1 PALATABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LOAIGISSIMUS MUSCLE OF YOUNG BULLS REPRESENTING DIVERGENT BEEF BREEDS AND CROSSES i Lynn K. Wirier 2, P. J. David 3, Curtiss M. Bailey, Marsha Read 4, T. P. Ringkob, and Marjorie Stevenson 4,5 University of Nevada, Reno Summary Palatability of rib steaks from 400-day-old stralghtbred and crossbred bullocks (n=298) was evaluated. Eight mating combinations were represented (sire breed listed first): straightbred Hereford (HH), straightbred Red Poll (RR), Hereford x Red Poll reciprocal crosses (HR, RH), Angus x Hereford (AH), Angus X Charolais-Cross (AC), Brahman x Hereford (BH) and Brahman X Angus (BA), Rib steaks from each young bull were frozen at -32 C 2 days postmortem. Steaks were broiled to an internal temperature of 71 C, Overall breedtype effects on color, tenderness, desirability and Warner-Bratzler shear test of Unaged longissimus muscle were nonsignificant. Statistically significant breedtype variation was observed in flavor (P<.05) and juiciness (P<.01). Rib steaks from BH bullocks were less acceptable than those from HH, RH and AH. There was no evidence of heterosis in palatability traits of RH and HR crosses. Adjunct studies of longissirnus muscle from steaks frozen 2 days postmortem versus steaks aged for an additional 14 days after vacuum packaging indicated that samples aged for the longer period were more (P<.01) desirable in all palatability characteristics. Breedtype effects on palatability characteristics of aged longissirnus muscles were nonsignificant, Linear contrasts between bullock-aged steaks and steaks purchased in local meat outlets showed that purchased steaks were superior in juiciness (P<.05), tenderness (P<.O1) and shear value (P<.05); however, bullock steaks were superior (P<.O1) in flavor. Differences in cooking loss, cooked color and overall desirability were not significant. (Key Words: Bullock, Longissimus Muscle, Palatability, Breeds and Crosses.) Introduction The use of management systems that exploit the potential of crossbreeding (Cundiff et al., 1974; Long, 1980) and bull beef production (Klosterman et al., 1955 ; Bailey et al., 1966a,b ; Field, 1971) may enable industry to increase the yield of edible tissue per unit of feed without the use of hormonal adjuvants such as diethylstilbestrol. One question of major importance in determining the feasibility of such programs is whether breedtypes differ in paiatability characteristics. Glimp et al. (1971) and Fredeen et al. (1972) have reported on the variation in palatability characteristics of lean tissue from crossbred and stralghtbred bulls; however, palatability of beef derived from young bulls of widely divergent breedtypes, including Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses, has not been established. This research was designed to determine: (1) whether important breedtype variation exists in palatability traits of rib steaks from 400-day-old bullocks, and (2) whether aged rib steaks from bullocks and steaks of unknown origin purchased in meat outlets differ in 1Contribution from the Agr. Exp. Sta., Univ. of palatability. Nevada, Journal Ser. No Present address: SaVal Project, P.O. Box 443, Elko, NV Materials and Methods 3 Present address: Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln During 1974, 220 Hereford, Red Poll, School of Home Economics. Angus and percentage Charolais-Cross heifers S Assistance by Ann Graney and Jay S. Dow, Jr. were obtained from 29 herds in eight states. is appreciated. Hereford dams were randomly mated to 387 JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, Vol. 53, No. 2, 1981
2 388 WINER ET AL. Hereford, Red Poll, Angus or Brahman sires. Red Poll dams were divided into two groups and bred to either Hereford or Red Poll bulls. Angus females were mated to Brahman sires, and all Charolais-Cross females were mated to Angus sires. A completely different set of sires was used each year (n=48). Details of breeding and herd management procedures have been described by Bailey and Moore (1980). All male calves born during the fall in 1975 through 1978 (table 1)were included in this study. They received creep feed for approximately 55 days before weaning. Each year, all bulls were weaned on the same date, when the entire calf crop averaged 6 months of age. Immediately after weaning, bulls were given ad libitum a complete feed mixture. Corn (IFN ), alfalfa hay (IFN ), oat hay (IFN ), beet pulp (IFN ) and molasses (IFN ) were the chief feed ingredients. The corn component was gradually increased from about 30 to 40% during the feedlot period. The TDN level in the feed mixture averaged about 62%. Each animal was slaughtered at approximately 400 days of age. Overall means (and standard deviations) for feedlot daily gain, length of feedlot period, slaugher weight and backfat thickness at the 12th rib were: 1.34 (.13) kg, 223 (17) days, 482 (43) kg and 8.6 (3.2) mm, respectively. All animals were processed at the University of Nevada Meats Laboratory, Reno. Bullocks were taken off feed at 1100 hr the day before slaughter. The carcasses were cooled in a chill box at 2 C for 2 days. Steaks approximately 3 cm thick were excised from the right and left forequarters at the 12th rib and subsequently standardized to a thickness of 2.54 cm with a band saw. Bones were removed and the steaks individually wrapped and frozen at -32 C. Subsequently, the frozen steaks were broiled in a conventional oven to an internal temperature of 71 C. Steaks from the left forequarters were cooled to 20 C. Three cores, 1.27 cm in diameter, were removed from each steak. Each core was sheared twice with a Warner-Bratzler meat shear. The six values obtained from each *Multivac, AGSO0, Sepp Naggenmuller kg. 8941, Wol fer tschwenden/augau. steak were averaged. Steaks from the right forequarters were subjected to taste panel evaluation. Taste panelists were chosen from the academic community and trained by personnel of the School of Home Economics, utilizing beef samples in a triangle test. A different group of six panelists evaluated steaks from each of the four replicates (calf crops). Every panelist received one hot, cm cube from each steak. As many as eight samples were served at each session, and a maximum of five sessions were held per week. Panel members assigned values of 1 to 8 for cooked color, juiciness, tenderness, flavor and overall desirability of each cube. The six scores for each steak were averaged. In addition, three steaks about 2.54 cm thick were removed from the 9th, 10th and 11th rib sections of the right forequarter in each of the last 3 years of the study. Steaks from the 9th rib were frozen 2 days postmortem. Steaks from the 10th and 11th rib sections were vacuum-packaged 6 and then aged at 2 C for an additional 14 days prior to freezing. The freezer period ranged from 1 to 3 months. Rib steaks also were obtained from four local retail outlets for comparison with the aged steaks from bullocks born in 1976 and Each year, steaks were procured on 2 days at two locations from each supermarket chain to ensure a diverse selection. An attempt was made to obtain samples that would be representative of the "top -of-the-line" steaks offered for sale in each store. Most steaks were USDA Choice grade. Restaurant-trade steaks were purchased from a local meat purveyor for comparison with the 1977 crop bullock steaks. All of these steaks were USDA Choice. The length of the aging period for TABLE 1. BREEDING PLAN AND SUBCLASS NUMBERS Darn breed Sire breed Hereford Red Poll Brahman Angus Hereford 34/20 a 32/22 30/20 31/23 Red Poll 40/32 41/23 Ch arol ais- Cross 45/34 Angus 45/35 avalue to the left of the / -- the number of animals for 4 years of study and value to the right of the / = the number of animals for 3 years of study.
3 BREEDTYPE EFFECTS ON BEEF PALATABILITY 389 purchased steaks is not known. After purchase, bones were removed and steaks were wrapped and frozen at -32 C. Sample cores (2.54 cm in diameter) of 9th and 10th rib bullock steaks, and of purchased steaks, were sheared with the Warner-Bratzler device. Cooking loss of 11th rib steaks, expressed as a percentage of frozen uncooked steak weight, was calculated. These steaks, along with purchased steaks, were subjected to the same taste panel evaluations as the 12th rib steaks from the right forequarters. Analysis of Data. The data were analyzed by least-squares methods for data with unequal subclass numbers (Harvey, 1975). The model was: Yijk where Yijk Gi = # + G i + Hj + (GH)ij + Eijk, = k th observation for the jth year and the i th breedtype effect, = overall mean, = i th breedtype effect, = jth year effect, 7 Based on specific gravity of the right side of the carcass at 48 hr postmortem. (GH)ij = breedtype x year interaction and, Eij k = random error. A fixed model was assumed. Variance ratio tests were made to determine whether significant main effects or interactions were present. In addition, specific, planned breedtype comparisons were made for each dependent variable by Student's t-test. The data also were analyzed with length of feedlot period, hot carcass weight or carcass fat 7 as a covariate. Results and Discussion Year effects were found for cooked color (P<.01), tenderness (P<.05), flavor (P<.01) and overall desirability (P<.01) of unaged rib steaks from bullocks. The breedtype year interaction was important (P<.05) for overall desirability. Year effects also were a significant source of variation for cooked color, juiciness, overall desirability, shear value for 2.54-cm cores (P<.01), tenderness and flavor (P<.05) of aged steaks from bullocks. The most plausible explanations for the year effects or the breedtype year interaction are that a different group of taste panelists was used each year and that a new sample of sires was introduced every year. The breedtype year interaction was not an TABLE 2. LEAST-SQUARES MEANS FOR PALATABILITY TRAITS OF UNAGED STEAKS FROM BULLOCKS Breedtype a Cooked color b Juiciness c Tenderness d Flavor b Desirability b 1.27-cm core, kg /~ HH RH AH BH HR RR BA AC ahh = straightbred Hereford, RH = Red Poll Hereford, AH = Angus X Hereford, BH = Brahman Hereford, HR = Hereford Red Poll, RR = straightbred Red Poll, BA = Brahman Angus, AC = Angus Charolais- Cross. Sire breed listed first. bl = extremely undesirable, 2 -- very undesirable, 3 = moderately undesirable, 4 = slightly undesirable, 5 = slightly desirable, 6 = moderately desirable, 7 -- very desirable, 8 = extremely desirable. Cl = extremely dry, 2 = very dry, 3 = moderately dry, 4 = slightly dry, 5 = slightly juicy, 6 = moderately juicy, 7 = very juicy, 8 = extremely juicy. dl = extremely tough, 2 = very tough, 3 = moderately tough, 4 = slightly tough, 5 = slightly tender, 6 = moderately tender, 7 = very tender, 8 = extremely tender. *Breedtype effect (P<.05). * * Breedtype effect (P<.01 ).
4 390 WINER ET AL. important source of variation in palatability of aged steaks from bullocks. Comparisons between these steaks and samples of unknown origin purchased in local meat outlets revealed overall year effects for cooking loss, color of cooked steaks, juiciness, shear (P<.01) and flavor (P<.05). The results also showed that differences in cooked color, tenderness, flavor and overall desirability of purchased steaks and aged steaks from bullocks were not the same in all years. Inspection of leastsquares means for palatability traits revealed that bullock steaks from 1976 and 1978 were superior to those obtained in local supermarkets; however, steaks that were supplied by a restaurant-trade purveyor appeared to be superior to bullock aged steaks from Unaged Steaks Least-squares means for palatability characteristics are presented in table 2. Breedtype effects for cooked color, tenderness, overall desirability and Warner- Bratzler shear value for 1.27-cm cores were nonsignificant. Variation due to breedtype was observed in juiciness (P<.01) and flavor (P<.05). Linear contrasts (table 3) showed that rib steaks from Brahman Hereford (BH) bullocks were less acceptable than steaks from straightbred Hereford (HH), Red Poll x Hereford (RH) and Angus Hereford (AH) steaks in juiciness, tenderness flavor and overall desirability. In addition, AH steaks exhibited more desirable (P<.05) cooked color than BH bullock steaks. These results concur with those from earlier studies (Kincaid, 1962; Ramsey et al., 1963) in which straightbred Brahmans or Brahman crosses produced less tender lean tissue than steers of British origin. Ramsey et al. (1963) also found that steaks from steers of Brahman breeding had low juiciness and flavor scores. Kincaid (1962) concluded that eating quality, as measured by paired eating tests, declines as the percentage of Brahman blood increases. Hereford x Red Poll (HR) rib steaks were less acceptable than HH steaks in juiciness (P<.01) and flavor (P<.05) but had lower (P<.05) shear values. These results agree in part with those of Bradley et al. (1966), who found that steaks from Hereford steers were superior in flavor and juiciness to those from HR. Ziegler et al. (1971) reported less favorable juiciness and flavor of cuts from dairy stock than TABLE 3. SELECTED LINEAR CONTRASTS FOR PALATABILITY TRAITS OF UNAGED STEAKS FROM BULLOCKS Item a Cooked color b Juiciness Tenderness Flavor Desirability 1.27-crn core, kg Sire breed contrast HH-RH HH-AH HH-BH RH-AH RH-BH AH-BH.36.18" HR-RR Darn breed contrast HH-HR RH-RR AH-AC BH-BA Reciprocal contrast RH-HR Heterosis contrast RH+HR HH+RR aabbreviations for breedtypes are explained in footnote a to table 2. bnumerical codes for taste panel scores are explained in footnotes b, c and d to table 2. *P<.05. **P<.01.
5 BREEDTYPE EFFECTS ON BEEF PALATABILITY 391 TABLE 4. MEANS FOR PALATABILITY TRAITS OF UNAGED AND AGED STEAKS FROM BULLOCKS Item Unaged Aged Difference Cooked color a Juiciness Tenderness Flavor Desirability 2.54-cm core, kg "* --,41,09** ,08"* '* "* 3,00.15"* anumerical codes for taste panel scores are explained in footnotes b, c and d to table 2. **P<.01. of cuts from beeftype cattle;however, research from the US Meat Animal Research Center showed no significant breed group variation in flavor or juiciness of steer beef (Koch et ai., 1976). There was no evidence of reciprocal (maternal) effects or heterosis for palatability traits of unaged steaks from Hereford and Red Poll bullocks. Absence of heterosis in carcass traits not directly related to growth has also been noted in steer trials (Kincaid, 1962). Although direct comparisons between experiments cannot be made, Fredeen et al. (1972) found no differences due to breed of sire or breed of dam in tenderness of longissimus muscle of bullocks, but breed of sire breed of dam interactions were evident. Significant positive linear regression effects of length of time on feed were noted for taste panel juiciness scores. Also, breed group was a significant source of variation in overall desirability when time on feed was included as a covariate. Percentage carcass fat had a signifi- cant negative effect on Warner-Bratzler shear values; as percentage carcass fat increased, shear values decreased, indicating greater tenderness. The regression on carcass weight was not important for palatability traits; however, breed group effects for flavor were diminished when comparisons were made on a weight-constant basis. Aged Steaks. Some bullock steaks that were aged for only 2 days received taste panel ratings in the undesirable range. However, bullock steaks aged for an additional 14 days after vacuum packaging received higher (P<.01) desirability scores for all palatability characteristics evaluated (table 4). These data are in agreement with those of Gutowski et al. (1979), who also found that vacuum aging of beef improved juiciness, tenderness and flavor scores. Furthermore, in the present study, overall breedtype variation among rib steaks that were aged for the longe: period was nonsignificant (table 5), although AH steaks excelled (P<.05) HH in flavor and in TABLE 5. LEAST-SQUARES MEANS FOR PALATABILITY TRAITS OF AGED STEAKS FROM BULLOCKS a Breedtype b Cooked color c Juiciness Tenderness Flavor Desirability 2.54-cm core, kg HH RH AH BH , HR RR , BA , AC ,23 abreed effects were nonsignificant for all traits. babbreviations for breedtypes are explained in footnote a to table 2. CNumerical codes for taste panel scores are explained in footnotes b, c and d to table 2.
6 392 WINER ET AL. TABLE 6. SELECTED LINEAR CONTRASTS FOR PALATABILITY TRAITS OF AGED STEAKS FROM BULLOCKS Item a Cooked color b Juiciness Tenderness Flavor Desirability 2.54-cm core, kg Sire breed contrast HH-RH HH-AH * * HH-BH RH-AH RH-BH " AH-BH, * ** HR-RR Dam breed contrast HH-HR -, RH-RR, AH-AC -, BH-BA Reciprocal contrast RH-HR Heterosis contrast RH+HR HH+RR aabbreviations for breedtypes are explained in footnote a to table 2. bnumerical codes for taste panel evaluations are explained in footnotes b, c and d to table 2. *P<.05. **P<.O1. overall desirability (table 6). This latter finding RH and AH and less desirable flavor scores cannot be explained and is not consistent than AH rib steaks. Heterosis and reciprocal with most previous research with steer beef differences for palatability traits of aged (Ramsey et al., 1963; Koch et al., 1976). steaks from Hereford x Red Poll crosses Aged rib steaks from BH bullocks had higher were not significant. Warner-Bratzler shear values than those from Overall, purchased steaks showed an ad- TABLE 7. SELECTED LINEAR CONTRASTS FOR AGED STEAKS FROM BULLOCKS VERSUS PURCHASED STEAKS Cooking Cooked WB shear Contrast loss, % color Juiciness Tenderness Flavor Desirability 2.54-cm core, kg HHa'-PS b RH-PS AH-PS BH-PS HR-PS RR-PS BA-PS AC-PS Overall c * _+, * * " "* aabbreviations for breedtypes are explained in footnote a to table 2. bps = purchased steaks. CAverage of all bullock means minus average of means for all purchased steaks. *P<.05. **P<.O1.
7 BREEDTYPE EFFECTS ON BEEF PALATABILITY 393 TABLE 8. STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF PALATABILITY TRAITS FOR AGED STEAKS FROM BULLOCKS AND PURCHASED STEAKS Bullock aged steaks Purchased steaks Trait N o N o Cooking loss, % Cooked color a Juiciness Tende mess Flavor Desirability W-B shear, 2.54-cm core, kg anumerical codes for taste panel evaluations are explained in footnotes b, c and d to table 2. vantage in juiciness (P<.05), tenderness (P<.01) and Warner-Bratzler shear values (P<.05) over steaks from young bulls; however, bullocks were superior (P<.O1) in flavor. No significant difference was noted in percentage cooking loss, cooked color or overall desirability (table 7). Selected linear contrasts revealed a more (P<.05) desirable cooked color for AC steaks than for purchased steaks. HH steaks received lower taste panel juiciness (P<.05) and tenderness (P<.01) scores. Taste panel tenderness and Warner-Bratzler shear values were less acceptable for BH, HR and BA steaks than for purchased steaks. RH, AH and AC steaks surpassed purchased steaks in flavor. Results of studies in which direct comparisons have been made between young bulls and steer contemporaries have generally shown that bull beef is slightly less tender; sex differences in other palatability attributes have tended to be small or negligible (Bailey et al., 1966b; Champagne et al., 1969; Field, 1971; Arthaud et al., 1977). Measures of variation in palatability characteristics of aged steaks from bullocks and of purchased steaks are reported in table 8. Aged steaks from bullocks had larger (P<.01) standard deviations, based on overall sums of squares, for taste panel tenderness, while purchased steaks exhibited greater (P<.01) variation in cooked color and flavor. No significant differences were noted in standard deviations for percentage cooking loss, juiciness, overall desirability and Warner-Bratzler shear values. A comparison of carcass traits for bulls and steers by Arthaud et al. (1969) indicated greater variation in Warner-Bratzler shear values for bulls. Literature Cited Arthaud, V. H., C. H. Adams, D. R. Jacobs and R. M. Koch Comparison of carcass traits of bulls and steers. J. Anita. Sci. 28:742. Arthaud, V. H., R. H. Mandigo, R. M. Koch and A. W. Kotula Carcass composition, quality and palatability attributes of bulls and steers fed different energy levels and killed at four ages. J. Anita. Sci. 44:53. Bailey, C. M. and J. D. Moore Reproductive performance and birth characters of divergent breeds and crosses of beef cattle. J. Anita. Sci. 50:645. Bailey, C. M., C. U Probert and V. R. Bohman. 1966a. Growth rate, feed utilization and body composition of young bulls and steers. J. Anita. Sci. 25:132. Bailey, C. M., C. L. Probert, Paula Richardson, V. R. Bohman and Julianne Chancerelle. 1966b. Quality factors of the longissimus dorsi of young bulls and steers. J. Anita. Sci. 25:504. Bradley, N. W., L. V. Cundiff, J. D. Kemp and T. R. Greathouse Effects of sex and sire on performance and carcass traits of Hereford and Hereford-Red Poll calves. J. Anim. Sci. 25:783. Champagne, J. R., J. W. Carpenter, J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer and M. Koger Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of young bulls and steers castrated at four ages. J. Anim. Sci. 29:887. Cundiff, Larry V., Keith E. Gregory and Robert M. Koch Effects of heterosis on reproduction in Hereford, Angus and Shorthorn cattle. J. Anita. Sci. 38:711. Field, R. A., Effect of castration on meat quality and quantity. J. Anim. Sci. 32:849. Fredeen, H. T., A. H. Martin, G. M. Weiss, S. B. Slen and L. J. Sumption Feedlot and carcass performance of young bulls representing several breeds and breed crosses. Can. J. Anita. Sci. 52:241. Glimp, H. A., M. E. Dikeman, H. J. Tuma, K. E. Gregory and L. V. Cundiff Effect of sex condition on growth and carcass traits of male Hereford and Angus cattle. J. Anita. Sci. 33:1242.
8 394 WINER ET AL. Gutowski, G. H., M. C. Hunt, C. L. Kastner, D. H. Kropf and D. M. Alien Vacuum aging, display and level of nutrition effects on beef quality. J. Food Sci. 44:140. Harvey, W. R Least-squares analysis of data with unequal subclass numbers. USDA, ARS H-4. Kincaid, C. M Breed crosses with beef cattle in the South. Southern Coop. Ser. Bull. 81. Klosterman, Earle W., V. R. Cahill, L. E. Kuntde and A. L. Moxon The subcutaneous implantation of stilbestrol in fattening bulls and steers. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1050. Koch, R. M., M. E. Dikeman, D. M. Allen, M. May, J. D. Crouse and D. R. Campion Characterization of biological types of cattle. III. Carcass composition, quality and palatability. J. Anita. Sci. 43:48. Long, Charles R Crossbreeding for beef production: Experimental results. J. Anita. Sci. 51:1197. Ramsey, C. B., J. W. Cole, Bernadine H. Meyer and R. S. Temple. 196~. Effects of type and breed of British, Zebu and Dairy cattle on production, palatability and composition. II. Palatability differences and cooking losses as determined by laboratory and family panels. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1001. Ziegler, J. H., L. L. Wilson and D. S. Coble Comparisons of certain carcass traits of several breeds and crosses of cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 32:446.
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Extension Bulletin E-270 New June 1999 Crossbreeding Systems for Beef Cattle Harlan Ritchie, B. Dennis Banks, Daniel Buskirk, Joel Cowley and David Hawkins Department of Animal Science Reasons for Crossbreeding
CATTLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS TO MEET FUTURE CONSUMER DEMANDS 1 M. E. Dikeman 2 Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506 Summary In recent years beef cattle production has not been routinely profitable because
THE USE OF CROSSBRED COWS TO INCREASE BEEF PRODUCTION PER HECTARE J.H.L. MORGAN, AUSTRALIA Postoral Research Institute P.O. Box 180, Hamilton, Victoria, Australia SUMMARY Most beef producers in Victoria
Breeding for Carcass Improvement John Dhuyvetter Area Livestock Specialist NCREC 3/21/2007 1 Changing Industry Value Based Marketing Grid Marketing Branded Product Genetic Technology Consolidation/Coordination
Beef Production and the Brahman-Influenced Cow in the Southeast J. W. Turner Department of Animal Science Texas A&M University The importance of the brood cow to efficient beef production is often overlooked
University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science Animal Science Department 7-2014 Estimation of Breed-Specific Heterosis Effects
630 US ISSN 0271-9916 May 1983 RESEARCH EXTENSION SERIES 030 BREEDING BETTER BEEF. 1. PREWEANING PERFORMANCE OF CALYES SIRED BY ANGUS, HEREFORD, AND CHAROLAIS BULLS D. Reimer,J. C. Nolan,Jr., and C. M.
WAGYU BEEF PRODUCTION IN AUSTRALIA Dr Sally Lloyd CY O Connor Foundation 2.8 million dairy cattle 24.6 million beef cattle 1.2% to wagyu bulls (169,000 joinings in 2014) 2.8 million grainfed cattle were
PERFORMANCE OF NURSING CALVES FED SUPPLEMENT WITH VARYING PROTEIN LEVELS SUMMARY D. B. Faulkner and F. A. Ireland Nursing steer calves on fescue pasture were used to determine the effects of supplemental
MODELLING GROWTH FROM WEANING TO MATURITY IN BEEF CATTLE BREEDS M. J. Zimmermann, L. A. Kuehn, M. L. Spangler, R. M. Thallman, W. M. Snelling & R. M. Lewis USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Producer Prediction of Optimal Sire Characteristics Impacting Farm Profitibility In a Stochastic Bio-Economic Decision Framework William Herring, and Vern Pierce 1 Copyright 1999 by Vern Pierce. All rights
Genomic-Polygenic and Polygenic Evaluation of Multibreed Angus-Brahman Cattle for Direct and Maternal Growth Traits Under Subtropical Conditions M. A. Elzo 1, M. G. Thomas 2, D. D. Johnson 1, C. A. Martinez
Can We Select for RFI in Heifers? L. Kriese-Anderson, Associate Professor 1 1 Extension Animal Scientist, Auburn University, Auburn AL Introduction Cow efficiency has been an important topic of conversation
Prediction of Carcass Traits Using Live Animal Ultrasound A.S. Leaflet R53 D.E. Wilson, professor of animal science, G.H. Rouse, professor of animal science, G.-H. Graser, research director, University
Retrospective Theses and Dissertations Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and Dissertations 2006 Comparison of calf-fed vs. yearling-fed management for the estimation of carcass trait genetic parameters
Traits of Cattle That Hit the Quality Target Gary D. Fike Feedlot Specialist Certified Angus Beef LLC Overview Acceptance rates for cattle qualifying for the Certified Angus Beef (CAB ) brand have been
Beef Production of Brahman, Shorthorn, and their Crosses on Different Pasture Programs February 1976 - Bulletin 780 (technical) Agricultural Experiment Stations Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Goal Oriented Use of Genetic Prediction Mark Johnson Inheritance of Quantitative Traits P = G + E Phenotype = Genotype + Environment Genotype Additive due to individual genes Non-additive due to combinations
Commentary: Increasing Productivity, Meat Yield, and Beef Quality through Genetic Selection, Management, and Technology M.E. Dikeman Introduction The primary purpose of producing beef cattle is to convert
University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science Animal Science Department 7-2-2007 Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot
Creating Premium Beef Maximizing Dairy Profit Tim Timmons Marketing Manager ABS Global QUESTIONS YOU SHOULD BE ASKING Do I need all of my replacements? Do all of my heifers pay off their rearing costs?
Value-Based Marketing for Feeder Cattle By Tom Brink, Top Dollar Angus, Inc. State of the Industry: 2014 was a BANNER YEAR in many ways Cattle ownership paid very well at all levels! $300 $280 Strong Cattle
EC 951 Reprinted May 1993 How to select, grow, and manage replacement heifers W.A. Zollinger and J.B. Carr $1.00 Replacement heifer production covers a major portion of the budget of most beef operations.
BREEDPLAN EBVs The Traits Explained BREEDPLAN currently reports EBVs for a range of economically important traits. These traits include: Weight Fertility/Calving Carcase Other Birth Weight Scrotal Size
RELATIONSHIPS AMONG UDDER SHAPE, UDDER CAPACITY, COW LONGEVITY AND CALF WEIGHTS ~ R. S. Kersey DeNise 2, D. E. Ray 2, A. M. Lane 2, V. L. Rundle 3 and M. Torabi 2 University of Arizona Tucson 85721 ABSTRACT
Wagyu 101 Michael Scott Certified Executive Chef Academy of Chefs Corporate Chef for Rosewood Ranches Texas Raised Wagyu Beef Table of Contents What is Wagyu Beef? 3-4 What is Kobe Beef? 5-7 Cattle Cycle
publication 400-804 Understanding Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) Scott P. Greiner, Extension Animal Scientist, Virginia Tech Expected progeny differences (EPDs) provide estimates of the genetic value
Understanding EPDs and Accuracies Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) are used to compare the genetic merit of animals in various traits. An EPD predicts the difference
Retrospective Theses and Dissertations 1972 Evaluation of early weaning and dairy calves for bull-beef production: protein and diethylstilbestrol interactions David Burks Williams Iowa State University
FACTORS AFFECTING CALF VALUE AND MARKETING TERMINOLOGY USED IN DESCRIBING THEM Dr. Dan T. Brown Extension Animal Scientist University of Georgia, Athens FACTORS AFFECTING CALF VALUE As you can well imagine,
Australian Hereford Selection Indexes There are currently four different selection indexes calculated for Australian Hereford animals. These are: Supermarket Index Grass Fed Steer Index Grain Fed Steer
Collecting Abattoir Carcase Information Abattoir carcase information, along with live animal ultrasound scanning measurements and genomic information, is used to calculate Carcase EBVs within BREEDPLAN.
University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science Animal Science Department December 2002 Breed comparisons of Angus, Charolais,
Effect of Residual Feed Intake, Gender, and Breed Composition on Plasma Urea Nitrogen Concentration in an Angus-Brahman Multibreed Herd Bob Myer 1 Mauricio Elzo 2 Feed efficient beef cattle appear to more
BUL616 Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Snapped Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot 1 Fentress M. Peacock and W. G. Kirk 2 The value of any fattening feed for beef cattle
FACTORS INFLUENCING PROFITABILITY OF FEEDLOT STEERS B.A. Gardner 1, S.L. Northcutt 2, H.G. Dolezal 3, D.R. Gill 4, F.K. Ray 3, J.B. Morgan 2 and C.W. Shearhart 5 Story In Brief The impact of live and carcass
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Comparison of Feedlot Performance and Carcass Traits Among Various Three-Breed Cross Calves C. G. Chenette, R. R. Frahm, A. B. Cobb and J. Eason Story in Brief Feedlot performance and carcass traits were
Quality Standards for Beef, Pork, & Poultry Unit 5.01 Quality Standards The USDA sets forth quality features for beef, pork, and poultry The quality features are classified into grades as determined by
Effect of Angus and Charolais Sires with Early vs Normal Weaned Calves on Feedlot Performance and Carcass Characteristics L.J. McBeth, M.L. Looper, C.R. Krehbiel, D.L. Step, and R.L. Ball Story In Brief
Feeder Calf Grading Fundamentals J. Duggin and L. Stewart Feeder grades offer more consistent communication between the producer and other segments of the beef industry including the stocker / backgrounders
Beef Cattle Management Eastern Navajo Cattle Herd Improvement By: Anthony Howard Western Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education Project Cattle Production: Establishing a livestock improvement program.
Meat quality. What is the future and why is it important? Stephen Conroy, Andrew Cromie & Thierry Pabiou (Irish Cattle Breeding Federation) 2 ICBF database AI Companies Genetic Evaluation System Veterinary