem March to mid July. Seed is SO\\ n by pora or drill at the rate of 40 kg per hectare in rows spaced at 30 cm apart and plallted soon after to conserve the soil moisture. Fertilizer Being a legume, cowpea does not require much nitrogen. It is sufficient to give a dose of 20 kg N (100 kg 20% CA N) and 50 kg P20S (375 kg single super phospbate) per hectare before sowing by drilling.. Irrigation and interculture During summer, the crop needs fortnightly irrigations. In all, 3 to 4 irrigations in summer and 2 to 3 irrigations depending upon rains during k harif seasons are sufficient for this crop. During summer and kharif one weeding with kasota will be m~st useful. Harvesting and fodder yield The crop is ready for harvesting at days after sowing. In one cut average green fodder of 250 to 300 q/ha is obtained. Two cuttings can also be taken from cowpea. However; the yield increases in case of multicut over singlecut are only about 40 to 50 q/ha. But the greatest advantage of taking two cuts is the availability of green fodder for a longer period. Following important points should be borne in mind for taking cutting: I. Take first cutting at 45 to 50 days after sowi~g. The first cutting should not be delayed otherwise regeneratioi]. would adversely be affected. Second cutting should be taken at 40 to 45 days after first cut so that the field is available for Kharif sowings. 2. In first cut harvest the crop from 6-8 inches above the surface in such a way so that 2 to 3 buds are left on each plant for bettenegeneration. 3. Irrigation after first cut is must as it helps in regenera tion. 3

164 Mustard RH-30 Pays in Rainfed Conditions -R. S. Sangwan, Naresh Mehrotra and D. S. Malik Dry/and Agriculture Research Project, HAU, Bissar Oilseeds, raised mainly in rainfed conditions, are important for the economy of dryland regions of Haryana. The low mustard productivity alongwith area and production fluctuates considerably during years (Table 1). This could be due to inadequate management (in terms of moisture conservation, fertilizer application and plant protection measures) and erratic rainfall distribution. The plant population/unit area, in general, is poor because of low germination. This is mainly due to sinking soil moisture during seeding. With traditional system, the effort to place seed in the moisture zone covers seed with more than half inch dry soil layer. This hampers seed germination. In other cases, the germinating seed dries because of high soil temperature. Since amongst rainfed rabi oilseeds, mustard has relative tolerance for frost and aphid attacks, therefore, its coverage is increasing phenominally. The trials conducted from to have proven the productivity superiority of RH-30 variety over other recommended types namely, Prakash, RL-18 and Varuna in rainfed conditions (Table 2). On an average, RH-30 (17.34 q/ha) gave 12.2, 14.6 and 26.9 per cent more than Prakash (15.46 q/ha), RL-18 (15.13 q/ha) and Varuna (1366 q/ha). With this edge for yield and more or less similar oil content the productivity of oil from RH-30 is higher tban the rest. RH-30, a selection from the strain P26/3-1. of Kanpur, has deep and spreading root system. This characteristic alongwith dark green medium sized foliage is useful for rainfed conditions. The lower large leaves ensure early vigour. This variety has more primary and secondary branches per plant. It is gratifying to indicate that its pods containing bold and attractive seeds, do not shatter. T~e. / food reserves in its bold seeds also help in good germmation. Apart from these attributes, RH 30 is suitable as inter-crop with gram and rabi cereals. Its early maturity, (140 days) imparts double advantage. When as i~ter-crop it offers less competition with the main crop, as pure crop it tends to avoid stress during seed filling stages. Further high yielding (10-11 q/ha) and early maturing (60 days) mung with normal rainfall during kharif season offer chances of taking early mung-mustard (RR-30) cfop rotation in otherwise 100 per cent cropping intensity generally followed in rainfed regions \ of Haryana. With this system, a potential of 10.8 q/ha from early mung anc q/ha from RH-30 mustard exists. TABLE 1 Area ('000 ha), production ('000 tonnes) and productivity (kg/ha) of mustard in Haryana Year Area Production Productivity ~ Mean TABLE 2. Comparative performance (q/ha) of mustard varieties alongwith rainfall (mm) in the Dryland Main Centre, Hissai: Year Rainfall Variety Kharif Rabi RH-30 Parkash RL 1S Varuna ] Mean

165 Role of Non-Cash Inputs in I(harif Crops -D. P. Singh, S. K. Yadav and D. S. Malik Department of Agronomy, HAU, Rissar Some of the inputs which involve little or no additional expenditure affect the yield of different kharif crops considerably.,the yield of kharif crops may be increased many times if non-cash inputs like USe of improved seed, timely sowing, proper method of sowing, weed control and optimum plant stand are adopted. Without adoption of improved low cost monetary inputs, it is not possible to derive full benefit from the use of costly inputs like fertilizer, irrigation aod farm machinery. With the adoption of improved non-monetary inputs above, the yield of various crops could be increased at least by 100 per cent over their state average yields. Crop wise identification of various non inputs is discussed as under: Use of improved seeds The selection of seed is an important input in crop production. High yielding varieties and hybrids which are responsive to irrigation and fertilizer application are capable of yielding 30 to 100 per cent higher than local varieties. Seeds of high yielding varieties/hybrids should be used for sowing to get higher yields. Improved varieties/hybrids of different kbarif crops are given below: Crop Rice Bajra Jowar (grain) Jowar (fodder) Maize Groundnut Moong Mash Arhar Soybean Guar Variety /hybrid IR-8, Jaya, Jhona 349, Basmati 370 Palman 579 and Jhona 221 ' BJ-I04 and HS-J CSH 6 JS-20, 1S 263, JS 29/1 and SSG-59-3 Vijay composite and Ganga bybrids-5 MH-2, MH I. MH-14S, M n and Pun jab Groundnut No.1. K gs1 and Pusa Baisakhi T-9 UPAS-120 and Prabhat Bragg FS 277 and Guar No.2 The seeds of these varieties/hybrids should be purchased either from Haryana Seed Development Corporation or from National Seed Corporation. Sowing time Sowing time is a key factor in determining the yields of crops. In Kharif season, if the sowing is delayed especially rice crop gets caught by low temperature in October-November at the flowering period. Pollination may be affected adversely resulting in sterility of the florets and ultimately reduced grain yield. On the other hand, if sowing is done earlier (before last week of June) then the flowering period of some crops particularly bajra coincides with tlu: peak monsoon season and the pollens are washed. It results in poor grain setting and reduced grain yield. So in order to get maximum yield tbe sowing of kharif crops should be started from last week of June ard it should be completed by third week of July. Transplanting of Palman 579, Jhona 221 and tall varieties of rice should be done from 15th June to 30th July_ High yielding short-statured varieties like IR 8 and Jaya should be transplanted from 15th June to 7th July. Sowing method Sowing of crops should preferably be done in lines because it helps in maintaining proper plant spacing and controlling of weeds by hoeing with the help of improved implements. Germination of bajra and soybean is affected adversely if sowing is followed by rainfall. Germination of ridger seeder sown crop is not affected because by ridger seeder the seeds are placed on both the sides of the ridge and if there is a rainfall seeds. are not covered by soil crust or excess of soii as is the case when sowing is done with desi plough. Ridger seeder which costs about Rs can be manufactured by village carpenters and is also available in Hissar and Adampur markets. Spacing If a farmer is able to maintain proper plant population by maintaining optimum row to row and plant to plant spacing his half the work is over. The lloe to line and plant to plant spacing for important kharif crops is given below: AUGUST

166 Crop Between Iines(Clll) Spacing Between plants (em) Bajra Rice (late sown tall varieties and dwarf varieties) 20 IS (Normal sown tall varieties) Jowar(grain) Jowar (fodder) 30 Groundnut P. G. No M)3, MH-l and M MH 2 Maize Arhar Mooog & Mash Soybean Guar (fodder) 30 Guar (green) 30 IS-FS Guar No.2. The above spacing should be maintained by thinning excess plants. Thinning should be don~ as early as possible to avoid uncecessary comp::tition among plants., Weed control Weeds are menace to crop.. particularly in the monsoon season. If they are not controlled within days of sowing the yields are redueed by 50-\00 per unto Hand wheel hoe which requires 1/3 of labour and cost, in comparison with 'K:asola' should be used for expedit I tious control of weeds. Method and time of fertilizer application The fertilizers which are a costly in'put these days should be applied at the right ti~e and at the right place. Phosphatic, potasic and zinc sulphate fertilizers should always be drilled before sowing and should never be broadcast. Nitrogenous fertilizers s'hould be applied in split doses to avoid losses due to leachin~ and infestatioq, of weeds. For Bumper Harvest BUY HARYA'NA SEEDS HSDC Sale Counters at : * HISSAR YAMUNA NAGAR * * KARNAL HAIL Y MANDl * >I< SIRSA ROHTAK * * PEHOWA BHIWANI * * GURGOAN JIND * * SONEPAT _~+UIP~~~~t:& _. HARYANA SEEDS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LTD. S.C.O , Sector 8- C, CHANDIGARH Quality seeds of "'1 PADDY WHEAT f COTTON GRAM. BAJRA POTATO FODDER PULSES OIL SEEDS HARYANA SEEDS are Certified having high genetic & physical purity and germination, free from diseased.& weed seeds. HARYANA SEEDS are pre -tested & packed in sealed bags with MONEY.BACK GUARANTEE. 6 HARYANA FARMING

167 Possibility of Cultivating Medicinal, and Aromatic Plants in Haryana -R. S. Paroda~ G. D. Sharma and K. K. Kansal Department of Plant Breeding, H AU, Hissar A number of various medicinal, aromatic and industrial plants were, studied for their adaptability and cultivation under Hary'ana conditions in the Department of Plant Breeding, H.A.U. Hissar. None of these plants are under commercial cultivation in Haryana. On the.basis of last two years experimental results, it has become evident that Isabgol and Rosbagrass (Palmarosa) are excellently adaptive, economic and can be cultivated under Haryana agro chmatic conditions. Asgandba, Jojoba (Wax Plant) and Guayule (Rubber Plant) are also well adaptive under our (Hissar) condition,~. As these crops have not been evaluated for more than one year, it is rather difficult to assess their economic returns at this stage. However on the basis of their adaptability and performance, it can be said that Isabgol and Roshagrass have relatively better future and some of the relevent information concerning these crops is being presented bere for the information of all tbose interested 10 their cultivation in Haryana. Isabgol Haryana farmers of those areas where irrigation facilities are less and soil is of low fertility, are advised to cultivate Isabgol. It is well known for its medicinal properties. Its seed contains 25 30% busk which bas mucilage and is used as a mild laxative, emollie'nt and demulcent. Recently, Central Drugs Research Institute, Lucknow has developed Isabgol pallets for terminating pregnancy. In foreign countries, it is also used as Ice cream fixative. India has fatched about million Rs. as foreign exchange from Isabgol during India bas also the monopoly in its production as well as export of Isabgol husk and seed to more than forty countries in the world. AUGUST 1981 Isabgol is a short duration ( days) Rabi crop, which attains a height of cm. It grows extremely well on light, well draint'd sandy loam soils. The crop needs cool and dry climate during most of the growing period and clear and dry during harvesting season. Research work at H.A.U. Hissar has revealed that it can successfully be grown under Hissar conditions. Yield level depends on the management practices. Under poor management practices, it has yielded 6 qtl. per hectare whereas, 10 qtl. per hectare yield was obtained under good management. Market price of Isabgol is Rs. 4 to 6 per kg. Thus from one hectare as much as Rs can be earned. Expenditure on input for this crop is very less as com pared to other Rabi crops as it does not respond much to irrigation and fertilizers. Roshagrass Roshagrass is an important essential oil yielding aromatic plant. Oil is extracted from whole of the plant material and sold in the market at the rate of Rs. 175 per kg. Oil has value because of the presence of geraniol (75%). Rosha oil has replaced sandal wood oil which was previously used as a base oil in the perfumary industry. Besides its prefume value, Rosha oil has the antiseptic properties too and is conside red very beneficial against skin diseases. India ranks third in the export of oil of Roshagrass. In Haryana, Roshagrass can be taken where facilities for irrigation exist and soil (ph 6 7) is of well drained type with natural slope. Crop, once planted, can last for four years, under Hissar/Haryana conditions two to three cuttings per annum can be taken, 1st during Oct./Nov., 2nd during April/May and third if possible in July. Green herbage yield varies from 22 to 30 toones per hectare per annum. From one hectare, 70 to 100 kg. oil per annum can be obtained. IT PAYS TO ADVERTISE IN HARYANA FARMING 7

168 Prospects of Growing Fruit Plants under Rainfed Condition, -A. K. Gupta and K. S. Chauhan Department of Horticulture, HAU, Hissar A considerable portion of Haryana State falls under arid and semi-arid zone- which is characterised by low and uncertain rainfall and high temperature during summer. In this region the waste land which is not utilized for growing crop" bec,1u~e of lack of irrigation facilities or brackish nature of water can be profitably utilized for growing bardy fruit plants. Fruit plants like ber, aonla, phalsa, pomegranate, karonda, lasoda characterised by a sturdy root system penetrates in the soil to a considerable d~pth within a short period are suitable for growing under such condition. The cblorencbvmatous tissues of these p1ants are not much open as in the moisture loving fruit trees. Moreover, leaves are characteri ed by a thick cuticle, slightly sunken stomata and wally 1ayer on the upper surface of leaves. Such fruit plants h:lve the capacity to restrict the loss of water by closure of stomatas and the effective retardation of cuticular transpiration. The research work done at HAU Fruit Research Station at Bawal has revealed that it is possible to grow some fruit crops like ber. guava. mulberry and phalsa commercially under rainfed conditions. The crops which can be grown successfully under rain fed conditions are as follows: Ber Ber is extremely drought resistant, hardy in nature and grows well under varying' climatic conditions witbout much care. It is the most profitable fruit. crop for dry regions and the cost of establishment of orchard and silbsequent expenditure are low. The initial cost of establishment of one acre orchard is about Rs. 1,000/ and expenditure after one year may be Rs. 250/-, R.s. 400/ and Rs during second, third and fourth years, respectively. Fruit bearing starts from second year but, first fruiting should be avoided to allow normal development of plants. Fruit should be taken from 3rd year when the yield may be kg per tree.. A good crop can be obtained from 5th yellr onward and kg fruits/tree may be obtained from cullivar Gola, Kaithli after 8 years. The fruits of Gola, Kaithli, Cultivar have good market. Therefore, ber can give a return of Rs. 4000/- per acre easily after 8 years. Phalsa It is a drought resistant fruit plant and can be grown easily in dry region as it req uires little cultural care and cost of establishment of one acre comes approximately to Rs. 1,500/- and expenditure after its establishment comes to about Rs. 250/-, Rs. 400/- and Rs. 750/- ii) second, third and fourth years, resp~ctively. Since flowers and fruits are borne on new shoots, therefore, pruning of plants is done every year in the month of January Ito ensure regular and heavy fruiting. It is only the dry land fruit crop which takes minimum ~ime to give return, i. e., after 2nd year of plantation some fruits can be obtained, but good crop can be taken from 3rd of 4th year onward. It is a very paying crop provided its plantation is located near some market. After five years, an average yield of 4 kg/bush can be obtained with an income of Rs. 3000/ per acie per year from. its fruit and pruned sticks which, can be used for fuel purpose. Guava It is a rich source of vitamin 'c'. It is a hardy tree and highly resistant to drought and grows well under varying climatic conditions and und:!r different types of soil. Being a hardy tree, it does not require much cultural care. Under dry farming condition, only \ one crop, i. e, winter season crop can be taken and Banarsi Surkha cultivar of Guava has performed well under rainfed condition. Grafted guava plants start giving fruits after four years with an average yield of 10 kg fruits,per tree and after 8 yea-rs a single tree can yield an average of 40 kg fruits.. i>omegranate Pomegranate does well under rainfed condition even with limited supply of water and its plantation can be' [Conld. on page 21, Col.,2} HARY ANA FARMING

169 moist conditions should. therefore, be maintained for proper development of the fruits. Pomegranate-A Fruit Crop For Semi-arid Zones -R. Yamdagni and K. S. Chauhan Department of Horticulture, HAU, Hissar Pomegranate has not attracted llluch attention from Horticulturists as well as Orchardists. It is one of the important fruit crops' which can be grown successfully urder wide range of soils and climatic conditions. It can withstand drought, salinity and other conditions of neglect. Cultivation of good varieties can fetch handsome income to the growers. Varieties It has been found that varieties-dholka, Kanahari etc. have not been doing well under arid-irrigated conditions. However, Nabha, Chawla, A'andi and Jodhpuri varieties seem to be promising. Propagation The pomegranate plants can be propagated easily by seeds. However, the plants must be raised by cuttings. The cuttings obtained at the time of pruning should be planted 30 x 45 cm apart in well prepared nursery beds. Planting Vegetatively propagated plants can be planted during spring (January-February) and monsoon (July-September) seasons. The planting distance can be kept at 4 x 4 or 5 x 5 metres. Irrigation Newly transplanted plants require regular ungation for initial establishment. The irrigation should be done at weekly intervals in the beginning. 2-3 irrigations are essential every month during summer and after that at fortnightly intervals during winters. Sudden drought or wet conditions particular during fruit development phase are harmful and can cause splitting or cracking. Uniform Manures and fertilizer The following schedule seems adequate for pomegranate plants: Age of Tree F.Y.M. (Years) (Kg) Calcium Super- Muriate of Ammonium phosphate potash (Kg) Nitrate (Kg) (Kg) Apply half dose of CAN, whole amount of superphosphate and muriate of potash in January/February and the remaining nitrogenous fertilzer in April or early May. Intercropping Growing of vegetables and other leguminous crops is recomn:ended till the plants attain age of four years. However. crops like pea, cowpea, beans and gram can be grown as intercrops. These crops will not only fetch some income during the pon-bearing phase of orchard but will also enrich the soil with nitrogen. After 4th year, the interctops should not be grown. Harvesting In Northern India tbe flowering in pomegranat.e starts in March and fruits ripen during July-August. The fruits should be harvested when the skin colour starts turning into pink colour. Insect-pests and diseases The most serious pests which damage fruits of pomegranate, are Bark Earing-Caterpillar and fruit borer. The following schedule may be followed for the control of Bark Eari!lg Caterpillar. Insecticides should be applied after removal of webbings 1. September-October: Paint the bark around the borer holes with the given insecticides diluting in [Contd. on page 22, Col. 2J AUGUST

170 Some Do's and Don'ts For Planting of Trees -G. L. Shar:qJa Landscape Officer, HAU, Hissar Trees are great friends of human beings and their usefulness is so very well established that no supporting statement to prove it, is needed. The national policy on forests, therefore. laid down in 1962 that forests should cover 33 per cent of the land area. Large number of trees are planted every year all over the country during VAN MAHOTSA VA celebrations which started in the year But trees are cut down and forests are cleared for fuel wood and arable land. This indiscriminate felling of trees can be ecologically disastrous as trees help to conserve the soil, arrest the march of deserts and prevent silting of rivers. The Haryana Government has, therefore, rightly prohibited for 15 years the cutting of trees for timber purposes in specified areas. These restrictions will, no doubt, help preserve the tree wealth in the state, otherwise the advance made in covering new areas with trees willle neutralised by continuous felling elsewhere. With large scale industrialisation, towns are growing into sprawling cities. Around existing big cities and towns urban areas are expanding in an inexorable manner. In addition to essential amenities like roads, water supply, electricity etc. etc., there are certain other factors to be taken care, of like fresh air, shade, shelter and dust free atmosphere to make healthy environment and better living conditions. Great emphasis is, therefore, laid on the plan. ting of trees for beauty, variety and pleasure. Love and reverence for trees have, therefore, been evoked more, among the people recently and hundreds of saplings are planted by them in compou!lds, yards and roadsides-at all places on public and private lands.' To achieve success in tree planting; the following. important points are to be given, due consideration as neglect of any may be the cause of disappointment : Make adequate arrangements for funds; Avoid false economy. Preparation before planting and Planting ~f one pure species bas grace and beauty. follow up operations after planting are more important than the a'ctual planting. /.I 2. Don't dictate the nature but follow it and select species judiciously to suit the soil,and climatic ' conditions. 3. Don't buy the cheapest. You may live with your plants for the rest of your life so buy the best. 4. Don't buy too small or too big plants.- The ideal size I r to 2' should be preferred r S. Don't buy less than one year old or more than two \ years old seedlings, Aged seedlings take time to establish as tbey develop cramped roots in pots. 6. Make the plantation scheme after thorough study and discussions and follow it rigidly. 7. For national an~ state highways, select hardy, strorig, deep rooted and wind firm evergreen or nearly evergreen trees having long life and straight and clean bole upto 6' to 12' from the ground level with spreading dense crown. These are: 4 Albizzia sps., Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, Bassia lati/olia, Dalbergia sissoo, Eugenia jambo/ana, Ficus inlec/oria, Kigelia pinnata, and Mangifera indica. 8. Have double avenues on wide town roads: Outer row of shady evergreen trees and inner row of flowering trees. These are : Foliage Trees ORNAMENTAL Acacia ouriculiformis Alstonia scholaris Anthocepha/us cadamba Flowering Trees Bauhinia variegata B. purpurea Casia fistula Cal/islemon lanceo/atum Casia nodosa Melia azadirachta Chorisia speciosa HARYANA FA,RMING

171 Mimusops elengi Michelia ehampaca Milletia ovalifolia Ptero~permum aeerifolium Putranjiva roxburghii J I Cordia sebestena Delonix regia lackaranda mimosaefolia Spalhodia eompanulata Thespesia populnea 9. tplant avenue trees on both sides of the roads. If the question of choosing only one side arises due to location of sewer line, water line, drainag~ or electric wires, then: Plant on Western side if the road is running North South and on Southern side if the road is running East-West, to get shade on the berm and the road for greater part of the day. 10. Plant Grevillea robusta or Polyalthea longifolia on main approach road. They enhance the grandeur of the place with their majestic for m and graceful foliage Plant tall and slender trees like Eucalyptus, Casurina and Mi1Iingtonia in multiple rows on boundary but not in the front. In clumps also tbey look effective but not when planted singly. Do not plant tall slender trees like Eucalyptus and Casurina singly or in single rows. 13. Plant Cassia-semea, Chorisa-speciosa, Bauhinia-purpurea, Bauhinia-blackii and Millingtonia-norteDsis for profuse flowering in November as most of the other flowering trees bloom in summer and rainy season only. 14. Plant trees of horizontal branching habit like Delonix-regia and Anthocephalus-cadamba in parking areas. 15. Plant pure avenues, as they make beautiful skyline and pleasing effect wbile mixed planting due to different size and shap'e of the crown makes an ugly effect with a jagged skyline. Planting should be done on western side if due to sewer lines space is not available on eastern side. I ~~ r~.,1 \ '( '-f ) Wben road runs North~Sou(h plsnting should be done on botb sides of tbe road. AUGUST 1981 Mixed planting does not produce pleasing effect. 16. Plant dwarf shrubs in traffic islands, on turnings and junction of roads to keep vision clear and as a safeguard against accidents. 17. Do not plant tall and spreading type trees under electric wires. to avoid interference in growth and shape of trees. t 18. Provide tree-guards before actual planting. 19. Do not plan"t more than one sapling in a single pit in the bope that at least one will survive. 20. Confine your choice to a few selected trees rather than aiming at to make a museum 'Of trees in a [Contd. on page 22, Col. 1] 11

172 Beware of Gumboro Disease In Birds -Rishendra Verma, R. C. KuJshrestha and N. K. Cbaodiramani Deptt. of Vety. Public Health and Epidemiology, BAU, Hissar Among various viral diseases of poultry, Gumboro disease is now emerging to be a serious problem to the poultry industry. Gumboro disease or infectious bursal disease was first diagnosed as an acute infectious disease by Cosgrove in 1962 in the Gumboro area of Delaware of U.S.A. In India, however, the incidence of tbis disease has been putforth by Mohanty et al. (1971). Since then, this disease has been reported from some of the states of India including Uttar Pradesh, Bombay, Tamil Nadu and RaDchi. Similar disease has also been recorded in the state of Haryana at a poultry farm. The disease most frequently affects chicks of 3-6 weeks of age. Although, it has been reported in birds upto 15 weeks of age. The etiological agent of the disease is a virus (Reovirus) which is Jymphocidal in nature. Tbis virus causes extensive lymphoid necrosis particularly in tbe bursa of Fabricus and thymus rendering the affected birds defenceless to other diseases viz. Ranikhet disease, Marek's disease, Infectious bronchitis disease, Mycoplasmosis, Salmonellosis, and E. coli infections etc. CLINICAL SIGNS OF DISEASE o Dullness, depression and emaciation o Ruffled feathers o Whitish loose diarrhoea o Soiling and pasting of vent o Severe prostration o Low mortality and high morbidity o Birds become reluctant to drinking o Deatbs due to debydration Chrcks (5-6 weeks old) exhibiting dullness, depression and prostration. DIAGNOSIS Diagnosis of the disease can be ascertained on 'the basis of clinical signs, age susceptibility, post moftern lesions and other laborator.y examinations viz. Gel immunodiffusion test and Virus serum neutralisatiqn test etc. Briefly, the gross post mortem lesions include nephrosis of kidneys, deposition of urates in ureters, sometimes bemrnorhages in skeletal muscles, enlargement of Bursa of Fabricus twice the normal size of birds of the same age group examined during the initial sta~e~ of incubation p~riod of disease, later on becomes atrophi~d. The bursa also appears oedematous and yellowish in appearance. CONTROL There is no vaccine available for the prophylactic control of the disease in India. However, the following line of action may be taken up : o Isolation of the affected birds. o Disinfection of the litter, buildings, surr6undings and equipments. o Adminisrration of antibiotics, sulphopamides or furazoladine in the recommended doses so as to prevent secondary bacterial complications~.. 0 Forcing birds to drink water also may aid in recovery I by preventing dehydration to some extent. ;4,... To make sure that the disease is Gumboro, freshly dead carcass or freshly collecteci specimen viz. Bursa. of Fabricus, spleen, kidneys and thymus can be sent to the Professor and Head, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, Haryana Agricultural Unjversity, Hissar or the District Investigation Labora'tories functioning at Ambala, Gurgaon, Karnal and R6htak. 12 HARYANA FARMING

173 On-Farm Irrigation Water Management -A. C. Goel and R. K. Malik Dept!. of Agricftltural Engineering, HAU, Bissar Irrigation water is the most vital input for crop production. Toe judicious use of this scarce input provides a suitable environment (0 obtain the optimum crop yield. The process of water management at the farm level mainly includes source, conveyance, timely application, optimum depth of irrigation water, proper method of irrigation and adequate drainage system. Land development For surfac~ methods of irrigation the fields need to be levelled or graded depending upon the soil type and crops to be grown. For land development, various types of equipments animal as well as tractor drawn are available. The animal drawn buck-scraper does better levelling than traditionally used "Karaha". Tractor drawn land planners are available for fine levelling and smoothening. The land levelling being an expensive process, should be planned carefully from the very beginning. While designing and planning the level work, the natural slope of tbe field should not be di~turbed. The time for execution of levelling work should be so selecled such tnat it may nt well into the cropping plan. For large earth work. the execution of levelling should be done in phases. Because of the disturbance of the surface soil, some less productive soils are exposed. The productivity of these soils should be maintained by adop ting suitable manurial and fertilizer management practices. -Conveyance system Realizing the importance of lining the water channels, some innovative farmers have taken up the lining -work at their farms. Efforts should be made to utilize the locally available lining material, so as to minimize the lining cost. Channels made on raised beds or on soil surface, the rectangular section should be preferred and if the channel is constructed by digging, the trapezoidal section should be adopted because it is hydraulically more efficient than the rectangular section. The proper grade should be provi~ed to the lined channel. The well constructed embarkments should be ad~quately compacted. Mostly the farmers use brick lining but percast concrete channels sections made with the help of wooden moulds can be used effectively. These moulds can be fabricated by any local artisan. Method of irrigation The selection of proper irrigation method will de pend largely on the quality of land levelling, crops to be grown and soil type. Border strip method of irrigation is recommended for most of the crops~in precisely graded fields. The size of the border should be selected, taking into consideration the size of stream. For fiat slopes aod highly permeable soils. large stream size with oon erosive velocity should be used, whereas for steep slopes and less permeable soil, smaller stream size is beneficial. Border width and length may vary between 5 to 6 metres and metres, respectively with a slope of per cent and the stream size can be adjusted from litre/sec. Checks of the size sq. meters can be used when the discharge is about 14 Htres/sec. A significant improvement can be brought by the use of siphen tubes and gated pipe in place of conventional methods of diverting water to the borders, checks or furrows. Furrows method can be conveniently and efficiently used for wide row crops such as sugarcane, maize, groundnut, potato etc. The sprinkler irrigation system can be economically installed where cost of land levelling exceeds about Rs. 3503/- per hectare. Other factors such as soil type, wind velocity and temperature 3hould be kept in view while planning to go for the system. It is always advisable to operate the system preferably in the early or late hours of the day, so as to minimize the losses due to evaporation. It has been assessed that about per cent irriitation water is saved through sprinklers in comp:lfison to surface methods and the irrigation efficiency is as high as 85 per cent. Optimum water application Water requirements vary from crop to crop and are location specific. The area of a farm under different crops should be so distributed as to get maximum benefit pee unit of water applied under limited sources of water at the critical stages of the crop growth. In the initial growth period, light irrigation is needed and qu'l1] tity of irrigation can be progressively increased as the crops grow. Irrigation at optimum interval is important for improving irrigation efficiency, as irrigation at closer intervals then optimum causes more water losses and at wider intervals beyond the optimum reduces crop yield substan tially. AUGUST

174 Preventing Home Accidents -Veeoa Sangw80 aod I. Grover College of Home SCience, HAU, Hissar An 2ccident is an event wbich occurs indepenjent of the human will, caused by an outside force acting rapidly which result!l in bodily' injury to different extent. Accidents,are often considered to be due to fate, chanc'e or unfortunate circumstances Scientific studies reveal that accidents are rarely entirely unforeseeable and the factors responsible for them could usually have been avoided and controlled without much cost. The accidents occurring at home or in neighbouring surrounding are termed as home accidents or domestic accidents. The loss of life and property due to accidents at home is much more than commonly realised and these may be classified as follows: 1. Poisioning by drugs, household products pesticides, fertilizers, plants, gas etc. ' 2. Burns by flame or chemicals. 3. Fatal accidents by electrocation by faulty household appliances, naked electric wirings. 4. Drowning. 5. Falls from furniture, swing, stairs, rugs, clothing. 6. Suffocation by plastic bags, clothing etc. 7. ~njuries from ~harp and pointed instruments, handlmg heavy equlpments. 8. Bites and other injuries from animals. 9. Defective/faulty construction. 10. Faulty placement of equipment and furniture. It appears that some accidents.are due to tbe faulty construction of the house and its ground wbile others are due to the 'way the house is being used. The largest group prone to horne accidents are children below five years and women. In the home, maximum number of accidents occur in the kitchen from fuel, cooking equipment~ electric fixtures, falls, cuts and scratches.,in children, these a~cidents occur ~ecause of the child's nature to explore whatever is new to him which mostly results in different kinds of accidents. Some of the precautions which can be taken to prevent home accidents are listed below: 14 o Guard dangerous corners or edges of furniture. cupboard pieces etc. G) Throwaway plastic bags and envelops or store them away from the reach of children. Q o Repair all the faulty clothing and foot wear. CD Wipe and clean spilled-over item~ on the floor. o Keep sharp instruments out of reach of children. o Store disinfectants, pesticides, medicines, bleaches out of reach of children. o Check electrical fittings and there should' be no hanging or.loose wires.. o Check that appliances sbow no short circuiting:.. (0 Always repair worn out rugs and floor durries etc., to avoid falls. o Do not light fire by adding too much kerosene as it quickly catches fire a.nd fire spreads fast.. o Guard children from stairs, passages & windows. o Do not keep overheating wood or coal near wooden furniture or store cabinets. C) While near the chula, avoid wearing synthetic clothing. 8 Check banging dupatas. o A void carrying hot liquid by hand. o Have sturdy steps. ) 0) Use cutting and mixing tools properly. o Do not keep the clothes to dry near burning chula. o Do not throw cigarettes butts or bides here and there. o Keep children away from burning fire. o Use torch when in dark. o Keep water tanks, tubes, etc. covered. o Do not use cooking coal stoves for room heating purpose. o If the plug points are placed at low level in the "rail, cover them up with- tape or a heavy piece of furniture. o Always label the medicines to 'avoid consuming wrong medicines, o Consult a doctor before consuming old medicines lying at home. o Always check the temperature of water" oil, ghee. tea or milk etc. before using. o If the garments you are wearing catch are do not run or pour water but roll on the ground or COyer 4 1 yourself with a blanket or any thick material. o When using rat baits, or fumigants, etc. make sure that young children are not around. o Use crackers carefully, in an open area and do not wear synthetic clothing as it catches fire easily...,.,..- HARYANA FARMING C

175 Factors Affecting Lamb Production -Jai Singhl"Sharma Deptt. of Animal Breeding" HAU, Hissar Fertility is of primary importance in the sheep industry. The success and profitability of any sheep enterprise is highly related to the level of lamb production. It costs very nearly the same amount to maintain a breeding ewe for a year whether she produces zero, one, two or three lambs per year. Let us assume that it costs Rs. 130 per year for feed, labour, investment, depreciation and other expenses to maintain a ewe for one year. Let us assume that she produces fleece worth Rs. 30 only and that each lamb will yield net gain of Rs. 100 only above expenses directly related to the lamb, independent of the ewe. This is an over simplification but dramatically illustrate the point as shown in Table l. TABLE 1 Effect of lambs raised per year on net return per ewe No. of lambs per ewe per year o Annual net return on investment Fertility is influenced by both the ewe and the ram. The objectives of this article are to (I) define those factors of practical significance which influence or affect fertility in the ewe and the ram and (2) suggest management practices and procedures which will maximise fertility. Eleven Major Factors Known to Affect Fertility and Fecundity in the Ewe are: 1. Heredity: Bikaneri and its local strain Nali seldom gives birth to more than one lamb. Similarly Merino in certain areas seldom gives birth to more than AUGUST 1981 one lamb. On the other hand, Finnish Land race may average three or four lambs per ewe with litters of 6 or 7 on record. Most other exotic breeds produce between I to 3 lambs. These breed differences are believed to be due to selective breeding over long periods of time. One should emphasise selection of rams which are born and raised as twins or triplets from sires born as twins or triplets. Preference should also be shown for ewe lambs born and raised as twins or triplets. Breed and line crosses, especially three and four-way crosses have showl] Jamb production records above tbe average of the parent breeds. In cross breeding for improved lamb production it is usuajjy desirable to cross ewes of a breed having good wool production, prolificacy, lactating and mothering ability, and adapted to local grazing conditions with rams of a breed known for mut-. ton quality and growth rate. More use of crossbreeding for lamb production should be encouraged in commercial production. 2. Puberty: Ewes bred as lamb will be more productive over their life time than ewes bred first at 18 months of age. There are several factors influencing the attainment of puberty. The season of birth as related to the non breeding season or anoestrum often at about the time a ewe might reach puberty the change in season or length of daylight precludes the occurrence of estrus. Thus, winter and early spring lambs will usually reach puberty at a Y0unger age than summer born lambs. Early maturity breeds such as the medium-wool mutton breeds reach puberty at a younger age than perhaps the Merino, Rambouillet, Targhee or Columbia as well as indigenous breeds like Bikaneri and its strains like Nali. Puberty also seems to be associated with weight suggesting that better nutrition and more rapid body growth will lead to earlier puberty. The recent studies suggest that oestrogen may be used to accelerate the attainment of puberty. 3. Age of ewe: In order to keep reproductive rate at a maximum one should maintain as high a proportion of vigorous 4, 5 and 6-year-old ewes as possible. In general, ewes shpuld be culled on condition of teeth, physical vigour, or unsoundness such as spoiled udders rather than on chronological age. Some ewes are very vigorous and productive at 8 and 9 years of age wherl!as other ewes are unsound at Light and temperature: These two factors have been shown to greatly influence fertility in seasonal breed~ 15

176 ing sheep, when ewes are transferred from one hemisphere to another their breeding season soon changes to conform to the season at the new location. It is possible that by treating the pregnant ewe with the appropriate light treatment for 30 days prior to lam bing combined with harmone therapy after lambing that a much improved accelerated lambing programme could be advised. Embryo mortality is increased by higb temperature (33 C or above) at critical times during breeding and the first week of gestation. For best results one should avoid breeding hot weather. However, when bot weather breeding is necessary plenty of Sheds should be provided and if breeding were permitted only at night it would tend to reduce heat stress on the ram. Shearing ewes just before hot weather breeding may improve fertility. 5. Presence of ram: Introduction of a ram near the end of anoestrum can induce oestrus and ovulation earlier than if introduced at a Jater date. Smell and sound were sufficient stimulus to bring about these oestrus responses. Direct contact with ram was not necessary. 6. Nutrition: Production efficiency can be lost by either feeding too much or too little. Ewes maintained on a high level or increased from a maintenance to a flushing feed level late in the breeding season did not experience as marked a seasonal decline in ovulation rate as ewes fed lower levels of energy. Flushing may be more consistently effective when practiced on thin ewes bred early or late in the breeding season. Too Iowa level of nutrition during early gestation may result in embryo loss and a lower lambing rate. Over feeding produces a large fat animal which requires more feed to maintain the higher body weight. It also may increase early einbryo mortality. 7. Ovulation rate: Ovulation rate in the yearling ewe has been found to be related to subsequent lamb production. The low ovulating ewes may be identified and culled. 8. Lambing interval: The length of gestation in the ewe is approximately 5 months. This means that ewe remain non-pregnant 7 months each year. This is longer than in any other common species of farm animal. Six months is adequate time for breeding and a s~cond complete -gestation provided the ewes will show fertile oestrus. The ewes can be induced to come in oestrus and ovulate rather. consistently within days after lambing with hormone therapy. 16 Most ewes which lamb in the full (Aug., Sept., Oct ) will come in heat while lactating. Most of these ewes will Iamb again within 8 months with no hormone therapy. A more practical approach for the immediate future is an 8-month lambing interval. This allows more opportunity for the uterns to return to normal and for the ewes to settle. There are two factors which affect length of lambing interval. These ate length of gestation and postpartum interval. Length of gestation is not too significant except in 6-month lambing interval. High temperature has bee6 shown to shorten gestation. A high level of nutrition has also been shown to shor~en gestation by about 3 days as compared to a low level of nutrition. The postpartum interval appears to 'be affected by season and breed. Ewes lambing in early and mid fall will usually rebred, spontaneously and lamb again the following spring. Many of those lambing in 18te fall and winter will remain in lactation anoestrum until the beginning of non breeding season. Those breeds with shoh breeding season would have lower postpartum intervals when lambing occur at certain sea$ons of the year. Great individual variation occurs in the postpartum interval. Individual ewes have been observed to settle as early as 9 days postpartum in the fall. The average usually lies betweea 40 and 80 days. Thus selection may prove effective in shortening the postpartum interval.,. 9. Abnormalities; barren and bard to settle ewes: Every sheep man is familiar with the barren ewe. If ewes which fail to settle after adequate opportunity are cajied all the serious reproductive abnormalities will be:. eliminated. 10. Disease and parasites: If disease and parasitism could be completely eliminated reproductive efficiency in sheep would be greatly increased. Many thousands of lambs are lost each year due to abor;tion. A variety of diseases, parasitic and other infections can greatly reduce productivity. A careful management system should be followed to keep these problems at a minimum. It. Fertility of the ram: A highly fertile ram will. not only settle a higher proportion of ewes put to him anq settle them earlier in the breeoing season but by fef"tilising a higher proportion of twin eggs his ewes will actually produce more ewes than a ram of lower fertility. (Contd. on page 22, Col. 1) HARYANA FARMiNG

177 1 AQRONOMY What to do this month BAJRA Do hand hoeing for interculture and to remove weeds. Thinning and gap filling should be done on rainy day by keeping a distance of ~ 5 cm plant to plant in the rows. In case nursery for transpianting of bajra has been raised, the seedling of 3-4 weeks old should be transplanted in a, well prepared field on rainy day by keeping a row to row distance of 45 cm and plant to plant distance of 15 cm. Transplanting must be completed before second week of this month. MAIZE Irrigate the crop in case there are no rains. Ensure proper drainage of the fields. Do not allow the weed to grow in the fields. Remove them by hoeing with a hand hoe/hand wheel hoe. PADDY Ensure that paddy fields are saturated with water. Always irrigate and maintain 4-6 cm of standing water. Remove the weeds by manual weeding from the paddy fields. PULSES Remove the weeds by hand hoeing and do not allow water to stand in the fields. COTTON Topping in desi cotton may be done in the first fortnight, in case there is over growth of the desi cotton. To ensure better boll formation in American cotton spray NAA (Planofix or similar formulation). First spray of 125 ml per hectare should be done at flower appearance (second or third week of August) and the second spray of 175 ml, 25 days after the first spray may be done. In no case brackish or saline water should be used with it. Ensure that cotton do not suffer for want of water. SUGARCANE Earthing of sugarcane should be completed in this month. Prop up the crop by the trash-twi5t method to save it from lodging. TORIA The sowing of toria is to be done in the first fortnight of Sept. Ensure that fields are ready for timely sowing and also the arrangements for the improved variety of toria sangum seed may be done. Sangum tori a matures in 110 days. 5 kg seed will be required for sowing in one hectare. Dr. S. K. Katyal Dr. R. Yamdagoi Dr. V. K. Srivastava Dr. M. P. Srivastava Dr. S. D. Cbaudhry I I Directorate of l Extension Education r HAU, Hissar r J I 'Read Haryana Farming now a monthly farm magazine AUGUST

178 J HORTICULTURE I The season is good for planting evergreen fruit plants like mango, litchi, Guava, Ber, Citrus etc. If there are heavy rains, the fruit growers should make arrangement for draining away excess water. There is more and more new growth of the plants because of the suitable weather and there will be a greater incidence of insect-pests and diseases. The timely adoption of plant protection measures is, therefore, essential. The growers should also attend to the eradication of weeds, sowing of intercrops and picking and disposal of fruits. Wherever new plantations have been done, the wind break plantation is also essential around the orchards to reduce the viiocity of wind storms which may cause extensive damage to the trees and new plants. These plants will also provide protection during winter. Suitable trees for the purpose are: Jamun, Safeda, Shishem, Multerry, \ VEQET ABLES I Khatti etc. The distance between these trees and the adjacent row of fruit plants should no.t be less than 5 to 6 metres. In the new plantation, there is quite a lot of space available between the rows of fruit plants and s.ome - intercrops can be sown. Suitable crops like pulses, Gbara; beans, Pea, Gram ~tc. can be sown according to the, season. The ripening of Guava 'will start by the. end of this month and when the fruits change their colo~r. these may be picked and sent for marketing. Do not allow extensive vegetative growth 00 the I young and older grapevines. I This is the best time for budding in Ber. The/suitable varieties for buding are Gola, Kaithali and Umran. TOMATO The crop transplanted in July will start giving fruits in this month. Harvest partly ripe fruits (half pink) for marketing. The crop transplanted during August will require care and top-dressing by nitrogenous fertilizer at the age of four-five weeks after transplanting. Apply 135 kg Kisan Khad/ha followed by a light irrigation. Apply second instalment of nitrogenous fertilizer when the crop starts flowering. In case of heavy rains, arrangement to drain out the excess water should be made and irrigation should be given if there is a dry spell. For the prevention of virus diseases, regular use of insecticides is essential. They,should be sprayed at an interval ofabout three weeks. Apply one litre Malathion 50 Be in 625 titres of water for one hectare. Do'n't consume the fruits till one week after insecticides spray. The plants infested with virus disease should be removed from the field and destroyed. The harmful insects, viz., Hadda beetie, Jassid and White-fly, may be controlled' by the use of above insecticides,. Depending upon the need, the spraying may be done at days interval. The fruits of sprayed crop should not be consumed after one week of spray. In case of fruit borer attack, infected fruits should be picked up and destrqy~d and spray the crop witli 1.5 kg Carbaryl 50 WP (Sevin/Hexavin/Carbavin) after mixing in 625 Htres of water per hectare. BRINJAL The crop transplanted in July will start fruiting in this month. The tender fruits should be harvested and sent to market for sale. Arrangement for dtainage after r heavy rains may be made and during dry p~iiod irrigation may be given. In standing crop the second dose of nitro! 4 genous fertilizer at the rate of ] 35 kg of Kisan Khad/ha should be applied followed by irrigation. For the cdiitr~l t. of harmful insects, the insecticides suggested last month should be applied in the same sequence. The fruit sh6uld be harvested before application of insecticides and they should not be consumed for about a week after applying the insecticides. \ 18 HARYANA FARMING

179 CHILLIES The crop transplanted in July will give green chillies <luring this month. Take proper care of the crop, specially removal of excess water after heavy rains, and applying irrigation during dry spell and removing the weeds. The second dose of Kisan Khad at the rate of 80 kg/ha may be ilpplied followed by a light irrigation. For the control of insect-pests and diseasi. t~e insecticides and fungicides suggested during last month should be used. After the application of insecticides and fungicides the fruits should. not be consumed for about one week. For checking flower and fruit drop, spray the crop with a solution of Planofix (1 ml Planofix in 4.5 litres of water) firstly at flowering stage and again after three weeks of first spray. BHINOI (OKRA) The crop seeded during July will start fruiting in this momh. The tender fruits should be harvested regularly and they should not be allowed to become fiberous on the plants. If needed, drainage/irrigation may be arranged. During thts month the nitrogenous fertilizer should be given (! 35 kg Kisan Khad per hectare) followed by irrigation. For the control of harmful insects, the insecticides mentioned in the August should be used regularly at 15 days interval. The fruit should be harvested before spraying the Cfvp and tbey sbould not be consumed for about a week aft~r 5pray. CUCURBITS The important crops of this group are bottlegourd, tinda. bitter-gourd. luffa-gourd, pumpkin and cucumber. The crop seeded in July will start giving fruits during this month. The fruits should be harvested 10 tender stage for marketing. During this month the second dose of Kisan Khad (64 kg/ha) should be applied followed by irrigation. The crop should be protected from harmful insects and diseases. drainage/irrigation may be done, if needed. Crop should not be consumed up to the recommended time after insecticides or fungicides spray. SWEET POTATO The crop should be given second dose of Kisan Khad (80 kg per ha) and the crop may be earthed up followed by irrigation. Regular irrigation/drainage may be required AUGUST 1981 and in case of attack by insects, the crop should be sprayed with insecticides. CALOCASIA The crop is to be top-dressed second time, with 80 kg of Kisan Khad/ha of field alongwith earthing up and light irrigation. The tender leaves of calocasia are also used for preparation of different food articles. For the control of blight tbe crop should be sprayed with Copper Oxychloride, Zineb (3 k~/ha) and it may be repeated after 15 days if the need be. CA ULIFLOWER Early cauliflower (Pusa Katki) field should be cared properly. Regular irrigation may be required and the crop should be top dressed with 160 kg Kisan Khad/ha after about three weeks of transplanting and again the crop is to be top-dressed with the same amount of fertilizer when the curd formation in the plant starts. Irrigation is essen tial after fertilizer application. The well developed cauliflower heads may be harvested and sent to market for sale. The mild-season varieties like Bissar-], D-97. Improved Japanese should be cared in nursery for good seedlings and at the same time preparation of the field should be started. The mid-season varieties are transplanted by the end of this month or early October. The early varieties are transplanted at a distance of 4S x 30 em and mid-season variety at 60 X 60 cm. the seeding of late variety (Snow Ball-16) in nursery may be started by the end of this month. CABBAGE/KNOLKHOL The seed of these crops may be sown in nursery during this month for raising seedlings. The early variety of cabbdge, lik.e Pride of India and Gvlden Acre should be used. For one hectare of land, gm of seeds would be required. The early variety of Knolkholilke. Early White Vienna (2 kg seeds/ha) should be used. The seedlings are ready in about five six weeks. In the mean time thorough preparation of the field may be done. The seed should be treated with Ceresan or Captan at the rate of 2.5 gm/kg of seed before seeding. PALAK The crop ready for harvesting should be ellt and sent to market for sale. The crop should be top dressed with Kisan Khad after about four weeks of seeding and 19

180 repeated after another four-weeks time. Irrigation is essential after fertilizer application. Apply 40 kg Nitrogenous fertilizer/ha after every cutting, followed by light irrigation. New seeding of this crop can be done during this month. The method, varieties and land preparation should be followed as indicated previously. RADISH, TURNIP AND CARROT The radish crop seeded earlier should be cared properly and the ready roots should be harvested, washed and sent to the market for sale, Use insecticides like Malathion for control of insect pests. The exposed roots should be covered by soil by earthing up operation. The early varieties of these three crops can be seeded during this month also. The method and varieties are the same as indicated during the last month, should be followed. If the crop is sown last month they should be properly cared. The crop should be top dressed with 120 kg Kisan Khad per hectare of field after about, one month from seeding followed by a light irrigation. It is advisable to treat the seed with Brassicol or Captan or Thiram (3 gm per kg of seed) before seeding. PEA The early variety of Pea (ArkeI) may be sown during the second fortnight of this month. The field preparation should be made well in time. Add 20 Tonnes FYM or Compost per hec. of land and it may be mixed thoroughly by regular ploughing and plankings. Before seeding add 60 kg of Kisan Khad and 300 kg Single Super-Phosphate per hect. of field. The crop may be divided into beds or it may be d9ne after seeding. The pea seed should be treated with Vitavax or Ceres an or Copper Oxychloride (2.5 gm/kg of seed) or Brassicol (5 gm/kg of seed). For seeding in one hectare of field, kg of seed would be required. If the pea is being sown in the field for the first time it is advisable to use bacterial culture. It may,be obtained from Krisbi Gyan Kendra of your district or Agriculture Deptt. Seedin~ should be done in lines 20 em apart and the plants may be thinned after generation at a distance of about 3.5 em. At seeding time proper moisture in the field is essential. GARLIC The seeding of,garlic can, be started by the end of this month. For on~ hectare of laqd 6 to 8 qtl. of good garlic bulbs would be teguired. For preparation of land,! apply SO tonnes of Compost or FYM/ha of land.' Before seeding of the crop apply 160 kg Kisan Khad, 300 kg Single Super-phosphate and 50 leg Muriate of- Potash per hectare. The field should be divided into convenient sized beds. The seeding may' be. done in lines about 15 cm apart and the distance from plant to plant should be kept at 8-10 cm. During seediogs, the pointed part of the cloves should be kept upward. KHARIF ONION Tbe crop transplanted last month will need weeding, irrigation/drainage. If the crop of this onion is to be planted by bulblets, it can be done in firs~ week of this month also. Land preparation, distance etc. is the same as in the case of seedling crop. OTHE.R VEGETABLES The crops Hke Guar and Lobia will start glvjng fruits from this month. Tender fruits should be harvested and sent to market for sale. The crop should be sprayedas required and insecticides -a-nd fungicides may be used as the case may be. The sowing of early potato may be started by end of this month and for this purpose good certified, improved varieties seed like Kufri Chandramukhi should be obtained well in time. The seedings \ of lettuce may be done in nursery for raising the seedlings. For one he,ctare of land seed per hectare would be required The sowing of early Methi and Dhania (green's) may also be done during this month. livestock HEAL Tit CARE 1,.,Dr. R. K. Sharma CA TILE & BUFF ALOES 1. Due to the r'ains, the contagious diseases are more likely to flare up during this month, Therefore, your animals demand more attention during this period. 20 As soon as, a disease is suspected among animals i~ should' be immediately reported to the veterinarians of your area. 2. Watch out for liver fluke disease in a(!imals. Due to rains the snails find a favourable environment HARYANA FARMING

181 for multiplication. As a result, the occurrence of liver fluke disease is more likely to be in inundated or flood-prone areas. Do not allow the animals to graze near the ponds and water logged areas. 3. Special managemental and hygienic measures are must for milch animals to protect them from Mastitis. Strip cup test at least once ~' week shall help in early detection of the disease. Remember the treatment during early stage of the disease is always essential to check the disease. 4. The buffaloes are likely to calve during this season. Therefore, all the pregnant animals should be provided easily digestible diet, clean and fresh water for drinking should be kept tin a well ventilated house or shed. 5. At the time of parturition avoid physical stress to the animal. Cut the manual cord with a sterilized sharp knife or scalpel and apply Tincture Iodine. In an emergency at the time of parturition, contact the veterinarian. 6. Feeding of colostrum (first milk) to new born calf is essential. It protects the new born from several important diseases besides providing strength and energy. It has no harmful effect on the health of animals. 7. Excessive feeding of green fodder (because of easy availability) may cause tympany. In the absence of veterinary care, it would be advisable to drench 50 ml of Turpentine oil in one litre of Mus~ard oil Do not provide feed and water till tympany has' subsided and the animal has started ruminating. SHEEP The sheep breeding season begins this month., Watch' out for Milk Fever in pregnant or parturated sheep.. Immediate veterinary care is of immense value in treating the diseases. Keep pregnant ewes in separate pens. Protect them from rains and penetrating sunshine. Handle the lamps with care. POULTRY 1.' Excessive humidity in the litter and shed environment offer advantages to certain disease producing agents to multiply, ca_using several disease conditions in! the birds. To avoid the same, keep turning the litter and always pr~vide cros~-ventilation in sheds.. Check if there is any leakage in the roof of the sheds. 2. The egg size is often decreased due to low protein contents in the feed. The protein content of per cent is optimum for the layers Balanced poultry feed for the birds offers maximum profits to an enterprise. 3. Prolonged use of drugs, particularly, antibiotics as preventive may lead to reduced efficiency for growth stimulation and for disease control. 4. Each waterer must be cleaned daily. Check water supply in the morning. Examine the waterers frequently throughout the day. [ From page 8] established with little expenditure. Once the plants of pomegranate are established they can stand severe drought also. Pomegranate plants start bearing fruits from 3rd year. The plants should be trained to a single stem and suckers and water shoots must be removed at the early stage. -Fruits of pome8ranate are damaged by birds which is the biggest problem with this crop and if fruit-s can be saved from birds damage, net income of Rs. 2,000 to Rs per acre can be obtained after 5 years. Mulberry It can also tolerate drought to a considerable extent. Mulberry plants are easily established. In the early stage, it requires proper training and shallow ploughing of the orchard once or twice for conserving moisture. The limiting factors for successful mulberry cultivation are wilt disease, cumbersome harvesting of fruits, transportation and marketing as it is a very perishable crop and requires quick transportation. Mulberry plants start bearing after four years. However, from a full grown tree, an average of kg fruits/tree can be obtained with a return of Rs. 2,000/- per acre after 7 years. Besides these fruit crops, some other fruit crops can be grown under rainfed condition and they have their own merits. Other crops are Aonla, which is richest ( source of vitamin 'C' and its fruits are well known for their medicinal value. Baelgiri also can be grown successfully on dryas well'as alkaline soils. Baelgiri fruits also possess unique medicinal properties in curing a number of intestinal disorders. A number of other products are prepared from the fruits and its squash is a favourite drink during summer. Karonda, Lasoda also can be grown under rainfed condition on waste land and some return can be obtained.

182 (From page 16) There ar~ quite a large number of factors which affect ram fertility. However, we can group the most important ones under following five main headings : (a) Physical condition: Any physical factor which will prevent or reduce' a ram's ability to copulate will reduce the nulljber of lambs which he will sire. (b) Heredity: It has been observed that certain breeds of rams are more subject to summer and early fall sterility than others. An effort should be made to select rams from highly fertile breeding groups. (c) Sex drive: Other things being equal the ram with a high sex drive is capable of mating with and settling a larger number of ewes than the ram with a low sex drive. (d) High temperature: When the atmospheric temperature exceeds 32 0 C for a period of time especially if the humidity is high, fertility is reduced in most rams. Even lower temperature can be injurious to some rams. Also anything causing an elevated temperature such as a fever, fly strike or extreme exercise in warm weather can cause temporary sterility in the ram. When the body or scrotal temperature returns to normal, fertility will usually returns in about 6 weeks. Shearing rams before putting them into breeding will result in higher fertility duridg late summer or early fall months. It would also be advisable to avoid allowing the rams to become too fat. It is also profitable to keep rams in an air conditioned room during breeding in hot weather. Where no refrigeration is available keeping the rams in the coolest available place during the day and breeding at night may be helpful. If a ram becomes sick during breeding, especially if he runs a fever his fertility will very likely be reduced for the remainder of the breeding period. Therefore, he should be replaced. Semen samples may be examined for all abnormalities during breeding season. [From page \1] small area. A void over-crowding. resisting the templation of planting too many trees. 21. Plant evergreen and' semi-deciduous trees in rainy season from July to September and deciduous trees in winter from January to February if irrigation facilities are available. 22. Always plant trees in the evening, even if, it 'is a rainy or cloudy day. 23.' Avoid light surface watering daily. Thorough watering once 'at suitable interval is good. In hot season, do watering in early mornings and late evenings. 24. Ensure follow up operations regularly and timely. These are-watering; weeding and boeing; protection from heat, cold, pests, diseases and animals;- staking; filling of casualties and training and pruning for making sliap~. [ From page 9 ] 101. water; 10 ml monocrotophos 40 Be (Nuvacron/ Azodrin) or 40 m! 50 EC Trichlorpbon (Diptrex) or 10 ml Methyl parathion 50 E C (Metacid) or 40 g. DDT 50 WP. 2. February-Marcb: Insert into borer holes insecticides soaked cotton plugs (with the help of a metallic'. spike) and then plaster the treated holes with mud; insecticides for 10 I water are: 40 g ':ahc 50 WP or 40 g carbaryl/ 50 WP (Sevin) or 25 m! toxaphene (Anatox 80 EC)/ or 10 ml fenitrothion 50 EC (Folithion/Sumithion) 10 per cent Kerosene emulsion (l Kerosene+ 100 g soap+9 litres water) have also been fo,und effective. The fruit spot and leaf spot diseases also render the fruit unfit for marketing. These diseases can be controlled by spraying 0.3% Blitox. during May-June. Similarly, spraying of Zinc Sulphate-lime mixture (3 kg Zinc Sulpbate+ '1.5 kg Slaked lime in 500 litre water) in March and April is also desirable. 2-3 sprays of 1% Potassiuui, sulphate during May-June will also be helpful in getting better quality fruits. ) DAIRY CATTLE MANAGEMENT By Raj Nawinder Pal Sabhlok M. Sc. Ag. (Pb.). Assoc. 101 (Bang.). Ph.D. (Ohio) Dean. Post-Graduate Studies; Formerly Professor of Dairying. PAS L Professor & Head. Dept. of Livestock Production & Management; Dean. College of Animal Sciences. Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar P.rice : R s I- Attractive commission offered to booj<sellers.:. university bookshops. educational I.. institution libraries ' Copies can be ha,d personally or by post from " DIRECTOR OF PUBLICATIONS HARYANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY HISSAR , INDIA,/,/ Printed and published by Dr. R. M. Sharma, Director of Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar,.Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhri, Press Manager, at the HAU Press, on August 1, 1981.

183 60 PAISE

184 HARY AN A FARMING Volume X September 1981 No.9 Contents I. High yielding gre~n fodder crops for dry farming areas -D. S. Malik and Surinder Singh 2. Gobhia sarson-a promising winter fodder 3. Double cropping in raillfed areas 4. Weeding in kharif crop~ -R. S. Sangwan, Naresh Mehrotra and R. S. Karwasra -Naresh Mehrotra, R. S. Sangwan and D. S. Malik -V. M. Bhan, S. P. Singh and R. S. Balyan Pages 1 5. Pests and diseases of groundnut and their control -J. C. Kaushik, V. K. Kalra and G. S. Saharan 5 6. Protect your maize, jawar and bajra from insects -Po D. Sharma and J. P. Bhanot 7 7. Control of rising water table in canal irrig&ted areas -M. C. Agarwal and R. P. Agrawal 10 of Haryana 8. Potato production in Haryan8 9. Gulic is a paying crop 10. Eucalyptus-A promising forest crop J 1. Whether to own or hire a tractor 11. What to do this month -Sube Singh Yadall and V. K. Srivastava -Ji/endra Singh and V. K. Srivas~ava -J. S. Pan war -R. S. R. Gupta and R. K. Malik Director of Publications: Dr. R. M. Sharma Director of Extension Education: Dr. J. C. Sharma Joint Director (EJrtn.) ; Dr. A. W. Sohoni * Editor V. S. Gupta Assisted by O. C. Yadav Yearly Subscription Rs Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, Hissar-J2S004 Layout : Kuljit Photo: HAU Photo Unit State Level Agricultural Machinery ~~][lec.. at Sirsa on Sept. 18, 1981 \ A State Level Agricultural Machinery Fair is beingj organised at Sirsa on Friday the 18th Sept., 1981 by the, Krishi Gyan Kendra, Sirsa of the Harya~a \ Agril. University. The manufacturers of agricultural machinery and agro-industrial products, extension agencies, agricultu, ral custom-hire organisations and Department of Agriculture Engineering, HAD would be exhibiting their produ. cts and activities in this fair. A d:scussion session on ' farming problems between farmers, university experts and manufacturers would also be organised as a part of this fair.

185 High Yielding Green Fodder Crops For Dry Farming Areas -D. S. Malik and Surinder Singh Department of Dry/and Research, I Haryanp Agricultural University, Hissar Livestock production plays a very impor,tant role in agriculture economy ~f dry farming areas of Haryana State. Their proper maintenance could contribute upto 50% family income of especially small and marginal farmers. Lack of availability of green fodder is one of the most important constraints for proper maintenance of the cattle. Some palatable green fqdder crops have been identified which never fail even in scarcity years of rainfall whereas traditional dryland grain crops like bajra, mustard and gram either completely fail or give unnumerative yields. Bajra and mustard which occupy more than 50 and 30 per cent areas as grain crops during kharif and rabi seasons respectively have been also identified as valuable green fodder crops. Sometimes when there are good premonsoon shower during the month of May and June farmers start sowing of bajra crop. It has been observed that on account of early sowing. the bajra crop shows good vegetative growth and comes to earing at the peak season of rainfall. In this early sown crop, harvest of green fodder after 20 to 25 days of sowing helps notorly in getting extra fodder (50 to 60 q/ha), but also helps in getting good grain yield by avoiding the earing at the peak rainy season. In the event of aberrant weather on account of moisture stre~s conditions more than 400 q/ha of bajra+cowpeas green 'fodder was obtained when the rainfall was only 166 mm during The perusal of data in Table 1 shows that even during moisture stress condition the fertilizer gave good response in increasing fodder yield. One rupee spent on fertilizer use produced the fodder yield worth Rs. 6. Further, the harvest of bajra+cowpeas as green fodd~r is more economical than keeping it for grain yield, as the grain yields remain low in moisture stress condition. The maximum yield has been obtained from the (bajra + cowpeas) fodder when the crop was fertilized with 40 leg N/ha. The cowpeas mixture not only increased the fodder yield, but also improves the quality of the fodder. During rabi, the chances of rainfall are low and the yield of the crop depends more on the profile soil reoisture conserved during the rainy season. Even with limited supply of moisture in soil and good green fodder crops of Safflower and Gobhia Sarson could be raised. A good yield of fodder t400 to 500 q/ha) from the new strain of sarson (Gobhia sarson) and (100 to 125 q/ha) safflower has been obtained during this year (Table 3 & 2). Both these crops have a good regeneration capacity and can produce the grain after harvesting green fodder (70 to 75 days after sowing). After the harvest of green fodder, during moisture stress condition (Mois. ture below 150 mm/metre depth) these crops may show reduction in grain yield but this reduction in grain yield has not only been compensated by the high green fodder yield obtained earlier but also gave the green fodder to cattle at the scarcity period of green fodder inarid and semi arid regions. It has been seen that Gobhia sarson comes to flowering during the first fortnight of Febru'iry and a good quality of green fodder (150 to 200 q/ha) can be obtained by taking 2nd cut, after 40 to 45 of first cutting (Table 3). Considering the high yield returns of these crops, it is clear,. that these hardy crops have a great scope to be popularised among the farmers of arid and semi arid regions. TABLE 1 Effect of cowpeas and guara crop combination and nitrogen doses on the fodder yield of bajra when sown under dry land condition Crop combination Bajra alone Bajra + Cowpeas Bajra + Guara, Mean SE± C.D. at 5% Fodder yield (q/ha) Nitrogen levels (kg/ha) Control 20 kg 40 kg Mean For crops For nitrogen 16.4 N.S For interaction 36.8 NS. TABLE 2 Effect of nitrogen doses on the fodder of safflower under dry land conditions when harvested after 80 days of sowing Nitrogen doses Fodder yield (q/ha) Control 20 kg Nlha 40 kg N/ha C. O. at 5% TABLE 3 Effect of time of harvesting on the fodder yield of Gobbia sarson No. of days Fodder yield (q/ha) Total Fodder after sowing r 1st cut 2nd cut after yield 45 days of (q/ha/ 1st cut day) No second cut C.D. at 5% 76.2 N.S. SEPTEMBER 1981

186 Gobhia Sarson A Promising Winter Fodder -R. s. Saogwan, Naresh Mehrotra and R. S. Karwasra Dryland Agriculture Resf!arch Project, HAU, Hissar There is scarcity of green fodder in rain fed areas. However, in recent years irrigation facilities in these regions have increased. During winter there is hardly any green fodder' which can be raised with limited water supply in rainfed regions. With the choicest milch and draught cattles of Haryana State, it was imperative to have nutritious and palatable fodder. Gohia Sarson fulfils these criteria. Apart from this; it can be raised as seed crop because it escapes frost during reproductive phase. The new cultivar is known as gobhia sarson because it resembles cauliflower (gobhi) in early stages of growth. It has good vegetable growth with large broad and dark green leaves. The leaves are thick succulent, smooth and sweet in contrast to other Brassicas. The plant is medium tall with hollow thick stem having primary and seconddry branches. The pods are thick and long and contain small seeds. Its leafy and long (100 to 110 days) vegetative pbase can be exploited for fodder. The regeneration thereafter suggests its use for ratoon seed. The crop was raised with basal dose of 40 kg Nitrogen and 30 kg P a 0 5 per hectare and 40 X 10,15 cm spacings. Presow-, jng irrigation was essential because of 167 mm kharif rainfall providing 50 mm/m sinking soil moistur.e was insufficient for sowing. With t!lese inputs as high as 792 q/ha green fodder was <;>btained. Table I indicates that increase in fodder yield is upto 105 days from sowing with no change in quality attributes. The drastic reduction in fodder yield and quality at 120 days is due to shedding of lea Yes and increase ID fibre content. Thus, possibility exists for distributing fodder supply from 75 to 105 days extended to 110 days a(ter sowing. This trend in fodder yield also suggests the desirability of further extending green fodder supply by 15 days, because cutting after 60 days would check- the drastic reduction of ratoon seed yield. Therefore, it is advisable that fodder cutting should be started after 60 days from sowing and continued till 110 days or flowering. The main advantage is that this crop is relatively' free from leaf diseases and aphid attacks. This enables the barvesting of good quality of fodder. Apart from these choices, gobhia sarson also yields IS qjha seed with, out harvesting fodder.! " TABLE 1 Effects of different dates of cutting on ratoon seed and fodder yields and its quality -in gobhia Sarson Interval of Yield (q/ha) Protein Phosphorus Total Fibre content fodder harvest Green Dry Seed Protein content % (%) sugars (%) \ (days from.fodder matter (Dry (Dry (%) (Dry matter) sowing) matter) matter) ~ Without cut HARY.ANA FARMING

187 Double Cropping in /Rainfed Areas -Naresh Mebrotra, R. s. Saogw3o and D. s: Malik Dryland Agriculture Research Project, HAU, Hissar About. 50 per cent of the cultivable area in Haryana is rainfed in the districts of Bhiwani, Hissar, Mohindergarh, Sirsa and parts of Rohtak and Gurgaon. The rainfall distribution is erratic during kharif and rabi seasons. The analysis of rainfau data ( ) of Hissar reveals that in ten year cycle, about 3 years receive above normal (more than 400 mm), 5 years normal '(200-<100 mm) and 2 years sub-normal (less than 200 mm) rainfall. The pattern of rainfall distribution for Mohindergarh is : 4 years above normal (more than 500 mm), 4 years normal ( mm) and 2 years sub-normal (less than 300 mm). The behaviour of rainfall distribution of Bhiwani and Sirsa is similar to Hissar and that of Rohtak and Gurgaon are like Mohindergarh. The average ( ) rainfall distribution of Haryana districts during kharif and rabi seasons has been presented in Table I. The productivity of rain fed crops at Dryland Main Centre, Hissar in three classes of rainfall distribution has been presented in Table 2. S~nce rainfall distribution pattern in good and average rainfall years have the possibility of double cropping in rainfed regions, therefore, experiments were conducted at Dryland Main Centre, Hissar during having kharifand rabi rainfall as mm and 83.6 mm, respectively. The results so obtained have been preseq ted in Table 3. For the sake of comparison, these yields have been reported along with those of one 70 mm presowing irrigation. It is so because irrigation facilities are increasing in Haryana. it is seen that double cropping in good and normal fainfall years is successful provided with fertiliser application aud moisture conservation by inter culture,.control measures for weeds, disease and pest are taken. With one 70 mm presowing irrigation, yields of rabi crops are not only high and economical but can be compared with irrigated conditions. The reduction in the yield of laramira under rain fed condi tion due to heavy 'vegetative growth at the cost of seed SEPTEMBER 1981 yield suggests its suitability even for more unfavourable rain fed conditions. These expressions suggest that in above normal and normal rainfall years double cropping is useful in rainfed conditions. The significance of this approach lies in increasing the otherwise usual 100 per cent cropping intensity to 200 per cent. The evidences support that it has the potential of increasing production of rainfed regions of Haryana TABLE Districtwise average rainfall ( ) in Haryana District Rainfall mm Normal distribution of Kharif Rabi Annual kharif rainfall With- drawal Commencement Bhiwani July"Ist week 1st/2nd week Hissar July Ist week of Sep- Sirsa July 2nd week tember Mohinder June last week 2nd/3rd garh week of Gurgaon June last week Septem- Rohtak June Jast week ber TABLE 2 Average yield (qjha) of different crops of Drylanl! Main Centre, Hissar in different classes of rainfall during Crops (Variety) Class of rainfall Avc;rage yield Poor Average Good of 10 year cycle Bajra(BJ 104) Mung (S 9) Gram (H 208) Mustard (RH 30) Taramira (ITSA) TABLE 3 Performance (q/ha) of crops in double cropping system at Dryland Main Centre, Hissar during Crop rotation Rainfed With 70 Fertilizer N: mm irrigation P205 basal doses Bajra (BJ 104) : 26.6 Gram (H 208) 12.8 Mung (S 9) : 10.8 Mustard (RH 30) 16.6 Mung (S 9) : 11.5 Taramira (ftsa) ll.s : 30 (20 : 0 top dressing) : 30 40: 30 20: : 30 3

188 Weeding in Kharif Crops -v. M. Bban, S. P. Singh and R. S. Balyan Deptt. of Agronomy, HAU, Hissar The crop seeds germinate mostly at one time after sowing in the fields whereas the associated weeds usually continue to germinate over a longer period of time after sowing of crops. As such weedings get delayed resulting in increase of weed density till a certain stage of crop depending upon the crop and the weeds, and thereafter it starts declining. The weeds grow throughout the crop growth and sometimes they continue to grow even after tbe harvest of crops. Weeds which emerge earlier tban the crop or simultaneously with the crop offer more competition than those emerging at later stages. But the losses due to weeds are mostly governed by the intensity and type of weeds and the stage of crop at which the competition takes place. To bring down the competition and losses due to weeds to zero it is necessary that tbe crop is kept free from weeds througbout its growing period. But practically it is not 'possible to do so. Weeding is also a costly operation and it adds substantially to tbe cost of cultivation. Therefore, tbe farmer can afford to apply only a limited number of weedings and hoeings to a crop. The number of weedings and hoeings are decided on the basis of tlie native and extent of weed problem at various stages, growth pattern and duration of crops, cost-benefit ratio and availability of labour. To get maximum benefit from the limited number of weedings and hoeings tbat a farmer can do, it is necessarv that they are applied at right time or at the critical stage of weed competition. Som~ research work bas already been done to find out the critical. period' of crop weed competition and th.e period of weed free requirement of different crops, so.that the time of weeding or herbicide application can be suitably worked out. Some work has also been done to find out the optimum weeding requirement and the period when weeds should be removed in various crops. It may be concluded from the data summarized in 1 able 1 that the soybean crop which is a fast growing legume should be kept weed free tor the initial 30 days after sowing. For other crops like groundnut and paddy the weeds should not be allowed to grow for the first 45 days after sowing/transplanting. It clearly shows that by that time most of the weeds germinate and after the critical period of competition very few weeds emerged which are also suppressed by the respective crops. D.ata presented in Table 2 indicate that if only one weeding was given in kharif crops like direct seeded paddy, soybean, cowpea and groundnut, in general, best results in terms of yield were obtained when it was applied at 30 days after sowing. Therefore. it may be concluded that in most of the kharif crop the weeds should not be allowed to grow for initial days after sowing. TABLE 1 Effect of period of weed free maintenance after sowing on crop yield Period for Yield (q/ha) which crop Paddy Soybean Groundnut Transplan-. kept weed (Direct ted paddy free (days) seeded) 15 ( I Up 10 harvest Un weeded 7 2l 6 26 Time of weeding after sowing (days) TABLE 2 Effect of time of weeding on the yield of crops Direct seeded paddy (P) Un_weeded S.2 Weed free - p= Pant Nagar H=Hissar Soybean Cowpea Groundnut IS.8 & Direct \seeded rice (H) I () 217.5, HARYANA FARMING

189 Pests and Diseases of Groundnut and their Control -J. C. Kaushik, V, K. Kalra and G. S. Saharan Department o/plant Breeding, HAU, Bissar the season, are soft bodied insects having brown head and mouth parts. The roots of the attacked plants are hollowed out and plants start withering, become yellow and dry up finally. Such plants can easily be pulled out. The difference between the attack of the white grubs and termites is that in the former case, the roots are not hollowed out like the plants damaged by termites. The major insects ass9ciated with groundnut crop in Haryana are white grubs, white ants (termites) hairy caterpillars, tobacco caterpillars and leaf webber. White grubs (Holotrichia serrata) This is a 'polyphagous insect. The areas infested with white grubs in Haryana are Bhiwani, Gurgaon and Mohindergarh and is fast spreading to the adjoiniog areas. The larval (grubs) stage of the insect is white coloured and remain inside the soil mostly near the root zone. They attack the roots of the plants and cut them. Apparently such plants become yellow and dry away. Immediately after the first monsoon shower, the adult beetles come out of soil and auack the foliage of the fruit trees. In case of severe infestation complete defoliation of the trees may result. Control :-(1) After the rainfall, the adult beetles come out of soil and feed on the leaves of trees like Neem, Babool, etc. in the adjoining areas in the night hours. Therefore, spraying of host trees with carbaryl 0.2 per cent or Quinalphos 0.05 per cent gives effective control. 2. Continuous flooding of the fields infested with white grubs for at least six days gives hundred per cent control. 3. Deep ploughing in August & September exposes the grubs to be eaten away by crows and other birds. 4. Phorate 2.5 kg a.i./ha (25 kg Thimet 10 G) applied in furrows at sowing time controls this pest. Termites Commonly known as white ants Termites are a. major limiting factor in the. production of groundnut in rainfed areas of the State. Like white grubs these are also polyphagous insects. They are social insects and live in underground colonies having four types of individuals i.e. king, queen, soldiers and workers. The workers which cause the damage to the crop throughout SEPTEMBER 1981 The new colonies are formed during monsoon season when the winged males and females can be seen fiying around light in large numbers, just after the showers. Control :-(1) Use of Aldrin 5% 25 kg/ha before sowing effectively controls the pest. (2) Temporary relief can be obtained by simply irrigating the field. (3) Use of raw farm yard manure (FYM) should be avoided. Foliage feeders and leaf webber Tobacco caterpillars, the hairy caterpillars, which are also called as Katra or Kutra and leaf webber are the major foliage feeding insects on groundnut. They cause seriolls threat to the cultivation of groundnut and in case of severe infestation, there may be complete defoliation of the crop. Tobacco caterpillars are velvety black (35-40 mm in size) with lateral white bands on it. They are nocturnal in habit and hide themselves during day time under thick foliage. The initial stages of hairy caterpillars remain in gregarious form on the leaf where the female had laid eggs in clusters. Full grown cat~rpillars measure 3-4 em in length and they have a coat of dence hairs on the body. They spread, defoliating the whole field and migrate to other fields also. The leaf webber is dark pink coloured caterpillar about 1 coo in length. It feeds on the leaves from the growing tip of the plant and makes holes of almost equal size and shape on both the leaves arising from the same axil. Control: -(1) Leaves harbouring the eggs and gregarious phase of the hairy caterpillars should be plucked and destroyed. (2) The migration of full grown hairy caterpillars should be checked by applying a 6" band of BHC 10% dust around the infested field. (3) Full grown hairy caterpillars and other foliage feeders can be brought under control by spraying 5

190 1.5 kg carbaryl (Sevin 50 wp) or 500 ml endosulpban (Endocel or Thiodan or Thiotox 35 e.c.) or 350 m} netbyl parathion (Metacid 50) per acre mixing witb lit. of water. (4) Aldrin 5% 15 kg/acre also provides good control.. (5) The pupae should be exposed to sun in the heavily infested fields by deep ploughing the soil. Urds This problem, especially of crows, starts ight after sowing since they take away the sown seeds. Nhen the crop is nearing harvest, they dig out, eat and ake away the pods. It becomes more easy for the birds IVben the crop is left in tbe field for drying after digging. Control: -(I) Birds must be scared away by keeping 1 continuous watch especially during morning and evening hours. (2) Hanging a few killed crows on bamboos with ropes at different places in the field where the crop is kept for drying, keeps tbe crows away. Bails prepared of bread pieces dipped in 2.25% methyl parathion (5 ml of methyl parathion (metacid 50) per lit. of water) can be used to kill 'the crows. Diseases There are a number of diseases which check groundaut production in different areas of the State. The amount of damage caused by these maladies depends upon time of occurrence and further development under congenial environmental conditions. Major diseases are: Tikka :-It is caused by two distinct groups of fungi, Cer~ospora aracbidico)a and Cercosporidium penooatum. Early leaf spot caused by Cercospora aracbidicola are circular or irregular, reddish brown to dark brown on the upper surface and lighter on the corresponding lower surface of the leaves. Size of the lesions vary from 1 to 10 mm which are surrounded by narrow yellow halo on the upper surface. Sporulation of the fungus is usually on the upper surface of leaves. Late leaf spots caused by Cere osporidium personatum produces almost circular, s'mall (I to 6 mm) lesions with less diffuse margins and are abundant on leaves, stipules, petioles, stems and pegs. Sporulation of the fungus is restricted to lower surface of leaf and is in concentric rings. ('ootrot :-(1) Burn or destroy the diseased plant debris from tbe fidd, 6 (2) Spray the crop with 0.2% or Dithane M-45 (0.2%). First spray should be given at the appearance of disease and then two sprays at the interval of 15 days. ' Rust :-(Puccioia aracbidis): Orange red pustules appear on both surfaces of tbe leaves about 8-10 days after infection. Usually more pustules are found on lower leaf sur(ljces. Individual lesions are circular from 0.3 to 0.6 mm in diameter and 'often surrounded by leaf tissue wbich is dull green or light brown. At the later stages the pustules turn dark b'r()wn and the infection site frequently coalesce. Losses are heavy especially if the crop is infected early in a wet growing season. Control: -( 1) Destroy the alternate host like Arachis' prostrate and Arachis margniata. (2) Two applications with 325 mesh sulphur dust reduce r the disease. (3) Spraying of the crop with Dithane kg/ha can effectively control tbis disease., ) Collar rot :-(AspergiUus niger). This disease is becoming very common in groundnut gro\\-ing areas in Haryana and Punjab. It appears within 20 to 40 days after sowing a light brown to black lesion on the collar region of the newly emerged seedlings. Under favouiable conditions the lesions increased in size and girdles the entire stem. This f irdling increases upward' and finally the seedlings collapse. The affected collar region becomes shredded and is soon covered with black mass of profuse growth of conidiosphores and conidia. Control :-( I) Seed treatment with either Thiram (5 g/kg seed) or captan (3 g/kg seed) or Agrosan GN (2.5 g/kg seed) have been reported to reduce tbe disease IDCIdence. Mosaic --(Virus) Plants with mosaic disease show general mottling and chlorosis of the leaves, accompanied by puckering and other malformation. Losses in yield r~nge from I to 20 per cent depending on the intensity of infection. The virus is graft transmissible and by insect vector (Aphis craccivora). Other minor diseases of groundnut are wilt and root rot (Fusarium & Rhizoc- ' tonia sp,), Collectotricbum leaf spot and Myrothecium" leaf spot. These minor diseases can be kept under con-" trol by following proper sanitation methods and by giving' regular [)prays of fungicides for the control of major disease. HARYANA FARMING

191 Endosulfan/Thiodan/Thiotox in 625, 875, 1000 I of water per hectare, respectively and Protect your Maize-> J awar a.nd Bajra from Insects I -Po D. Sbarma* and J. P. Bbanot** Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar " Below given is the brief account of insects Qamaging maize, jawar and bajra alongwith their control measures. MAIZE,BORER Commonly known as "Kansua" is the most destructive pest of maize and is found throughout the country. Tbis insect has been reported to damage jawar, bajra, sugarcane, sudan grass, baru, sarkanda and other grasses also. The caterpillars damage by boring into the stems, cobs or ears. The grown up caterpillars are about mm long and dirty greyish-white with black head and four brownish longitudenal stripes on the back. The adults are yellowish grey moths, about 2S mm across the wings. Infestation of young crop results in dead hearts and later infestations cause considerable loss in yield and straw. Life cycle Eggs, laid in overlapping clusters on the underside of the leaves hatch in 2-5 days and the larvae first feed by scraping the leaves and later enter the central shoots. The larvae become full fed in days after passing through six stages and later pupate inside tbe stem. The life cycle is completed in 5-6 weeks. The insect breeds actively during March-April to October and for rest of the period it remains in hibernation as a full grown larva in maize stubbles, stalks or unshelled cobs. Control 1. Plough up the fields and destroy the stubb1es after harvest. 2. Spray the crop regularly at 10 day's interval with carbaryl or endosulfan. For first, second, third and fourth spray use 625, 875, 1000 and 1000 gil} Sevin/ Hexavin/Carbaryl or 1250, 1750, 2000 and 2000 ml.assistant Prof. Entomologv, I. A. T. T. E. Assistant Scientist Entomology. SEPTEMBER 1981 RED HAIRY CATERPILLAR Commonly known as "Katra" is a polypbagous pest and feed practically on all sorts of vegetation growing during Kharif season. Damage is caused by the caterpillars which measure about 2S mm in length, when full grown. Their colour varies from reddish am ber to olive green and the body is covered with numerous long thick hairs. The moths are stoutly'built and have white wings with black spots. The outer margins of the fore wings. tbe anterior margin of the thoro x and the entire abdomen are scarlet red. There are black bands and dots on the abdomen. The young caterpillars prefer to eat tbe growing points of the plants. The older ones do not have such discrimination and tbey feed voraciously on au vegetation. Life cycle The pest is active from mid June to the end of August and passes the rest of the year in pupal stage, in the soil. Moths from these pupae appear usually with first shower of the monsoon. They are nocturnal in habit, and lay eggs in clusters whicb hatch in 2-3 days. The young caterpillars feed gariously and as they grow older, they march in bands destroying fields after fields of various Kharif crops. The caterpillars grow tl)rough six stages and complete their development in ] 5-23 days. They pupate inside the earthen cocoons and remain in that stage for many months to emerge as adults next year. Control 1. Destroy the egg masses on the undersurface of the leaves. 2. The young caterpillars can be controlled by dusting the crop with 25 kg BHC 10 per cent dust or Aldrin ~ per cent dust per hectare. 3. When the larvae are,full grown, the crop should be sprayed with 1250 ml Endosulfan/Thiotox/Thiodan or 625 ml Methyl parathion/matacid 50/paratox in 625 I water per hectare. 4. Deep plougbings should be done in December-January so as to expose the hibernating pupae.: 7

192 WHITE GRUBS Commonly known as "Safed lat" is a pest of Kharif season. The adults which are brown with hard wings and well developed mandibles are active during night and feed on the foliage of ber, janti, shisham, pi pal and other trees/bushes, in the field. The damage is caused by eating circular holes on the leaves and also the leaf margins. The grubs are white in colour and remain curled in shape. They always remain in the soil and feed on the roots of maize, jawar, bajra, moong and other Kharif crops. The attacked plants die/dry and thus the number of plants/unit area is reduced, resulting in reduced yields. Life cycle The adults come out of the soil after the first monsoons. During the day they hide themselves in the soil and also lay eggs, however, during night they are active and feed on the leaves of trees/bushes availa ble in the area. The cream ish yellow eggs are laid 5-10 em deep in the soil. These eggs hatch in 7-13 days and the grubs so appeared feed on the roots of Kharif crops. The grubs are fully developed in about 50 days after which they pupate deep in the soil. The pupal period lasts for about 15 days, however, the adults remain in the soil/underground till the next monsoons. Cootro) 1. Shake the trees vigorously during night, collect the fallen beetles and kill them by putting in kerosinized/ insecticide used water. All the farmers of the area should get together and adopt this practice for effective control of t-he pest. 2. Spray the trees with 0.2 per cent carbaryl (Sevin 50 W. P.) or 0.05 per cent monocrotophos (Nuvacron 40 EC) or Quinalphos (Ekalux 25 EC). 3. Mix 25 kg Thimet IO G (Phoate) in the upper layer of the soil before sowing or at the time of first hoeing. 4. Deep ploughing after September-October is recommended so that the hibernating beetles are exposed to su.n and also the birds may eat them. GRASS HOPPER Commonly known as "Phadka" is a serious pest of maize, jawar, bajra and also attacks rice, sugarcane and.8 wild grasses. The adults are grey cqloured whereas the nymphs are brownish black. The nymphs keep on jumping from one plant to the other. Both nymphs and adults feed on leaves/growing shoots by eating holes in them. LiCe cycle Eggs are laid in cltis~ers in the soil, on bunds and raised ground during September-October. The eggs hatch in June-July after the rains. The young nymphs feed on grasses/growing plants and later mig~ate to crops. Nymphs are fully developed in days. The adults survive for days. Control I. Collection of egg masses and their destructiotl is recommended. 2. Ploughing of fields and digging of trenches may be done to expose the egg masses I and to collect the nymphs. 3. Dust the crop with '25 kg BHC 10 per cent dust per hectare. GREY WEEVIL Commonly known as "Bhoori Bhoondi" is a minor pest of cotton, however, it attacks maize, jawar and bajra " crops also. The plants are-damaged both by the adult weevils which are prominent above the ground and the young ones (grubs) which feed on the under ground parts (roots). The adults feed on leaves by making prominent round holes on the leaves and leaf margins. The weevils are grey coloured and are 3-6 mol long, whereas the grubs are whitelegless cylendrical and are about 8 mm in length. Life cycle The pest is active from April to November and passes winter in adult stage, hidden in debris., The weevils appear in April-May and lay oval light yellow eggs, in the soil. Eggs hatch in 3-5 days aod the young grubs feed 00 the roots. The grubs complete their development in 1-2 months and pupate in the soil. The pupal period is about one week. Th.e adults live for 8-11 days in summer and 4-5 months in winter. During the active period, the life HAR YANA FARMING

193 cycle is completed in 6-8 weeks and the pest breeds 3-4 times in a year. Control Spray the crop with 1 I malathion 50 EC in 625 I I water per bectare. JAWAR SHOOTFLY It is a serious pest of jawar in the seedling and early stages of the crop. In certain seasons and in certain areas the attack may result in the failure of the crop. Besides jawar, maize, small millets, wheat and wild grasses have also been found infested. The maggots also feed on the decaying materials. Life cycle The adult is a small dark fly. Females lay eggs singly on the under surface of the leaves. The small maggots which hatch out in 1-2 days enter the space between sheaths and the axis, penetrate the stem and cut through the main shoots, producing dead hearts. Larval period lasts for 6-10 days after which pupatin takes place in the stem or in the soil. Pupal period lasts for about a week. A cloudy weath~r appears to favour infestation. The attack is more in irrigated and late sown crop. Control 1. Apply phorate 10% or disulfoton 5% 2.5 kg a.i./ha for effective control. 2. Seed treatment with 5% carbofuran (05 kg carbofuran a.i /ha) may be done for effective control, however, its limitation is that due to high mammalian toxicity seed treatment has to be carried under expert supervision. APHIDS Commonly known as "Cbepa" does considerable damage to maize, jawar and bajra. These are small green coloured insects and become mature within 5-6 days. They attack leaves and leaf sheaths. They damage by sucking the sap 'and tbus weaken tae plants. The attacked plants turn yellow, remain stunted and thus reduced yield. They multiply very fast when the weatber is moist and cloudy, however, bot arid dry winds check their population growth. SEPTEMBER 1981 Control Spray the crop with 625 ml malathion 50 EC in 625 I water per hectare. Repeat spraying at 15 day interval, if necessary. JASSIDS Commonly known as "Tela" attacks the young crop. The nymphs are greenisq in colour and move diagonally. The adults are brownish in colour and are very active. They hop off at the slightest disturbance. The nymphs and adults both suck the cell sap from tbe underside of the leaves and thus weaken the plants. Control Spray the crop with 625 ml malathion 50 EC or 1250 gm DDT 50 W.P. in 625 I water per hectare. THRIPS Commonly known as "Churra" or "Joon" cause moderate damage to maize and is a minor pest of jawar. The thrips both nymphs and adults damage by scrapping the leaf surface and SUCking the sap and thus causing considerable damage. The insects remain within leaf sheath and suck the exuding sap from all parts of the foliage. Due to this characteristic feeding white streaks appear on leaves. Control Thrips can be controlled by spraying tbe crop with 1250 gm DDT 50 W.P. or 625 ml malatbion 50 EC in 625 I water per hectare. IT PAYS TO ADVERTISE IN HARYANA FARMING 9

194 Control of Rising Water Table in Canal Irrigated Areas of Haryana -M. C. Agarwal aod R. P. Agrawal Department of Soils, Baryana Agricultural University, Bissar Canal irrigation invariably causes rise in ground water table. The magnitude of rise depends on irrigation efficiency, amount and distribution of rainfall, amount of irrigation water supply, particularly during monsoon, cropping pattern, underground geologic strata and the extent of ground water being pumped. Unchecked rise in water table has led to waterlogging and development of soil salinity particularly where ground water is brackish. This rendered land unproductive and reclamation of such lands is very costly. It is, therefore, imperative to control the rise in water table so as not to allow it to reach within 3 metres from ground surface. The rise in water table does not always bring improvement in ground water quality as soils of arid and semi-arid regions contain appreciable amount of soluble salts in the soil profile. The ground water is mostly brackish in central, western and south-western regions of Haryana and the extent of water table rise in these a'reas bears a direct positive significant correlation with the salinity of ground,water. The ground water quality in the north-eastern part, i e., Ambala, Karnal and Kurukshetra districts is good and the present level of ground water exploitation, i.e., pumping, is adequate to prevent rise in water table. Thus, there is immediate need for controlling water table rise in the other districts of the state, i.e" where ground water is brackish. The average annual rise ( ) of water table in the~e problematic di,stricts alongwith the per cent area under 0-3 and 3-10 metres depth of water table is given in Table I. The names of the blocks having serious problem of high water table have ailio been indicated in the table. The areas where water table has already risen to critical limit, i.e., within 3 metres from the surface, needs immediate attention. Control measures The problem of water table rise Cdn be tackled by adopting following two main approaches: i) Reduction in 'irrigation losses: Nearly 45 per cent of irrigation water is lost as seepage in its conveyance from source to the field and another 20 per cent is lost as deep percolation, in the field application. About 80 per cent of this tota) loss goes to recharge the ground water aod causes water table rise. By adopting efficient methods of water conveyance, i,e., lining of canals and field water courses, proper land levelling and improved method of field application, adoption of recommended irrigation schedule and crop plan and other scientific soil-water-crop management practices, these irrigation losses can be considerably reduced. Water balance studies carried out in these problem districts show that even 'after adopting complete package of above mentioned efficient water management practices, the recharge to tbe ground water cannot be completely eliminated. Therefore, about per cent recharge must be pumped o,ut to prevent further rise in water table. Where the water table is to be lowered below the critical' depth from the existing high level, more ground water will require to be' pumped. Ii) Conjuctive use of caoal and ground water: So far brackish ground waters have been exploited to a very limited extent. The lack of natural outlet for disposal of pumped brackish \yater make it imperative tbat ground water must be pumped and used locally for irrigation purposes, if the lands are to be saved from soil salinisatlod. The recent advancements and technology developed for the safe use of brackish water give ample evidence of its successful use -for giving 1-2 irrigations to semi-tolerant crops like wheat, barley, cotton, paddy without any appreciable damage to soil and crops. The use of brackish water is suggested for only such areas where canal irrigation facilities already exist and\ soils are light to medium in texture. However, the use of brackish water will require special care such as avoiding pre-sowing irrigation with it and liberal use of FYM. By use of ground water, farmers can augment the scarce canal water supply. Further the canal water supply, widely vary in different months, seasons and years, and due to this farmers are unable to follow a crop plan for optimal water use. The uncertainly and varying level ~f canal water supply result in wasteful use of water. Thus, by adoption of conjuctive use approach, each farmer can have near stable irrigation water supply, which will result in increased yield per unit area due to assured water 10 HARYANA FARMING'

195 supply and holdings. increase in total irrigated areas of their The conj'.jctive use approach will be more successful if it is followed by Govt. and mixed canal and brackish water of permissible salinity is supplied to the farmers. However for pre-sowing irrigations and irrigation to salt sensitive crops like pulses and oil seeds, such mixing has to be avoided. Till such t~:mes Govt. takes up tbis programme of conjuctive use,and provides drainage, individual farmers where water,table has already approached critical depth, exploitation of brackish ground water l>y shallow tubewells and its use after mixing with canal water or separately can be attempted for irrigation. Although the weighed district average EC of the ground water has been included in the table for guidance, but since the ground water quality varies in space and time, it is recommended that tubewell water must be got tested before its use. If needed, gypsum should be used in.case of sodic waters. Tbe amount of ground water which must be pumped by farmers of different districts is also given in the table. For controlling the rise in water table, the per cent area of the holding in which tolerant crops like wheat/barley in rabi and cotton/paddy. in kharif to be grown and number of brackish water irrigation to be given has also been suggested in the table. It will be noted that farmers of Jind district, where the average annual rise of water table is maximum, 62.4 cm, can control the water table rise by giving two brackish.water irrigations each to 40 per cent of their holding area under wheat and barley during rabi and cotton/ paddy during kharif. Remaining irrigations for crop maturity should be given from canal water. If the existing area under these crops is less than 40 per cent, there is a need to increase the area or the number of brackish water irrigation should be increased. Similarly farmers of Sonepat district should give ~mly one brackish water irrigation in NIb; to wheat and barley and one irrigation in kharif to cotton/paddy once in three years. The farmers of other districts can similarly adopt schedule of brackish water irrigations as suggested in the table for complete control of the problems of water table rise. As already stated above the use of brackish water for presowing purposes must be avoided and post sown irrigations should be given either after mixing with canal water or alternately after canal for best results. It is also suggested that repeated use of brackish water in the same fields be avoided as far as possible. This can be achieved by rotating the area under tolerant and semi-tolerant crops in different seasons. Further it is also recommended that soil and water samples, at least once in a year, should be got tested, so that the timely preventive measures can be taken, if needed. TABLE 1 Districtwise annual rise, water table depths, ground water quality and number of brackish water irrigations for control of water table rise Sr. Name of Average Per cent area Weighted Annual No. of brackish Blocks within No. district annual under different average pumping water irrigation critical water rise in em/ water table EC of to check of 7.5 cm each** table depth year (1974- depths (m) as on ground rise in Rabi Kharif 1979) June. 1979* water water Wheat/ Cottonl < (flmhos/ table barley paddy cm) (cm/ba) Gurgaon , Two One in two Punhana, Hodal, years Nuh, Pataudi, Hathin. 2. Sonepat One One in 3 Gohana. Sonepat, years Ganaur. 3. Hissar Two One Narnaund. 4. Rohtak Two One-two Rohtak, Sam pia, Bahadurgarh, Jbajjar. 5. Sirsa Two One-two Baragudha. 6. Jind Two Two Saffidon. 7. Bhiwani Two Two *Remaining area under water table depth> 10 m. **Based on 40 per cent holding area under the crops listed in the column. SEPTEMBER

196 Potato Production in Haryana -Sube Singh Yadav and V. K. Srivastava Department of Vegetable Crops, HAU, Hissar Potato is the most common and widely used vegetable grown on large scale.. This crop produces several times more food per unit area as compared to cereals. The potatoes produced in this State are of excellent quality. For production of potatoes the grower should consider the following recommendations. Climate It is a short day plant and requires coot and mild temperature for its growth. The temperature required for its production is F. High temperature is favourable for vagetable growth and tuber formation is hampered because of increased respiration in which CHO are lost in the atmosphere which otherwise would have been deposited in the tuber for their development. The best tuber formation temperature is 63 F. Varieties viz., In Haryana, there are two recommended varieties Kufri Chandramukhi and Kufri Sindhuri. Kufri Chandramukbi: It is an early maturing variety which is ready for harvesting in about days. The tubers are of big size, oval and white in flesh. It keeps well in storage and fetcbes good price in the market. A verage yield is about 250 q/ha. Kufri Sindburi: It is a late maturing, ready for harvesting in about days. The tubers are of big size, oval and attractive.. The flesh of tuber is reddishyellow and suitabje for cultivation as a main crop variety in, the' plains. Average yield is about 300 q/ha. Soil and Manures Sandy loam soils are best for potato cultivation which should be well drained otherwise deformed and unattractive tubers might be harvested. Manural require- 12 ment of potato is quite high. For ooe hectare field, 50 toones FYM should be mixed in the soil before 3 weeks of sowing. Whole phosphorus (50 kg), potash ( kg, if needed) and 3/4 of nitrogen (90-]]0 kg!ha) should be applied in the soil at the time of sowing and 1/3 of nitrogen (35-40 kg) should be applied after days of sowing at the earthing up operation. Sowing Time and Seed Rate The optimum so~iqg time is first week of October } although it can be sown from last week of September to I middle of October. A bout 30 quintals of seed tubers are required for one hectare of sowing. The following points should be taken into consideration while selecting tubers for sowing. Tubers should be true to type, medium size, weighing gms/tuber, free from injury and all diseases and treated on 0.5 per cent solution of AgalJol before sowing for 5 I minutes duration., Sowing, Weeding and Irrigation I Sowing is done on ridges, cm on apart from row to row and em from plant to plant but spacing depends on the size of tubers also. UsuaJly earthing is done after about days of seeding. Keep the field. free of weeds. For chemical' weed control, use Tok-E-25 at the rate of 6-7 litre per hectares when the crop has germinated about 10 per cent pre-emergence treatment with mixture of 2.5 litre Tok-E- 25 and 250 g Tafazina/ha has also been found quite effective. Proper soil moisture in field is important for sue of weedicides. First irrigation should be given after germination of tubers, but if soil is dry, it should be applied just after sowing. The ridges should not be dipped in the water at the time of irrigation otherwise deformed potato would be harvested. Rest of the irrigations shonld be given; afte! 8-12 days interval. Frequent and light irrigati~ns are, good for heavy yields. Harvesting I Crop should be harvested when ',0 per cent. 9 the'. top fall over the ground which is an indication of maturity,. of tubers. Tbe immature potatoes sbrink severely aod; [eonld. on page 14J HARYANA FARMING

197 Garlic is a Paying Crop -Jitendra Singh and V. K. Srivastava Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar Garlic (Allium salivum L.) is an important crop used as spice or condiment throughout India. It is chiefly used for flavouring and seasoning vegetabl~ and non vegetarian dishes. It is being used ih several food prepaiations such as chutneys, pickles, curries, vegetable and tomato ketchup. So it is in considerable demand in several food industries and sometimes for propertus. Climate The plant requires 'relatively cool weather and abundance of moisture in its early stage but stands considerable heat and ripens best in a dry weather. Soil Garlic requires medium black to well-drained loamy soils rich in humus, with fairly good content of potash. The crop raised on sandy or loose soil does not keep for long time and bulbs are also higher in weight. In beavy soils, the bulbs produced are deformed and during harvesting. many bulbs are broken and bruished and so they do not keep well in storage. They get discoloured in badly drained soils. Soil Preparation To bring the soil a fine tilth, deep ploughing of cm should be done followed by levelling through planking, Manure and Fertilizers Basal does of about 20 tons of Farm Yard MatJure per hectare should be incorporated throughly into the soil before sowing, Additional application of inorganic fertilizers, 80 kg N, 50 P.05 and 25 kg K.O>per hectare is required for good yield, Half dose of nitrogen and full dose of phosphorus and potash should be applied before planting, Rest quantity of nitrogen should be applied as side dressing, There is as yet no recommendated strain of the crop available. The local cloves of good selected bulbs are med, Sowing Time, Method of Sowing and Seed Rate' It is sown in the last week of September to the 1st week of October. Two methods of planting are common, i. e., dibbling and furrow planting. For dibbling method, tbe field is usually divided into small plots convenient SEPTEMBER 1981 for iff'igation. The cloves with the growing end upwards are dibbled with hand about three inches apart and two to three inches deep in rows six inches apart, and covered over lightly with the soil. Irrigation is given immediately thereafter. In the furrow-planting method, the furrows are made six inches apart in the beds with a small hand hoe or cotton drill. The cloves are dropped with the band about three to four inches apart and are covered over with the soil followed b J irrigation. 6-8 quintal cloves per hectare are required for this purpose, Irrigatitt.. :J.nd Weeding The first irrigation should be applied right after sowing and the subsequent irrigation after every days. The crop should be top, dressed with N (1/2 amount) after about 7-8 weeks of seeding followed by irrigation. Three to five hoeings are required to keep down weeds throughout the ~eason. Harvesting, Marketing and Storage The harvesting is done when the tops turn yellow. The bulbs should be dug up and cured under shade for seven to ten days. The average yield about 100 quintal bulbs per hectare are obtained. The bulbs are topped after curing and are taken to market in gunny bags. Crops with bigger cloves fetch better price in the market. The garlic stores well in ordinary well ventilated rooms for four to five months. The best method, is hanging of garlic in bunches at rope in well ventilated rooms. Plant Protection Measures The common pest and disease of the crop are thrips and purple blotch disease. For the control of thrips, the crop should be sprayed with 750 mlof malathion 50 Ee after mixing in 750 lit. water per hectare of the crop. It is important that some sticking material like Seivet, Sandwit and Titfon should be mixed in the solution before spray. This may be repeated at an interval of days if need be. For control of purple blotch disease the crop should be sprayed with two kg of Diathane M-45 or Diathane Z-78 or Difolatan per hectare of crop and this may be repeated at an interval of about 15 days. The crop should not lie consumed for two weeks after these sprays, Both these insecticides and fungicides can be sprayed together if there is attack of thrips and purple blotch both. Yield On an average 100 quintal bulbs are produced from one hectare of land, 13

198 Eucalyptus-A Promising Forest Crop -Dr. J. S. Panwar Krishi Gyan Kendra, H AU, Hissar Eucalyptus with its vernacular name "Safeda" is becoming popular among the farmel s, rather in recent years the eucalyptus tree has become the number one' forest crop for its economic value. The forest department of Haryana has already started a massjv~ eucalyptus tree plantation programme Haryana Agricultural University Hissar, too has decided to launch afforestation programme in the state of Haryana. 10 begin with, a forest nursery has already been established under the state plan scheme "Setting up a tree nursery for sale of saplings to the farmers". With this facility a large number of farmers have taken eucalyptus farming seriously. Planting Time The best time for eucalyptus plantation is from first July to 15th July. If sufficient irrigation facilities are available, planting can be done in late monsoon season, as well as in the month of Feb. and March. Source of Saplings Forest Department Haryana supplies saplings in both the planting seasons. Haryana Agricultural University, Department of Horticulture also supplies vigorous and healthy plants of EucalyptlJs hybrida. Cost of Saplings A sapling which costs 25 to 30 paisa at the time of planting will engage your land for eight years to give you rupees.. After an eight year cycle the trees are generally harvested and a new crop of eucalyptus may be taken as ratoon crop. Planting Distance The best planting is one when you keep line to line distance 3 meters and plant to plant 2 meters. This will provide approximately 1625 saplings per hectare.,cost of Planting A single labourer can plant 50 saplings in a day, if he is.digging the pits too. At places where pits have already been dug well in advance, 3 labourer can plant 200 saplings in a day. 14 Digging and Filling of Pits Di6 the pits of the size 45 X 45 x..j5 em. Fill the pit upto 10 em with filling mixture of soil and farm yard manure. Precautions at the Time of Planting 1. Always.remove the polyethylene sheet from earth ball. 2. Lea ve atleast 10 cm space in pit for' watering of the sapling. 3. Never select large size and very small saplings for planting.. / 4. Prefer monsoon planting over winter planting. 5. Never plan inter cropping in the fourth year after planting. Post-harvest Uses The growing demand for the wood of eucalyptus is due to its extensive uses in paper industry, construction of multi storey buildings, as fuel wood and several other medicinal uses. I [From page 12J will not keep well Care should be taken to save the tubers from injury. Curing is very important to put the tubers in storage for long time. Insect-Pests and Diseases Jassid White fly and Aphids: Due to jassid and" white fly, leaves start -curling because reddish yellow in colour and burning takes place at the leaf edge. The plants show stunted growth. Aphid sucks the juice of the plants. These can be controlled by spraying 750 ml Rogor 30 Ee or Metasystox 25 ECjha mixed in 750 litres of" water. Early Blight: In the beginning, light brown spots develop.on the h~aves and they enlarge, become round and finally a light yellow colour layer develops around the spots. Late Blight: The leaves start burning on Ithe leaf edge. Decayed smell comes from the disease affected leaves and rotting of tubers also takes place. Both early and late blight can be controlled by spraying 1.5 to 2.0 kg Diathane M-45 or DiatbaneZ-78 or Difolatal1 per ha. Spray should be made after' days of sowing. Disease free tubers should be used. Viral Diseases: Important viral diseases of p~tat(} in which leaves of plants rolled up along the margins, foliage is mottled and crinkling is also ihin. To 'Check ' these diseases use certified disease free seed tubers and rogue out the infected plants as soon as located following with regular spraying of the crop for killing the vectors ( who spread this disease. HARYANA FARMING

199 Whether to Own or Hire a Tractor -R. S. R, Gupta and R. K. Malik Deptt. of Agril. Engineering, HAU, Hissar The economic manjgement of a tractor which is a very significant factor, is ~enerally over-looked while working out the farm pliofit. Before purchasing a new farm machinery, one should ascertain whether it is economical to purchase it or to hire it after considering several factors. The most important point is to estimate the approximate "break even point" between owning a machine and hiring besides considering the advantages and disadvantages of qustom hiring as described below ;- Advantages 1. The money required to own the machinery can be invested in other enterprises. 2. The farmers who hire may benefit from new machinery, techniques and skilled operations. 3. One is saved from botherations of repair,. maintenance etc. Since these are the responsibilities of the custom operator. 4. Fewer equipments are needed for a particular farm. 5. There is no risk of premature obsolescence. Disadvantages 1. Services may not be available when job is ready and thereby greater risk of loss of quality because of time delays. 2. Custom operators prefer large jobs so they may refuse or postpone small jobs. 3. Irresponsible custom operator may do poor work. The estimate of the approximate "break even point" is determined by using the following formula:- Break. Total annual fixed cost even pomt c = Custom rate per hour-variable cost per hour SEPTEMBER 1981 For example, let us suppose that a farmer has to take a deci~ion regarding the purchase of a 35 H P. tractor alongwith harrow. seed drill, thresher, trailer etc. costing about Rs. 90,000/- for a particular size of oper- ational land holding. The prevailing rate of custom hiring a tractor with attachments is Rs. 40/. per hour for general operations. Other assumptions may be taken as given below;- Trade in value (Scrap value) -10% of the purchase cost. Life of tractor and other machinery = 10 years. Annual use for various operations=600 hours. Insurance, taxes on actual basis=rs. 180/- per annum. Ra te of interest per annum = 12% of the purchase costs per annum. Total annual fixed cost l-- 1 D 9UOOO epnclatlon = =Rs I _ ( ciO) X nterest - 2xIOO Insurance and taxes etc.=rs Shelter=Rs Tota1= =Rs /- Variable cost per hour ;- 1. Fuel cost = 3 per litre=rs Lubricants offuel cost=rs Repair and 6% of purchase cost =Rs Wages of Rs. 20 per day=rs Total variable cost per hour= =Rs. '22.75=Say Rs. 23/- So approx. break even point = ? =890 (Approx.) Say 900 hrs. From the above example. it is estimated that the owner must operate his tractor for more than 900 hours a year against 600 hours only, to justify the owning of tractor with different attachments, economically. So, the owning of machine demands about 300 hours of custom work. There are others considerations such as timeliness of the operation and convenience to the farmers who can afford individual ownerships based on socio-economic considerations. T4e final decision as to own or hire a machine is likely to vary amongst the farmers in the light of advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring, estimated break even point based on operational holding and other socio-economic considerations. 15

200 What to do this month AQRONOMY I RICE Irrigate to ensure that fields are atleast kept in saturated condition. Replace water wherever possible at weekly interval. MAIZE Irrigate the crop at silking and grain-development stage. Harvest the early sown short duration maize at the end of this month. Let the cobs dry and then shell them with a maize sheller. BAJRA Provide watch and ward to protect the crop from birds. PULSES Start harvesting the mature crop with a sickle and thresh the crop by the conventional method. COTTON Irrigate the crop and start picking of des; cotton in the last week of September. Do not keep picked cotton in wet places. GROUNDNUT Irrigate the crop at fruiting stage and remove the weeds. RAIn OlLSEEDS A pply pre-sowing irrigation for sowing of toria in the 1st week and desi sarson in the last week of September, or arrange sowing in a field where rain water has been properly conserved. Prepare a fine, moist seed bed by ploughing the field twice, followed by planking. Sow only, recommended variety toria-sangam and desi sarson Brown sarson Haryana No. I. 5 kg is sufficient for sowing in one hectare., Complete sowing of toria in the 1st fortnight of September and start sowing of desi sarson in the last week of this month. Sow the seed 4-5 cm deep in rows 30 cm apart with a drill or a pora. Do the sowing either early in the morning or late in the eve'ning. When moisture 'in the top layer of the field is inadequate, mix the seed with some moist soil and keep it overnight before sowing. Even otherwise some moist soil is mixed with the seed at the time of sowing to increase the bulk and facilitate uniform distribution of the seed. Apply recommended doses of fe,rtilizer. ' BERSEEM Start sowing of berseem from 2nd fortnight of" tbis month. Prepare a fine seed bed by giving three plougb. ings, each followed by planking. Ensure that the field is well levelled. Use only clean seed of berseem variety Mescavi. 25 kg is required for sowing in one hectare. Inoculate the seed with berseem culture ibefore sowing and, dry the seed in shade. Broadcast the seed uniformly in standing water, if weather is calm. In case of high wind velocity, the seed should be broadcast evenly and this sbould be followed by raking and irrigation immediately. For high yields of fodder, berseem should be sown mixed with Japan rape.. In this case, in addition to the normal seed rate of berseem, add 1250 gm. seeds of Japani sarson. Apply recommended doses of fertilizer. I HORTICULTURE 1- - The rainy season will almost be over in the beginning of tbis month. However, late rains cannot be ruled out. The temperature will also be decreasing. The month would be having mild weather and soil will be fit for cultural wh~~.. The mild ~eather ~ili r~main suitable for p1llnting fruit trees particularly 10 and and semi arid belt in the State.. Th~refore, the farmers can undertake vlantation work"m this month as well. The varieties, distance etc. have already suggested in the month of July and August. The gap filling may also be carried out in this month, ') I Directorate of GRAPES Dr. S. K. Katyal L Extension Education Dr. R. ' H AU, Bissar Do not allow excessive growth of new as well as Yamdag~i I older vines. Train younger vines properly so that I there is a proper spread of the vines on the particular " system. 16 HARYANA FARMING

201 \ MANGOES To control mango malformation spray 200 ppm (200 mg of Napthalene acetic acid in one litre water) in the last week of this month CITRUS The citrus pl(jnts will show symptom~ of deficiency of different micro-nutrients_ It is, therefore, desirable to give to all the citrus plants/trees two sprays, one with ferrous sulphate and the other with a mixture of zinc sulphate and copper sulphate and magnesium &ulphate!may also be mixed with these two: chemlcals_ The details are given below :- For the first spray Ferrous,' sulphate UnslakeJ lime Water I kg I kg l50 lit res For the second spray Zinc Sulphate 1 kg Copper Sulphate I kg Magnesium Sulphate I kg Un slaked lime 3 kg Water 750 Iitres. _ These should be sprayed an interval of 15 days brtween the two sprays. Similarly to control the pre-harvest fnlit drop, following treatments may be given. 2, 4 D 6.0 gm Zinc Sulphate 3 kg Unslaked lime 1.5 kg Water 550 litres - -The above ~pray can be given in tht: first half of this month and it should help in checking the fruit drop. The fruit of Kaghzi lime, sweet lime and pomegranate will be ready for harvesting. Necessary arrangements for their disposal may be made. OTHER FRUITS Harvesting of pomegranate may also be started. The rainy season crop of guava will be over during this month and to get better crop of guava, during winter, apply 1 or 2 kg of Ammonium Sulphate per plant. Budding in ber may continue up to tbe end of this month, I LIVESTOCK HEAL TM CARE J -Dr. R. K. Sharma Extension Specialist (Veterinary) H.A.U, Hissar. CATTLE AND BUfFALOES 1. Do not provide rain water collected in ponds and low lying areas to animals for drinking Besides picking up parasitic infestations, the animals may contract some contagious diseases when they are allowed to drink this water. Tbe animals in the vicinity of inundated areas should be dewormed in -consultation with the local Veterinarian. Animals carrying parasitic infestation may have loose motions and become weak and emaciated even when they are given good diet. To confirm infestation with internal parasite, faecal examination in the laboratory/hospital is necessary. SEPTEMBER This is calving season for buffaloes. Pregnant animals shou,d be provided easily digestible and nutritive r(llion, and clean and fresh water for drinking. Quacks should, in no case, be allowed to handle cases of Dystokia (difficult birth) and Veterinarian's help be obrained witbout loss of time. 3. Newly born calves should be fed with colostrum (first milk) within one hour of their birth. They have to be provided milk at the rate of one-tentb of their body weight till one mt<lnth of age. Be vigilant for diseas:;s like Naval ill, white scour, external parasites, Ascaiiasis, Ringworm, etc., in young calves. Provision of salt licks should be made, They should be given proper exercise by keeping them 100,se for some time. Young calves in the habit of licking earth or urine need to be examined and treated by a Veterinarian. To Check the habit affected calves should be muzzled after feeding. 4. This is appropriate time for growing early green fodders of Rabi. Berseem can be sown from the last week of September to first week of October. :Para grass and hybrid napier Can also be sown during this month. Silage of green fodder like. maize and jawar may be prepared. This can be used for leedlog to animals after about three months, For preparing silage, the crops should be harvested before the gl ains turn hard. For information on preparing silage, District Extension SpeCialist (Animal Sciences) posted in Krishi Gyan Kendra at each di5trict headquarters may be contacted. 5. For producing good quality animals, the breeding facilities available at Artificial Insemination Centresl Stockman Centres may be utilised. SHEEP 1. It is lambing season. Pregnant sheep'should be kept in doors with adequate arrangements for their feeding add watering, Sheep pens should be kept clean and dry. 2. Control ectoparasites, if any, under tbe advice of a Veterinarian. Likewise deworm for internal parasites. 3. For producing good quality wool, breeding facilities available at Sheep & Wool Extension Centre of your area be utilised. POULTRY 1. Keep proper record of eggs. Eggs should' be collected 3 to 4 times during the day. Eggs should be examined for their size, weight and shell qualtty. Expert should be consulted wben the quality of eggs is not upto the mark. 2. With balanced feed, the production of eg~s is upto the maximum potential, especially, wheu lhere is 'no evidence of disease or worm infest(jtion. 3. Examine tbe birds for tick and lice infestation. To safeguard from ectoparasites, insecticide spray should be done at an interval or- 3 months under expert guidance. 17,

202 Farm Darshan SALIENT FEATURES on 24th & 25th Septemb~r, 1981 at - Haryana Agricultural University Farm On Balasmand Road, Near HAU Farm Gate; Hissar * Guidedvisits to university farm, to see bumber standing Kharif crops [ike Bajra. Jowar. Groundnut, Cotton. Moong, Soybean. Sugarcane, etc. raised with the latest scientific techniques, by the university scientists.... Visiting farmers will see the demonstrations on the latest methods of sowing, hoeing, seed.. treatment, soil reclamation, judicious use of water and fertilizers, 'plant, protection measures! etc. of different Aabi crops. III '" '" Farmers will be apprised of the techniques of inter-cropping, conserving soil moisture, dryland farming, etc. Priced and free agriculture literature, both in Hindi and English will be distributed. Buzz-Session on both the days from 2.00 p. m. onwards. in which the farmers can get solutions of their field problems from the scientists. '" Free soil and water testing service. Please bring sampres with yo~ _ * Free lodging for night stay in the Kisan Ashram. Farmers can stay in Farmers' Hostel also by paying nominal charges of Rs. 3/- per night. Farmers are requested to reach the reception booth at the farm gate at 8.00 a.m. on either days. For enquiries and information please contact or write to : Director of Extension Education Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, Hissar Assoc, Director (FA~) '\ Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, Hissar ' "t\' 1,.- '1 Farmers can contact the District Extension Specialists of their district KGKs ~ for detailed information Printed and published by Dr. R. M. Sharma, Director of Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of Hary~na Agricultural University, Hissar, Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhri, Press Manager, at the HAU Press, on Sept. 1,,1981.

203 60 PAISE OCTOBER) 1981

204 HARYANA FARMING Volume X October 1981 No. 10 Contents 1; HoW'to>rDaxiQiise' 'gra'pf:yiejd.j..'o. ~... ",',,10..&. J:: 2~'!<.".-/ ~ -t- -Surjit Singh Dahiya and D. S. Malik Pages 2. Role of early maturing mung in rainfed agriculture 3 -Naresh,Mehro/ra and R. S. Sangwan 3. Soil testing and fertilizer recommendations 4 - M. L. Dixit and K. S. Verma 4. Isabgol--A wonderful medicinal plant for cujti- 7 vation in Haryana -R. S. Parada, K. K. Kansa(and G. D. Sharma S. Getting high yields of potato 8. -R. S. Hooda, M. L. Pandita and Indu Jalali 6. Rosbagrass-An aromatic plant of economic 9 importance for the farmers in Haryana -R. S. Paroda, G. D. Sharma and K. K. Kansal 7. Management of pink bollworm in cotton 11 -A. D. Khurana and P. D. Sharma 8. Grow raya after legumes and get more returns 13 -A. S. Malik, Kanwar Singh and A. S. Faroda 9. SalmoneUosis-A threat to dairy industry 14 -G. C. Chaturvedi and S. Prasad 10. Nature intended human 'milk for humans 15 -Saroj Kashyap and Krishna Khambra 11. Bed wetting in children -Mrs. I. Grover 12. What to do this month Director of Publications: Dr. R.'M. Sharma * Editor V. 5. Gupta Assisted by D. C. Yadav Director of Extension Education 1 Dr. J. C. Sharma Seed Treatment-An Insurance for/ Raising Disease Free Potato Crop Potato crop suffers considerable damage froill several diseases. Many of them are seed bo-rne in nature. Viral diseases are responsible for degeneration of potatoes.,these are systemic and perpetuate in seed from year to year with no apparent symptoms on the tubers. Late blight, a fungal disease, abocperpetuates through blighted tuber. Such tubers reveal purple or brown coloured blotches no them. Several hard, circular, or,irregular corky rough lesions on tubers are indicative or' scab infection. This disease is not present ill Haryana and therefore utmost care has to be taken while procuring seed from neighbouring states, so that it is not introduced in Haryana. Black scur! also results by use of scurf effected tubers. Such tubers show the presence of seeler. i otia which appear as black muddy patch of irregular size and shape., To overcome these problems, ~se of certified disease free treated seed is the only solution. The seed should however, be procured from highly reliable agencies. Alte: rnatively, seed may be produced by the farmers them selves by 'Seed plot technique'. Before sowing, care should be taken to sort out tubers with injuries and blemishes and then treat with 0.5% solution M. E. M. C. contalding 3% mercury or 0.25% M. E. M. C. containing 6% mercury (Aretan O!" Emisan) for 3 5 minutes for prevention of seed-borne infection, particularly black' scurf. For tteatment, dissolve 500 goo of M. E. M. C. with 3% mercury in 100 Htres of water and treat about 10 bags of tubers. After this, the solution is replenished by adding 125 gm of the above chemical and again 5 bags may be treated. To this solution, again 125 gm of the above chemical may be added to treat 5 bags more and then the solution may be discarded. If M. E. M. G." 6% is to be used, the amount of fungicide may be.. educed to half in the above mentioned sequence..., Seed treatment is not only simple but cheap too. Going for seed treatment is insurance against seed-borne diseases. -Dr. M. P. Srivastava Extension Specialist (Plant Pathology), HAU, Htssar ' Yearly Subscription Rs Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, Hissar~J25004 Layout : Kuljit Photo: HAU Photo Unit..

205 How to Maximise Gram Yield -Surjit Singh Dahiya* and D. S. Malik Department of Agronomy, HAU, Hissar, Pulses in India occupy the largest area in tb~ world. Gram is the oldest pulse crop cultivated in Asia and Europe. More than 80 per cent of the total area under gram crop in the world (10.5 million hectare), is in India. Gram crop occupies 35 per cent of tbe acreage, contributing about 45 per cent of the total production of grain legumes in the country. Also, gram is most important and high yielding dryland{ crop of Haryana State. Average grain yield of tbis crop is very low, i.e., 8-9 q/ha. Yield of q/ba can be achieved by the judicious management of crop, soil and water. Some of the simple and most important practices are as follows Selection of variety This is one of the most important considerations in boosting up the grain yield of gram crop. While selecting a v~riety we must take into consideration agro-climatic conditions, type of soil and tbe soil fertility, time of sowing and tbe specific problems observed in previoils 'years while growing this crop. Local variety produces luxurious vegetative growth but poor fruiting and bence fow grain yields. Varieties like H-20S, H-355 and C-214 produce good fruiting and hence give better grain yield. Variety 0-24 should be grown in areas where fusarium wilt is a major problem of gram crop. Kabuli Chana (L-144) is recommended only in irrigated areas of Haryana State except in humid areas. Therefore, select gram veriety very carefully for getting good yields and more net returns. Field preparation Gram crop does not require as fine tilth and seed bed as required by wheat crop. Rather it requires well opened and well aerated, i.e., cloddy soils Deep tillage, done during July and August, has also shown beneficial effects on grain yield of gram crop especially in loamy soils. The-reason being that deep tillage helps in developing deeper root system which results into better performance of the crop. If soil is deficien~ in moisture content at the time of sowing, roller may be applied in bringing up the soil moisture t6 the seeding depth. 'Seed rate For getting good stand the optimum seed rate recommended is J 5-18 kg per acre for Desi gram and 37 k.~ per acre for Kabuli gram. Sowing time It is single most important variable influencing the yield of gram crop. Best time of sowing for Desi gram is 1O-25th October. Desi gram sowing before 10th October may be attacked by fusarium wilt because of high. temperature and if gram is sown in November then also the gram yield is reduced because of low' emperature whi h reduces germination percentage as well as other yield attributing characters. Kabuli gram may be sown by t,he end of October.. Method of sowing... Gram crop should be sown by 'Pora' met,hod. Depth of sowing should be 4-5 inches to put the ~eed in proper moisture depth. Under irrigated conditions the row to row distance should be cm. In dry farming areas where the moisture content in soil profile is low, the crop should be sown in widely spaced rows of 45 cm. Seed' treatment (i) Seed treat~ent with Aldrin 30 EC: For controlling termites treat the gram seed with Aldrin 30 EC. For this purpose spread the gram see~ on pu~~a #oor. Dissolve 200 ml Aldrin in 200 ml of water and spread this solution on 40 kg gram seed uniformly. Then mix the seeds so that each grain is get treated with this chemical. Now keep it lying for drying and sow it next day. If above treatment is not possible then treat the gram seed with 5 per cent Aldrin dust. For this purpose 500 gms Aldrin dust 5 per cent is sufficient for treating one quintal seed. " (ii) Seed inoculation with gram culture: Presence of effective Rhizobium bacteria in the: root zone of gram plants is very essential for meeting its demand of nitrogen. These bacteria present in the plant root zone supplied nitrogen to the gram plant through tbe process of symbosis. \ 50 gms of Gur(Sugar) dissolved in small quantity of water, is transferred to a bucket full of water. Now add Rbizobium culture into this bucket and stir it well for complete mixing. * Asstt. Scientist (Agron.), Krishi Gyan' Kendra', Rohtak. OCTOBEl~ 1981

206 Then dip the gram seed into this bucket and spread the seed under shade. One packet of gram culture is sufficient for treating 40 kg seed. NOTE: Rhizobium culture treatment is very essential for getting good returns particularly in humid areas. Manures and fertilizers From the various experiments conducted at Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, Rohtak and farmers' fields it has been observed that gram crop gives poor response to nitrogen appjication but gives very good response to phosphatic fertilizer application. 6 kg nitrogen per acre may be applied through 12 kg urea (46%) or 24 kg CAN (25%) and 16 kg PIOS per acre may be added through 100 kg single super phosphate (16% pso&). Drill this fertilizer at sowing time. 10 kg zinc sulphate per acre may also be added for getting good yield of gram crop in more humid areas and where recommended doses of fertilizers have been added. Irrigation Gram crop usually does not require any irrigation in normal'years of rainfall. If there is shortage of moisture at the time of sowing, pre-sowing irrigation should_ be given. In wet weather. irrigation may prove harmful instead of doing good. If another irrigation is possible then apply it at flowering stage and that too when the winter has been dry. Weed control Weeds do not pose a serious problem in the rain fed crops. But the weed infestation in the irrigated crops is appreciable. All weeds must be controlled fully before their seed setting stage. Repeated tillage done during rainy season is very helpful in avoiding the weed infestation. It has been found that one hand weeding and choeing is more beneficial as well as economical. Insect-pests Gram crop is attacked by termite, cutworms, gujhia weevil, gram caterpillar and pod borer. Sometimes these insects damage the gram crop to the extent that fe-sowing has to be done. Therefore, timely control of insect pests is a must..some of th~ important inse ct-pests symptoms of their attack and their control are as follows: s. No Insect-pests Symptoms of attack Control Cutworm Pod borer Gram caterpillar Gujhia weevil 3 4 harvesting. It's ously. damage is more serious in light \ sandy soils and under low moisture conditions. This insect cuts the Dust 10% BHC germinating 10 kg per or barnches of grown acre as Soon up plants at the as its attack ground level. This appears.. insect damages crop plants during night and hides itself into the soil during day. time. It bores the pod and eats away the grains. This insect feeds on the leaves, flowers, flower buds.and pods., This insect damages the germinating seedlings from Oct. to Nov. Sometimes it damages the crop to the extent that resowing has to be done. 1. Termite Causes serious dam- Seed treatment age to gram crop with Aldrin as from sowing upto given previ- Spray ml/acre. Spray the gram crop with Malathion ml/acre at the time of 50% pod formation. Soil application of BHC 10% 10 kg per acre at the time of sowing or dust BHC 10 kg per acre as soon as its attack appears. Disease control (i) Wilt: Germinating seedlings start yellowing and then change to dark brown colour and finally plant dies. ( This disease may attack the gram crop at st<edling stage when the soil is wet or at adult stage in irrigated areas. Control: Grow G-24 variety of gram as i~ is tolerant to wilt. Sow the gram crop from lo~h to 25th.October Conserve soil moisture. Treat th~ seed with 2.5 gm per kg seed. (ii) Blight: Presence of dark brown spots on ~the stem, branches, leaflets and pods indicates the "attack of blight disease. Control: Remove diseased plants from the field and destroy them by burning. Grow variety C-235 which is resistant to blight.. HARYANA FARMING

207 efficient moisture conservation' could spare surplus moisture for the next rabi rainfed crop. Role of Early Matu~ing Mung in Rainfed Agricultu,re -Naresb Mebrotra aod R. S. Sangwao Dryland Agri~ulture Research Project, HAU, Hissar Erratic rainfall distribution and low quantum of annual rainfall in rainfed regions creates uncertain situations for agricultural production. However, months of July and August are the wettest during year. The present approach is to suggest ways for stabilizing agro-productiod by utilising this rainfau distribution pattern. Thus, urgent need is for the genotypes completing their life cycle within this period. Consequently, early maturing (60 days) mung were identified from the segregating populations. The aim was to evaluate these against S 9 and lawahar 4S varieties. Another aim was to work out the feasibility of double cropping with early maturing genotypes because mung maturing in two months with The performance ( ) of promising early matu ring genotypes along with S 9 and rainfall patterns during seasons have been presented in Table 1. The genotype S 9 is superior to lawahar 45 because of 93.2 per cent increase in yield. The produce from S 9 even with forced maturity (60 days) does not have hard seeds. With adequate basal fertiliser application (20 kg nitrogen and 30 kg P20 5), inter-cultural operations to check weeds and by reducing evaporation losses, on an average, as high as q/ha yield from 153, that is per cent more than the best available S 9 (10.80 q/ha) is possible. The stable yield of 187 genotype across environments makes it conspicuous. Its average yield (12.41 qjha) being per cent more than S 9 appears suitable for further testing. With regard to double cropping. early mung can be fol1owed by gram/mustard in normal (more' than 400 mm) and normal ( mm) rainfall years. Their respective frequency in 10-year cycle is 3 and 5. This effort would however, need efficient moisture conservation during mung life cycle and normal September rain for germination and subsequent growth of rab; crop. This approach is bright because of increasing the existing 100 per cent cropping intensity to 200 per cent. TABLE Performance of early maturing mung genotypes under rainfed conditions SI. Strains/Varieties Yield (q/ha) No ~--~ Average % Increase Average over S 9 maturity (days) ll S 9 (Control) lawahar RainfalJ (mm) July August Septemb~r OCTOBER 1981

208 So.il.Test~~g and'~ Fertilizer Recommendations -M. L. Dixit and K. S. Verma Department of Soils, HAU, Hissar :Soil testing is a tool for diagnosing the problems related to soil fertility. soil salinity, soil acidity or alkalinity. Soil samples are analysed for some physico chemical properties and the available nutrients. Based on the soil test values, fertilizer recommendations are formulated for different crops. Objectives of soil testing 1. To provide a basis for the fertilizer recommendations. 2. To recommend the suitable reclamation practices for problematic soils. 3. To assess the suitability of a sorl for garden plantation. 4. To evaluate the fertility status of soils on farml village/block/district/state basis by the use of soil test summaries, which can be used for planning purposes. Collection of soil samples Collection of soil samples is the first and foremost important step for soil testing. Not only the soils of different fields vary but the soil of single field may vary from spot to spot with respect to its fertility. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have truely representative soil samples from'the fields. The first step in sampling is to subdivide the area into- homogenous units depending upon the 'type of soil, slope, drainage, crop yields and physical appearance of the field. The size of a plot may vary from 0.4 to 2 hectares or even lesser than this mainly depending on the cultivated field boundaries. Commonly used soil sampling 4 tools are kassi, khurpa, soil augers and soil tubes. The most important factor in selecting a tool is that it will obtain uniform cores or slices of equal volume to desired depth at all the spots in a field. To have a representative sample the soil sh5)uld be taken from 5 to 10 spots in a field depending on its size. The depth of the sampling may vary from 0 to 15 em and 0 to 22 cm for shallow and deep rooted crops, respectively. Surface litter, if any, should be'rerooved from the sampling site, then an uniform core of a soil from surface to required depth should be taken between the rows of growing plants. The soil cohec ted from all the spots in a field should be mixed ~:bd about half kilogram soil may be taken in a clean cloth or polyethylene bag after drying the soil in the shade. The spots, which differ from the soil of the field such as old fence, road, manure piles and fertilizer bands etc., should be avoided while sampling. Samples should ~e properly labelled and sent to nearest soil testing laboratory along with the information of arel\ and crop management. Laboratory analysis, Various chemical tests are carried out in the laboratory for assessing the soil properties and the available nutrients of a soil. The methods are rapid and bear a high relationship with the. crop responses to applied ferti~ lizers. Commonly used methods for different analysis are given below. l. Soil Texture-feel method (USDA Handbook 18), 2. ph-in 1 :2, soil-water ratio, with ph meter. 3. Electrical conductivity-in I: 2, soil-water ratio with conductivity bridge._ A vailable nitrogen-organic Carbon percentage by Walkley and Black Rapid titration method. Available phosphorus-extraction witll O.S molar sodium bicarbonate (ph 8,5) in 1:20 ratio and then develoment of colour with stannous cloride and reading, the colour intensity on colorimeter. Available potassium-extraction with n~utlral normall ammonium acetate in 1:20 ratio and reading',the potassium concentration on flame photom~~e(. I A vaihlbfe zinc-ex traction with DTPA ~ sojutibn (ph-7.s) in 1:2 ratio and reading the zinc content on atomic absorption spectro photometer. HARYANA FARMI:NG

209 Interpretation of soil test data Following are tbe limits which are used for the interpretation of soil test data by soil testing laboratories in Haryana.* Soil texture Soil ph Sand Less tban,6.s, Loamy-sand acidic 6.S to Sandy 8 7 normal loam Loam Clay loam Clay 2 more than 8.7, alkaline Electrical conductivity (mmhos/cm) 3 Less than 0.8-all crops can be grown. 0.8 to avoid growing' of salt sensitive crops. 1.6 to 2.S-grow only salt tolerant crops. More than 2.S-injurious for all crops. Organic carbon (%) 4 Less tban 0.4- low; 0.4 to 0.75-medium; more than 0.75 high *Source-HAU soil test proforma except for zinc. Zinc rating is based on the experiments of Gupta et al (1981) Fertilizer recommendations Available phosphorus (kg P/ha) S Upto 10- low, 11 to 20- medium. more than 20-higb For bajra, cotton and paddy Upto S-Iow, 6 to IO-medium, more than 10-high Available potash (kg K 2 O/ha) Available zinc (ppm) Less than 125- Less than low, 125 to 0.6-defici~ 30D-medium, more than 300-high ent, more than 0:6- sufficient' Fertilizer doses are primarily dependent on available nutrient status of a soil coupled with the crop responses to the applied fertilizer in a particular area. These recommendations are given in Table 1. TABLE 1 Fertilizer chart based on soil test categories (HA U Recommendations, 1980) Name of crop --- Dose of nutrients (kg/acre) Nitrogen P20 5 Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Wheat (dwarf) Wheat (local) and barley 2S (both irrigated) Wheat and barley (unirrigated) Gram Oilseeds (unirrigated) (6 Toria (irrigated) IS Sarson Raya IS 12 8 Sugarcane (sown) 60 SO 'OCTOBER'1981 5

210 Sugarcane (ratoon) Berseem Potato Maize (hybrid) ' Maize (Ioeal) Paddy (dwarf) 5U ]6 Paddy (tail) 2S Bajra (hybrid) Bajra (local) Bajra (un irrigated) Cotton (American) Colton (Desi) 20 IS 10, - Groundnut Sorghum (fodder) Pulses Note :-1. Do not add the fertilizer if soil test values for organic carbon, available phosphorus and available potash are more than 0.9 per cent, 50 kg/ha, and 300 kg/ha, respectively. 2. If the FYM or compost has been added after soil sampling reduce I kg nitrogen, 250 g P20 6 and 500 g K.O for every cartload (about 5 quintals) of the manure. ' 3. Apply }O kg zinc sulphate/acre once in two cultivated. years in the rotation where high yielding varieties are being Besides, the doses of fertilizer to be applied, soil testing also helps in deciding the crop species to be grown, types of fertilizers, method and time of their application. Soil testing facilities in Haryana Haryana has a wide net work of soil testing labor M atories almost at each Tehsil Headquarter. At present 27 stationary and one mobile soil testing laboratories are at service of Haryana farmers. Laboratories located at Hissar, Rohtak and Karnal are regional soil testing laboratories and are under the control of Haryana Agricultural University. Other laboratories are being run by the state Department of Agriculture. The location of the soil testing laboratories in Haryana is given in Table 2. Name of the district 1 Ambala Bhiwani Faridabad 6 TABLE 2 Location of soil testing laboratories Places of soil testing laboratories 2 Ambala, Jagadhri, Narayangarh Bhiwani, Dadri Ballabhgarh, Palwal Gurgaon Hissar Jind Karnal Kuruksbetra Mahendragarh Rohtak Sirsa Sonepat 2 Ferojpur Jhirka, Gurgaon, Nub Fatehabad, Hansi, Hissar Jind, Narwana Karnal, Paoipat Kaithal, Thanesar Mahendragarb, Narnaul, Rewari Jhajjar, Rohtak Sirsa Sonepat, District Extension Specialists (Soils) at Krishi Gy~n Kendra of all tbe districts, Agricultural Devc;lopment Officers and other extension agencies help in the. collection of soil samples, forwarding them to the labor,atories and sending the results of. analysis to the farmer 'I after ~."'"., getting the soil samples analysed from the nearest laboratories. Farmers may also send soil samples~directiy' to the laboratories and no fee is being charged for analysis in Haryana. HARYANA FARMING

211 Irrigation, fertilizer and interculture ISABGOL-A Wonderful Medicinal Plant for Cultivation in Haryana -R. S. Paroda, K. K. Kansal and G. D. Sharma Department of Plant Breeding; HAU, Hissar It is an important cash crop of Gujarat state and recently introduced here. After conducting experiments 00 its yield and adaptability at experimental fields of Department of Plaot Breeding, H. A. U., Hissar, it seems to be very successful and economic uoder Haryana conditions. It is recommended for cultivatioo in Rabi season especially where soil is of poor fertility level and fertilizer, irrigation and other agricultural facilities are inadequate. India commands a near monopoly in production and export of seed and husk to the world market and our export for valued at Rs millions. Isabgol seed and husk are mild laxative, emollient and demulcent. It is considered as safe laxative and beneficial against chronic diarrhoea and dysentary. In Western countries it is used as fixative in Ice-cream Industry. The plant It is an annual herb which attains a height of 30 to 45 em. It is nearly stemless, hairy plant with large narrowly linear leaves. a large number of flowering shoots arise from the base. Soil and climate The fields are ploughed, harrowed and brought to a fine tilth before sowing. Crop is sown any time between second fortnight of November to first week of December. Seed is sown at the rate of 7.5 kg/hectare in lines 15 em apart at a very shallow depth. A seed treatment of 3 gm per kg of seed, protects against seed borne fungal diseases. After sowing cover the seed by light (hand) planking. The germination starts after 5 to 8 days of sowing.. OCTOBER 1981 First irrigation is given after 3 to 4 weeks of sowing for good tillering and second when 75 per cent flowering is over and grain formation has started. It is a non-exhaustive crop_ In all, 50 kg of Nand 25 kg of P,06/hectare is given to the crop. The first 25 kg of N is applied along with 25 kg PIO.; at the time of sowing, the balance 25 kg N is applied with second irrigation. The crop is given one to two weedings as aod when required durjng entire growing period. Pests and diseases Downy mildew sometimes attacks the crop and is brought under control by spraying the crop with Dithane M-45 (O.20~~) or Ditbane Z-78 (0.20%) or Bordeaux mixture or Redomil (0.20%), two or three times after infection at an interval of 15 days. Harvesting and seed yiejd The crop is harvested by tbe end of March till mid April. Seed maturity is confirmed on pressing a spike head between two fingures when rip~. full grown seed would come out. The crop is harvested 5 cm above ground level and care is taken to avoid shattering of the seeds. On an average, 6-8 qtls/ha seed yield is collected. The market for this crop is in throughout North Gujarat. Once more area under lsabgol is increased perhaps seed processing plants would also come up in Haryana and hence there will be no difficulty in the disposal of its seed. Products of lsabgo) The products of lsabgol seed are Husk. Gola, Lali and Khakho which are and 2 per cent. respectively. This year price of Isabgol seed was Rs. 5/- per kg. Husk is used against stomach troubles, enlisted earlier. while rest of the three are used as cattle feed. _ _ Read Haryana Farzning now a monthly farm magazine 7

212 Getting High Yields of Potato -R: S~ Hooda, M. L. Pandita and Indl) Jalali Deptt. of Vegetable Crops, HAU, Hissar Various factors like climate, soil, cultural factors, fertilizers and soil mo'isture etc. affect cultivation..these factors vary from region to region and proper knowledge of each in relation to local conditions will help in developing methods of proper cultivation to obtain high yields. Broad outlines of some of these factors are giveq below to help in getting high yields of the pot~jo crop. Varieties At present following four varieties are recomqlended for cultivation in Haryana : one. I. Kufri Chandramukhi 2. Kufri Sindhuri 3. Kufri Sheetman 4. Kufri Badshah However, Kufri Chandramukhi is the most popular Soil type and preparation of fields Although- potato can be grown on all types of soil except alkaline and saline ones but sandy loam anel medium loam soil, rich in organic matter are most s uitable for potato cultivation. Field should be ploughed 4-S times with harrow and followed by 1-2 plankings. If POssible, last planking should be done by bullocks. Plant at optimum period, Optimum date of planting of main (autumrl) crop is I-io October. However, early crop planting can be done by the last week of September. Select healthy seed material The 5eed stocks a vaila~le 'in the market are ge(lerally;, affected by viruse and contain a mixture of varieties. 8 Since varieties differ in the maturity period, tuber shape, colour and cooking quality, it is essential to ensure freedom from varietal mixture and diseases. The potato seed may, therefore, be obtained from tbe Stale Department of Agriculture or from the NatioI)al Seed Corporation. The experienced growers can produce their own seed by Seed Plot Technique. The seed tuber should be in the right stage of sprouting and not shrivelled. Normally, the potato.seeds with. thick sprouts of 1 em length are. the best. The dormant tuber will delay germination and, too long sprouts break during planting. The best size of seed potato is between. 40 to 50 gm and about 2~-30 quintals of seed will be sufficient to plant one hectare. Plant at optimum dist~dce Yield increases with increas~ in seed size and decrease in spacing. Net yield (gross yield minus seed vscd) is the highest with the vse of medivm Sized seed (40 to 50 mm) at a spacing 60 X 20 cm. The actual seed size and spacing to be adopted, however, depend on the vr. and the purpose for which potatoes are grown. Higher seed rates give more seed sized tubers and lower seed rates give more ware potatoes. Large healthy tubers can effectively be used as seed by cutting and treating witb Dithane M-45 (l kg in 45 Iitres of water) for 5 minutes. The cut tuber should be suberized overnight under shade witb moisture and planted next day. Irrigate the crop regularly First irrigation immediately after sowing jf there is not enough moisture in the soil. First irrigation should be ~ ridges irrigation and lat~r on furrow should be filled upto the 2/ j height of the ridge. Irrigation should be given regularly to keep the soil moist, throughout the growing period of the crop. However, the ridge should not be submerged in any of the irrigation. Weed control and interculture Weeding and earthing up should be completed as early as possible preferably after 30 days of pla'nting. : If the inilial covering of the seed tuber is sufficieijt t1hen there is no need of earthing up and weeds can effectively be controlled by any of tbe following weedicides : Tok 6 It/ha pr Lasso, 5 It/ha "'as preemergence to be applied WIthin 7 days of planting and field shouid have sufficient moisture at the time of spraying. In both ~he cases, quantity of ~ater should be 5CO-625,. [Contd. on pqee 10J HARY ANA FARMING

213 Roshagrass-An Aromatic Plant of Economic Importance for the Farmers in Hatyana -R. s. Paroda, G. D. Sharma aad K. K. Kansal Department/oj Plant Breeding, HAU, Hissar Rosbagrass is an important essential oil yielding aromatic plant. Oil is extracted from whole of the plant material and sold in the market at the rate of Rs. 175/. per kg. The value of oil is because of the presence of geraniol (75%). Rosha oil has replaced sandal wood oil. which was previously used as a base oil in the perfume industry. Besides its perfume value. Rosha oil has the antiseptic properties and is considered very beneficial against skin diseases. muscular pains and wounds on account of its quick wound healing property. India ranks third in the export of its oil. Roshagrass farming is considered to be at par with cereals because of its value in foreign market. Thus, it is a dollar earning crop. So far. this grass is not culti. vated in Haryana. But. on the basis of experimental results obtained at the Department of Plant Breeding. H.A.U. Hissar. it has become evident that Roshagrass (Palamarosa) can be well adapted at an economic level under Haryana conditions. Soil add climate It requires well drained soils (ph 7) because it can Dot withstand waterlogged conditions. It should be cultivated only at those places where facilities for irri gation exist. It can be grown on rainfed soils but in that case we can take only one cutting and thus the profit will be much less. Cultivatiou Nunery raising: Nursery beds should be well pre pared and should contain 2/3 soil. 1/3 FYM and 203m BHC (10%) per bed.. Recommended size of the nursery QCTOBER 1981 is lox 1m and raised upto a level of 30 em. By tbe end\. of first week of May, it should be irrigated well so that all the unwanted weeds can germinate. Later on, they can be removed. For planting one hectare of land. 5 6 kg of seed is sufficient which in tum will require beds of above mentioned size. Nursery sowing is done during second week of June to first week of July in rows em apart and at a depth of 1 cm. Also the solution of BrallSicol (0.3%) is poured in the sown rows for control of root rot. Nursery is irrigated daily with the belp of shower bucket. Germination takes place within 5-1 days. Transplanting is done after days when the, seedlings are of cm in height. Praparatioa of land and manuriag The soil should be well prepared by giving 5-6 cross plougbings followed by planking so that it is free from clods. At the time of last ploughing, cart load FYM with 20 kg BHC (10%) per hectare should be added. At the time of transplanting. soil should contain adequate moisture. The crop is given 20 kg N. 40 kg P j05 and 40 kg K per hectare, supplemented annually with 40 kg N in two equal split doses as top dressing in March/April and October/November. Transplanting of seedlings Seedlings raised in nursery beds are transplanted "in field at the distance of 45 X 30 em and at a depth of em. Just after transplanting, field is given high irrigation. Irrigation and interculture operations Just after transplanting, 2-3 frequent but light irri. gations are given at an interval of 1 2 days. to ensure better establishment of seedlings. After proper setting irrigations are required in a year. During summer, irrigations are given at an interval of days whereas in winter once in a month... Quality of oil is influenced by weed infc:station. Therefore, field should be kept free from weefis. Weeding is most essential during early stages of e~.tablisbment. Once the crop has attained a height ofl~i},~, then weeding is not necessary. Plant protection measures. Under Haryana conditions. Rosha" appears to be free from insect pests and diseases and hejlce no ;specific plant protection measures arc required. -. ', f ~, "t j;. [Contd. on page 14] 9

214 {From page 8], Htres/hectare; 1.S It/ha as pre-emergence (before irrigation) can effectively control tbe',weeds. Fertilizers and manures. 'Fertilizer 'should be applied only after getting the' soil tested froaryour nearest Soil Testing Laboratory. If... y;m. _ is' available in sufficient quantity, it should be applied 4S tons/hectare about 2-3 weeks' before planting. If it is available in small quantity the'n it' can be'applied in furrows at the time of planting. In addition to F. Y.M. fojjowing doses of idorganic fertilizers are recommended, N kg/ha, PaOD SO kg/ ha and KIO 60 kg/ha. 2/3 of nitrogen and whole of the P,O. and KaO should be applied at the time of planting either by hand placement 5 em away from the ]joe on botb sides or 2.S em below the tuber. Remaining dose of nitrogen fertilizers should be given at about 30 days after planting. If the soil is not sandy and is clay loam tben whole dose of nitrogen can also be given as basal dressing which will not show any bad effect in crop yield. Plant pr()tectiod measures For the control of late blight and foliar spots, sprays with fungicides are required.' Spraying with Dithane M.45 is to be given at 2 kg/ha during late November and early December. Two sprayings with It/ha or 1.0 It/ba should be sprayed during first week of November and December to check aphid build up. Hanesting, grading aod marketing Time of harvest for early potatoes depends upon market prices~ Mature crop should be harvested latest by the end of February depending upon the market rate and storage facilities. Skin of the potato tuber should be hardended by withholding irrigation about 7-10 days belare harvesting. Maturity of the crop can also be enhanced by removing the haulms. Curiog of the potatoes should be carried out by keeping potatoes in heap for days in copl place. After curing potatoes should be graded to large size, me4ium size and chats and ~ent to cold storage.. Storage. Potatoes, wllich' are not to be sold at the time of harvesting, should be stored in the cold storage at 4 0 for use or sale at later stage. For Prosperity & Bumper Harvest HARYANA SEEDS HARYANA SEEDS are pre-tested & packed in sealed bags with MONEY- BACK GUARANTEE. ~~ls' '" ' t t~ '" ;. t~ :',. 'O"Ot' ~, o..,o.l ""0""'-'" HARYANA SEEDS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LTD. -..'. SCO SECTOR 8-C. CHANDIGARH CERTIFIED SEEDS OF WHEAT PADDY GRAM COTTON POTATO BAJRA PULSES FODDER AND OIL SEEDS HSDC Sale Counters at : HISSAR SfRSA KARNAl YAMUNA NAGAR HAlLY MANd, GURGOAN SONEPAT ROHTAK BHIWANI JIND PEHOWA '. {.( l. 10 HARYANA~ FARMING

215 Manage'ment 'ofpink Bollworm in Cotton I -A. D. Khurana and P. D. S~arma Haryana Agricultural University, Bissar Cotton crop is attacked by a large number (nearly J50_different species) of insect-pest~,~~ke are resp~nsib!e. to a great extent for low yields and poor quality of seed cotton. Out of these, pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiel/a (Sauod) verna.cularly known as "Gulabi Sundi" is enemy No. 1 of cotton crop in Baryana. The pest takes away heavy toll of crop every year_ According to recent estimates the pest causes a loss of 6525 metric tonnes of lint Kopas worth about Rs crores annually. Only caterpillars of the pest cause severe damage by feeding on flower buds, flowers and bolis. About 63 per cent squares, flowers and bolls are shed due to combined damage by pink bollworm and spotted bollworm and 37 per cent due to physiological and mechanical reasons. Attack of pink bollworm causes 25 to 30 per cent reduction in the yield of seed cot.t~n and 54 per cent reduction of cotton seeds. In addition to these, ginning percentage, oil contents and spinning qualities of the fibre are adversallyaffected. Twenty one per cent of over-wintering larvae pupate as early as the end of March and adults appear before the middle of June. These moths are unable to breed because of non-availability of floral bodies. This type of emergence is usually called suicidal emergence. Usually, the crop starts producing floral bodies by the end of July, but bccause of certain factors, the American cotton may'produce floral bodies in end June and early July also. These stress floral bodies act as source for the early multiplication of the pest. Main rush of pupation ofoverwintered larvae occurs just after the onset of monsoons and largest number of adults appear during end'july or first.fortnight of August.,:~,:I Pearly, white eggs are laid on hairy,sjlrfaces on young leaves, buds,.. flowers, bracts of fl.o\vet~. and :stalk of cotton bolls. Moths {IlcY singly or in small groups and a single female in its Bfe time may lay about 100 to 250 eggs. These eggs become deep brown before hatching. Incubation periods may last for 4 8 days. Newly ~atched caterpillars are about 0.8 mm long and light yellow or ",bitbh in colour. They move about on the plants for 2-4 bours before they eat their way into flower buds or bolls. Petals of attacked flowers twist chara~teristicany and give rosetted appearance. After 3-4, moults the la.rvae acquire characteristic pink colour and become fuufed within 16 days. The fuu-grow,n caterpillar com"es ou~ of the boll/flower and pupates on the ground among shed leaves. This pest has two distinct life cycles,. short life cycle and long life cycle. Short life cycle is completed within 4 to 5 weeks in Haryana and there are 4 to 5 Qver-Iapping generations in a year. However, the long cycle may take 3-6 months. The,carry-over of this pest is mainly through cotton sticks (82%) whije J 3 per cent onl), is through cotton seed. ' Climatic conditions play an importadt role in' the multiplication of pink bollworm. Cloudy weather with frequent but not heavy rains, are conducive for prolific multiplication of this pest. On the o.ther hand hot and dry weather during July-October delays emergence of long cycle moths, increases sterility in males an.d reduces oviposition. Control measures Integrated pest control approach is more reliable, economical and best suited for the control of pink. boh. worm in cotton because the excessive reliance, on' chemical control creates several problems. Following manage-. ment praclices should be followed strictly to minimise the pink. bollworm damage. (a) Off s~ason operation (b) Preventive measures (c) (a) Chemical control Off season operations Off season operations are excellent for control of any pest, when they are. low in number. During off season (November to April) following oper~tions should be' followed to reduce the Dumber of diapausing. (over wintering) larvae and thus minimising the carry-over of the pest.',,1. After last picking in November,,destroy late green bolls and plant debris by grazing sheep, goats ano other animals.in couo~ :fieids so as

216 to reduce the number of diapausing larvae of pink bollworm. Goats proved more effective for grazing tban sheep. 2. Remove cotton sticks 2 or 3 cm deep from soil level so that they do not germinate again as the ratoon cotton starts flowering much earlier. Remove unopened bolls and infested seed cotton attached with open bolls from sticks and burn, to kill the larvae there in them. 3. The cotton fields should be ploughed deep with a furrow turning plough by the end of February to expose diapausing Jarvae/pupae 50 that some are exposed to weather conditions and also picked by the birds. Deep ploughing will also avoid growing stul:1bles or perennial cotton that harbour larvae of this insect. All the uprooted stubbles should be collected and burnt. 4. Best time for killing diapausiog pink bollworm larvae is from December to end of February because they over-winter during this period in bolls/seeds. So, destroy the ginning, trash, of ginning factories, by burning, to kill the diapausing larvae. All the seed from ginneries sbould be removed by the end of April. The seed not meant for sowing should be despatched to oil mills for extraction of oil. The uncrushed left over seed io oil mills should be fumigated in the end of April by using aluminium phosphide 7 tablets per 28 cubic metres of space. _ 5. Seed cotton kept by the farmers should be ginned before middle of April and unused seed should be fed to cattle by middle of May. The seed kept for sowing should be fumigated. (b) Preventive measures 1. Do Jlot keep ratoon crop because it starts flowering much earlier and serves as a source for initial multiplication of the pest. 2. Use seed cake (khal) instead orcouon seed for feeding cattle. This will destroy tbe over wintering larvae in jointed/bold seeds. 3. As far as possible. narrow the cotton sowing time to prevent pink.bollworm from multiply. ing on early pfant cotton. 4. Adoption.of double cropping intensity will reduce tbe pink bollworm incidence. S. Fumigation of cotton seed will reduce the carryover of the pest. 6. Sowing of pink bollworm resistant vari~ties or early maturing varietks like H 777 is recommended to escape the attack of pink bollworm. 7. Reduce the number of irrigations by increasing the interval of two successive irrigations. Withhold the Jast irrigation to reduce the early incidence of pink bollworm as few green bolls will be formed in the late stage by this practice. S. Organise campaign during June to destroy the stress flowers and during July and August to destroy the rosetted flowers. (c) Chemical control For effective control of pink bollworm 4 or 5 sprays with following insecticides should be given at an interval,, of 15 days. Insecticides Quantity of insecticides (kg or l/ha) Water per ha Carbaryl SO WP (Sevin/ 1.8 to 2.2 kg 1 Hexavin/Carblin), Fenilrochion 50 Ee (Foli- l.8 to 2.,2 I I thion/ Accothion/Sumithion) I Monocrotophos 40 Ee (Nu- 1.4 to 1.71 > 750 to 1000' 1 vacron/monocrotophos) 'I Quinalphos 2S Ee (Ekalux' 1.7 t1' 2 2 I 2S Ee) I Phosalone 35 Be (Zolone 1.9 to 2.4 I I 35 Ee) J Generally, some farmers complain about the ineffectiveness of the recommended insecticidal control measures. But from tbe experiences it has been observed. that they do not follow the recommended splay schedule properly. There is no question of ineffectiveness of insecticides if following recommendations are followed strictly: 1. Spraying of coftan crop for control of pink bollworm must be started in the first week of August or two weeks after the start of flowers. 2. Recommended insecticides in proper doses, in recommended quantities of water at proper time with right method of sprayini should be used. 3. Farmers are in the habit of using 200 to 250 litres (15 or 16 drummy) water per hectare. At least 750 litres water (40 to SO dnimmy) must be used in one spraying. 4. On eady maturing varieties, i e., H n7 or Bikaner; Narma last spraying should be give~ in first fortnight of October or should be stopped two weeks. before the start of pickins. 5. Insecticides of expiry date should not be use~ and same insecticide should not be used continuously for successive sprays. 12 JlARY ANA FARMING

217 Grow Raya after Legumes I. and Get More Returns '. -A. S. Malik, Kanwar Singb* and A. S. Faroda Regional Research Station; Bawal Baryana Agricultural University, Bissar Raya is mainly gro~n as a rainfed crop in the kharif fallows. With tbe result of tbis only one crop is taken in a year. However, in good rainfall years or where some irrigation Jacilities are available for pre-sowing irrigation/ protective irrigation double cropping can profitably be adopted with raya and other oil seed rabi season crops. In double cropping system, selection of kharif season crops is more important. The crops selected should be of short duration and should vacate the field latest by middle of September so that the fields can be prepared well for succeeding raya crop. As such, either short duration grain pulses like mung or fodder crops like cowpea, guar, bajra, jowar can be taken. These crops will be harvested in time and sufficient time will be left for field preparation for raya. At Hissar, taking of mung crop during kharif season followed by raya in rabi was found to.be the most profitable crop rotation.. It was followed by cowpea for fodder-raya and guar for fodder-raya sequences (Table I). Taking of jowar or bajra for fodder in,kharif followed by raya in rabi could.not s.urpass the fallow-raya rotation in net profit. It was so because hojr:a :mdjowar, bring cere?l crops removed more nutrie ~ts from the soil and the raya crop was very poor after these crops. On the other hand, mung, cowpea and guar being legumes, added nitrogen in the soil thr9ugh atmospheric nitrogen fixation and raya crop was very good. It is, therefore, recommended that either mung for grain or cowpea/guar for fodder should be taken be(ore.raya crop. Grow these legumes in the month of June if pre-sowing irrigation is available. If pre-sowing irrigation is not available, then sow them with the onset of first' monsoon showers. Select high yielding, quick growing and short duration varieties of mung, cowpea or guar. Recommended package of practices should be followed. These crops should be harvested by the middle of September. After harvesting of kharif crops, prepare the field for raya crop by giving repeated ploughings and harrowings. The first ploughing should be given by mould board or disc plough. The subsequent operations should be done by harrows. In good rainfall years, sufficient soil mois~ ture will be available after harvesting of short duration legume crops and raya crop can be taken on the residual moisture. However, in the rain scarcity years, a presowing irrigation will be required for raya crop. In raya crop, all recommended package of practices should be followed. TABLE.1 Yield and economics of different cropping sequences Cropping sequence Yield (q/ba) of Grain yield Cost of cultivakharif crops of ray a tion of rotation Grain G fodder (q(ha) (Rs.(ha) Fallow-Raya 14.SS Co'Wpea (F)-Raya 23S Guara (F) - Raya 246~ Moong (G)-Raya ~ajra (F) - Raya S rlowar (F)-Raya IOJ Gross income Net income of rotation of rotation (Rs./ha) (Rs./ha) S S Rates of produce : Green Rs. 8/q, Rs. 320jq, Rs. 480/q. F=Fodder, G=Grain *Ex-Director of Research, H.A.U;, Hissar.. OCTOBER

218 Salmonellosis-A Threat to Dairy Industry -G. C. Cbaturvedi and S. Prasad Department of Veterinary Microbiology, HAll, Hissar Introduction Salmonellosis is an acute or chronic infectious disease of cattle of all ages caused by different species of salmonella. Meat and milk may become contaminated with this organism. When such milk/meat is consumed by human being, food poisoning occurs resulting in serious health hazard. Not only this, it has a direct bearing not only on the economics of dairying but also on the building up of the future herd of dairy enterprise. Therefore, it is necessary to take adequate measures to protect the calves from this malady. Animals affected The young exotic and crossbred calves are highly susceptible to paratyphoid infection and mortality is fairly heavy. Wbat causes it? Most common causes of paratyphoid infection in adult cattle and calves are S. dublin and S. typhimurium. The calves 3 to 6 weeks old are affected most. Spread of disease Ingestion of contami nated milk, feed and water by the calves is the most important means of spread. Infection is also spread by clinically affected calves licking each other and also by chronic carriers. Birds and reptiles are the reservoirs, which maintain the infection in the environment. Clinical signs add symptoms Within a day or two the calves appear dull and listless. The pyrexia reaches a peak of to F between 2 to 6 days after infection. The temperature drops to 96.0 to 98.8 F with severe diarrhoea in the terminal stages. The milk intake is reduced by half till a day before death. The pyrexia associated with clinical diarrhoeli/dysentery with mucous shreds and blood clots are the most characteristic signs. The diarrhoeic faeces are dirty )fellow in colour, watery with offensive smell. The diarrhoea persists for 2 to 13 days. The calves become gradually weak and show signs of dehydration, emaciation arched back and rapid shallow respiration. Some calves 14 may show lameness due to tbe involvement of joints leadiog to arthritis. Diagnosis Tentative diagnosis may be arrived at by taking into a~count the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the history of the case followed by isolation of causal organisms in the laboratory. Control measures 1. Eliminate clinically affected and carrier animals. 2. Observe strict sanitary condition. 3. Vaccination of healthy calves against S. dublin m~y help in preventing tbe infection but the vaccine' is still in the experimental stage. Treatment This must be started early, because delay will result in severe damage to intestinal' mucosa. Chlqramphenicol is the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol is given 20 mgt kg body weight parenterally every 6 hourly and 'nitrofurazone 20 mg/kg body weight in drinking water for 3 days. In outbreaks, mass medication of water supply of all. in contact animals is a desirable practice. ' I Supportive treatme~t includes demulcents and astringent preparations given orally. Fluids therapy to replace lost electrolytes and fluids will help animals to survive the period of acute dehydration and toxaemia. For the speedy control of the above disease, the veterinary doctor in the nearest vetednary hospital may be contacted. For the laboratory facilities regarding diagnosis/confirmation of the disease for further investtgation, may contact p'rofessor & Head, DepU. of Veterinary Microbiology, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar. [From page 9 ] Harvestiog of tbe crop Number of cuttings are dependent upon soil conditions and climate. Under Hissar conditions, two to three cuttings per annum can be taken. Best stage for obtaining maximum oil of good quality i~ when the flowering is complete. Plants should be harvested cm above the ground level. First cutting can be taken during October/November, second during Apri.l/May!lnd third if possible in July. Once planted the crop.can give economic cuttings up to four years. dreen-herbage yield varies from 22 to 30 tonnes/hectare/annurn. Extraction of oil Steam distillation is tbe most appropriate.. method for Rosha oil extraction. For this, one, boiler, distillation chamber, condenser and one separater are required'. Under Haryana conditions, from one hectare 70, to 100 kg of oil per annum can be extracted. which will amount to Rs /- to 17500/-. HARYANA FARMING.<

219 Nature Intended Huma.n Milk For Humans -Saroj Kashyap and Krishna Kbambra Directorate of Extension Education, BAU, Bissar Right from the ancient times to the present day, breast feeding is glorified and oft~n associated with feeling of love, sacrifice and strength. Breast feeding favours,close physical contact between mother and infant. Only _ the mother can describe the pleasure and satisfaction of the breast feeding. There is no food which can compete with the breast milk for the newly born human baby. It provides nutrients in amounts and forms, that are well utilized by the human infants. HumaQ milk has 3.4 per cent fat, 1.0 per cent protein, 74 per cent lactose and 0.1 per cent minerals in comparison to cow's milk whkh contains 4.1, 3.2, 4.4, 0.8 per cent fat, protein, lactose and minerals, respectively. Since human milk has more lactose, it stimulates the growth of bacteria in the intestine which synthesis many of the B vitamin. It also increases the acidity in the gut and thus inhibits the diarrhoea. These are generally the princ~pal causes of mortalities in the babies. It has also been observed that allergic reactions to protein and other food components are less common among breast-fed infants, tban among tbe formula-fed infants. It has also chemical substance in it which immunizes the baby against the infection. This is particularly true in case of a yellow fluid called colestrome, which the mother scretes for 2 to 3 days after birth. Many mothers do not put their babies to the breast for the first day or two. On the contrary, it is a rich source of antibodies which protects the babies from infection. This yellow fluid is rich in carotene (a form of Vito A). Thus, breast feeding must start soon after birth, since colestrum is very good for the newly born baby. Moreover, the breast milk is always pure, hygienic, ready to use at the right temperature and costs nothing. It possesses straight from the breast to the baby's mouth whereas animal milk or the formula or baby food,. if not made with great care~ i. e., sterilized conditions, could infect.the infant and in some exterine case may even prove fatal. It has been estimated that if infant formulas are used instead of breast milk in India, it would cost OCTOBER 1981 about 4 times what is spent on the annual health budget of the Indian Union. How ofted to feed The baby should be fed whenever he wants to be fed. This is known as "demand feeding". Some infants require milk after two hours, some after three and some even after every four hours. Demand feeding means that if your baby wants a feed after every two hours, you should give it to him. If your baby is sleeping, you need not to awake him just because his feed time is due. During the first 'six weeks, the bady may need midnight feed. When baby is around twq months old, you can gradually encourage him to give up the midnight feed. While breast feeding (a) What to eat The following foods must be taken regularly by the nursing mothers: 1. At least two large glasses of milk daily. 2. A variety of cereals distributed among the three main meals. 3. Pulses-twice daily. 4. An egg daily or every alternate day. S. Some fruits. A fruit daily is sufficient. Inexpensive fruits like guava, ami as are just as nutritious as oranges and apples. 6. Green leafy vegetables-at least one green leafy vegetable daily. (b) What not to eat l. Avoid eating too much of spicy food (as they may upset the mothers digestion), foods cooked in excessive oil, ghee etc. 2. Since most of the drugs taken by the mother find their way to the milk, tbe doctor must be consulted before taking any medicine. 3. Personal hygiene should be specially maintained to avoid maternal infection to the infant. It can be rightly said that human milk is suited to the needs of the human child, has the right balance of nutrients and contains valuable antibodies which give the baby the vital protection from the infection during the early months of the life. No artificial milk prossesses these protection antibodies. Baby food or feeding bottles should be available only as medicines &re available, to be used by those -who need them. But all attempts to convert mothers from breast feeding to bottle feeding must be ended in the interest of the child-the future population of the country. IS

220 Bed We-tting in ChIldren " -;:- Mrs. l. Grover College of flome Science, HAU, Hi$sar Bed wetting is quite common in young children. this is usually the.result of anxiety.& tension or due to delay in the 4evelopment of the automatic control of the bladder during sleep. It is Dot usually caused due to disease or malformation of the urinary system. This problem usually leads to unhappiness, distress arid worry in tlie parents and the child. Children usually develop control over their urinary bladder early in life. This is usually related to the type of toilet training imparted to them by the parents and the elders in the family. Control of bladder during daytime is acquired earlier compared to the control of bladder during night, as the conscious mind is also asleep at night. When a child is punished for this act of bed wetting, which he cannot control he becomes more anxious not less. The problem can be further aggrevated rather than being solved if the mother or the parents withdraw their love and affection from the child. The child feels more distressed, tense and remains unhappy, thus resulting in further delay of the normal maturation time. Therefore, on'e should not punish or penalise a child for this act. This problem is sometimes caused in normal children also during period of exceptional emotional stress in the family, birth. of a new baby, an illness, separation from mother, death of a relative, death of a beloved pet, fear of being alone, fear of darkness etc. This em phasises on the need to understand the trouble as a distress singnal on the part of the child and as a 'way of calling on the mothers love, affection and attention. Bed wetting leads to a lot of extra work for tbe mother, but the mother should not feel guilty that she has failed in her duty if her child wets tbe bed. Infact the mother.---sbould try to find out the reason for the same and to find out ways an4 qleans of helping the child to overcome this problem. A mother or parents can help the.cbild to overcome the probjem by keeping the following points in mind: Not to punish Or penalise the child who wets the bed. 2., Try to avoid -,over excitements,,fear, ~-upsets etc. especially towards the end of the day Tpe child should empty_ his blal.ider before going to sleep. 4. If a child is afraid of dark, let him have a night light. 5. Keep a pot under bis bed if be desires to ease himself ~t night. 6. Encourage the child to wake you up in case he has a feeling of urination at night, rather tha~ bedm~~ / 7. Make going to bed as pleasant as possible for the child., 8. Try to be friendly with the child aud make him understand that he would be able to overcome his problem soon one day. 9. Keep a makintosh under tbe bedsheet, so as to avoid / the whole bed getting spoil. ', 10. Study the other problcims of the child and.act accordingly, 11. Study the timings the child usually wets-take him to the bathroom before accident occurs. 12. Keep the child warm & comfortable especially puring wintt'r time: 13. Give less of liquids before bed time. 14. Consult the doctor. IS. Dont' let him/her sleep in wet bed-this would help the child to See the advantages of using dry bed. In case of every effort of patience a,\d acceptance the problem still continues, consult your doctor for advice. IT,PAYS TO ADVERTISE IN.,. HARYANA FARMING HARYAN"A FARMING

221 What to do this month AGRONOMY I.' RICE Drain out the water from the paddy fields at least 10 days before the actual harvest to ensure uniform maturity of crop and facilitate tbe preparation of land for the sow iog of rabi crops. Start Harvesting of the crop at the right time to avoid losses due to grain shattering. MAIZE Start harvesting of maize towards the end of this month and prepare this fields for sowing of rabi crop. Dry the cobs and then shelllhem with a maize sheller. BAJRA Harvest the crop. Thresh the ears when dry. PULSES Complete the harvesting of moong, mash and soybean, when more than 80 per cent crop is mature. GROUNDNUT Take up the digging of groundnut from the last week of this month. COTTON Apply the last irrigation to the American cotton during the early part of this month. Pick desi as well as American cotton when the bolls are fully ripened. A void; tne mixing of dry leaves with the kapas during picking and keeping the picked kapas in wet channels. Gi>'~, SUQARCANE Itr1ga1e the crop at 2-3 weeks intervals, depending upon tbe'weather conditions. Dr. S. K. Katyal 1 Dr. V. K. Srivastava ~ Dr, M. P. Srivastava, Dr. S. D. Chaudhry J Directorate of Extension EdUcation BAU,)iJssar. GRAM Select well-drained sandy or light warm soils for sowing of gram. A void water logged and saline or alka. line or saline-alkaline soils. It should Dot be grown in soil having ph higher than 8.5. Grow the recommended. varieties namely H 208 and C 214 under rainfed condi. tions, G 24 under rainfed condition particularly in light sandy soil areas where problem of wilt disease is likely to be faced. H 355 and G 130 under irrigated conditions but not for humid areas. C 235 is particularly recommended for humid areas of State where gram blight is serious. L 144- a kabuli gram variety for irrigated conditions of the State except humid areas. Complete sowing of desi gram varieties between 10th to 25th October. The optimum sowing time for Kabuli gram is the last week of the month. Use 37 to 45 kg of seed per hectare for desi varieties and 92 kg of seed per hectare for Kabuli gram. Sow gram. with 'Pora' in rows, 30 cm apart, at a depth of 10 to 12 cm under rain fed conditions. For the control of termites, treat the seed before sowing with Aldrin 30 BC " and with Rhizobium culture, use regommended doses of fertilizer at the sowing time of gram. RABI OILSEEDS Complete the sowing of desi Sarson varieties,. (Brown Sarson Haryana No.1 and Yellow Sarson.Pllnjab< 24) and Raya (Bang a Sarson) Variety Prakash before,",., middle of this month. Taramira (T 27) can be sown,i,' throughout this month. Use 3 to 5 kg seeel per hectare., for each of these crop. Mix the seed with some moist soil to facilitate uniform distribujioll. Sow with a drill or 'Para' at a depth of 4 to ~ cm in line 30 Gm apart thin the crop. three w,eeks after sowing to maintain a plant to plant distance of 10 to 15 em.. LENTIL S6W thei,\variety Massar 9-12, starling from the end.. olthis month oy,;using 30 tq 37 kg of seed per: hectare b, OCTOBER: 1981 ' 17'

222 using the 'Kera' method or the 'Para' method in rows 22 cm apart. It can also be broadcast, following the paddy crop. BERSEEM Complete sowi:ng of berseem by the first week of this month as per package recommendations given in September. The first irrigation should be given 3 to 5 days after sowing in light soils and 8 to 10 days after sowing in heavy soils. Afterwards, irrigate at intervals of 15 to 20 days depending on the weather conditions. LUCERN Start sowing the variety Lucero No.9 in well prepared moist seed bed from the last week of this month. Sow 10 kg of healthy seed per hectare in rows 30 cm apart with 'Pora' or drill at a depth of 3 to 5 cm. Ensure to I VEQET ABLES I TOMATO The crop planted during Kharif season will now start giving fruits. The harvest may be sent to market as and when required. Regular irrigation of the crop is desired and for the control of virus and fungal diseases, the crop may be sprayed with a mixture of one litre of Malathion 50 EC and 2 kg Dithane M-45 per hectare at an interval of about three weeks. About 625 lit. water would be sufficient for spraying one hectare of crop. The diseased plants should be removed from the field and destroyed. The crop should not be consumed for one week after spray of the insecticides/fungicides. The use of this insecticide will also control the harmful insects, like Hadda beetle, aphids and whitefly. However, for the control of fruits borer the crop may be sprayed with 1250 g carbaryl 50 WP (SevinfHexavin/Carbavin) or 1250 ml Endosulfan 35 EC per hectare. If needed spraying may be repeated after 10 days interval. By this time the top dressing of the crop by nitrogenous fertilizer would be complete..,brinjal The tender fruits may be harvested, and sent to plarket for sale. For harvesting tbe fruits, use a sharp knife so that the branches of the plants are nol injured. Irrigate the crop regularly. For the control of virus disease, use insecticides lo kill the vectors and remove the infected plants from field and destroy them. 'For the control of harmful insects the insecticides indicated during 18 innocujate the seed with proper Rhizobium culture' before sowing. OATS Start sowing of -oats variety HFO 114 (Haryana Tori (14) from the beginning of this month so that llle fodder becomes available during February-March, use IOO'kg per hectare ~nd sowing by using 'Kera' or 'Para' method in rows, 25 em apart. WHEAT Prepare land properly and quality seed of the recom-:.. mended wheat varieties and other inputs.. Desi variety of C 306 could be sown in the last week of October. Use 100 kg seed per hectare and sow in rows by drill at a distance of 20 cm. the last month may be used.,it is important that the crop should not be consumed up to recommended, time after the spray of the crop. Application of nitroeenous fertilizer should be over by this time. For the control of fruit rot, spray the crop with 2 litres Cuman or 2 kg Ziram or Dithane Z-78 in one hectare of area. This spray should be done when the crop starts fruiting and the crop sbould not be consumed for about two week-s after use of fungicides. POTATO For seeding of potato crop, prepare the land thoroughly and arrange for good disease free certified seeds. The best sowing time of potato is first week of October. However, it may be started by end of September and continued upto middle of October. The high yielding recommended varieties of this crop are Kufri Chandramukhi and Kufri Sinduri. About 30 qtl. of seed per hectare would be r~quired. It is al:-vays better to use your own seed, produced scientifically by seed plot technique. For preparation of land add~ 50 tonnes I of organic manure, 60 kg nitrogen (240 kg kis.lln khad), 50 kg phospborus (300 kg single super phosphate) and I. 50 to 100 kg potash ( kg muriate of potash!'per hectare. It is always better to apply the fertilizers. by band placement. The seeding should be don~ in lines cm apart. The seed should be placed at. a depth of about em. It is essential that the tuber seeds should be in sprouted condition at the t.ime of see~ing.,~ HARYANA FARMING f,i

223 Distance from plant to plant should be kept at cm. If the seed tubers are large sized, the planting distance may be increased. It would be better if whole tubers used for seeding. Before seeding the seed tubers should be treated with 0.5% Agallol or 0.25% Aretan/Emisan for 5 minutes. Cut tubers may be used for planting jf it is being done after 10th October. For this, take care that each piece has 2-3 eyes. its weight is not less than 25 gm and after cutting the tubers they may be treated with 0.25% Dithane M-45 solution and they may be kept over-night covered with moist cloth. The cut pieces of tubers must be planted within 24 hours of cutting. After three weeks of seeding the infected plants should be removed from the field. and destroyed. After seeding, irrigation may be required but it is important that ridges should not be covered by water beyond half of its height. For control of weeds the crop may be sprayed with TOK 6 to 7-5 Iitres/ha when the crop has germinated to the tune of 10%. Weeds can also be controlled by application of a mixture of 2.5 litres TOK E-25 and 250 gm Tafazine per hectare at pre-emergence stage. The field should have proper moisture at the time of application of weedicides. CUCURBITS The fruits should be harvested regularly and sent to market for sale. By this time the crop would have been top dressed by recommended amount of nitrogenous fertilizer. The crop is to be regularly irrigated. For the control of harmful insects and diseases the insecticides/ fungicides as indicated previously should be used. Crop should not be consumed after spray for about a week's time. SWEET POTATO AND CALOCASIA Take proper care of sweet potato crop. If needed irrigation may be given. The crop of calocasia would be ready for harvest either during this month or in'next month. Arrangements may be made for digging the crop, a,nd may be sent to market after proper washing. The crop of calocasia is ready in about ) days of planting whereas the crop of sweet potato would be ready in about 130-} 80 days after planting. CAuLIFLOWER Proper care of early crop of Pusa Katki should be done. When the curds are ready they may be cut and sent to market.for sale. If the mid season, variety has not yet been transplanted in the field, it should,be d,one now' in well prepared field. For the. method of field OCTOBER 1981 preparation, it has already been indicated during the previous month. The late variety (Snow-BaH 16) shouid be sown in nursery during this month for seedling raising. Seed should be treated with 2.5 gm per kg of seed or Captan or Thiram or Brassicol at the rate of 3 gm per kg of seed. The nursery should be drencbed with a solution of 0.2% Captan after 6-7 days of seeding if there is danger of damping off. Regular care of the seedlings would be required for getting healthy seedlings. The harmful insects like aphids, cabbage caterpillar, cabbage semi-looper and diamond back moth may be controlled by spraying the crop with one litre Malathion 50 EC after mixing in 625 Iitres of water per hectare of land. The crop should be sprayed again after about 10 days and should not be consumed for one week after spray of the insecticides. CABBAGE AND KNOLKHOL The seedlings of this crop would be ready during this month. The field should be thoroughly prepared by adding 50 tonnes of Compost or FYM, 40 kg Nitrogen (160 kg Kisan Khad), 50 kg Phosphorus (300 kg Single Super Phosphate) and 50 kg of Potash (85 kg Muriate of of Potash) per hectare of land. Potash is usually required for knolkhol crop. The field should be divided into convenient size beds. The cabbage should be transplanted in lines em apart and from plant to plant. Knolkhol is planted in lines at a distance of 30 cm. The distance from plant to plant of cm is required. After transplanting the crop, a ligbt irrigation should be given. The seeding of this crop in nursery can also be done during this month. The seed should be treated with Ceresan or Captan at the rate of 2.5 gm for every kg of seed. PALAK The crop should be cut and sent to market after proper packing. The seeding of this crop can also be done during this month. For preparation of field, varieties etc., follow as g.iven during previous months. RADISH, TURNIP AND CARROT The Desi vadeties of this group should be properly cared. The ready roots should be taken out from the field and may be sent to m~rket after proper washing. Do not allow roofs to over matute in the field. These crops are to b~ top.dressed with 30 kg Nitrogen (120 kg Kisan Khad) per hectare aftar 3-4 wee~s of seeding. Earthing up of the roots is also. required. The crops are to be Iprotected against harmful> insects. During this 19

224 month land preparation as given during last month should. be done for late varieties df these crops. The important varieties are Nantes of Carrot, Japanese White and White Icicle for radish and Purple Top White Globe for Turnip, which should be med. The seeds' should be tre-ateo with Brassicol or Captan -of 3 gm for every kg of seed. PEA Proper care of early variety is required. The crop may be irrigated at flowering stage. During October the variety Bonneville sbould be sown in the field. For seeding one hectare of land kg seed would be required. The lines should be kept at a distance of cm. At seeding time proper moisture in the field is essential. If this crop is sown for the first time, it is desirable to treat the seeds with rhizobium culture. GARLIC If the seeding has not been done during last month it may be done now. The method of field preparation has been explained during the last month. If the crop bas been planted last month, it should be regularly irrigated, regular weeding should be done and the crop should be top dressed after about one month of seeding with 40 kg Nitrogen (100.kg Kisan Khad)/ba of land followed by irrigation. ONION (RABI) The sowing of onion seed in nursery should be done during this month, for one hectare of land about kg seed would be required. Hissar-2 and Pusa Red. Use high yielding varieties like KHARIF ONION The crop should be regularly cared for weed contro~ and irrigation. It is to be top dressed two times by 40 kg of Nitrogen (160 kg of Kisan Khad) per hectare each time after, one month of transplanting/planting and exposed by washing of soil due to rains they may be covered by soil. Plant protection measures for control of thrips. For thrips the crop may be sprayed wi.th 750 ml of malathion 50 EC after mixing in 625 litres/ of water per hectare. In the event of purple blotch appearance the crop may be sprayed with Fytolan or Dithane 2 kg per hectare and may be repeated on need at an interval of days.,sticker should be'added to the spray fluid. OTHER VEGETABLES Tender pods of Guar and lobia may be pickecj up and sent to market for sale. If the seedlings of sal~d is ready it may by transplanted in rows at the distance of 45 em and in between plants about 30 cm. The seeding of salad can also be done iii nursery if not already done. The seeding of Methi can also be done during this montl;l. Use high yielding varieties like Kasuri and Pusa early bunching. For one hectare about 10 to 20 kg seed will be required. The seeding of Dhania can also be done during this mopth. I LIVESTOCK HEAL T tt CARE I-Dr. R. K. Sharma CATTLE AND BUFFALOES 1. Feed mineral mixture in recommended doses to lactating, pregnant and other animals. Regular feeding of mineral mixture checks mineral defficiency diseases in the animals remain healthy and productive. 2. Arrange prophylactic vaccination of animals against Rinderpest.,The vaccinated animals get protection against the disease, for atleast 3 years. This vaccination is very essential in animals bein'g kept in inundated areas and those in the vicinity of low lying areas near canal l)r stream. 3. This is breeding season in buffaloes. Avail the facilities of artificial insemination from the nearest Artificial Insemination Centre/Stockmen Centre. In' case the 10 animal comes into heat in the morning it should be inseminated in the afternoon. Those coming into heat in the evening Deed to be inseminated in the morning of the following day, 4. Feeding of green fodder to milch animals is very essential to obtain production from them to',their maximum potentiality. This also saves expenditure on concentrates to a certain extent. 'The sowing of Berseem should be completed by mid-october,andi that of Senji by October end. 5. Protect youngstock from Roundworms :'by do$ing them with piperazine 6 to 8 gm per anildal. This should be repeated at monthly internal till 'they attain the' age of 6 months. ' ""+ HARYANA F~R'M'ING

225 Recommended Varieties of Rabi -Vegetables 1. POTATO Kufri Sinduri and Kufri Chandramukhi. About 30 qtl of seed per hectare will be required. 2. PEAS Early-Arkel, Mid season; Bonneville. Late, Multifreezer. For early variety about kg seed per hectare will be required and for main and late season kg seed will be required per hectare.,- 3. ONION Hissar-2 apd Pusa Red. About kg seed per hectare will be required. 4. CAULIFLOWER Late; Snowball-16. About 600 gm of seed per hectare will be required. 5. CABBAGE Pride of India and Golden Acre for early season, and Drumhead for late. A bout gm of seed per hectare will be required. 6. KNOL KHOL White early Vienna. About 2 kg of seed per hectare will be required. 7. CARROT Desi type-hissar Selection and Pusa Kesor, Temperate type-nantes. About kg of seed per hectare will be required. 8. RADISH Temperat-variety-Japenese White and White Icicle. About 5-8 kg of seed per hectare will be required. 9. TURNlP Desi Variety, White-4 temperate variety-purple Top White Globe. About 5-8 kg of seed per hectare will be required. lq. SPINACH Jobner Green, All Green and S-23. (Palak) kg of seed per hectare will be required. 11. FENUGREEK Kasuri 3.nd Pusa Early Bunching. (Methi) kg of seed per hectare will be required. -v. P. Kohli District Extension Specialist (Vegetables) K. G. K., Gurgaon SHEEP 1. Arrange deworming of your sheep flock and avail the facilities from the Sheep and Wool Extension Centrel Vety. Hospital of your area for this purpose. 2. Contact the Incharge of Sheep and Wool Extension Centre of your area for obtaining rams for breeding purpose. The use of good bred rams is necessary for: getting good qualify wool. POULTRY 1. Deworm poultry birds once in two months. 2. When there is an outbreak of cocidiosis, improvement Art of Home Dyeing. of Cottons The process of dyeing gives a new look to a fabric. The success of home-dyeing depends on a clear understanding of the nature of the dyestuff, its affinity to the fabric and its reactions on the fabric. The aim of dyeing is to bring variety in the colour. The dyeing procedure is different for different fabrics. Dyeing of cotton Cotton is basically a vegetable fibre and takes in dyes better than linen but not as readilv as silk and wool. Commercial dyes are readily available in the market and can be used successfully at home. The first step in dyeing is to prepare the article by removing all buttons, ribbons, lining and by opening the pleats and gathers etc. Then the article should be repa\red. Before the article is dyed, it should be made free of grease and stains and should be thoroughly cleaned. If the article is already clean it should be soaked in water so as to get saturated with water. Then take out the article and remove the extra water. In the meantime. prepare the dye bath. Keep sufficient water to boil in a basin so that the fabric would be completely submerged in water. The amount of dye to be used woulti depend on the original weight of the cloth and the type of shade desired. For every 100 grams of cloth, the amount of dye used would be between { and 1 gm for light colour, for medium colour 2 grams and for dark colour 3 grams. Dissolve the dye plus an equal amount of washing soda in luke warm water. Strain through a muslin cloth and add to the boiling water and stir well. Take the soaked garment, shake it well so that there are no wrinkles and dip in the dyebath. Keep stirring for 15 minutes. Remove the byed cloth from the dyebath and keep in a seperate basin. Now add common salt, about one table spoon for every 100 grams of cloth to the dye bath and stir well. Again add the article being dyed. Stir for another 30 minutes. Remove from the dye bath and rinse in several buckets of water till no colour comes out from the article. Squeeze and shake the article and dry in shade. It must be remem be red that the dye dries several shades lighter than it appears when wet. Article must be dried completely before ironing. - Mrs. Indo Grover and Miss K. RazdliD College of Home Science, HAU, Hissar in management conditions should receive proper attention in adjition to medication. 3. Examine birds 'for actoparasites (ticks and!ices). In case of positive evidence, arrange for insecticide spray. 4. Regular culling of weak, emaciated and diseased birds should be done. Besides eliminating the source of infection, culling helps in ec<_?nomic production of eggs. 5. Expert should be immediately consulted as and when, a disease is suspected in the flock or when there is a SUdden fall in egg production.

226 :, Ii[ ) ENSURE A WEED-fREIE WHEAT CROP WITH Do sand BOWP. a powerful selective weedicide that gives complete protection against PHALARIS MINOR, WILD OATS; ( CHENOPODIUM and other broad~ leaved weeds,,.1, ),1,1 ';_,', 'j, \ _ I' I" ~.. J" '.' (,. For Further detans, write to : Argochemicaf Oivis;o. SANDOZ (INOlA) LTD, SANDQZ HOUSE Cr. Annie Besant Road, Worn BOM BAY 400 Ot8 ( ~ ~ Printed and published by Dr. R. M. Sharma, Director of Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of Haryana Agrj~lLural University, Hissar. Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhri. Press Manager, at the HAU Press, on Oct: I, 1981:

227 RUPEE 1/-,NOVEMBER ~... '. _ 'J. _(,. \ 4 1 t,......

228 HARY AN A FARMING Volume X November 1981 No. 11 Contents Pages Specialized Training. In Plant Protection for the Farmers... l. Production potential of new wheat variety WH So D. Dhiman and D. S. Malik 2. Improv~d agro techniques for rain fed wheat 6 -Po L. Sachan and H. C. Sharma - 3. fight against hunger by increasing wheat produc-. 7 tion -M. P. Srivastava and T. R. Kapoor 4~ Occurrence of fungal blights in chickpea 9 - -M. S. Sangwan, S. K. Khirbal and B. L; Jalali 5. Limitations in adopting balanced nutrient 10 programme -M. L. Chaudhary 6. Fertili;z:er management in paddy crop - V. P. Ahlawal and R. S. Chahal 7. How to submit seed samples to the seed testing laboratory - Onkar Singh, Ranbir Singh and R. P. S. Tomer 8. Commercial growing of cabbage ~Sube Singh Yadava and V. K. Srivastava 9. Pairy cattle farming to~ -Ja; Singh Sharma profitable rearing of pigs -J. S. Doll and Y. N. Tripathi II. Crop weather prospects for rabi season, -0. P. Bishnoi and S. K. Katyal 12; What to do this month 13~ Staggering problem of blindness in rural areas - (Mrs.) Nishi Sethi Yearly Subscription Rs Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawan, "AU, Hissar (From November, 1981) 1. Insect pests and diseases of different field crops, vegetables and fruits and their control measures. 2. Different agents damaging grains in the stores, their biology and nature and extent of damag~. ' 3. Safe Morage of grains, their care in the stores and measures to check the infestation from time to time. 4. Rats, their importance and control measures. 5. Different formulations of pesticides, their handling ~dnfuu~. 6. Different types of plant protection equipments, their handling and maintenance. 7. Chemical control of weeds.) Facilities 1. No fee will. be charged from the trainees. 2. PI ee lodging will be provided. 3. Free arrangement for the kitchen, utencils and cook, however, the trainees will arrange for the food materials themselves. 4. After successful completion of the training a stipend of Rs. 3/- per day will be given to Haryana Farmers. Admission All the farmers are eligible for this training. For. / admission, an application showing name, village and qualifications, duly attested by Sarpanch/Nu!pberdar or Patwari of the village may be sent on the below given address. The interested farmers should reach Kisan Ashram on the Balsmand Road, HAU, Hissar' latest by 9.00 a.m. on 24th Nov., 198). Associate Director Triiining, Institute of Agril. Technology, Training & Educatlfln, Directorate (If Extension, Gandhi "Bbawan, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar-1250U4. Director of Publication$: Dr. R. M. Sharma * Editor V. S. GUpta A$$i$ted by D. C. Yadav Director 01 Exten$ion Education. I Dr. J. C. Sharma I

229 Dr. Bhumbla takes over as HAU Vice-Chancellor The new Vice-Chancellor, Dr, D. R. Bbumbla took over on 1st October, Dr. Bhumbla brings to bear on his new assignment, rich and varied experience as a distinguished scientist, an able administrator and planner. A Brilliant Academic Career An alumini of Punjab University, Dr. Bhumbla did his B.Sc. in Agriculture Chemistry in 1944 and M.Sc. in Soil Science in He obtained his Ph. D. from Ohio State University, usa in 1~62 in Soil Chemistry. A Disti nguished Record of Service In his long career spanning over three decades, Dr. Bhumbla has held a string of distinguished offices. Wayback in 1964 he w~s the' Head, Department of Soils at the Bissar Campus of the Panjab Agricultural University. He rose to be the Dean, College of Agriculture, Hissar in In 1969, Dr. Bhumbla left the PAU to join as Director, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, where he worked for more than's years. On 17th'March, 1974, he became the Dy. Director General (Soil, Agro-. nomy and Agril. Engineering) of the ICAR which 'position he held for more than 4 years., In August, 1978 hi was elevated to the most coveted post of Agriculture Commissioner, Government of India. Since April, 1980 Dr. Bhumbla had been working as Project Director, Lab to Land Programme of tbe ICAR. AwardS and Honours In , he was awarded the Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Award for 'his outstanding research in Soil Science.- He was also awarded Guinness Award for Scientific Ac~evements by the GUlnness Trust, U. K. in 197~. The Indian Agricultural Universities Association honoured him with an award of Plaque for meritorious work in the field of Agricult~r.:il Education and Research in Dr. Bhumbla has held several 'international' assignments and has been invited by the Food and Agriculture Organisation as Consultant for their various projects like AgrometeoroJogical Monitoring, Rainfed,Farming System Development, Soil Conservation, etc. He has also been invited to participate'in a number of conferences in several countries of the -world. Dr. BhumbJa has been a member of a large number of Indian Delegations. He ~ttended tlie 5th Session of the Committee on Agriculture, FAO, Rome in April Besides t~s, he attended the 74th Session of ~'AO Council in 1978 and Inter-Governmental Group on Jute and Allied Fibres, F AO, Rome in He also attended several sessions' of International Society of Soil Science and Regional Conferences of the FAO. A Distinguished Scientist Dr. Bhumbla has more than 100 research papers to his credit in Scientific Journals of repute in areas including Soil Salinity, Water Management, Plant Nutrition and Soil Conservation. He has been honoured with membership of a large number of learned societies; He is tbe Vice-President of the Intermitional Society of Soil Science and the Chairman of its working group on Desertifica~ion for the period He has been President' of tbe Indian Society of Soil ~cience and a member of National Committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination. In fact, tbe honours and the achievements. received by Dr. Bhumbla are too many to be catalogued in a brief ~ote like tbis.,. Dr. Bhumbla takes 'over the reins of his office with a fund of goodwjll from the faculty, students and the employees. There is no douj>t, that with a person of Dr. Bbumbla's administrative acumen and ability at tbe helm of affairs, HAU can look forward to a climate of rejuvenation so essential for 'the worki~g of the University.

230 Message from the Vice-Chancellor-Dr. D. R. Bhumbla Haryana is an agricultural State which contributes significantly to the foodgrain pool of the country in rice and wheat. It also has one of the best animal breeds of buffaloes and of cattle in the co,untry. The prosperity of the people of this State depends mainly on agriculture including livestock. The production of some of the crops particularly rice and wheat showed spectacular increase during the last ten years. For an y agricultural development programme, three things are very essential: first, development of suitable technologies; second, transfer of these technologies to the farmers; and third, their adoption by the farmers. Fortunately, the farmers o~! the State are extremely responsive to adopting technology that they find useful and beneficial to them. Massive efforts are being made by the State of Haryana in the transfer of technolog) to the cultivators through it_s extension programme; particularly through the r,ecent projects of training and visit popularly known as T & V System of Extension. The development of the technology is entirely the responsibility of the University and the increase in production particularly of wheat and rice is due to the development of new varieties and the management practices for these crops.. No Room for Complacency The Haryana Agricultural University was established with 'three main objectives-!. - first, imparting of education both at undergraduate and postgraduate level in different fields of agriculture; second, carrying out rest:arch for the improvement of agriculture; third, taking the results of research through its extension education programme to the farmers. For education, the University has Col1ege of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Sciences, College of Basic Sciences & Humanities, College of Animal Science and College of Home Science. Facilities for education in these colleges are second to none in the country. '. In fact, the students from these colleges have earned good name wherever they went. Similarly, in research, a number of scientists of this University have been recognised nationally and internationally. The Randhawa Committee which reviewed theworking of Agricultural Universities, mentioned in their report that the best extension education programme in the country is that of Haryana Agricultural University and other UniverSIties shc\lld adopt this as a model. We are proud of these achievements in these fields Bm, we can not remain complacent. The effort of the University in the next four years would be to have greater excellence in teaching by improving and upgrading of the different1courses that are be"ing offer( d in different colleges. Every effort wih be made to have better rapport between the students and the teachers so that the old relationship of the teacher and" taught as that of the father and the son is established. In research, greater effort will be made in developing technologies for highel1 productivity of gram, which is,the most important pulse crop of the State and other pulse$ particularly Moong and Pigeon Pea. Already, we have some very good varieties of Moong in the pipeline which have the potential of )ielding two-three times of the present varieties. In oilseeds, rape and mustard and groundnut are the important oilseed crops Efforts in having even better varieties of these crops with some stable production and disease resistance, will be made. It will not be out of place to mention that a variety of groundnut developed by this University (MH-2) has good yield of more than three tons per hectare at farmers' fields' ana

231 nearly 4 tons at the University Farm. Adoption of such varieties will certainly 'revolutionise the produotion of oilseeds in the State. During the last four years, the University has released eight high yielding varieties of crops (one of wheat, one of sugarcane, two of cotton, three of oilseeds and one of pulses). The scientists in the Plant Breeding Department of thi~ University have already demonstrated in the villages taken up under Lab to Land Programme, that cotton yield can easily be doubled. Apart from research on crops, we will devote greater effort to collecting and preserving germ pl&'sm of crops and the livestock. Greater emphasis will be laid on the improvement in milk production in buffaloes and also to have better dairy cattle. It is planned to have new Departments in Forestry and Agro-Metereology so that' the work in these important fields is accelerated. With the change in the environments and the management practices, diseases which were not important earlier, are becoming more serious. In the College of Veterinary Sciences, greater effort will be made to find out effective and less costly measures for the prevention and control of animal diseases. Already, a start has been made by establishing small Disease Investigation Laboratories in some of the districts of State which will be further strengthened. In the Extension Education programme, apart from the training and communication, greater stress will be laid to transfer technologies to the farmers particularly those secrions of the farmers which have not greatly benefited from the new varieties and other improvements, for example-small and marginal farmers and landless labourers. More and more emphasis wi1l be laid on programmes such as Lab to Land Programme. The trainings in the College of Home Science will be reoriented to help the village women. An Excellent Linkage Closest link will have to be established between the University and the Government departments: particularly agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fisheries so that the work carried out in the University reaches the farmers quickly. We are fortunate that in this State, there is an excellent relationship between the State Departments and the University. This relationship would be further strengthened. In the State, as has been mentioned earlier, massive efforts are being made to provide irrigation, but in some of the areas, irrigation has resulted in spoiling land due to waterlogging and salinity. So, greater effort will be made' by the University for improving such land and utilising warer more efficiently. In summary, the entire eif('rt will be to Jeduce the cost of production and increase the productivity per unit of land/livestock per unit of time. To the farmers of the State, I can only say that when the resources in agriculture are limited, they haw to be utilised most efficiently and for that purpose, it will be necessary to have mote efficient soil and water management practices and better seeds and better plant protection measures. Non -monetary inputs become as important and, in fact, more important than monetary inputs to increase the production and productivity and greater stress on these non-monetary inputs will be laid through our Extension Specialists.

232 Production Potential of New Wheat Variety WH 291 -So D. Dbimao aod D. S. Malik Department of Agronomy, BAU, Bissar Sonalika is the existing wheat variety recommended for late sowing conditions. It occupies 40 per cent area of wheat in Haryana State. Generally, it is grown after paddy, sugarcane and cotton, where the fields are available for sowing during December. Severe incident of brown rust has been observed in recent years on Sonalika. A new variety WH 291 has,now been identified which has the potential to replace Sonalika. Sowing time Comparative production of Sonalika and WH 291 at various sowing times is given in Table I. It is evident from the perusal of data in the table that variety WH 291 produced higher grain as well as straw yields than Sonalika. This might be due to higher number of earheads/ unit area. However, Sonalika has upper hand in respect to looo-grain weight. It was also observed that with the delay in sowing upto 15th December there was reduction in the yield of both the genotypes to some extent. However, under late sown condition, the straw yield was higher by 10.3 q/ha in WH 291 over Sonalika. If the sowing time could be little advanced then new variety is superior than Sonalika. Irrigation The new variety WH 291 alongwith Sonalika was tested where 2 irrigations at eri and boot stages and 5 irrigations at CRI, tiller completion, heading, milk and dough stages were applied at University Research Farm. The results are given in Table 1. The extra grain yiel4 of 3.3 and 0.7 q/ha was obtained by WH 291 over Soria..: lika with 2 and 5 irrigations, respectively. The extent of increase in straw yield was also similar to grain yield. I f {, TABLE 1 Performance of both varieties under different yield conditions Characters Time of sowing* Levels of irrigation** 15th Nov. 30th Dec. Two Five WH 291 Sonalika WH 291 Sonalika WH 291 Sonalika WH 291 Sonalika Grain yield (q/ha) ,38.5 \ Straw yield (q/ba) 84: ,9 Number of ear heads perms ',. lo~)o-grain wt. (g) *Fertility level-100 kg N+60 kg P206/ha. **Fertility level-60 kg N+30 kg P.0 6 /ha and sowing time 6th Nov., HARY ANA FARMING

233 With limited supply of irrigatiqn fa~ility, WH 291 might have to be a better choice thall Sonalika.. Fertilizer respoose Variety WH 291.was tested under 3 fertility levels (120 kg N+60 kg PaOs/ba, 120 kg N/haandwithout fertilizer) during rabi Tbe results obtained are given in Table 2. The soil of experimental field is sandy loam having organic carbon per cent, available pbosphorus and potash-43 a,nd 436 kg/ha, respectively and ph value Fertilize); requirement of this variety seems to be similar to Sonalika. With the application of nitrogen~ there is an increase of 83 and 113% in grain and straw~yields. of WH 291 over Sonalika (Table 2), There was furthe,increase in the yields, if phosphatic fertilizer was added alongwith nitrogen. Phospborus is helpful for proper and fast root development, timely maturity and uptake of other nut~ients etc. Characters TABLE 2 Effect of different fertility levels on WH 29101= Grain yield (q/ha) Straw yield (q/ha) No. of earheads/m grain wt. (g) *Sowing time-5th December Disease susceptibility Fertility levels (kg/ha) 120 kg+ 120 kg Without 60 kg Pa05 fertilizer It is clear from th_e data in Table 3 that Sonalika is highly susceptible to rust particularly brown as compared to WH 291. There is no other economical control measure except use of resistant varieties for the control of rusts. TABLE 3 Disease reaction of wheat variety W H 291 Disease WH 291. Sonalika 1. Rust Black Brown Yellow 2. Loose smut Other attributes o TS (1.0) o. Free o 40S (11.0) o TS The plan ts of variety WH 291 are slightly ta,lier by 5 cm than Sonalika. Probably, this is the reason for its higher straw yield. Newly developed variety. is also easier. to thresh. Therefore, the energy consumption on tbjs operation may be reduced to some extent. NOVEMBER, 1981 Keeping the above considerations in mind, it can he concluded safely that wheat variety WH 291 is superior to Sonalika. This is due to its higher productivity. bettcr tillering capacity, quality grains and comparatively resistant to disease particularly rust. ~~~ For Prosperity & Bumper Ha.rvest HARYANA SEEDS HARYANA SEEDS are pre-tested & packed in sealed bags with MONEY BACK GUARANTEE. HARYANA SEEDS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ltd. sca ; SECTOR B-C. CHANDIGARH CERTIFIED SEEDS OF WHEAT PADDY GRAM COTTON POTATO BAJRA PULSES FODDER AND OIL SEEDS, HSDC Sale Counters at : HISSAR SIRSA KARNAL YAMUNA NAGAR HAlLY MANDl GURGOAN SONEPAT ROHTAK BHIWANI JIND PEHOWA 5

234 Selection of varieties and time of sowing Improved_'IAgro.. Techniques for Rainfed Wheat -Po L. Sachan and H. C. Sharma Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar More than 40 per cent of the area under wheat' in India has no irrigation facilities. In Haryana. about 10-1 [ per cent wheat is raised under barani (rainfed) conditions. Although, crops like mustard, barley, safflower, tara mira and~ gram are better adapted on rainfed lands than wheat but most of the farmers are not prepared to substitute wheat with other rabi crops. The yield level of wheat in barani areas ranges from 5 to 8 quintals per hectare. The main cause of low yield is due to its cultivation even on sub marginal lands having no facilities for irrigation, manuring etc. Thus, wheat revolution has so far been confined to areas with assured water supply. Unless, wheat yields are increased in tbe rainfed areas, the situation could lead to social and economic inequalities. Therefore, proper agro-techniques for maximising wheat production in fain fed areas needs to be worked out and disseminated to the farmers on a priority basis for increasing its production. Keeping the above considerations in mind, tbe following agro-techniques are recommended for maximising wheat production in barani areas. Field preparation Since moisture is the Hmiting factor in these areas, it is most essential to adopt moisture conservation prac!ices during rainy season. Run-off and erosion losses should be checked by way of bunding and levelling the fields. Deep 'prepolratory cultivation should be done once before the onset of monsoon. After every effective rainfall of 2-3 inches whenever field is in working condition' shallow harrowing or surface scraping with BAKHAR should be' done to, remove weeds and control soil mohture losses through weeds as well as tlirough evaporation. Two to three cross harrowings followed by planking are enough to achieve the desired tilth at the time of sowing. These operations should be done early in the morning or latc in the evening to minimise mobture losses. Lack of proper moisture at D'ormaf sowing time..ls major constraint in securing good crop stand. ;Less tbeimosensitive varieties which can be sown easily in October should be preferred in raiofed area. C 306 and K 65 are good varieties for early sowing. WH-147 can also be sown in rain fed areas where good moisture has been conserved sowing-can be delayed upto end of October or first week of November. See~ rate aod method of sowing Under raiofed conditions 100 kg seed per hectare shtl.uld be used. For proper germination, fsoak the se~d - in water for 6 to 8 hours before sowing. To avoid the,'attack of termite, treat the seed with aldrin emulsion. For one quintal of seed, 400 ml of Aldrin and 5 litres of water would be sufficic:nt, this solution should thorougbly be mixed with (he seeds and be kept overnight for next day sowing. Sowing mly be done by seed drill or with pora in lines 2.9_ cll! al?~t. _ Manuring Generally, farmers' do not fertilize their rainfed wheat crop. Probably they have a feeling tbat fertilized I crop of wheat will dry up earlier tban unfertilized crop. But experimental evidences have clearly shown a subs tantial increase in grain yield due to proper fertilization because of better utilization of soil moisture from deeper layers due to intensive root development. A dose of 50 kg N plus 25 kg P,OO plus 25 kg ZnSO./ha for dwarf wheat and 30 kg N plus 15 kg Pt05/ha for tall wheat'is recommended. Full do~e of these fertijizers should be applied through placement in furrows cm deep just before sowing when seed-cum-fertilizer driil is available. Wben sowing is being done through pora attached with desi plougb either attachment of double pora, one for seed and other for fertilizer at lower depth for ferti- Iizer placeme-nt may be used or ferdlizer may be drilled at the time of last deep plou,gbing. Weed control The success of dry land agriculture depends upon the amount of soil moisture conserved for' the proper growth and development of the crop. Thus, to check: the 10ss of soil moisture tbrough weeds- is also very im,i?or- i tant. For it, weed control measures must be adopted in! time, where labour is easily available one hand wee<;ling' after three weeks of sowing should be done. it, will ~Iso serve the purpose of mulching, where labour is a proble,m. 2,4-0 (sodium salt) at 1.25 kg (80%) or one litre Amine [eonld, on page.21] ~ 6 _ HARYANA FA,~M.ING

235 Fight Against Hunger by I ncre'-. asing" Wheat - P d ~, -1\1. P. Sri"fBstava aod T. R. Ka-poor Directorate vi Extension Education, HAU, Bissar Hunger is the result of poverty and insufficiency of food. Due to shortage of food grains, prices go up and create problems for the common man. Limited availability of the capital and cultivable land on one hand, and soaring population gro.wth on the other 'hand, worsen the situation still more. Our efforts in producing more food grain are further hampered due to attack of diseases and insect-pests. Of these, in India diseases alone cause annual loss in our production to the tune of Rs. 1,300 crores (Pesticides Information 1(1) 197:;). We can reduce the problem of hunger to some extent if we can avoid such losses. Wheat is the most important rabi crop of India which is cultivat~d oyer an area of abgut 22, hectares with an avera'ge~_ production of 1~.9:rq1ha. In Haryana, the area under this major rabj cropis-around 14,82,000 ha and the average yield is qiha. The yield can be further enhanced-by saving the crop from the ravages of diseases and - tbus more grain can be made available for human consumption. Like all other crops, wheat crop is attacked by a number of diseases of which the important ones are-rusts, smuts, bunt, powdery mildew, earcockle/tundu and molya....:._.,-. ~. - ""\, - ~.. "... Rusts r qf the three rusts, black or stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritid is of no significance as it attacks tbe crop late in the season. The ye!low or stripe rust (P. S{riiform is ) abd brown or orange or leaf rus t (P. recondita) cause sufficient' damage to crop.. The dama.ge due to brown rust is, however, more as it is most widespread and lasts for a longer period in the season. Brown ru.si produces scattered pustules on the leaves, while yellow rust produces yellow pustules in linear rows.. *Jo commemorate World Food Day, Oct. 16, 1981 ~. C_OJltr.QUl.(.I\l.~t~ _li~ljil..&r.9)ying res!.stant varieties like HD-2009 and WH-lS7. The variety WH-147 is less attacked. Brow n rust can also l:e controljec by spraying :zineb or kg/ha. Smuts The crop is attacked by lodse smut (Uslilcg6 tri/iei) and flag smut (Urocystis trilie;). Due to loose smut 'he. earhead is transformed into black pov.dery ma!:.s. Flag ra llctlon* 'sm~t produces lead coloured longitudinal lesions on the leaves which when burst release black spore mass. Affected plants do not bear earhead. Both the diseases can be controlled by treating. the seed with Ben]ate or Bavistin or 2 gm/kg sd:d. Dunt Of the two bunts. Kamal bunt (Neol'ossia indica) affects whe~t crop in Haryana. This not only lowers the yield but also renders the produce unfit for chapati making particularly. When the incidence of grain infection goes beyond 3 per cent as flour froid such produce emit fish'y smell because of presence of trimethylamine. Apparently, it is difficult to indentify this disease in the field. In a stool, all the ears are not affected and in an ear all the grains are not affected. Affected grains are partially, rarely wholly transformed 'into black powdery mass Control lies in avoiding cultivation of susceptible varieties like HD-2009 and. WL-711. Seed treatment with thiram or PMA helps in che-~king seed-borne infection or introduction of infection in unaffected areas. It, however, does not check soil-borne infection. Seed production programme.should be taken up in drier areas. Excessive application of nitrogen and irrigation during flowering should be avoided. PO,!dt:.ry mildew As a result of attack of Erysiphe graminis var. tritici greyish white powdery growth occurs on the leaf, "eaf sheath and floral parts. The diseases are severe when the Cweattier is' cool and.cloudy... The disease can be controlled by spraying wettable sulphur 2 kg/ha. Cultivation 9f WH-147 in humid areas should be avoided. EarcockJe/Tundu I Earcockle is c~used' by the nematode ( Anguina trificil alone while'ruridu or yellow ear rot results due to ~ombined action of Anguina tritici and the' bacterium,cc!rynebacteriu~ t~itici. As a result of nematode infection. [Contd. on pag{ 23 J I,.-..t "j NOVEMBER, 1981:"-- 7

236 ., C" ~.' '" _, Aphids are a menace to mustard Get rid of them effectively, quickly with OGOR I I I I The deadly Aphids attack mustard within 8 month from sowing. The in-festation lasts from December rtght up to February. Aphids suck the sap of the young mustard plant from the underside of leaves, thus causmg the plant to die ultimately. These mmute yejjowjsh green insects cause curl'ing of leaves downwards and gradual yellowing. As extensive field tests prove, Rogor offers the.-3 only effective and profitable protection from Aphids Once the infestation is detested-or 8S preventive measure when the plant is a month old sprays of Rogor are recommended at 10 to \ I r. ~ 15 days interval. Rogor should be mixed with water in the basic proportion of 1 ml Rogor: ~ litre water. Recommended do~age is 200 to 300 ml of Rogor per acre depending upon the growlh of the plant. Rogor should be sprayed all over the plant thoroughly for the most effective action. Rogor has two-fojd action: systemic and co~tacr. What's more, Rogor is backed by continuous Rallis R&D and international1<.now-how. Rallis India Limited. Fertilisers & Pesticides Division..". I 2 1, Raveline Street, Bombay '"

237 Occurrence of Fungal Blights in Chickpea -M. S. Saogwao, S. K. Kbirbat and B. L. Jalali Department of Plant Pathology, HAU, Hissar During the crop season of , chickpea was severely affected by different fungal blights in Haryana State. These blights, which were not earlier known in this part of the country in this proportion! were observed in the first week of March onwards. Realizing the mag nitude of the disease progression, a snap survey was carried out in different chickpea growing areas of the Haryana State. The survey data indicated that most of the commonly grown varieties of chickpea succumbed heavily to the pressure of these diseases. The causal pathogens isolated from a large number of disease affected plants, collected from the farmers fields, were Ascochyta rabiei, Alternaria sp., and Botrytis cinerea. The magnitude of the Ascochyta blight was to the tune of per cent, although in some localized areas, the crop was damaged as much as per cent. Alternaria and Botry/is grey mold also took beavy toll of the crop (30-40%). The observations taken during the disease survey, however, did not reveal varietal specificity in terms of their disease susceptibility. Keeping the magnitude of this disease problem in view. it is intended here to highlight: how these blight '~ymptoms can be diagnosed at ease under field conditions, since these will greatly help in adopting relevant disease control measures. (a) Ascocbyta bligbt Initially the symptoms are characterized by the appearance of minute brown lesions on leaves, stems and pods. On the green pods, the lesions are usually circular with dark margins and have pycnidia arranged in concentric rings (Fig. 1). On the stem and petiole, the lesions are brown, elongated (3-4 cm), bearing black dots, and often girdling the affected portion, As the diseabe progresses, patches of diseased plants become prominent in the field and consequently spreading over the entire field. (b) Botrytis grey mold The leaflets get discoloured starting along the margin and at the terminal portion of the leaflet. Drooping NOVEMBER, 1981 Fig. 1. Typical blight symptoms on chickpea pods; pycoidia formation in concentric rings. of the terminll branch becomes conspicuous. The fungal growth can be seen on infected tissues on closer exami~ nation. The infection spreads further to branches and main stem resulting in rotting. (c) Alternaria blight Small grey circular spots appear on the leaflets. With the progression of disease development, these spots enlarge, becoming pale yellow. The plants droop and dry. Sporulation on the necrotic spots takes place on the stem. Acute'damage is also caused when this occurs on the base of the plant, resulting in its weakening. Pods are heavily affected.. IThe causal pathogen survives mainly either in' the diseased crop debris and/or in seeds from infected plants. The pathogen may survive over two years in naturally infected host tissue at IO-30 C. Infected seed is the main source of primary infection. The secondary spread of the disease takes place through spores produced in pycnidia. Under humid and windy environment with temperatures around 20 C, the pathogen causing the disease spreads rapidly causing mass mortality and consequent epidemics. In order to,prevent the incidence of these diseases, selection of disease-free seed should be ensured. Adoption ot' resistant/tolerant varieties of chickpea wi1l help in preventing the disease spread. During the previous season variety C-235 was seen to be fairly tolerant to the attack of these diseases. As rar as possible, the crop may not be sown in the same area where chickpea was grown previously with a record of disease incidence. 9

238 Limitations in Adopting Balanced Nutrient Programme - M. L. Chaudhary Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar Like any other living b:"ing, the crop plants also require balanced nutrition. Unlike animal and human beings, where direct feeding is done, in the plants the supply of nutrients is made through the medium of growth, i. e., soil. The soil is not an unlimited reservoir of plant nutrients. Unless the nutrients removed by the plants from the soil are replenished amply, the soil will be impoverished of its nutrient reserves, which will tell upon the crop product~on. In an experiment conducted at B.A.U. Hissar the wheat yields of plots receiving N 120 kg/ha declined from 29-2 to 16-3 q/ha within a period of four years, whereas in plots receiving Nand P both, the yields have never gone down below 30 qjha (Table 1). The differences in yield between plots receiving only Nand N + P both, are becoming wider and wider each year. The yield limitations may not be only due to decreased supply of mactonutrients but also due to micronutrient deficiencies, particularly that of Zn in soils of northern India. The yield increase with the application of Zn 25 kg/ha has been as hi8h as 20 qjba in extreme situations, but 2 to 3 q/ha is often expected in all cereal crops. It would, therefore, be obvious that tbe balanced fertilisation of crops is essential requirement for sustaining enhanced crop production. However, difficulties are being faced by the fertilizer industry, state and other agencies in pushing up balanced fertiliser use programme. These limitations are either associated w.ith the farmers directly or a product of other agencies/factors, such as tec~no'ogy, government and industries. 1. Limitations associated directly witb the farmers (i) Lack of general awareness: Illiteracy is perh~ps the greatest hindrance whic.h stands in the. adaptation of, fertiliser recommendations.' Agricultural literature, pamph\e\s and. even rural nidio 'programmes are 'not easily '.,. ). ' 10 understood,by tbe farmer. The farmer is either led by th~..:ex:perit:nc~ of his feilo~ farmers or'depends upon his own experience id_.deciding about the supply of nutrients t~ his crops. Nitrogenous fertilisers were the first one to catch the imaginatio.n of farme.rs bec.ause,.of spectacuiar yield gains. This was not unexpected ~oause",nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for crop growth in most of tbe areas and. the changes in crops growth aftero!ts, application have alw~ys ~een c~nvinc.iqg.~ With the fntr~duction, of high Yie~~ing' varieties" the.,nitro~enous..fertilisers became more, and mor~ popular,so! pluch, so that t~e use of organic manures attained the second priority. No doubt~ jnitia! gains were beyond the ~xpectation of the. farmers, however, it was beyond tbe comprehension of tbe farmers 'to realise the con~eq~ences of the continuous use of a single nutrient. The result has been, as exemplified by the data in,table I that the soil lqst the capacity to supply,other nutrients in ample quantities for efficient utilisation of ;applied nitrogen; The profit I margin of farme{,s with the investment in fertilisers shrunk consider- ably due to decreased crop yield' on account of limited supply of one or more nutrient in the soil. This has demoralising effect 0.0 the farmers and resulted in a general loss of faith in the fertilisation of crops, particularly with respect to fertilisers other than nitrogen. TABLE Effect of nitrogen alone and in combination with phosphorus on the yield of wheat (Kalyan Sona) Year N I Yield (q/ha) Nutrients* (kg/ha) kg KaO/ha was applied as a basal, dose_.,, I (ii) Cheating by unscrupulous dealers: Farm:er's belief in fertiliser use has quite often been shaken when instead of getting a mixture, he gets clay pellets. fj'he' individual nutrients" such as urea, ammonium sulphate' cannot easily be adulterated but mixtures/complex fertilisers are more prone to adulteration. Thus, farmer prefers tp go in for a singje nutrient rather risking his fc!r\une for poor qu~\ity or sub-standard stuff.' ~. HARYANA FARMING

239 There are' instan~es' when mixtures which could not ge~ recommenda~ion letters for sale in a particular area, bave beed sqld by many' dealers by giving wrong name to these mixtures. Suphala has been sold as diammonium phosphate and mixtures of many grade, as UAP in some parts of Haryana: Thus, until and unless, all such malpractices in fertiliser trade are not checked as illiterate farmer bas no option except to use any single nutrient. I fertilise:f on whose purity he can, put his stake Ljmitations associat~d with ~he technology (i) Fertiliser nse-efficiency : Bulk of inorganic fertilisers is consumed during Rabi season in Haryana. The response ratio., of fertiliser applied to cereals, particularly wheat, seldom exceeds 1 : 10. With the increasing cost of fertilisers, this ratio is no longer attractive and all our efforts need to be made to make this ratio I,: 15 or more. For securing higher response ratios, it is: imperative to identify' and 'quantify the factors which influence this ratio. All improved agricultural practices have, to be popularised to achieve higher response ratios., <_ (ii) Soirfestiog: No doubt,- soil testing plays a'n important role in popularising the use of balanced ferti": Jisers I among the farmers.' However, there are some basic defects in' this service, which unless removed, it will nol 'nnd' favour' with the farmers. The soil' test reports 'should be available with the farmers' before sowing of a crop. However, neither the sampl,e nor the analysis report reaches the farmers" well iti advance. This defeats the very purpose 'of soil testing. The soil test report received by tbe farmers after sovying the crop also looses its utility for the" next crop because 'of the 1688 of interest of the farmer by'then.. Tllus, 'this loss of irlterest on 'the part of' farmer has ttein~ndous im~~c't Oll the farmers' n{i:rid for use of this servic~ iii future. i'gc:deral lack'dfl.fa.ith develops in srlch programmes. \' ";ir ~~:~'.J.)' A1so, Besides above, there are also limitations, such as, suitable 'S'dil'''teSt method, iton~availahility; of fertiliser, recommendatiorts based on 'soil) testi'ng fbr a croppin"g se.{juenih or rlryland areas, ''and rlol]~availability of generalised soil fertility maps. ~",_. 3. Limitations associated with the government ~.. ~ (i) Credit facilities : Farmers have no regular 'source of in~ome, rather his income.is season~1.- ' Credit need Jor farming community is well recognised world over, The most unfortunate part is that farmers have to depend upon. local money lenders for ctedit facilities because the procedures for ad,vance of loan by cooperative socie- NOVEMBER, 198f fies and ba,nks are very cumbersome and time consuming: Further, '~nly a few well-to-do, so-called progressive farmers, are able to get the ben~fit of such credit facilities. Moreover, the interest which is being charged from industry and agriculture is not the same and higher rate of interest certainly discourages the farmers from investing in fertilisers. Increased availability of production credit at cheaper rates will certainly foster the use of balanced fertilisers. (ii) Support price of commodities: Farmers ate not adopting the balanced nutrient concept because of the fact that it involves high input use and makes the agriculture costlier. 'Since, the price of agricultural commodities are too much fluctuating, therefore, uncertainty in price level 'prohibits the use of fertilisers in general and balanced nutrition in particular. Spectacular fall in prices or' cotton, groundout, coarse grain will discourage the farmers to use all the fertiliser for getting higher yields as higher yields with dwindling profits are disincentive'to higher productivity. (iii) Price of fertilisers: The prices all the fertilisers have become almost double since June 1974 with no commensurate increase in the price of farm produce. Besides fertilisers, the cost of industrial goods needed for, farming I?rofessioD h!ls also increased. The result has been the shrinking of farmers profit resulting in decreased purchasing pqwer and investment. We are not economists by any standard, however, one thing is bathing to us about the government policy regarding import of machinery and raw materials needed for fertiliser manufacture. The government levies, custom and excise duties and all other kinds ~f taxes on the imported raw material as well as on the products. In addition to the above,' there is a lot of overhead expenditure in the fertiliser factories. This all results in increasing' the cost of fertilisers. No doubt, governmental agencies are also to show income from such items. but perhaps it is not realised that how much nation suffers from this, false income ultimately. A little revision in this policy can bring down prices of fertilisers 'substantially, which will promote use of fertiliser, consequently yields. The increased agricultural production would outweigh many times the income from taxes, etc., f (iv) Irrigation facilities: Nearly 70 per cent of Indian agriculture i~ rain fed and the corresponding figure for Haryaoa State' is 4S per cent. It is evident from 'the data given in Table 2 that the fertiliser consumption is very much associated with the availability of irrigation facilities. Even in assured irrigated areas, 11

240 scarcity of irrigation water due to canal closures or lack of electricity or di~sel oil for tubewells dissuades farmers from taking to balanced nutrition of crops. Responses to phosphorus, potash and zinc are not so spectacular in. absence of nitrogen as to nitrogen alone. Thus, farmers are not willing to risk to higher' investments on all fertilisers under unassured irrigation water supply. Besides the water rates for most of the crops have been doubled, consequently profit margin of crops has dwindled. Under such conditions, the farmer has no alternative, except to opt for only the most deficient nutrient, which is still the nitrogen. (v) Crop taxes : It is a known fact that cash crops are more responsive to fertilisers than food crops, e. g., sugarcane is more nitrogen and potash consuming than wheat, and cost benefit ratio is higher in the former than the latter. But most of these cash crops are excessively taxed by the State Government, consequently the consumption of fertiliser in tbose cash crop belts has come down. TABLE 2 Percentage distribution of fertiliser nutrients in relation to irrigated area in Haryana ( ) Percentage Percentage of total District of total fertiliser irrigated (N+P.0 5 +KsO) area nutrients consumption Hissar Gurgaon Jind Mahendergarh, Ambala Kamal Rohtak Thus, the farmer is' in the clutch::s of both direct and in,direct taxation. The only option left, with the farmer is to reduce farm expenses and the first casuality is ihe fertiliser. Among the fertilisers, which do not show spectacular visual response in absence of nitrogen, such as, phosphatic and potassic, are easily excluded. No doubt, in the long run none except the fa'rmer suffers Limitations associated witb the industrits (i) Distribution of fertilisers: The depots selling fertilisers are mostly located in towns. Therefore, the farmers from far distances have to spend a lot of time and money in getting their supplies. Further, if particular kind of fertiliser is not available at that time. the farmer is not going.to come again for the same. This most often results in the use of a single nutrient or no fertiliser. Therefore, there is a need to have many more small dealers in villages for. distributing agricultural chemicals and fertilisers. (ii) Time of supply of fertilisers: There are many instances when phosphatic and potassic fertilisers are not available with the dealers at proper time either due to the exhaustion of the stocks of these fertilisers within a few days of tbe beginning of crop season or due to inadequate storage. facilities. Since both of these fertilisers are to be applied before sowing,' therefore, any delay results in their non-use by the farmers. \ (iii) Allocation of nitrogedous fertilisers to fertiliser mixture industry: If nitrogen producing units agree to supply about 50 per cent of their production to fertiliser mixture Industry, the concept of balanced fertiliser use may be effectively promoted. A good number of scientifically advocated mixtures for different crops may be kept readily available for farmers at tbe sowing time of crops. This will not only eliminate the non-rational use of under or over dose' of fertilisers but also help in the better placement of fertilisers. (iv) Reduction iu overhead charges of fertilisers: There is a scope for reducing tbe cost at dealer's level on account of transportation. handling and storage etc. by increasing the efficiency in these operations. This will help in lowering tbe retail prices of fertilisers and making them acceptable to farmers. From the above discussion, it is obvious that unless concerted efforts are made by all the agencies concerned the balanced fertiliser use concept cannot make any headway in the farming community. Read l!aryana Farzning now a monthly farm magazine HARY ANA FARMING

241 Fertilizer Management in Paddy Crop -v. P. Ablaw8t and R. S. Cbabal Department oj Soils, H. A. V., Hissar Rice is one of the important cereals grown in Haryana State. Thougb, it is beiog cultivated throughout tbe State except Bhiwani and Mohindergarh districts, but the main paddy growing districts are Karnal and Kurukshetra. Total area cultivated under tbis crop in Haryana State is about 370 thousand hectares which comprises about per cent of tbe total irrigated area. The national average yield of paddy is about 1.5 tons/ha and that of Haryana State is 2.4 tons/ha. Seeing the average values of Japan and Taiwan which are tons/ha, tbere seems to be a great scope to boost the paddy yield by adopting best fertilizer and water management practices and high yielding dwarf varieties. We have at hand some of the best varieties like Jaya, IR-8 and PR-106 which have very high yield potential of about 6-7 tons/ ha. Thus, the low average yield obtained indicates the inefficiency of water and fertilizer management practices. In Haryana, the rice is cultivated in wet crop system. Here an intensive tillage is practised in wet or flooded lands to create a soft puddle and then paddy is transplanted. Under such conditions the yields are high. Land submergence is, thus, an essential condition for SUccessful rice cultivation. In submerged soils a series of physical, microbiological and chemical processes take place which differ markedly from those of uplands. The major changes that occur in soil environment are: (a) limited availability of free oxygen, (b) denitrification and accumulation of NH s, (c) ammonia volatilization and leacbing of nitrates, (d) secondary effects of reduction, such as, increase in the solubility of pbosphorus and silicon and displacement of potassium and other cations in solution by Fe 2 + and Mnl+, and (e) the reduction of iron, manganese and SO,. Therefore, many of the concepts of nut rient availability under well drained soils cannot be applied directly to the soils which are under rice cultivation. Nitrogen application Under submerged conditions whenever any NOs carrier is applied to the soil, it is reduced to an elemental NOVEMBER,1981 nitrogen by the microbes and lost in the atmosphere. Similarly, if fertilizer like urea is applied on the surface, it is oxidised to nitrate nitrogen which in turn is leached down to the reduced zone. Here, it is reduced and lost to the atmosphere in the form of elemental nitrogen. In case of sulphur bearing fertilizers, such as, ammonium sulphate, the sulphur fraction is reduced to H,S which may have toxic effect on the plant growth but such toxicity prevails only in highly reduced and degraded soil. Deficiency of iron may aggravate HIS toxicity in such soils. Therefore, application of fertilizers containing ammonical nitrogen is advocated and these should be applied in healthy reduced zone to avoid the losses. Apply one third of nitrogen at the time of transplanting and rest at tillering (21 days after transplanting) and grand growth stages (6 weeks after transplanting) in two equal halves by top dressing through urea and ammonium sulpbate. Experiments conducted in districts Karnal and Kurukshetra at cultivators' fields have revealed that 120 kg Nlha is the optimum dose for high yielding varieties of paddy. Phosphorus application Flooding of a soil results in increased availability of phosphorus due to reduction processes. In reduced conditions, ferric and occluded phosphate may be converted to ferrous phosphate which is water soluble. Moreover, ph of the submerged soils tends to reach neutrality, i. e., decreases in alkali type of soils and increases in acid soils, resulting in the best ph range for phosphorus availability. Therefore, soil test values become of utmost importance before any recommendation of the phosphate fertilizer. Results of the experiments conducted at cultivators' fields under All India Coordinated Agronomic Research Project in Kurukshetra indicated that 60 kg P 2 0.;lha is the best dose to fetch the highest net returns in terms of yield. However, if the preceding wheat crop has been fertilized with 60 kg P205/ha then the dose of phosphorus may be reduced by 2S per -cent to get the maximum net return per rupee spent from paddy crop. The best sources of phosphorus evaluated are triple and single superphosphates. It can be applied at the time of puddling by simple broadcast method. Experimental results have also indicated that higher yields are obtained, if half of the phosphate fertilizer is appjietl 21 days after transplanting, i. e., at tiliering stage. Potassium application Potassium response in paddy has not been obtained except in Radaur block of district Kurukshetra and part [Contd. on page 15] 13

242 How to Submit Seed Samples to the Seed Testing Laboratory -Onkar Singb, Ranbir Singb and R. P. S. Tomer Deptt. of Plant Breeding, HAll, Bissar Seed testing is a highly specialized and technical job. The seed samples are tested in the seed laboratories for purity, germination and moisture tests. The results of these determinations are based on the sample submitted to the seed testing laboratory. Therefore, great care is needed for drawing and submitting seed samples. The samples should be drawn and submitted to the seed testing laboratories in accordance with the method set forth in the rules. Our national rules for seed testing have been adopted from International Seed Testing Association (1966) rules, to a greater extent. The following guidelines should be used for drawing and submitting seed samples: 1. The certification samples under seed law enforcement programme and samples for international trade should only be drawn by persons trained and experi, enced in sampling, recognised by seed testing station or agency. 2. The seed lot should be so arranged that each individual container or "8 part of the lot is conveniently accessible. 3. The owner should p~ovide full information regard. ing the lot numbei:, total quantity of seed lot, kinp and variety etc. 1, '.,' ~. Equipments for sampling, mlxlog, dividing: The following equipments are needed for taking different types.of samples, : (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) Soil type seed divider (Aluminium) Soil type seed divider (Stainless steel) Boerner seed divider (Large) Boerner seed diyider (Small) Sample pan (Different size) Balance capacity (I kg) 5. Sampling: To sample, thrust the trier diagonally across the bag with the slot downwards. After inserting the entire length of the trier turn the slot up so that the seed directry drops into the container. Now withdraw the trier slowly. Close the holes on the bag due for sampling 'by running the trier crosswise. Sample non-free, flowing and chaffy seed by hand Sampling intensity: The following sampling intensity shall be regarded as minimum requirement : ~i (a) Lot Size Seed in heap and bibs Upto 500 kg Number of primary samples to be taken" 1 At least,5 primary s,amples, e~pect tha t in lots less than SO kg. fewer but not less than 3 need be taken kg One primary sample for each 300 kg but not less than 5 samples kg One primary sample for each 500 kg but not less than 10 samples. (b) Seed in gunny.bags, clotb bags and other containers Upto 5 containers Sample each container and take at least 5 primary samples. ".J' 6-30 containers Sample at least one' in evefy, '3 containers but never less than. S. r y v 31 and more Sample at least one in every" 5 containers containers, but never less than.1.0.., A 7. Equal quantity QLprimary saroplc?s shoul4 be ~rawn "from individual containers. '. (i) Seed sampling trier/probes for free flowing seeds (Single tube; 50 em.) (ii). For free flowing, seeds (Single tube; 90 em) (iii). For free flowing seeds (Double tube; 90 em) (iv) For free flowing seeds (Double tube; 150 cm) I. All the primary samples should be mixed together ;/tv ~.) to form a 'Composite Sample'. The 'Composite Sample' should be properly m'ixed' divided to the weight of submitted sample either by mechanical divider or by halving method. ) 14 HARYANA FARMING

243 ... l ~ 19~.:1' ~ini~u~ wei~btsii of submitted ~nd,working c' samples of some important crops are given below: Crop Submitted Working samples purity (gm) samples (gm) Cereals and Millets Barley, Whe~t 1000/ 120 Maize Oats Paddy Pearl Millet Sorghum Fibres Cotton Forages Egyptian clover (Berseem) Lucerne 50 5 Oil seeds Castor Groundnut Linseed Sarson Pulses Black gram Cowpea Gram Green gram Lentil Red gram Soybean \ Vegetables Onion 80 8 Carrot R'adish Turnip 70 7 Frenchbean Clusterbean, dolichos bean, field bean Lettuce 30 3 AJI cole crops IJ.. i The submitted sample should be packed in clean cotton,ot jute bllgs,,heavy cardboard boxes or,other similar containers and accompanied with the following information :. N9VEMBER, (i) Date of sampling, (ti) kind and variety, (iii) lot no./sample no., (iv) origin or class of s.eed, (v) quantity of seed in lot, (vi) k.ind of test required, germination, purity and moisture, and (vii) name of the sampler. The sample for germination test should not be packed in moisture proof containers. A separate sample is required for moisture test. This sample should be packed in moisture proof container.' Approximately 25 gms seed properly packed in air tight container should be sent to seed laboratory alongwith the main sa[qple. Sampling under seed act: For this purpose three separate samples equal to the weight of submitted sample should be drawn. The Seed Inspector should sea~ each sample. One sealed sample should be handed over to the seed dealer, other should be - retained by the Inspector and the third should be despatched to the seed laboratory alongwith form V. Sampling for 1ST A orange certificate: Only those laboratories/agencies which have been recognised by the ISTA to issue the orange certificate for international trade are authorized to draw the samples. The sampling should be done strictly under the prescribed rules issued by 1ST A (1976). After drawing the samples individual container should be sealed by the sampler. [From page 13] of Ambala district, where soils are low to marginal in available potassium. Generally, Haryana soils vary from medium to high in available potassium and if soil test values indicate the deficiency of potassium, 60 kg K.O/ha should be applied through muriate of potash. FuU dose of K can be applied at transplanting without any leaching losses. Zinc application The Haryana soils are alkaline in nature and quite deficient in zinc availability. Higher availability of P, Fe, Mn and other cations due to flooding further aggravates the zinc deficiency. Now, (it is well established that a good paddy crop cannot be harvested if 25 kg zinc sulphate per hectare is not applied. It can be very well applied at the time of puddling before transplanting. Spray application of zinc (0.5% ZnSO,+O.25% Ii me) can'also be made bu~ soil application has proved superior to spray application. 15

244 Commercial Growing of Cabbage -Sube Singh V.dava and V. K. Srivastava Deptt. of Vegetable Crops, H.A.U., Hissar Cabbage is an important vegetable crop of Haryana for Rabi season. From the nutrition point of view, it is good source of vitamins and minerals. It is mostly used in cooked form, alone or mixed with other vegetables. Cool and moist climate is best for cflbbage cultivation and it is hardy to frost. * Usually the cabbage varieties are classified in two groups, i.e., Early and Late grown. Pride of India and Golden Acre varieties are early sown varieties. Head size of these varieties is medium and their average yield is 200 qtl/ha. Drnm Head Late is a late variety. It is good for commercial cultivation and its average yield is qtl/ha. Its head size is big, fiat and light green in colour. ' * For one hectare of land about gm of seed will be required which should be arranged from a reliable source. Nursery is raised in the" month of September for early sown varieties and in October-November for late sown variety. * Desired care of the nursery and seedlings is essential. Seed should be sown in well prepared nursery beds in lines at a distance of 4-5 cm. Treat the seed with 2{ gm Thirum or Captan for every kg of seed. Regular. irrigation and protection of seedlings from weeds and diseases are important. Seedlings are ready for transplanting-in about 6-8 weeks time. Cabbage is a heavy feeder therefore for good yield soil must be of reasonable fertility. About 50 tonnes of well rotted organic manure should be incorporated in the field about 3 weeks before transplanting. It should be thoroughly mixed by pjoughings and planking. 45 kg n'itrogen (180 kg CAN) ~O kg phosphorus (300 kg ssp) and 50 kg potash (85 kg qluriate of potas~) per hectare should be applied before transplanting and -again at the time. of head formation. >I< 16 When the seedlings are ready, tbey should be transplanted in the field. Distance between lines should be about cm and from plant to plant about cm. It is desirable to transplant the eady grown seedlings on small ridges. The distance can be reduced for early variety. Irrigate the field just after transplanting. The seedlings in the field should be regularly irrigated at an interval of 7-12 days time according to need. Do not over irrigate tbe cabbage heads, when they are fully developed and quite firm otherwise many of them will split. Regular hoeing weeding is essential and 2-3 hoeing and weeding may arrest the growth of weeds and make the $oilloose around the plants. * Cabbage head should be harvested when they h~ve attained full size. On an average from one hec,t~re of field about qtl. of cabbage heads are harvested. Cabbage head is ready for harvesting after days of transplanting. Early sown variety matures early for harvesting than late sown. ' * Care of the crop against pests and diseases is essential. Mustard aphid attacks from December to March. These are the greenish white small jnsects and there attack is. severe during cloudy weather. They suck the plant sap. I * Maggots of the cabbage fly also cause severe damage. in the month of February-M,arch, which also lats the leaves of cabbage plants. For the control of these two, crop may b~ sprayed with one litre of Malathion 50 E.C. after mixing in 625 litre of water per hectare of field. T~e spray may be repeated after about 10 days if need be. Diamond back moth is also a serious pest. The moths of this pest have diamond shl:lped wings. It makes' many holes on the leaves. It 'js about 10 cm long & pointed on both the sides.. For the control against this pest, spraying of 750 ml of Diazinon 20 E.C. or ISO ml of Dichlorovas or one litre of Malathion 50 E.C. mixed in 625 litre of water for one hectare of field. If needed repeat the spray after 7-10 days of first spray. * Sometimes black root disease is also noticed in this crop. It is a seed borne disease by which cabbage is affected both in nursery and in the field. \ To control this, treat the seeds at seeding time with Thirum or Captan (2.5 gm/kg of seed) and afler 3rd. and 10th day of germination. Irrigate the seedlings With 0.2,per cent captan solution. * Due to leaf spot and blight, yellow coloured spots develop on the leaf edge which later on change into dark or dark-brown, To control this, treaf~ the seed in hot water at 50 C for 30 minutes or-spray ihe solution of 200 mg Streptocycline and one' gram of Copper-oxichloride after mixing in one litre of water. It should be sprayed 2-3 times.." HARY ANA FARMING

245 Dairy Cattle Farming -Jai Singh Sharma Department of Animal Breeding, HAU, Hissar, Dairy cattle improvement means selection by man of genetic forms that respond to the particular management more adequately he sought to provide. Domesti- cation, therefore, is th! subhitution of an artificial, or man influenced environment for a natural environment and the supplementation of natural selection with artificial selection. The relative importance of inheritance and environment has become of greater importance to livestock farmers, as the need for greater efficiency has brought into increasingly sharper focus the need for improving both. The domestication of animals has played a major role in our s0ciety by virtue of genetic selection, manage ment and of the processing methods used in making available livestock products to consumer. A herd that will produce an average of 2000 kg of milk will return about double as much above feed cost as a herd with an average production of 1000 kg. The higber production comes from the cows of improved breeding and management, "Gene determines potentialities the realisation of which depends on the enviwnment in which these -function". Mare or less specifically, and t,o a greater or lesser degree the functioning of a gene always depends on environment. Keeping in view the above mentioned facts profitable -dairying may be achieved by :,(I) Selecting foundation animals with inherent producing ability;.(2) Feeding and managing the herd in such a way as to enable the cows to reach maximum economical production and reproduction. To attain this objective four golden principles of.animal Husbandry: scientific breeding, feeding, heeding, -and weeding of the animals should be followed. Calves should be kept in clean, well bedded s~alls when they are dropped during cold weather. The naval of the newly born ~illf should be treated with reliable anuseptic like -Tincture of Iodine and calf should be cleaned and dried. -The calf should receive the colostrum milk for the first :NOVEMBER; 1981 four days. After this, any of several systems may be successfully followed. They are: (i) the liberal milk system, (ii) using milk replacements, and (iii) limited milk feeding plus a calf starter. Since the rumen of the calf does not develop and begin to function for severa] day, after birth, the problems of feeding the calf are similar to those of feeding simple stomach animals. Most of the vitamins and proteins have to be provided in the ration. When a calf starter is used, no additional grain is necessary for tbe first six or seven weeks. Calves being raised on the liberal milk, or milk replacement, methods are generally started on a concentrated mixture and fed according to body weights until they are six months old. Dairy heifers six months old or older need very little grain if plenty of good pasture or other high quality roughage is available. Size and weight rather than the age should be considered when breeding dairy heifers. Mineral mixture containing salt, calcium and phosphorus are essential in most areas. Mineral mixture recommended for the area should be fed to the animals in recommended quantity according to their age as well as reproductive and productive status. In order that a sexually mature stud animal should fulfil its basic function by producing offspring of high quality, it must be properly kept and fed and also used correctly as everything that in any way affects the organism has a tendency in the same way to have an influence on the sexual elements. If the requisite conditions for reproduction are not established, the males may reduce service, while the females may not come on heat properly, and may remain barren or produce offspring of inferior quality. Thus, small changes in vital conditions are favourable to the fecundity and potency of animals, whilst other, often inconsiderable changes may make them completeiy sterile without any observable injury to their health. Maintenance of breeding animals Availability of good pasturage for the proper maintenance of breeding sires and dams is most desirable. Maintenance of pasture is particularly important for stud sires, sine" in addition to vitamin rich food, it provides them with requisite exercise. If sires are kept in the stall, they must be given the opportunity for exercise. Temperature' is another important factor in the maintenance of breeding stock. Intense heat lowers sexual activity. Ie is, therefore, essential to carry out mating in,the cool season, and also to provide cover, 17

246 \Vh~re :the animals ~an. take r~fuge from the heat.. If the :temperature of the. air is too low or too h!gh, the testes,'are chilled or overheated, and sterility results.. ( Care of the skin, cleaning and bathin~. atten.tion to the hooves are all necessary.for proper sexual activity, especially in stall kept animals; these operations stimulate metabolism and increase the general circulation of the blood. All hygienic measures should be. adopted at the farin. C.E. = w 52.6 (F. C. M.) 8.85W+(F.C.M.) Live body weight in kg. F. C. M. = Fat corrected milk in terms of 4 per cent milk which is considered to be the fat content. of the average cow's milk. The Formula is F. C, M. = 4x yearly milk production + 15x yearly fat production. Nutrition of'stud animals Incorrect or insufficient nutrition' may cause the most valuable stud animals to become sterile. To maintain high sexual activity in an animal, it must be given sufficient food materials especially protein. Tbese supplements must be given in the form of concentrates and not as bulky food, since overloading of the digestive organs with coarse food produces sterility and reduction in volume of the semen. The best results are obtained with blood meal or meat and bone meal in. addition to milk and leguminous concentrates. For normal reproduction vitamin A is indispensable. If it is absent from the food, spermatozea cease to be formed end sterility results due to the degeneration of germinal epithelium of the testes. In the females, lack of it gives rise to abortion. To ensure successful reproduction, vitamin A must, therefore, be supplied at the time of coition and during. pregnancy in amounts greater than are required for normal maintenance. Stud animals should also be given bone meal to supply calcium, phosphorus and other rare elements essential for normal fertilily and lactation. Feeding tbe dairy cow The dairy cow uses feed for maintenance.,for developing her unborn calf, and for milk production: About one half of the'daily ration consumed.by the cow is used for maintaining her body and nourishing her unborn calf. No matter what their milk flow may be, the maintenance will be same for cows of equal weight. That is why high producing cows are so important for,profitable production. The cow that produces. only 100 kg of butter fat in. a year will consume about two-thirds as much feed'as the cow that produces 180 kg of but~er fat.. Physiofogical efficiency in dairy' cattle maybe more adequately expressed as the coefficient of efficiency (C. E.) " that measures the per cent of nutrients in the feed that is. returned in the milk. As shown by the formula. tbe efficiency is increaseft with an increase in milk yield. Contrarywise, physiological efficiency is decreased with an increase in body size when maintenance is considered on a per kg basis regard;: less of size. :The highest physiological efficiency, therefore, is expressed when the highest output has been obtained per unit of feed. Economic efficiency considers all the requirements in providing the feed and those needed in milking anld handling the cow. Usually the higher production yields per cow are associated with!he least cost per unit of milk produced. However. jf the cost of grain is too great it may be economically more efficient to accept a lower production that comes mainly or mostly from roughage rather than feed uneconomically with grain to get high levels of production. The inherent ability to utilize large amounts of roughage may increase the economic efficiency of dairying. Large difference in total production between', cows of the same weight' may be largely due to inherited. differences. Similarly inherited differences exist in' the efficiency with which feed is utilized for growth and can be observed in the calf barn where offspring by different bulls are often noted to grow faster than tbe offspring of other bulls. This difference also extends iota the different stages of growth. Thus, some factors appear to affect certain stages of growth and' leave the stimulus for the subsequent period to other genes. Thus. profitable dairying is achieved when cattle with high inhefent pro. ducing ability are fed according to tbeir producing ability. IT PAYS TO ADVERTISE IN HARYANA FARMING 18 HARYANA FARMING

247 Profitable Rea_rIng of-pigs -J. S. Dall and V. N. Tripathi* [(rish; Gyan Kendra, Uchani, Kamal for -overhead -charges like, purchase of animals, hou sing, equipments and labour etc. _ The' following assumptions are to be made for ealculating the expenditure and returns: There is acute shortage of animl1 protein in our country. To solve this problem pigs can play an important role. At present pig population in India is about 6 million. Pork forms only 5 per cent of the total meat production. In Western' countries. the pigs contribute about 1/3 to 1/2 of the t<;ltal meat consumption and the pig industry makes a substantial contribution to the national economy. Provided the demand for pork is high in the market, pigs being prolific breeders, offer great scope for.:meetiog the demand in ~hor~er time. They provide a valuable source of animal protein. The net profit in a piggery enterprise, just like any other commercial enterprise, depends on the cost of raising pigs and the sale proceeds of pork and products.' The enterprise can be made profitable only by increasing the total returns and decreasing. the expenditure. The following points are to be kept in mind to achieve the above objectives: 1. Prolific breed should be purchased. 2. It should be rapid grower. 3. Efficient feed converter. 4. Good milking capacity. 5. High grade carcass quality. 6. Short farrowing interval. Important breeds of pigs: The breeds of pigs can be divided into two, i. e., White breeds and Coloured breeds. (a) White breeds {b) Coloured breeds (i) The Large White Yorkshire (ii) The Middle White Yorkshire. (iiij The Landrace (i) Hampshire (ii) BHkshire (iii) Tamworth 7. A suitable market for the disposal of pig On foot or as pork is very important. 8. About 70 to 75 per cent of the total expenditure relates to feeding of the animals. Therefore, computation of balanced economic ration is a must. The rest 20 to 30 per cent of expenditure will be Senior Scientist, Division of Genetics and Animal Breeding, N. D. R. I., Karnal. Life cycle of a pig: This is divided periods: Suckling pigs Growing_pigs_ Finishing pigs Feed rc~jremeqt of a pig _ Days into the following T9tal weights 1-12 to 14 kg 14-:50 to 52 kg kg The growing pig will consume on an average 1.5 kg feed/day and a finishing pig 2.5 kg feed/day. And no feed is needed for suckling pigs upto a few weeks if tbe sow is well fed throughout the year and during lactatiqth (5 kg/day). Non pregnant animals may be fed 2 kg daily to keep down deposition of fat. It has been observed that n1ltrient requirements arecritical during tbe growing period but Dot during the finishing priod. So, we should not try to save money on feeds during the growing period but we can do S0 during the finishing period. Limited feeding during the finishing period will produce leaner carcases which are more acceptable for public consumption. 9. Farrowing: The sows farrow on an average 8 piglets per litter and one sow can produce 2 litters per year. - ~ 1st gestation ''1st lactation Non-pregnant 2nd gestation, 2nd lactation -~-- --litdays days." 21 days 115 day,s., >56 days Total: 363 days Immediately after farrowing a sow comes into beat. The tirst heat should be avoided and the sow can be served on the second heat after 21 days.,. 10. Healtb car~: As far,as possible maintain a closed herd. This will prevent disease problems. In no case allow I the pigs to roam about. Ponds and stagnant waters may be potential sources of parasitic infeitations, viral and bacterial diseases. 11. Feeding scbedule: The protein content of diet, average daily gain and average feed consumption should be as under _: NOVEMBER,

248 Type of pig Crude A.D.O. A.D. Feed protein (Average consumed daily gain) J. Suckling pigs 22% 200 gms O.Skg. 2. Growing pigs 16% 500 gms 1.50 kg. 3. Finishing pigs 14% 625 gms 2.S0 kg. 12. Ration for different categories of pigs should be as under: (ii) Overhead charges must be kept vrry low.. Family labour can be well utilized. An example for studying the economics of raising: ISO pigs and selling them in the market is given below: (A) CapitaJ (i) (ii) Cost of housing 150 growing 10 sq. [t. a piglet Cost of troughs, waterers etc. Rs. 45,000' 2,0('0' Feed ingredients Grow- Finish- Preg- Lactaing ing nant ting pigs pigs pigs pigs Minimum crude pro tein (%) Maize (Coarsely ground) parts Barley loats/sorghum parts Wheat grain/rice polish parts Groundnut cake parts Fish meallbone meal parts Dica!. PO, Limestone Mindif'pig O.S Common salt O.S O.S Vitablend/Rovimix 30 gm 30 gm 30 gm 30 gm Aurofac 20 A 25 gm 25 gm 25 gm 25gm Total of capital: B. Expenditure (i) Cost of purchase of 150 Rs. 60/ -per pig (ii) Cost of feeding 150 piglets-feed cost Rs. I 25/-per quintal (iii) Depreciation on the 5% per annum (iv) Depreciation of 10% per annum (v) Interest on 7% p,er annum (vi) Cost of medicine (vii) Contingencies C. Total: Receipts (i) Cost of 9000 kg Rs. 10/ per kg (m Price of bead, offals bristles Rs. IO/-per animal 47,000- J ---- / 9,000' _. 41,250-2,2~O' 200 3,290' ,990 90,000 1,500' / Pigs being monogastic animals need concentrate feeds, but they can also tolerate to some extent forages (leguminous fodder). Since cereals form an essential item of nutrition for feeding pigs, hence unless there is substantial increase in cereal production in excess of human requirements, any large scale pig breeding programme cannot be advocated. Tentative plan for setting up a successful piggery farm For successful piggery farm the following points must be kept in mind for making this enterprise more profitable: 20 (i) Feed must be obtained at the time of the year when these are avaijable at low cost and storajle facilities mu5t be adequate. However, if waste products are available (like garbage,. brewery waste, molasses) pigs can be raised partly on these. Feed cost must be kept low: Total: 91,500' Note: Each pig will give a dressed weight of 60 kg. (Live weight 90 kg). D. Annual Income I. Gross income 91, Expenditure 56, Net income ~4.510 Expectations 1. If pork can be marketed at a rate higher than Rs. IO/-per kg the net income will correspondingly' increase. 2. For a small number of piglets elaborate building: would not be required.. 3. Treatment for parasites (internal as well as extern!\l) and vaccination again!>t contagious diseases arenecessary to keep the mortality almo'st negligible. A health cover for tbe animals is. thus, an important prerequisite for any"pig enterprise. 4. The net income will increase or decrease depending. upon the decrease or increase in cost of fe,ed... HARY ANA FARMING r

249 Crop Weather Prospects for JRabi Season -0. P. Bisbnoi and S. K. KatyaJ Deportment of Agronomy, HAU, Hissor Keeping in view of the prevailing weather features during the past 3 months, it is probable that a partly cloudy weather with 30 to 75 mm of rainfall in the southern and western parts~ and 75 to 150 mm of rainfall in northern and eastern parts of the State will occur l during the coming Tab; season. It is also reflected that December and January months wiij have very light few showers, but in February and March there is likely occurrence of good gainfall with abrupt rise of temperature in early March from the normal conditions. The optimum temperature of e for rabi sowing will incur from the first week of November. Maximum temperature of the order of 16 to 20 0 e in January and a variable temperature conditions between 20 to 28 C in February is expected. The minimum temperature less than SoC will occur very often in last week of December to January with 2 to 3 cold spells leading to frosty conditions. Necessary precautionary measures 1ike irrigating the fields, burning of raw materials need to be taken on the first clear day night after a continuous spell of cloudy and humid weather. Temperature conditions will be below normal during December to February months. ~ Other climatic parameters like wind, evaporation, dew \ etc. will be normal. A perspective rabi crop planning has been suggested here based on the accumulated soil moisture status, soil type and the expected winter rainfall during the current rabi season. It has been assessed from daily rainfall data after meeting the climatic demand and appropriate surface runoff loss following the wet spell. Field operations under rainfed conditions will be very much dependent on the availability of soil moisture status in situ. The south western parts of Haryana covering Sirsa, Hissar and Bhiwani districts, upper part of lind di~trict, and Nahar, Salhawas, Rewari, Mahendergarh blocks, have attained only 50 mm of accumulated NOVEMBER,198l soil moisture and it appears difficult to tailer any crop under rainfed conditions. Taramira-the lowest water requirement crop may be cultivated. Hissar-l, Bwanikhera, Jind, Julana, Gulah, Maham, Rohtak, Saffidon, lhajjar, Bawal, Narnaul blocks possess an accumulated soil moisture storage of 50 to 100 mm and this can be ',---successfully utilised for tara mira crop. However in low lying better catchment areas raya and gram crops may be preferred. In Kurukshetra, Kaul, Gohana, Gurgaon, Nuh, Hathin, Ferozepur Jhirka ar,eas, an accumulated soil moisture status of 100 to 150 mm is available on fallow lands and this area may be preferably utilized for cultivation of raya and gram crops. In better low lying catchment slopy lands, gram and sarson may be adopted. In Ambala, Shahabad, Nilokheri, Rai, Sonepat, Ganaur, Madlauda, Faridabad, Palwal, Sohna blocks 150 to 200 mm of accumulated soil moisture status is available and should de utilized for gram, sarson and bajra crops. In AmbaJa district, Ladwa, Karnal, Gharaunda and Panipat blocks an accumulated soil moisture status of more than 200 mm is available and it can be preferred for growing wheat and barley under rainfed conditions as 100 to 1 SO mm of winter rainfall is also expected in this belt during the winter season. Wheat crop can be successfully cropped. Accordingly the farmers are advised to make use of recommended varieties of crops in the different regions and timely field operations. Use of ridger-seeder may be preferred for better crop stand under limited available water in situ. [From page 6] (72%) or 1.25 litres Ester (36%)/ha dissolved in 600 Htres of water should be sprayed between days after sowing in dwarf wheat and days after sowing in tall wheat for controlling the broad leaves weeds. For the control of grassy weeds like phalarus minor (Kanki/ Madusi) etc. spray 2 kg of Tribunil (70% W. P.) or Dosanex (80% W. P.) or Tolkan-50 in 700 Htres of water' per hectare after days of sowing. Control of diseases In case rust appears, one or two sprayings of 2 kg/ha in 1000 litres of water should be sprayed over the crop to prevent the spr~ad of diseases. 21

250 What to do this month AqRONOMY \ WHEAT Complete sowing of wheat varieties meant for timely sowing up to the 3rd week of tbis month. Beyond tbis the varieties recommended for late sowing may be used for sowing. Sow the recommended high yielding varieties viz., WH-147, WH-157, HD-2009 and Kalyan So'na under timely Sown normal fertility and irrigated condi. tions. However, avoid sowing of Kalyan Sona as far as possible. The Desi variety (Tall wheat) C-306 is recommended for sowing under limited fertilizer and limited irrigation/rainfed conditions. For late sowing, use Sona Iika (S-308) under irrigated conditions. Use 100 kg per hectare seed for variety WH-147, HD-2009 and Kalyan Sona and C-306 and 125 kg per hectare for varieties WH-157 and Sonalika. All shrivelled, small grains of whe-at and weed seeds should be carefully removed. Sow the treated seed 4 6 cm deep in rows 22 cm apart with a seed-cum-fertilizer drill or with a 'munna' plough by 'Kera' or 'Pora' method. Use the recommended dose of fertilizer at the time of sowing. Give the first irrigation to dwarf wheat about three weeks after sowing, i.e., at the crown root initiation stage and to desi wheat 4 weeks after sowing depending upon the soil moisture and the weather. The delay in the first irrigation reduces the yield considerably. For the control of grassy weeds like Mandusi and wild oats (Jagli Javi), spray tribunil or dosanex or 2 kg (Product) in 700 litres of water per hectare days after sowing in a well moist field. Arelon can also be 1.25 kg per hectare in 700 Jitres water days after sowing of wheat for the control of such grassy weeds. For control of' broad leaved weeds use wheel hand hoe at days after sowing, BARLEY Complete the sowing of barley within tbis. month. D r. S. K K atya I Use recommended varieties of BG 25 and C-I 64 under timely sown irrigated conditions and C-l38 in rainfed conditions. Use BG-105 variety of barley for late sowing under irrigated conditions. Use 85 kg per hectare seed of barley under normal conditions. The sowing should be done by Kera in case there is enough moisture or by Pora method under insufficient moisture conditions. The row to row spacing of 22 cm may be kept. GRAM Complete the sowing of gram. if not already done within first week of this month. RABI OILS'EEDS Irrigate tbe toria crop at flowering and fruiting. One hoeing should be given in Sarson Raya for removing weeds. Tbinning of plants should also be done within three weeks after sowing to maintain plant to plant distance of em: '. LENTIL Sowing tbe recommended variety L-9-12 in lines about 22 cm apart by usi!lg the 'Kera' method within this month, by using kg seed per hectare. ARHAR The harvesting of arhar if not already\ done should be completed so as to enable to sow the next rabi crop in time. LUCERNE Complete the sowing of LUcerne by the first,week I " of tbis month as per guidelines given earlier. ' 1 Directorate of ~ Extension Education I HAU, Hissar 22 HARYANA FARMING J..

251 r LIVESTOCK HEAL Ttt CARE, I ~ Dr. R. K. Sharma Extension Specialis t (Ve terinary) H AU, Hissar CATTLE & BUFFALOES I. The winter season has set ini To protect animals from cold weather, arrange for proper housing for them. Presence of dampness in animal houses is harmful for their health. For bedding purposes in animal houses, make use of saw dust or straw.instead of sand. Proper ventilation in animal houses is essential. Animal houses/sheds should not be overcrowded. 2. Mangers and utensils used for providing water to animals should be cleaned daily, 3. Buffaloes should be got impregnated after two months of calving. Animals coming in heat should be taken to Artificial Insemination Centre of your area for breeding. Those animals which come in heat ill the morning should be got inseminated in the afternoon and the ones coming in heat in the afternoon should be got inseminated on the following day in the morning. 4. Animals suffering from diarrhoea (loose motions) shoule be got examined and treated. 5. Animals purchased from cattle fairs or disease infested areas should be kept away from healthy animals at a separate place for a period of two weeks so as to check the Introduction of a disease in the stock. 6. Make use of strip cup as a regular practice to detect cases of mastitis. This disease responds to treatment well, if the treatment is taken up in early stages. 7. Avoid feeding of such green fodders or grasses which are grown in standing water. Feeding of such fodders may iead to several diseases in animals. 8, Feed a good quality mineral mixture in recommended doses to animals. Also provide salt Iic~s to animals by keeping a salt brick in the manger. 9. Feeding of green fodder to milch animals is very essential. Grow only those varieties of green fodders which are re,commended for your area so as to raise a bumper crop. NOVEMBER,1981 SHEEP 1. Deworm sheep flock and avail the facilities for this purpose from Veterinary Hospital or Sheep and Wool Extension Centre of your area. 2. Arrange dipping of sheep flock. The facilities of dipping tank are available at Sheep and Wool Extension Centres. 3. Provide balanced ration and clean water for drinking to sheep. Sheep pens should be kept clean. Overcrowding in peds should be,avoided. Lambs should be housed in separate pens. Sheep should be Ibrought back from the fields two hours before the sun-set. POULTRY 1. Deworm the birds once in two months. 2. In the event of an outbreak of coccidiosis, in addition to medication, management conditions at the farm need proper attention. waterers should be cleaned daily. 3. Feed balanced ration to birds to obtain maximum production from them. 4. Regular culling of diseased, weak and low yielding birds ecodomises production and adds to the profits of the farmers. [ Prom page 7 ] the earhead becomes twisted and galls are formed in place of normal kernel. Under humid condition yellow slime covers the earhead which dries to form sticky yellow layers. Control can be achieved by sowing seed free from nematode gall. The galls being lighter can be separated from the seed by winnowing or by floatation of seed lot in water. Molya This is another nematode disease which is incited by cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae). The affected plants have poor tillering and remain stunted. The roots become bushy. Presence of young white females becomes evident in January. The disease can be checked by growing non-host crops like mustard, toria, gram, carrot, coriander and resistant barley variety G- J 64 for two years. This helps in reducing nematode population to a great extent. In case of heavy and uniform infestation, apply aldicarb (Temik kg/ha. The nematicide may be mixed thoroughly with basal dose of fertilizer and drilled followed by sowing by kera. 23

252 Staggering 'Problem of Blindness in Rural Areas (aj -(Mrs.) Nishi Sethi Krishi Gyan Kendra, Karnal Eyes are very precious and important for us. It is with the eyes tfiat we see and understand the world. Like all other parts of the body. our eyes need care and proper nutrition for the healthy development and maintenance of proper sight. Children in village play with soil and generally with the same band clean o,r rub their eyes; If water comes out from the eyes, mothers don't bother much and just dean them with dirty hands or clothes. These habits are prevalent in rural areas. Such minor negligence sometimes results ip blindness among children. Nornijl<g{owth an4 deyelop~ent of eyes depends on all the constituents of food. Vitamin ca', however, has a special role.to. play in preservation of healthy eyesight. Deficiency of vitan;tin <At results in severlll,defects of eye, a few of which are : (b) One of the defects is a condition called 'Night blind~ nes,s' the child is unable to see in dim.light or at, nijht, though there is no difficulty in seeing during, the day. This.is, an important warning signal., I Prolonged defici~n~y of vitamin 'A' 'leads to so'me visible changes in the eyes: The white portion of the eyes called conjunctiva loses its lustre and becomes dull, rough and wrinkled. Pearly grey rough and elevated patches called 'Bitot spots' appear on the white portion' of the eye by the side of th,e cornia. A blind person is not only a burden to himself and his nea'r and dear ones but to ~he qountry also. He can't see the world, can't put' his ideas into action, can't work witb normal efficiency and bas pr:oblems for studies. So, it is necessary to know what food should bt;l given to a child from the beginning so that his eyes do, I\ot suffer from mahlutritiod. In India, about 4-0,500,0.00 people have weak eyesight and 90,00,090 are. blind. Two third of tbe patients are such as can be cured or could have avoided this trouble with better care and nutrition. (c) MI-IO In severe cases, the central transparent portion of the eye :cajled 'cornia is also involved resulting in. complete 10S8 of vision, unless treated promptly, _,. such severe conditions lead to blindness. \ Vitamin' A', which is very important for eye-sight, is available in abundance in green leafy vegetables like palak and amaransth; yellow vegetables like sitafal, and fruits like papaya, carrots and tomatoes. It' is, properly digested in the body with tbe help of proteins from items like milk, beans,' meat, liver and fish. Protei,Ds are ajsq essential for proper development add to ensure tpat tbe. child does not suffer from diarrhoea, dysentry or iptestinal worms. Eyes (in general) MI-U Our body is capable of storing vitamin 'A'. Tlie expectant' and nursing mothers should take more of green leafy or yellow vegetables, fruits like papaya, pumpkin, 24 HARYANA FARMING

253 MI-12 carrots, oranges, tomatoes etc., besides milk and other food items. This will ensure sloring of adequate amount of vitamin in mother's body that is passed on to the baby being nourished a nd it will ensure healthy eyesight to the child. Mother's milk is a complete food for the new born baby. Yellow gelationous secretion from the mother's breast. secreted soon after birth of a baby, contains good amount of vitamin 'A'. Moreover, it acts as a laxative and cleans the stomach of the new born. But many D,lothers do not give this to the infant. They fear that.early secretion from the breast cannot be easily digesfed. This taboo among the many communities in India, deprives the child of valuable store of vitamin' A' when it is most needed by him. The mothers, therefore, should breastfeed their children very first day of the birth of the child or as soon as advised by their doctor. They should continue to breast-feed the child for about a year. Semisolid food should be given to the child from six months onwards. Many parents are afraid of giving green leafy vegetables to the infants fearing that it may cause diarrhoea or upset their digestion. As a result the infant is deprived of the food items that are good for his health and for his eyesight. MoreovPT, tbe children, who do not form the habit or eating green vegetables and such other ilems in early childbood, become averse to eating such food even when grown up. Infants Should, therefore, be given atlea~t 50 grams of green leafy or yellow vegetables either in the form 01" a soup or thoroughly mashed up_ If agreeable, egg should also be given. Blindne~s usually' OCCurS during childhood. Therefore, mothers are advised to keep the following tips in mind while rearing their babies: (a) (b) (c) (d) TIPS TO GROW> SPINAGH.. -.' -~ >;:;... ~ (e) (f) Wash the eyes daily with clean water. Never put 'Kajal' and 'Surma' in the eyes because they are more harmful than useful. Save eyes from dust, smoke and direct sunlight. For cleaning face and hands, use clean towel. Ask the children to keep books atleast 30 to 40 cms away from eyes. Consult the doctor whenever the eyes seem red or are watering Of are burt or tbere is difficulty in seeing and reading properly. An extension worker should teach the mothers before pregnancy that this much care on the selection of the itmes of food in the diet of expectant and nursing mothers and in the feeding of the infant and care regarding cleanliless will ensure smiling eyes and good vision to their children. Leafy vegetables have a high' protective food value. prepa;~tion otfi~ld:, sh~:~lda)e done before sowing by It is easy to grow this crop they are cheap to buy and can ploughings.and plankings Before sowing of seed, add be cooked easily. It is also a good SOurce of vitamins, about 25 kg nitrogen (100 kg kisan khad) and 40 kg minerals. For successful production, follow the foljowing phospborus (~SO kg SSP) in one hectare of land. recommendations : <'" * Seed should be sown in wetrprepared beds in rows 15. Optimum time of.~owing for spinach is from August to 20 em apart.; The seeds. are sown 2-3 em deep according December, altholrgn it may be grown throughout the to kind of soil. 'c, The field should be moist at the year. Spinach does well during winter season. During time of sowing for-proper germination. * Irr.igate the,jield after 4-6 days in summer and summer tbe seed stalk brusts eady from the planr. '" Select the suitable varieties such as Jobner-green, All green or S-23 for tbe cultivation of this crop. '!' For one hectare of land procure about kg of seed which should be obtained from good source. If! Though i~ can be grown in any kind of soil but sandy loam soils are best suited for its cultivation. In one hectare of land add about tonnes of well rotted.organic manure about 3 weeks before sowing. Thorough days in winter. There is no need of irrigation during rainy season. Regular weeding in early growing part of the crop is. essential. After each cutting add kg nitrogen ( kgcan) in one hectare of land and irrigate the field. '" Spinach jg ready for first cutting 4-5 weeks after sowing and subsequent cutting may be _ done after 15 to 20 days until they flower. Average yield of spinach in one hectare of land is about qtl. from 3-5 cuttings. -S~be Singh Yadava Deptt. of Vegetable Crop#HAU, Hissar

254 ENSURE A WEED-FREE WHEAT CROP WITH Dosand BOI.P. 8 powerful selective weedicide that gives I complete protection against PHALAAIS MINOA, WILD OATS. I CHENOPOD IUM and other broad-leaved weeds I " (.. For Further details. wrlte to : A"Dchem/cal D/fisifll SANDOZ (INDIA) LTD SANDOZ HOUSE 0,. Annl. Besant Road. WoO, BOMBAY 4000l Printed and published by Dr. R. M. Sharma, Director of Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of HaryaDa Aaricultural University. Hissar, Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhrl, Press Manager, at the HAU Press.

255 RUPEE 1(- DECEMBER 1981

256 HARY ANA FARMING Volume X December 1981 No. 12 Contents Pages 1. Karnal bunt-a threat to wheat production -M. P. Srivasalva 2. How to "increase urea efficiency -M. L. Chaudhry 2-3. Performance of herbicides for control of grassy -So K. Kalyal and V. B. Bhan weeds in wheat in Haryana 3 4. Kabuli gram - A,remunerative crop 5. Taramira-A versatile dryland crop 6. Supress pests that pester gram 7. Simple practices for safe storage of food grains 8. Economics of meat type rabbits-iv -B. P. Singh and P. L. Sachan 4 -B. P. Singh alld P. L. Sachan /5, -L. S. Yadav, P. D. Sharma' and ~. K Kashyap 6 - -Ranbir Singh, Onkar Singh Dahiya and R. P. S. Tomer' 8 -v P. Sharma and I. S. Yadava 9 9~ Beware of avian chlamydiosis -V. D. Purohit and R. K. PaulGupta JQ., "" 10 Care and use: Veterinary biological products -K. C. Bhatia, R. K. Paul Gupta and M. S. Suri It 11. Knitted woollens require attention -Miss Kiran Razdan and Mrs. Indu Grover IS~.{ 12. Enjoy dyeing woollens at home -Miss Kiran Razdan and Mrs. Indu Grover What to do this month 17 Director of Publications: Dr. M. N. Razdan Director of Extension Education: Dr. J. C. Sharma '* Editor V. S. Gupta Assisted by D. C. Yadav Yearly Subscription Rs Please send your money order to : Director of Publications, Gandhi Bhawan, HAU, HissarN Layout : Kuljit Photo : HAU Photo Unit

257 KARNAL BUNT-A THREAT TO WHEAT PRODUCTION - M. P. Srivastava Baryana Agricultural University, Bissar Karnal bunt, as the nam~'indicates, was first observed in Karnal about 50 years ago. However, the disease remained obscure for several decades until high yielding but extremely susceptible varieties like HD-2009, WL-711, WG-357, HP-1303 and UP-262 came into large scale cultivation in the northern parts of the country. The disease is now known to occur in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and U. P. Recently it has also been observed in 'certain pockets of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. This disease poses a serious threat to wheat production because of the fact that it not only reduces the yield but also renders the produce unfit for chapati making particularly when the inci dence of grain infection goes beyond 3 per cent, as flour from such produce emits fishy smell. During rabi , the production target of wheat in Haryana has been kept at lakh tonnes, which can only be achieved if the wheat crop is saved from diseases particularly Karnal bunt. Symptoms It is generally difficult to identify the disease in the field. It, however, becomes evident when the crop reaches maturity. In a stool, all the ears are not affected and in an ear only few grains get transformed partly or rarely wholly into black powdery mass (Fig. 1). In some cases, blackening of the grains may be noticed along the groove. Sometimes in badly affected spikelets, the glumes spreaq apart and quite often fall off exposing tbe bunted grain. Infected grains emit foul smell of rotten fish due to presence of trimethyl amine. Disease cycle This disease is caused by a fungus known as Neovossia indica. High humidity, frequent light rains, cloudy. weather, low temperature particularly during flowering favour rapid and severe development of the disease. Application of excessive doses of nitrogen and heavy irrigation pre-disposes the crop to. bunt infection. The black powder in the bunted grains which are the spores of the fungus get into the soil at the time of threshing or as external seed contaminant and germinate releasing sporidia towards the middle o( February to middle of March DECEMBER 1981 Healtby seed Fig.t Diseased seed~ when suitable soil temperature and moisture are available. The spordia are blown by wind and lodge on wheat flowers to cause infection in the developing grains (Fig. 2). Fig. 2. Diagramatic sketch of disease cycle of Karnal buot. t. Infected grains 2. Spores in tbe soil (as viewed microscopically) 3. Germinating spores producing sporidia (as viewed microscopically) 4. Sporidia S. Sporidia infected wbeat earbead durmg Dowering 6. Diseased earbead. Strategie~ for. prevt'ntion In view of its serious threat, it is desirable to prevent tbe crop from attflck of bunt. It is difficult to control it, once it has appeared in the field. However, adoptign of the following measures from the very beginning would be helpful in minimising the damage. (i) Cultivation of highly susceptible varieties like WL 711 and HD 2009 should be discouraged especially in humid areas. (Continued on page 20) 1

258 TABLE* 1 Losses of ammonia by volatilization HOW TO INCREASE UREA EFFICIENCY Nature of study Treatment % loss after 16 days Total loss (kg/ha) -M. L. Cbaudbry Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar Dose effect (kg N/ha) S In our country, 73.3 per cent of nitrogen is produced in the form of urea, about 14.2 per cent is in the form of NP/NPK and 4.2 per cent is in the form of ammonium sulphate and calcium ammonium nitrate each. Rest of the nitrogen is produced in the form of ammonium chloride and ammonium sulphate nitrate. Depth of placement Moisture Surface 2.5 em SOcm Air dry 50% water holding Water logging Q8 14, According to these figures, urea is the dominant nitrogenous fertilizer and it will continue to be produced even in newly installed factories because of the highest concentration and in the available nitrogenous fertilizers and lowest handling, transportation and application charges. It is because of these advantages that nitrogen in urea is perhaps the cheapest among the N sources available in the market. As regards efficiency of nitrogenous fertilizers, urea has been rated poorer than ammonium sulphate. Nitrogen in the form of amide is not only subject to leaching but also to volatilization losses after hydrolysis. The extent of leaching is greatly reduced when the soil is cropped but losses may become appreciable on bare soils. Losses may also be high on sandy soils because urea movement is a function of the amount of water that moves down the profile. In clay soils with high water holding and cation exchange capacity, the movement of urea and consequent loss of N will,be much less. Gaseous loss of ammonia The loss of fertilizer element owing to formation of gases mainly refers to N fertilizers. In case of urea, loss of ammonia after hydrolysis of urea is termed as volatilization loss. This loss may be as high as SO per cent under some situations particularly in alkaline or calcareous soils at high temperature and drying of surface soil etc. Data given in Table I gives the complete picture of ammonia losses when N was appjied through urea. ph Texture N Carrier Temp. Max Sandy loam Clay loam Urea Am. SUlphate Am. nitrate Min t *Source Basdeo and B. R. Gangwar (1976). Soc. Soil Sci., 24: : ] l ~ J. Indian It is clear from the above data that nitrogen losses tend to increase with heavy dose, surface application (Broadcast) water logging increase in ph and temperature. To increase efficiency of orea, it may be ensured tb~t urea is not applied in very sandy soil. It is always. placed 5-6 cm deep into a moist soil. It should always be applied in small doses not exceeding 50 kg N/ba. It may Drefer.,. ably be applied wben the soil temp. is low, eg in tbe "after":, noon. After top dressing, a ligbt irrigation m~st be' applied..' 2 HARYANA FARMING

259 PERFORMANCE OF HERBICIDES FOR CONTROL OF GRASSY ~ WEEDS IN WHEAT IN HARYANA I-S, K. Katyal and V. M. Bhan Haryana Agricultural University, Bissar The menace of grassy weeds to wheat is increasing at a fast rate especially in large acerage following ricewheat rotation in the State. The extent of infestation of these weeds has been recorded as high as 1296 weeds/ml, which is a serious chall~nge to wheat growers. The rapid spread of these weeds may be attributed to morphological similarities during the early stages of growth of Kanki or Mandusi (Pha/aris minor) and wild oats (Avena sp.) with wheat plants, thus, rendering traditional method of weeding rather ineffective. The high reproductive potential of the weed plants is another cause responsible for this. Movement of contaminated weed seeds from one place to another by various means has aggravated this problem. It is now established with weeds reduce grain yield of wheat from 10 to 50 per cent depending upon the intensity and type of weed flora. Therefore, our efforts should be directed to bring down the population of these weeds so as to ensure economical crop yields. Chemical weed control-tbe only answer Because of the morphological similarities "" between the weeds and the crop plants during the early stages of their growth, cultural and mechanical methods were found ineffective in controlling the infestation of grassy weeds in the wheat crop. Chemical methods of weed control are, therefore, the only solution to control these weeds effectively. Considering the limitations of the traditional methods of weed control, the farmers have shown interest and also have started using herbicides for managing the weeds efficiently in wbea~. A number of herbicides have been identified and recommended where the problem of grassy weeds has been experienced in the Sta..te. TABLE I To demonstrate the efficacy of the recommended herbicides, a number of simple demonstrations were conducted at farmers' fields during rabi in the problem areas of the state. The results of these trials given in Table 1 proved that the grassy weeds can be controlled effectively by using anyone of the herbicide-tribunil, Dosanex, :2 kgjba (commercial product) and 1.25 kgj ha (commercial product) in 700 Htres of water as postemergence sprays (30 to 35 days after sowing) resulting in remarkable increase in grain yield over that obtained in the un weeded controls and under the traditional methods of weeding. However, we should use the herbicides with utmost care in order to achieve the desired results. Results of simple demonstrations on chemical weed control in wheat Treatments Grain yield (q/ha) Grand locations Gurgaon Hissar Sirsa Sooepat Jind Kamal Means Tribunil 1.5 kg a.i./ ha (Pre) Tribunil 1.5 kg a.i./ ha (Post) Dosanex 1.6 kg a.i.j ha (Post) Tolkan I kg a.i./ha (Post) J Arelon 1 kg a.i /ha (Post) Hand weeding (4+6 WAS) Weedy check S DECEMBER

260 KABULI GRAM-A REMUNERATIVE CROP B. P. Siogb aod P. L. Sachan Baryana Agricultural University, Bissar The country is short of pulses and oilseeds. Inadequate availability of these essential commodities is responsible for malnutrition in predominently vegetarian population of our country. The government is, therefore, making an all-out effort to increase the production of pulses and oilseeds. The minimum support price of gram has been raised substantially as compared to that of wheat. Even at that high price of gram, the farmers prefer to grow wheat, particularly in the irrigated areas because of stabilized production and better returns from wheat. Agricultural scientists have developed high yielding varieties of pulses particularly of gram which are comparatively resistant to the attacks of diseases and pests to make the cultivation of this crop more remunerative. Kabuli gram is a table purpose pulse crop used now-a-daye commonly by the vegetarians in home, hotels and various party dishes. Its cultivation is becoming popular with the farmers in irrigated and rainfed areas due to more price fetched in the market as compared to desi gram or Bengal gram. Even in water scarcity areas of western part of Haryana, kabuli gram is being grown by the farmers to meet their own demand on one hand and to get good monetary returns per unit area, per unit time and per unit water used by the crop on the otber. To obtain higher seed yield of kabuli gram, the salient points based on the research findings are described below in brief: Variety Kabuli gram cultivar L-144 is a bold-seeded variety recommended for the cultivation throughout the State. It is relished for its cooking quality and attractive seed size. It has got export quality due to large seed size. Other high yielding kabuli gram varieties are in pipeline yet to be released'for commercial cultivation. Soil and its preparation. Kabuli gram can be grown economically on all types of soil except marshy land or on saline and sodic soils, but ~e" drained loam soils are the best for its cultivation. It is not necessary to obtain fine seed bed for tbis crop,, but the seed needs to be drilled in pulverized moist zone 4 for good germination. It can be obtained by 2-3 plough. ings by desi plough or by harrowing (tractor drawn) for levelling and breaking clods, planking may be followed after each ploughing. Seed rate A seed rate of 90 kg/ha is almost optimum, though higher seed rate upto 100 kg/ha has been fou.nd to give higher seed yield, Seed treatment Treat seed at 'the rate of I litre aldrin diluted in I litre water per quintal,seed against termite, and mix one packet of rhizobium culture for increasing the crop effi ciency in restoring atmospheric nitrogen. Sowing time It may be sown in the last week of October to first week of November. Barly or delayed sowing of this crop affects the seed yield adversely. Metbod of sowing f Seed should always be drilled t'o a deeper depth (IS cm) in moist soil. In good Qloisture conditions, the row to row spacing of 30 cm is the best. If the moisture in the soil profile is not adequate, a row spacing of 60 em should be maintained. This crop bas an ability to spread its branches to wider spacings and does not allow to decrease the seed yield. Fertilizer '. Proper method and optimum quantity of fertilizer is the most important factor that induces drought resistance and develops strong root system. It has been recorded that phosphorus is required early in the life" cycle of the crop for optimum development of roots and later on for seed setting. A dose of 20 kg N +40 kg P205/ha should be drilled below seed for obtaining good grain yi.eld. Irrigation In irrigated areas on light textured soils, crop may be irrigated at pre-flowering and pod formatiqn stagc::. In water scarcity areas, ODe irrigation at pre-flowering stage alone is found to give good seed yields.. ' Plant protection To check the infestation of cutworm, dust IOU 25 kg/ha when required. For codtrolli~g the! gram caterpillar, spray the crop with 1.00 litre Eildosulphan diluted in 750 litres of water/ha when 50 per cent pods have set in and repeat it after 10 days of tbe first' spray. HARYANA FARM'lNG

261 TARAMIRA-A VERSATILE DRYLAND CROP -D. P. Singb and P. L. Sacban Haryana Agricultural University. Bissar : Management of rain w:;lter is the key to increased and stabilized production in dry land areas. Erratic and undependable rainfall and soils of low fertility are characteristics of the semi-arid areas. Marked fluctuations in agricultural production from year to year in south we~tern Haryana are mainly due to the fact that about 75 per cent of the cropped area, which is dependent on precarious and erratic rainfall, is rttinfed. Crop growth particularly during winter s~ason experiences a high degree of water stress and whatever is produced is under stress conditions, and may not be remunerative crop production. Most of the fanners grow the traditional crops to meet their daily needs like barley, gram and mustard. These crops do well under well conserved moisture conditions but do not grow well in scarce moisture conditions where taramira shows comparatively better existance in term of yield as well as remunerative returns. An analysis of conditions of crop gtowth on the dr~ lands of south western Haryana reveals that 8n acute ecological unbalance of the various components of productivity is the sole complex factor responsible for inconsistency in remunerative crop production. A critical examination of tara mira crop reveals that this plant has ability to survive atmospheric and soil drought alongwith colllparatively better productivity than other dry land crops. It possesses the morphological cbaracter combinations and development rhythum conducive to a consistent level of production under low moisture conditions. That is why taramira is grown in rainfed and most neglected piece of land where no other rabi crops can be taken successfully with good economic returns. It is because, tara mira is very drought resistant and can be grown in areas where the moisture in the soil profile is not sufficient to grow any cereal, fibre or oilseed crops. Taramira has tap root system which goes extensively deep with fibrous lateral branching to enable it to exttact molstute ftom fat deeper floi\ hoth.ollll. 'That is why taramira does well in stress conditions because of efficient moisture extracting capability. It is also comparatively resistant to tbe aphids hence cost of spraying insecticide is also saved. DECEMBER 1981 Taramira is more suitable under late sown condition tban any other dry land crops. Therefore, to make the best possible use of late winter rains taramira should be preferential crop. Performance of taramira in late sown conditions was studied in comparison to barley. saffiower and mustard crops at Regional Research Station, Bawal. The results obtained are given in Table I. TABLE I Comparative performance of taramira in dryland (Mean seed yield kg/ha) Date of sowing Taramira Raya Barley SafHower 15th October 30th October 15th November 30th November 15th December 1732 ll S It is clear from the table that taramira gave more seed yield than raya crop in late sown conditions, viz., 30th November and 15th December sown crop. TABLE 2 Remunerability of taramira in late sown conditions (Returns Rs.jha) Date ()f sowing Taramira Raya Barley Saffi()wer 30th November th December Taramira, raya, barley and safhower was Rs. 3.50, 4.10, 1.20 and 3.50 for each kg of seed, respectively. Taramira sown on 30th November gave Rs , , jha and Rs , and jha more at 15th December sown crop over raya, barley and safflower, respectively. Because of good price in the market and better adaptability of tllfamira in rainfed areas, particularly under late sown condition its cultivation needs to be encouraged to improve economic condition of the farmer as well as to reduce the oil crises in the country. Soil and its preparation Taramira does well on well drained sandy, sandy loam, loamy sand and loam soils. In dry land areas where the principle 'touch me as little as possible', holds good, (Continued on page 7) 5

262 SU'PRESS PESTS THAT PESTER GRAM -L. s. Yadav. P. D. Sharma' add R. K. Kashyap Department of Entomology, HAU, Hissar Amongst pulses, gram occupies an important place. This is because: Firstly, it is a rich source of protein (it contains 2 3 times more protein than other cereals) and secondly, it plays an important role in agricultural economy in India, especially in places, where restricted or no irrigation facilities exist. Moreover, under conditions of poor fertility, gram crop performs better than other legume crops, because (i) it can fix atmospheric nitrogen and (ii) can also trap the available limited soil moisture more effectively.. Many insects damage this crop right from sowing till harvesting. Sometimes, the damage is so severe that the whole crop is destroyed, if precautionary measures are not taken up at a proper time. Account, on the nature of damage, identification and control measures of some important insect pests which pester gram are given below: TERMITES Gram crop is severely damaged by termites right from sowing upto harvest. As a result of damage to roots, the leaves turn yellow and in severe cases of infestation, the plants may die, resulting thereby in reduced plant population and consequently the yield. The infestation is severe in light sandy soils with high temperature, low moisture and low fertility. The damaged plants Can be pulled out with least force. The damage done at early stage of the crop can be compensated by the remaining plants but damage inflicted at or near maturity is certainly of non compensatory nature. Control (i). The damage done by this pest can be supressed by keeping the fields free from stubbles or debris of the previous crops. Undecomposed FYM or compost helps in aggravating the damage. Oi). Seed treatment with aldrin 30 Ee at the rate of 10 ml (after diluting with water to 20 ml) per kg seed, has been found to ward off termite damage effectively and economically. In case of non-availability of aldrin 30 EC. treatment of seed with aldrin 5 per cent 5 g per kg seed also proves effective. Pre-sowing soil application of aldrin 5 per cent dust 37.5 kg perha, but, for the higher cost of insecticide. ~ gave comparable results with that of seed 'treatment with aldrin. The commonly followed practice of mixing BHC 10 per cent 25 kg/ha is not very effective. It has also been found that Rhizobium culture can be safely applied to the aldrin treated gram seed. CUTWORMS. Cutworm is a serious pest of gram. The damage done by this pest is very characteristic and normally occurs in patches. During day time, the caterpillars remain in the soil at a depth of 5 to 7.5 em or even under debris. The insects become active at night when they cut the plants, below, at or a few centimetres above the ground level and feed on the tender leaves. The larva drags the cut shoot into the soil which is in fact the sure index of the place where It is hiding during the day time. In the process of feeding, a single worm usually moves along the row of plants and may thus damage several plants. In fact, the insect destroys more than what it eats. The pest assumes, rather, epidemic proportions in areas which have been flooded during the previous season,. The moth is reported to be attracted by the wet.fishy.smelling-soi! when the water is receding. The insect is known as greasy cut worm because of tbe greasy appearance of the full grown caterpillar. It has got the habit of coiling up even at the slightest disturbance. Adult is dark brown moth with redish tinge and are seen flying from dusk till it is quite dark. Control 1. Breaking clods, flooding of the fields, clean cultivation and early ploughing of land, before sowing. prevents its attack. 2. Hand picking of caterpillar may also reduce the loss. 3. The infested crop should be dusted with BHC 10% 25 kg/ha. It should be mixed with top soil by raking. GRAM POD BORER, Among various insect-pests, which damage graj;ll, p~d borer is most important. The caterpillar 'of ~his pest is greenish with dark brown grey lines along th~ side qf the body and measures about 3.5 em in length. firstlr.. it feeds on young tender leaves and flowers but after P09 formation it diverts its body' into the pods after '~aking holes in them and feeds, on developing grains. If is esti~ mated that 30 to 40 pods are destroyed by a single cate'rpillar during its life span. The damage of this pest 'j;; severe in late sown and dense crops,,i HARYANA far~nng

263 Control Gram pod borer can be effectively suppressed by spraying 1 litre Endosulfan 35 Ee (Thiodan/Endocel) or SOO ml Nuvacron 40 Be (Monocrotophos/Azodrin/Monocit) in SOO litres water per ha. Also dusting the crop with Sevin 5% (Carbaryl) or Endosulfan 4% dusts (Thiodan/ Thiotox) at the rate of 2S kg per hectare can very effectively control this pest. APHID The black bean aphid causes considerable damage to this crop during December and January. The infestation seems to be co-related with the environmental conditions rather than the developmental stages of the plants. Colonies of wingless nymphs and adults can be seen on the stem/leaves near the ground level. They suck plant sap and tbis results in reduction of plant vigour. In case of heavy attack, the growth of the plant in stunted and the yield is adversely affected. Also some times, with severe inte~sity pf damage, the plants dry. up. This insect is also known for transsmitting viral diseases in gram crop. Control (i) (ii) Among the natural enemies of aphids, tbe predators such as coccinellid beetles and syrphid flies play an important role in bringing down their population. Occasionally hymenopterous parasites and heavy rains also reduce their population. Spraying the gram crop with 625 ml of Metasystox 25 Be or 190 mj of DimecroD-IOO with 625 Iitres of water per hectare at day intervals has been recommended. Pulse beetle (Bruchids) Dbora: Under storage conditions, this insect damages all the grain legumes. However, out of all the legumes, gram is most preferred host. The damage is caused by the young grubs, which bore into the seed coat, eat away the endosperm and develop inside the grain. After entering into the grain the entry hole is plugged. The adult beetie which measures 3.2 mm in length with a blunt snout escapes by cutting out a circular hole in the stores. This is contrary to the situation with other grain legumes where brucbids commonly infest the fields and thus the harvest contains the "Starter infestation" of tbe pest. In tbe absence of any such evidence in gram, it is generally concluded that bruchids do not normally infest this crop in the field. Control The bruchid (Ohora) infestation can be prevented if the following measures are adopted : (i) The stores after thorough cleaning should be disinfected by spraying 0.5 per cent malathion 50 EC, before stocking the produce. DECEMBER 1981 (il) (iii) (iv) (v) The other sources of infestation, viz., tractor trolly, bullock cllrts, trucks etc., should also be disinfected. Cracks and crevices of the stores should be repaired. Fresh produce should not be stocked with old infested one. ' The old gunny bags should also be disinfested before re-using them. The infested stores should be fumigated with phostoxin 7 tablets (21 gm) per 1000 cubic feet of space or one tablet (3 gm) per 10 quintals of grains in ~ir tight storage receptacles. EDB 3 ml per quintal of grain can also be used for fumigation under air tight conditions. (Continued/rom page 5) plough-plant sys'tem (minimum tillage) is recommended wherever is possible. Prepare a fine seed bed by harrowing (1-2 times) or using desi plough, followed by planking for conserving sufficient moisture to ensure good germination. First priority should be given to absorbing as much water in the soil as it can hold and for adopting remun~rative and efficient system of agriculture aiming at enhancing productivity per unit rain water consistent with minimising soil erosion. Variety Sow the taramira cultivar T 27 in all conditions of its cultivation. Seed rate' Use 5 kg seed per hectare for obtaining good crop stand. Always use screened bold seeds for obtaining good results of plant stand. Sowing The sowing should preferably be done in evening or early morning by drill in lines at 30 cm or 45 cm apart maintaining about 2 lacs plants per hectare, low and high plant population adversely affects seed production. Fertilizer Taramira responds well to nitrogen fertilization in dry land upto 45 kg Nlha (at R. R. S., Bawal). Apply nitrogen on soil test basis. A dose of 40 kg Nlha may be drilled before sowing below seed level. IntercuJt1Ire After three weeks, one hoeing by band-hoe or khurpa breaks the capillary tubes to check evaporation fr9m soil surface and controls weeds. Harvesting Harvesting should be done early in the morning when there are some dew points on the plants to avoid shattering. Stack the harvested crop for about a week for curing at one place in a heap, before threshing. 7

264 SIMPLE' PRACTICES FOR SAFE STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS -RaBbir Singh, Onkar Singh Dahiya and R. P. S. Tomer Seed Technology, Boryana Agricultural University, Bissar Everybody is well aware that huge amount of foodgrains is lost as a result of damage by insects-pests and rate. The U. N. estimated this loss to be nearly 10 million tonnes every year which if saved, would be sufficient ~nough to feed 75 million people. These losses occur not only at the.government godowns and ware-houses but also at small grain stores of the farmer at the village level. Safe storage is beneficial for farmer in particular, so that he can keep the produce and wait till the market prices are remunerative in off season. It is, therefore, essential for the farmer to prevent the grains from insect-pest damage and keep up the quality of his grains. Some cheap and simple preventive measures are suggested in this direction to bring to the notice of the poor farmer. Government officials concero: ned to grain storage also need to pay attention for tbe safe storage of grains and extend their hands to solve tbe food problem of the nation. A few simple practices for safe storage which do not involve addition cost but only need a care before storage are: (a) (b) (c) (d) The grains and plants in the field shoald be free from insects and diseases. Rogue out the diseased and infested plants before harvest. The harvesting and transporting implements should be kept clean and checked before harvest. Avoid mechanical breakage of grains during harves~ing and threshing. The broken grains reduce the quality of stored grains. The threshing yards to be used should be free from insect infestation. (e) Clean and grade the grains before storage. The grains to be stored should not contain straw, weed seeds and dirt in excess. This inert-matter decreases. the value of food grains and deteriorates the grains during storage. (f) 8 Moisture content of food grains should not exceed the maximum specified level for storage. In most cases it is 10%. Seed storage life at different seed moisture content has been found to be- reported as given in Table 1. TABLE I Seed moisture content and storage life of seed Seed moisture content Storage life 11-13% '-! year 10-12% 1 year 9-11% 2 year 8-10% 4 year (8-10% can be packed in sealed containers). Dry the moist g rains before storage. The moist grains respire rapidly tbus liberate more heat and moisture/ wbich provide favourable environment for the development of insect population and fungus. The grains should be_ spread over plastic sheets or cemented floor while drying otherwise it will'pick up moisture from ground. Keep the grain cool and dry between the time of storage and harvest., Bag storage is one of the prevalent method for storage of grains. It is not regarded to be an idea-lone because bags themselves serv~ a source of infestation. For this it is better to use new bags or put old bags in boiling water and dry them in bright sunlight before use. The holes in the bags should be repaired and see that the grains filled in bags are insect free clean, cool and dry. Stitch the mouth of filled bags and stock them in store house disinfested with 0.5% Malathion emulsion (100 ml malathion 50 EC. in 10 litres water). Bags sboui'd be Stocked em away from walls to facilitate periodical spray and fumigation. Bulk storage of grains in bukharis and kotharis is also a common practice followed by villagers. They need to remember the following points: I. Maintain hygiene of storage structure. 2. Remove all dust, old pieces of grains, straw and chaff from the structure. 3. Fill and seal cracks and holes. 4. White wash the walls and ceiling of storage structure. 5. Put wire mesh on the windows. 6. Grain must be kept dry. 7. Aeration device must be provided in bulk st.orage structures. 8. Keep the outside area clean. 9. Fumigate the air tight stores with celphose (Aluminium phosphide) at the rate of one tablet/ten grain. 10. Fix metal plates on the lower side of wooden doors and windows to prevent rat entry and lj,se zinc phosphide baits to control their attack.. HARYANA FARMING

265 ECONOMICS OF MEAT TYPE RABBITS-IV v. P. Sharma and I. S. Yadava HarY(J.no Agricu/ttlro/ University, Hissar i Information on the data regarding the economics of rabbit industry in India is scanty. Based on the informations available at the Division of Fur Animal Breeding (CSWRI) Garsa (Kulu) on New Zealand White rabbits, the economics of rabbit farming has been calculated. Some' of the guidelines on parameters like the space, feed requirement, breeding, dressed percentage available and labour expenditure etc. are given below to calculate the economics of the rabbit farming. A unit consisting of 50 breeding does and ten bucks can be raised on tbe following guidelines. Space: Land which is unproductive can be utilized for rabbit farming. Rabbits weighing 2 kg if raised in colonies require I square feet floor area and the rabbits weighing kg require 2.5 square feet. The nursing female requires 5 square feet floor area.. Mating: Out of 50 does, 45 can practically be ready for mating and production out of which 36 will kindle and produce. On an average a doe will give birth 4 or 5 times per year and there would be 162 kindlings from this unit. The litter size at birth will be 7 or 8. Up to the age of 6 weeks, the mortality wiii be ten per cent. At this age the young ones are weaned. Thus, about 1140 kits will be born and about 1025 kits will survive at the age of 6 weeks. The broiler rabbits are finished at 12 weeks of the age and assuming 5 per cent mortality during 6-12 weeks, about 975 rabbits will be available for meat production. Feed requirement: The rabbit on an average consumes feed at the rate of 120 grams per day from 6 weeks to 12 weeks of age. The feed consumed by 975 rabbits will be quintals. The feed consumed by 60 adults at the rate of 150 g/adult/day for a year will approximately be quintals. Thus, the total feed required by the mature females (does) mature males (bucks) and the broiler rabbits up to the time they are ready for marketing will be about 82 00' quintals. Out of which the roughage at the rate of 40% and the concentrate at the rate of 60% will be 32.8 and 47.2 quintals, respectively. The broilers will have 2 kg weight at 12 weeks of age when they are reapy for sale. About 975 kg meat and 975 dried pelts will be available from 975 rabbit broil~rs. DECEMBER 1981 Meat production: The rabbits can survive on cheap roughage diets. When compared with other live stock the space required is also small. The investment per rabbit is also small The rabbit farming from a unit of 50 does and IO bucks in a year will give a net income of about Rs The details of which are given below: Cost NOD recurring 1. Housing a per hutch. b. 22 weaner 10 broiler rabbits per per colony. c. Feeders, waterers and electrkity Rs per adult for 60 adults Rs per kit for broilers at a time. 2. Purchase of 60 Rs.40jadult. Total Recurring 1. Feed cost (a) Concentrate 47.2 Rs per quintal (b) Roughage 32.8 Rs per quintal. f 2. Rs per day for 365 days. 3. Water and electricity Rs per rabbit per year for 60 adults and 975 broilers % assuming 10 years life per 10%= 20% (Continued on page 10) 9

266 HEW ARE OF AVIAN CHLAMYDIOSIS -v. D. Purohit and R. K. Paul Gupta Deptt. of Veterinary Pathology, HAU, Bissar Avian cblamydiosis, previously known as ornithosis or psittacosis is widely distributed all over the world. It causes heavy mortality among chickens, turkeys, ducks, parrots, pigeons and several other avian species. The 'disease >is important from public health point of view. Although'- the incidence of this disease is not very high in India, bu~ as a result of increasing trend among big poultry breeders-tor the import of birds (in the form of parent stock or genetic lines) incidence of this condition is likely to increase. It is, therefore, essential that persons engaged in pollltry industry are aware of various aspects of this disease. Mode of infection The disease is caused by Chlamydia psittaci, an obligate intracellular organism, which multiply in the cytoplasm of host cells. The disease can be contracted both by direct (bird to bird) or indirect contact. Indirect spread of. the disease may also take place through improper disposal of carcases of infected birds. Improper cleaning of feedersiwaterers, pen nests, equipment, litters etc. besides contaminated feed and water are also associated with the spread of this disease. All body~ excreta, droppings and discharges are potentially infective in nature. Aerosol is probably the most important mode of infection among the birds. Human beings may also contact tbis disease while processing or dressing the carcases of infected birds. Clinical signs and lesions Birds of all age groups are involved and affected birds often do not exhibit any characteristic clinical sign. Generally the affected birds appear anorexic, feverish, weak and reluctant to move. Some of the birds may develop respiratory distress. Egg production may drop upto 60 per cent. A closer ~xamination of the affected cases may reveal dry cyanotic wattles, conjunctivitis, dull and shruken eyes or crusting of eye lids with necrotic mass. Droppings appear loose yellowish-green or blood-tinged. Cloaca may be everted in some birds with soiled feathers in vent area. There are no characteristics gross postmortem lesions except congestion of lungs and thickening of air 10 sacs which are heavily coated with fibrinous exudate. Slight enlargement of spleen and liver covered with a thick fibrin film are also noticed in a few cases. Control and preventive measures These include proper management and feeding practices besides ensuring good hygeolc environment of poultry pens. The following measures/precautions are helpful in the control of this disease:. I. Separation <?f sick birds from healthy stock. 2 Proper disposal of tbe carcases of the affected ~trds, discharges and other contaminated material by'deep burial or burning. 3. Overcrowding of birds be avoided. 4. New batches of birds be introduced only' in thoroughly disinfected pens.. Suspected birds or morbid materials be forwarded to the Head, Department ofvety. Pathology, HAD, Hissar, for necessary diagnosis.. This causal organism is susceptible to peniciuio, tetracycline and chloraplphenicol. Chlortetracycline is considered to be the drug of choice. 100 gm of the drug mixed in one ton of feed for two weeks is recommended as a preventive measure: In the affected flocks chlortetracycline at a concentration of 400 gm per ton of feed for 2 to 4 weeks is recommended. (Continued from page 9) 4. Medicines etc.. 62 I Rs per rabbit per year. Total % recurring and nonrecurring cost ( ) Depreciation Say Rs Income 1. Rs ,00 per kg for 975 kg. 2. Rs. 8 per pelt for 975 pelts p<!r rabbit for 1035 rabbits per rabbit for 975 rabbits. Total -----::2-=-67=0'""'"1--=.3,-::"5-- Say Rs Net income per year Rs Rs = Rs HARY ANA FARMING I

267 Dr. Razdan takes over as Director, Publications Consequent upon the retirement of Dr. R. M. Sharma; Dr. M. N. Razdan, Prof. & Chairman, Department of Animal Production Physiology (APP) took over as Director, Publications on 31 October Having been engaged in teaching and research since Dr. Razdan, 47, is the doyen of scientists in the area of Animal Production Physiology. To him goes the credi t of developing the APP Department into a renowned centre of research in reproductive endocrinology. A powerful speaker in English, Dr. Razdan has versatile interests - sports and drama tics included. For Dr. Razdan, the present assignment adds a new dimension to his cherished aimservice to the Farmer. In fact, he wants the HAU publications to penetrate still deeper not only in the rural areas, but in the family of the Farmer. He wants the publications to be better, uller, illustrative and attractive, so that the message of the improved agriculture is enshined in the ethos of the rural life. He wants anecdotes from rural life, interesting articles for children and Tips for rural household improvement to become regular features for our publications. Dr. Razdan, in short, wants these publications to be a vehicle for overall rural transformation. For him the Farmer and his family are the honoured ones. He wants these publications to be i.nteresting and informative not only to the Farmer, but also to his wife and children. There is no doubt that Dr. Razdan will find his new assignment rewarding and enjoyable. In this he shall have abundant goodwill and unstinted co-operation of all concerned. Care and Use : Veterinary Biological Product~ - K. C. Bhatia, R. K. Paul Gupta and S. M. Suri'" Department of Vety. Pathology, HAU, Hissar Biological products in India are essentially manufactured by Govt. Organisations/ Research Instituti.ons under the supervision of experts. These products are issued to different officials and private agencies;foi use in the field. Normally the various products prove their utility in field conditions, however, some failures in their effectiveness may result due to improper handling, storage or faulty administration. Improper handling during marketing, storage and use renders these products inert or sometimes even dangerous disease spreaders. It is not possible, in field conditions, to detect deterioration in such preparations or failures in their capacity to develop immune response in the inoculated animals. Noo-comp Iiance of manufacturer's directions in theit' use is the most frequent cause which renders them ineffective~ The task of keeping a product safe and effective till it is used lies with the field veterinarians and the farmer_so Some of the important precautions that need to be observed regarding the care and use of the various biological products are summarized below. " Precautions for the use add care of biological preparations Details regarding transportation of different vaccines from the manufacturing unit to the field should be known before hand. Biologics should remain cool dtir'ing transit. These should not be stored over long periods. Only quantities sufficient to meet immediate requirements should be purchased. The vaccines may be kept in the ice during the actual use in field. Instructions on the accompanied labels/literature must be followed scrupulously. Unused portions of vaccine should be destroyed. To get homogenous even mixture bacterial suspensions should be vigourously shaken. Various finished products must not be mixed. Sterilize all instruments and vaccinating equipmentr that contact biologics. Chemical sterilization while using living vaccines must not be done. Destroy empty biologic containers by burning or burying at least 40 cm deep in ground. Complete records of vaccine serial number, expiry date, type of product administered to each animal should.haryana Veterinary Vaccine Institute, Hhsar. 11

268 be kept. Be ready 'for anaphylactic shocks/untoward Particulars with respect to dose, mode of vaccina_ reaction. Keep proper drugs to counter such events. tion, duration of immunity, vaccination schedule of the Immediately report any adverse reaction of the vaccines to the senior officers and manufacturing unit giving all different vaccines manufactured at Haryana Veterinary Vaccine Institute, Hissar are shown in Table. I. details. TABLE 1 Sr. Name of tbe No. disease I 2 Vaccination schedule of important diseases of animals and birds Species affected 3 Name of vaccine 4 Dose & mode of vaccination 5 Duration of Keeping immunity quality 6, 7 Remarks 8 1. Black quarter 2. Enterotoxaemia Young cattle sheep & goat Sheep & goat Black quarter Vaccine Enterotoxaemia Vaccine 5 ml sic for cattle, 2 to 3 ml sic for sheep & goat 2.5 ml sic repealed after 14 days I year I year 2 years 4 C 1 year 4'?C at, Animal be vaccinated before the on 'set of rainy season. at Lamb' above, 3 mont hs and - sheep- be vac--' cioated before the onset of, rainy season. / 3. Enterotoxae mia, Lamb dysentary, Struck Braxy, MalignanlOedema 4. Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Sheep Buffalo, cattle sheep, swine & rabbit Multicomponent Clostridial Va ccine (a) H. S. Alum ppt. Vaccine (b) H. S. Oil Adj. Vaccine Initial vaccination of 2 doses of 5 ml sic each at interval 3 weeks followed by one injection annually 5 ml sic 3 ml deep ilm -do- -do- 6 months -do- 1 year -do- -do- Animals be vaccina ted before the onset; of rainy seawn. s. Rabies All animals Antirabic Vaccine 5% (Inactivated) Animal weighing (i) Under 30 Lbs. 2 ml sic daily for 14 days (ii) Between 30 and 100 Lbs.-5 ml sic daily for 14 days (iii) Above 100.Lbs. 10 ml sic daily for 14 days (iv) Animals like buff, cow, bullock, horse, mule, pony 30 ml sic daily for 14 days Within 1 6 months The vaccina- month af-- -at 4 C tion should ter the completion ofist early as possi be done as vaccination ble (within) 4 if the animal days after the is exposed to bite b~ a rabid rabid dog bite one injection will do. Ifexposed within 6 months 7 injections are needed. dog mono goose animals. "II i, ' l., r 12 HARYANA FARMING

269 1 2 3 Dog~ 4 s (v) Camel & elephant 60 ml sic daily for 14 days Antirabic Vaccine 5 ml sic above 20% (Inactivated) 3 months age in dogs and 2 ml sic in cats 6 It prevents the dogs (pets) from being carriers of the period elapsing between exposure to the infection and the start of the treatment Sheep pox Swine fever Sheep & goat Aluminium Gel Adsorbed Sheep Pox Vaccine (Inactivated) Swine Lapanised Swine Fever Vaccine 0.5 ml sic 4 months 1 ml sic 1 year 7 -do- 8 Initial vaccination at 3 months followed at9 months and annually thc:reafter. 6. Rinderpest Cattle & buffa- F. D. O. T. V. 1 mj sic I : 100 Life long 1 year under deep (Cattle Plague) loes (Living). freeze at -20 o e Recommended- for local cattle only. Vaccinate at 4-6 months and repeat every 3 years. Vaccine not to be used in advanced pregnancy. 10 days at All lambs room temp. above 3 mon- 60 days at ths be vacci- 4 C nated. 1 year under deep freeze at -20 o e Vaccine can be used for all category of animals irrespective of age, breed & sex. 9. Fowl cholera Poultry Fowl Cholera 1 mj sic 6-8 months 6 months Birds of 8 Vaccine at 4 C weeks and above. 10. Fowl pox 11. Ranikhet Poultry Day old chicks Poultry F. D. Fowl Pox Reconstituted 6 months Vaccine vaccine to be used with the help of sewing needle through web puncture method F. D. Ranikhet 2 drops through 6-8 weeks Disease Vaccine nasal route (F 1 strain) F. D. Ranikhet 1 mi sic Disease Vaccine Life long 2 years in Birds over 8 deep freeze weeks. at -20 C ] year in The chicks are deep freeze to be revacciat - 20 e 0 nated with regular R. D. Vaccine at the age 6-8 weeks. -do- Birds of 6-8 weeks age group. DECEMBER

270 ... ~ 0- ~.., -.. ~ Aphids are it menace to mustard,) Get rid of them effective Y') _:quickly with! - :ROGOR The deadly Aphids attack mustard within a month trom sowing. The infestation lasts from December ri(ght up to February. Aphids suck the sap of the young mustarq plant from the underside of leaves c thus ci)using the plant to die ultimately. These minute yellowish green insects cause curling of I~aves downwards and gradual yellowing. As extensive field tests prove. Rogor offers the only effective and profitable protection from Aphids. Once the infestation is detected-or as a preventive measure when the plant ;s a month old --3 sprays of Rogor are recommended at 10 to A.-, 16 days interval. Rogor should be mixed with water in the basic proportion of 1 ml Rogor; 1 litre water. Recommended dosage is 200 to 300 ml of Rogor per acre depending upon the growth of the plant. Rogor should be sprayed all over the plant thoroughly for the most effective 80tlon. Rogor has two-fold action: systemic and eontaot. What's more. Rogor is backed by continuoul / Rallis R&D and international know-how. ~, Rallis India Limited 1i1,~ Fertilisers & Pesticides Division '--_...J 21, Raveline Street, Bombav I ~ 0, I

271 'ij(ni~ted _Woollens Require Attention -Miss Kiran Razdan and Mrs. Indu Grover College of Home Science, HAU, Hissar All of us possess a 'variety of woollens in various colours, textures, designs,,etc. Wool is a delicate animal fibre which tends to shr,ink, fade, stretch and feu and, therefore, the washing or laundering process requires to be carried out carefully., The surface of wool fibre is covered with scales which in the presence of high temperature, uneven temperature, alkali except borax, moisture and friction' tends to [interlock with each other causing the,scales to join together. For Prosperity & Bumper Harvest HARYANA SEEDS Steps in washing First of all dust tbe article and remove tbe loose dirt. Repair all the holes and weak points. Steeping or soaking the garment in water or soap solution is not recommended in general except when the article is being washed for the first time or in case of children's clothes if they are very dirty. Steep for about minutes in luke warm mild soap solution with little borax (I teaspoon per adult garment). Never wash with bar soap as it contains a high quantity of alkali which causes harm to the garment. Wash in ritha nut solution or soap solution (method of preparation given below). Rithanut solution is not recommended for white woollens. Wash the garment by kneading and squeezing it. After washing rinse in several waters of tbe same temperature. No soap should be Jeft in the garment as it can give bad odour, damage the garment or even cause skin irritation when worn. For white woollens it is recommended to add 5-10 drops of lemon juice, in the bucket of water for tbe last rinse. For coloured woollens add I tablespoon vinegar/bucket of water. Addition of lemon juice or vinegar' neutralises any alkali Jeft in the fabric and refreshens it. After rinsing wrap tbe garment in a towel and remove the extra moisture by pressing with the hands. Dry woollens in a warm, dry, aiuy place, under shade. If dried under direct sun the white ones have a tendency to turn yellowish and coloured ones fade away. It is preferred to spread a piece of newspaper or old piece of fabric on a 'cbarpoy' or 'mudba' and spread the garment! (Continued on page 16) i HARYANA SEEDS are pre-tested & packed in sealed bags with MONEY BACK GUARANTEE. HARY ANA SEEDS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION Il TO. seo SECTOR 8-C, CHANDIGARH CERTIFIED SEEDS OF WHEAT PADDY GRAM COTTON POTATO BAJRA PULSES FODDER AND OIL SEEDS HSDC Sale Counters at : HISSAR SIRSA KARNAL YAMUNA NAGAR HAlLY MANDl GURGOAN SONEPAT ROHTAK BHIWANI JIND PEHOWA DECEMBER

272 Enjoy Dyeing Woollens at Home -Miss Kiran Razdan and Mrs. Indo Grover College 0/ Home SCience, H AU, Hissar A greater part of Indian population ~n the north particularly, invariably wears woollens during winter. Woollens are not cheap in our country and taking average man's income into consideration, it is not easy for au to afford a new woollen garment every time. It happens that after a woollen garment has been worn several times, it either fades away or the wearer gets tired of wearing the original colour. It also happens that knitting gives way at certain places which makes the garment unusable in its original form. In either case the housewife wants to make the best use of the remnants by giving it a new shape which becomes possible on reknitting after proper washing and dyeing. Even if the condition of the knit is such that it does not need reknitting, the garment gets a new look by washing and dyeing it into a different colour to get rid of monotony and boredom of that colour. In any case, dyeing of woollens is not only fanciful but is also of economic consequence in Indian homes. Dyeing at home is much better than giving woollens to a professional dyer as it saves money, time and above all is satisfying. Preparation of article for dyeing Dust the, article and wash, if necessary, because it is important for the woollens to be dust-free before dyeing. Remove fasteners, if any. and open the pleats. If yarn has to be dyed, make hanks and tie them properly. The knot on the hanks should not be very tight as it will prevent the dye stuff to penetrate and dye the portion underneath. Dyeing process Take water in a vessel (dye bath) which IS just enough for the woollen (to be dyed) to get properly soaked. Start heating the water. Take the dye (I gram of dye for 400 ml of water, i. e., 12 grams or I tola of dye for about 5 litres of water) and make,paste in a container with luke warm water. Put glacial acetic acid (2-3 drops/litre of water) and pour the dye paste in the vessel containing hot. water.. Stir well for 1-2 minutes and let the solution in the dye bath get further heated. Wet the woollen garment/hank properly in warm water and pot that in the dye bath. Keep stirring. Let the dye solution boil. After 15 minutes, take out the garment/hank and put salt (about two tablespoons full of salt for I litre of water). Stir well and again put the garment/hank back into the dye bath. Stir well for 30 minutes more. Take out the dyed article from Jhe dye bath and wash thoroughly in water till the colour stops coming out of the dyed article. Let the article get dried under shade. Colour variation It is very important to know that a woollen of lighter colour can be dyed into a darker colour but,not vice versa. However, tonal effect of the same colour can be given. To get darker shade, amount of dye stuff should be taken one and a half to two times more than the amount suggested above. Similarly, to get,lighter shades. i less amount of dye stuff should, be taken ~~ (Continued from page 15) inside out. Occasionally the garment should be turned upside down for proper drying. Ironing is not essential in case of knitted woollens if these are carefully washed and properly dried. Main don'ts for knitted fabric 1. Avoid use of washing soda. 2. Never boil or use very hot water for washing and rinsing. 3. Knitted woollens should never be huog on a wire for drying. 4. Do not dry woollens under direct sun. Preparation of ritha nut solution Take 125 grams of ritha nuts. Take out the stone and break the skin into small pieces. Soak 'them in I kg b(}iling water and stir well. Allow the mixture to cool. Upon cooling strain through a fine piece of muslin cloth and store in a bottle or a jar and use as and wh~ii required. I Preparation of soap solutiod Shred 125 grams of good quality bar soap into fine pieces and pour ~ kilo of boiling water. Keep it on slow fire till the soap shreds dissolve but the contents should not be allowed to boil. Cool and store in jars..' I 16 HARYANA FARMING

273 [ AQRONOMY What to do this month WHEAT Complete the sowing of wheat by the middle of this month. For- late sowing, use only wheat variety Sonalika with seed rate of 125 kg per hectare. Sow wheat after soaking the seeds for 6 hours and with a close row spacing of ) 8-20 cm. Apply the first irrigation to the timely sown wheat, i. e., days after sowing of wheat. For control of weeds, one or two hoeings should be given after the first and second irrigation with wheel hoe! blade hoe. For the effective control of grassy weeds and broad leaved weeds, use of herbicides may be 'adopted wherever manual in weeding is not possible. Broad leaved weeds can be controlled by applying specific spray of 2,4-D. i. e., 1.25 kg sodium salt (813%) or one litre amine (72%) or 1.25 lit Ester (36%) in 500 to 600 lit of water. Apply herbicide within days after sowing in case of dwarf wheat, days after sowing in deshi wheat. Do not apply 2, 4-0 at all if gram, mustard or any broad leaved crop is sown in wheat. Also do not spray 2, 4-0 in wheat variety HD-2009 as 2, 4-D induces severe deformities. For control of grassy weeds, use herbicides Tribunil, Dosanex, Tolkan or Arelone. The dose of 2 kg (product) per hectare in case of Tribunil. Dosanex and Tolkan is required whereas 1.25 kg (product) per hectare is required in case of Are/one. The recommended dose of herbicides should be mixed in 700 lit of water per hectare and sprayed days after sowing of wheat. Use flood jet/flat fan nozzle while spraying with a sprayer. Do not move the spray lance to and fro as it hinders uniform coverage. Do not delay the first irrigation and apply the herbicides as the field comes in working condition. BARLEY Barley can be sown during December but there will be a gradual decline in yield with progressively delayed sowing upto the end of tbis montb. Sow recommended variety of barley BG 105. Use 112 kg seed per hectare and sow the barley em apart. Interculture the DECEMBER 1981 timely sown barley or apply' 2, 4-D as recommended in case of wheat for control of leave weeds. GRAM AND LENTIL Irrigate the timely sown crop in the second half of December if no rains are received after sowing. Lentil thay be sown if not already sown as per recommendations given earlier. RABI OILSEEDS Apply irrigation to sarson and raya at flowering. Harvesting of the earlier mature varieties may be completed and that of mid season varieties may be started from tbe middle of this month. SOILS & fertilizers During the month of December late sown wheat should be applied 60 kg each of N, P and K alongwith 25 kg zinc sulphate at tbe time of sowing. Potassium must be applied in whole district of Ambala, Radaur block of Karnal and in sandy soils of Gurgaon, Mohindergarh and saline alkali soil of Sonepat. In other soils, it may be only applied after the soil test value is low. Wheat crop sown in the month of November which is about 40 days old may show zinc deficiency symptoms if the soil was low in zinc. For such crops spray 2i kg of zinc sulphate, 15 kg urea dissolved in 500 Htres of water on one hectare of the crop. Second dose of nitrogen (60 kg N/ba) to the wheat crop be applied with first irrigation in this Dr. S. K. Katyal Dr. M. L. Chaudhry Dr. V. K. Sril'astava Dr. M. P. Srivastava Dr. S. D. Chaudhry 1 I Directorate of J ~ Extension Education J I HAU, Hissar J 17

274 month, This dose of N may be applied either through CAN or urea by top dressing before irrigating the field when there are no dew drops on the leaves. Apply light irrigation after top dressing the fertilizer. In very sandy soils, fertilizer be applied by top dressing after 4th day of irrigating the field'. Hoeing should be done after applying the fertilizer. For gram, zinc deficiency may appear in tbis month. Spray zinc sulphate by taking 2~ kg of zinc sulphate, If kg of un slacked lime dissolved in 500 litres of water. For late sown barley. apply 30 kg nitrogen and 30 kg p.oa per hectare before sowing of the crop. Remember, phosphate fertilizers are always to be drilled. If the soil has high ph say 9 or above, apply 25 kg zinc sulphate before sowing. For lentil, apply 85 kg DAP per hectare before sowing of the crop. If DAP is not available, then apply 30 kg urea a]ongwith 250 kg single super phosphate per hectare. VEQETABLES TOMATO Tomato crops planted in Kharif season will be over by the end of December or earlier if frost may occur. This crop being susceptible to frost is killed by it. The fruits should be pi~ked up half ripe and sent to a distant market as such, or after full ripening sent them to local market. Fruit should not be allowed to ripe fully on plants as sometimes they are damaged by birds. The care of nurs~ry sbould be taken if the seeding has already been done for spring crop. During this month the sowing in nursery may be done if not already done during November. The varieties and seed treatment have already been indicated in the last month's issue of this journal. Due to low temperature, the germination of the seeds would be delayed and the growth of the seedlings would be quite slow. For early germination, the nursery' beds may be covered with polythene sheets'during night which should be removed in the morning. The, beds may also. be covered during night for protection against frost. - BRINJAL The fruits from the Kharif planted crop should be picked up and sent to market for sale. Take care of the 18 seedlings in nursery. If the sowing has not already been done during previous month, it can also be done in this month. For other practices, please see the previous issue. The seedlings should be protected against frost. CHILLIES The fruit should be picked up from the plants and the land may be 'prepared for another crop by the end of this month. Take proper care of the seedlings sown in the nursery beds. The seeding can also be done in' nursery during first fortnight of December. Due to ]0," temperature, the germination of the seed would be delayed and the growth of the plants will be slow. The seedlings should be protected against frost. \ CAULIFLOWER The cauliflower heads, which, are ready, may be harvested and sent to market for sale. The standing crop of cauliflower should be top-dressed two times with N fertilizer if not already, done. Firstly, after about three-four weeks time of transplanting and secondly at the time of head formation. After the application of nitrogenous fertilizer, irrigation of the crop is essential. If the seedlings of the late variety are ready, they may be transplanted in the field. The crop is to be protected against harmful insects like aphids, cabbage cater piller, cabbage semi-looper and Diamond Back Moth. Control them by spraying the crop with one litre M~lalbion' 50 EC after mixing in 625 Htres of water per hectare. The crop may be sprayed after about 15 days and should not be consumed for one week after spraying the in: secticides. CABBAGE AND KNOLKHOL The ready heads should be harvested and sent to market for sale. The crop should be properlyi cared and irrigated at regular intervals. It should be top-dressed with Kisan Khad twice-fint after about three-four weeks of transplanting and second dose should be given at the time of head formation. Each time 160 kg.«.isan Khad should be used per hectare. If the seedlings of late, variety are ready, they may be transplanted in a thorough,- Iy prepared field.. ;.,. PALAK The crop should be cut and sent to market after proper packing. The crop is to be regularly irrigated and top-dressed with nitrogenous fertilizer two times, at HARYANA FARMING

275 the rate of 100 kg Kisan Khad per hectare each time. This should be applied after four weeks of seeding and again at another four weeks interval. Irrigation of the crop is essential after the application of'nitrogenous fertilizer. RADISH, TURNIP AND CARROT The ready roots of tbese crops should be up rooted" properly washed and I leaves be removed (in case of carrot and turnip only) 'and sent to the market for sale. It is important for the root crops that they are uprooted at tender stage, otherwise they develop fibres and become unfit for consumption and hence do not fetch proper price in the market. The crops are to be regularly irrigated for 'maintaining adequate moisture in the soil. The exposed roots may be covered by earthing up operation. The varieties of European types can be sown during this month also. For the control of harmful insects, the crop should be sprayed with one litre Malathion 50 Ee after dissolving in 625 litres of water per hectare of land. The spray may be repeated after to days' time if required. The crop should not be consumed upto on: week after spraying the insecticides. PEA During this month, the Bonne-ville variety will start giving fruits and the early crop would be over. The pods should be picked up and sent to market for sale. Afte~ seeding, the crop may be top-dressed with 120 kg of Klsan Khad per hectare of land fohowed by irrigation. Weeding may be required in the late variety-multifreezer. The crop should be protected against harmful insects. For the control of thrips, the crop may be sprayed with 1250 gm DDT (50% WP) after dissolving in 625 litres of water per hectare. The spray should be repeated after about two weeks. For the control of leaf minor, the crop may be sprayed with 750 ml of Rogor 30 Be or 125 ml Anthio 35 Ee after dissolving in 625 Iitres of water per hectare. For the control of fruit borer, the crop should be dusted 25 kg BHC 10 per cent dust per hectare. Precautions should be taken while consuming after the use of insecticides. Consumption should not be done. for days after the use of insecticides. For the control of powdery mildew, the crop should be sprayed with 2 kg of Wettable Sulpher per hectare. GARLIC The crop should be regularly irrigated for continuous supply of moisture in the soil. Top-dress the crop with nitrogenous fertilizer, if alr«:ady not done. DECEMBER 1981 ONION (KHARIF). Dig out the crop and send it to market for sale. This variety is not good for storage. ONION (RABI) During this month, the seedlings would be ready for transplanting. The optimum time for transplanting of onion seedlings is from last week of December to mid of January. The field should be thoroughly prepared. In one hectare, about 50 tonnes of Compost or FYM should be incorporated. Before transplanting, fertilizer at the rate of 40 kg Nitrogen (160 kg Kisan Khad), 50 kg Potash (40 kg Muriate of Potash) per hectare should be applied. Field should be divided into convenient sized. beds and after transplanting it should be irrigated within two-three days. POTATO The crop would have been top-dressed with nitrogenous fertilizer at the time of earthing up. It should now be regularly irrigated and protected against insects and diseases. For the control of harmful insects like, aphids and whitefly the crop may be sprayed with 1250 gm DDT 50 WP or 750 ml Rogor 30 BC or Metasystox 25 EC or 190 ml Dimecron-l00 after dissolving in 750 Htres of water at an interval of days. The plants infested with virus should. be removed along with its roots and destroyed. For the control of early blight, crop may be sprayed with 2 kg of Blitox or Zineb or Dithane M-45 at an interval of 15 days. It should be kept in mind that the crop should not be consumed upto three weeks after the use of insecticides. The immature crop of potato can also be harvested during this month for local sale in the market. Such crop should not be harvested before days of seeding. OTHER CROPS The lettuce crop should be properly cared and sent to market for sale as and when it is ready. The crop of Dhania and Methi sh04ld be properly harvested and the green leaves may be cut and sent to market for sale. The seeding of Zeera crop could be done during first fortnight of this month. The variety RS-I should be used for this purpose and before seeding, it should be treated with 2 gm of Benlate or Bavistin per kg of seed. For one hectare of land, about kg of seed would be sufficient. 19

276 LIVESTOCK fieal Ttt CARE COWS AND BUFFALOES 1. During day time, the animals may be kept in open at a place where sufficient sunlight is available to them. When the weather is not favourable due to chilly yvinds, tbey sbould be kept inside tbe sheds. Tbe animal houses/sheds" having iron sheets for roofing purposes are quite cold. In such cases, a layer of thatcb may be provided on the sheets to reduce the cold. 2. The Haemorrhagic SeptL.:mia (Galghotu Rog) may flare up during winter rains. Those animals which were vaccinated about 6 months earlier may be got revaccinated against this disease in consultation with the local Veterinarian. 3. During this period, the animals may suffer from coryza, pneumonia etc., due to cold. Such animals should ~e isolated and their treatment may be arranged. The drenching of medicines in such cases should be avoided. 4. The animals need to be protected from cold at the time of calving. The animal houses/sheds should be free from dampness. This is necessary to safeguard them from mastitis and respiratory diseases. 5. The young stock should be kept at an open space where they can exercise. Drinking water should be 3. provided to them in clean utensils. Arrange check up of these animals by a Veterinarian at regular intervals. 7, To protect animals from 'Degnala' disease, avoid feeding mouldy rice straw to them. The rice straw should be stored at a raised platform. SHEEP I. Provide nutritious ration and clean and fresh drinking water to sheep. Discuss 'Your problems with the Veterinarian by paying regular visits to Veterinary Hospital/Sheep and Wool Extension Centre of your area. This being lambing season, keep optimum conditions of management at the farm. Pregnant ewes should be kept in a separate pen and be looked after well. POULTRY 1. Deworm birds once in two mo ntbs. 2. During this period, special attention should be paid towards the management of the birds. Light 'acts as a powerful stimulus to laying birds and helps increased esg production.,the artificial lighting should be so arranged in the' early morning and evening hours that daylight hours are extended to 16 to 17 hours. This also helps them to consume more feed for sustaining higher production. The intensity of artificial illumination should be about one watt per bird. Lighting should be fixed. In case of broilers, provide continuous light from first day till marketing time. Regular culling of weak, emaciated and diseased pirds should be done. _ I_t helps in economical poultry production. 6. Arrange insecticide spray on animals and also in 4. sheds to protect them from ticks and lice. Their parasites are responsible for transmission of several important haemoprotozoan diseases in animals. Water must always be available. be cleaned daily. Each waterer must XXX (Continued from page 1) (ii) Efforts should be made to prevent the movement of seed infected with Karnal bunt to disease fre e areas' or only treated Seed should be transported. For seed treatment fungicides like PMA (Monosan) or Tbiram 2 gm/kg seed may be employed. Such a treatment would be helpful in checking tbe introduction of Karnal bunt in unaffected areas and also the build up of inoculum in already affected areas. (iii) (iv) Seed multiplication programmes may be tak~n up in relatively dry areas where the dis~ase problem is{ minimum irrespective of higher cost of production'. In Haryana, the districts in whicn Kamal butll was almost absent or recorded in traces duri1)g 198P-81 crop season are Mahendergarh, Bhiwani. and Gurgaon..' Excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizers and irrigation duiing flowering should be avoided. '. 20 HARYANA FARMING

277 HARY.ANA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY HISSAR (HARYANA), INDIA OUR PUBLICATIONS Periodicals I. Haryana Kheti : A monthly farm journal in Hindi (Annual Rs. 10/-) 2. 'Haryana Farming: A monthly farm journal in English (Annual Rs. 10/-) 3. Journal of Research: A quarterly Journal, contains original research articles and notes on various disciplines of agriculture (Annual Rs. 20/-) 4. Thesis Abstracts: A quarterly abstracting Journal, first., of its kind in India. Contains abstracts of theses of post-graduate students of all the agricultural universities and institutes in the country (Annual Rs. 100/-) Books 1. Indian Yearbook of Vety. and Animal Sciences 2. Practical Mam:ial for Introductory Courses in Soils 3. Dairy Cattle Management 4. Laboratory Manual on Poultry Production 5. Upward Fixation of Patella 6. Manual on Fruit and Vegetable Preservation 7. Haryana Krishi Diary 8. Package of Practices for Kharif Crops 1980 (English) 9. Package of Practices for Rabi Crops (English) 10. Package of Practices for Kharif Crops 1981 (Hindi) 11. Package of Practices for Rabi Crops 1981 (Hindi) 12. Wine from Indian Grapes (English): A technical bulletin on how to prepare different types of alcoholic beverage and wines from grapes 13. Sparkling Grape Juice Industry (English): A technical bulletin detailing the process of preparing grape-juice and its prospects 14. Grapes in Haryana (English & Hindi) 15. Roads in Rural Haryana (English) 16. Raisin Production (English & Hindi) 17. Duck Raising in Haryana (English) 18. Farm Record Book (English & Hindi combined) 19. Starting a Dairy Farm (English) 20. Parasitic Diarrhoea in Sheep & Goats (English) 21. Soil Geographical Zones of Haryana (English) 22. Fruit and Vegetable Preservation (Hindi) 23. Quality of Ground Water of Haryana (English) 24. Crop Response to Soil Salinity (English) 25. Tractor Ki Dekh Bhal (Hindi) 26. Haryana Main Ber Ki Kheti (Hindi) 27. Dhan Ki Bimarian Va Niyantran (Hindi) 28. Kukkut Palan (Hindi) 29. Aloo Main Keet Niyantran (Hindi) 30. Safed Lutt (White Grub) (Hindi) 31. Haryana Main Kapas Ki Kbeti Please Send your Money Order to.- Price per copy Rs By Regd. Post Rs S 8.2S THE DIRECTOR OF PUBLICATIONS GANDHIBHAWAN. HARYANA AGRICULTlJRAL UNIVERSITY, HISSAR-12S 004

278 J ENSURE A WEED-fREE WHEAT CROP Ii: WITH DosanBi BOw.P. a powerful selectiv, weedicide that gives complete 'protection against PHALARIS MINOR, WILD OATS, ( CHENOPODIUM and other broad- leaved weeds For Further deta"!. write ts : ArgochemicalDivisio. SANDOZ (INDIA) LTD SANDOZ HOUSE Dr. Annie Bpsant Road. Worn BaM BAY -400 Ot8 (' ~ Printed and published by Dr. M. N. Razdan, Director' of Publications, and edited by V. S. Gupta for and on behalf of ~aryana "gricuitur.al University. Hissar, Haryana (India). Printed by B. R. Chowdhri, Press Manager, at the HAU Press,

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