1 SUSTAINABLE MILK PRODUCTION IN DIFFERENT DAIRY CATTLE SYSTEMS AND VALORISATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHAIN ON THE BASIS OF ADDED VALUE M. Cassandro DAFNAE ITALY University of Padova
2 AIM Aim of this study is to propose and to estimate added values for: milk yield and predicted methane emissions 0" 30" 60" min" MILK"+"Rennet" RCT,"min" a 30,"mm" K 20,"min;"a"="20"mm" a 60,"mm" in local and cosmopolitan cattle breeds reared in Italian circumstances.
3 OUTLINE INTRODUCTION DEFINITION of SUSTAINABILITY INTENSIVE (I) AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM (IAS) EXTENSIVE (E) AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM (EAS) COMPARISON BETWEEN I vs E ANIMAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS ADDED VALUE FOR DAIRY CHAIN ADDED VALUES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHAIN COMPARING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS BY I vs E SYSTEMS CONCLUSIONS
4 INTRODUCTION In Italian context,! " the livestock sector is based on an high density of livestock unit per hectare of agricultural area in the North, which is similar to the most intensive livestock systems of Central and Northern European countries (EUROSTAT, 2011). " " Recent official census of agriculture (ISTAT, 2012) showed a trend toward a very strong intesification system." Livestock sustainability in Italy
5 INTRODUCTION N. livestock farms (x1000) N. of cattle farms 661,771 Change -68 % 171,994 Change -28 % 124, , N. of heads (cattle) Heads/farm 6,049,252 Change -6% 35 Change + 30% 46 5,677,953 Livestock sustainability in Italy (ISTAT, 2012)
6 INTRODUCTION Animal genetic resources needs to be evaluated not only per unit of output but for other direct and indirect units of output related to environment, social and human returns supporting different animal production systems, intensive or extensive ones.
7 INTRODUCTION FAO, declared that over the next 50 years, the world s farmers and ranchers will be called upon to produce more food than has been produced in the past 10,000 years combined, and to do so in environmentally sustainable ways.
8 Definition of Sustainability Sustainability should be defined as: Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987). A system or procedure is sustainable if it is acceptable now and if its effects will be acceptable in future, in particular in relation to resource availability, consequences of functioning and morality of action (Broom D.M. 2001, 2010). In livestock production systems the concept of sustainability should include (Gamborg and Sandøe, 2005): environmental protection, animal welfare, biodiversity, food safety and quality, social issues and economic competitiveness
9 INT(EXT)ENSIVE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS The major factors impacting the classification of animal production systems are based on: climate level of technology infrastructure production incentives political constraints human resources
10 INT(EXT)ENSIVE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Two can be the classification of agricultural systems: Intensive Agricultural Systems (IAS) based mainly on double cropping, crop rotation, crop residue management, erosion control) Extensive Agricultural Systems (EAS) based mainly on broad, much variation, inter cropping, strip cropping, involving several different crops or livestock species).
11 INT(EXT)ENSIVE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS In the specific sector of the animal production the intensive and extensive systems can be define as follow: Intensive systems are based smaller acreage, fewer animals, cosmopolitan breeds, more input costs per individual animal, more labour, sell for higher prices (often purebred/seedstock operations). Estensive systems are based on larger acreage, more animals, local breeds, fewer input costs, less labor, sell for lower prices (often crossbred commercial herds).
12 INT(EXT)ENSIVE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Differences in how we assess the impact of intensive and extensive systems might be evaluated on the differences in terms of: added values for dairy chain by intensive and extensive systems; added values for environmental chain comparing greenhouse gas emissions by intensive and extensive systems;
13 Modern Integrated Livestock Chain Farmer Animal Traditional Dairy Chain Milk (Meat) Environmental Chain Climate Change/GHG Processed Products Landscapes/Pollution Air and Water Commercial and Marketing Tourism/Quality of life Economy/Profit/AV
14 ADDED VALUE FOR DAIRY CHAIN In a Dairy chain the Added Value (AV) is: where: AV = V K V is the price value of final product (e.g. Value of Cheese produced by 1 kg of milk) K is the price value of input (e.g. Value of 1 Kg of milk used as milk fluid) If AV is positive (+), the product has added value If AV is negative (-), the product has destroyed value If AV > Cost of gain = Profitable If AV < Cost of gain = Not profitable
15 Milk Yield & Composition, Live Weight of 11 dairy production systems (4 Intensive and 7 Extensive) Production system Milk yield kg/d Fat % Prt % SCS Score Live Weight Kg Intensive 1 Holstein Friesian Brown Swiss Simmental Jersey n.a Extensive 5 Burlina Rendena Alpine Grey Reggiana Modenese (BVP) Modicana n.a Valdostana P.R n.a. 450 Average AIA, 2007, AA.VV
16 Milk Yield & Composition, Live Weight of 11 dairy production systems (4 Intensive and 7 Extensive) Production system Milk yield kg/d Fat % Prt % SCS Score Value of Milk Yield* /kg Value of Lactation* /305d Intensive 1 Holstein Friesian Brown Swiss Simmental Jersey n.a Extensive 5 Burlina Rendena Alpine Grey Reggiana Modenese (BVP) Modicana n.a Valdostana P.R n.a Average AIA, 2007, AA.VV
17 Production system Casein % Intensive K-Cn B % β-lg B % RCT min A30 mm Cheese Yield, % Value of Cheese* /kg Value of Cheese* /305d 1 Holstein Friesian Brown Swiss Simmental Jersey Extensive Milk Yield & Composition, Live Weight of 11 dairy production systems (4 Intensive and 7 Extensive) 5 Burlina n.a Rendena Alpine Grey Reggiana Modenese (BVP) Modicana Valdostana P.R n.a. n.a Average AIA, 2007, Cassandro et al., WCGALP, 2010 * 8 Euro/kg Parmigiano Reggiano
18 Milk Yield & Composition, Live Weight of 11 dairy production systems (4 Intensive and 7 Extensive) Production system Intensive Value of Cheese /kg Value of Milk Yield /kg A.V. /kg A.V. Dev. by HF % 1 Holstein Friesian Brown Swiss Simmental Jersey Extensive 5 Burlina Rendena Alpine Grey Reggiana Modenese (BVP) Modicana Valdostana P.R Average /Kg -21% /Kg
19 ADDED VALUE FOR DAIRY CHAIN
20 ADDED VALUE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHAIN In the environmental chain the AV may be defined as the minimum air pollution due to enteric methane emissions. Methane emissions contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect having many times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (IPPC, 2001, Kebread et al., 2008).
21 ADDED VALUE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHAIN In an environmental chain the Added Value (AV) may be defined as the Minimum Production of Air Pollution, as enteric CH 4 emissions (e.g. GHG emission x 1 kg of Milk Yield or Metabolic Weight) The AV is a measurement of an Environmental Mitigation and might be used as a New Brand of the breed for a valorization project
22 Predicted Methane Production MJ/d MJ/d 20,0 Intensive vs Extensive: vs MJ/d (+28%) 21,33 18,82 18,22 CH 4, MJ/d 16,0 15,39 14,31 12,53 14,58 15,38 14,68 14,78 13,37 15,76 12,0 8,0 4,0 0,0 Cassandro, et al. WCGALP, 2010
23 Predicted Methane Production / unit of output Intensive vs Extensive: 0.82 vs 1.03 MJ/ Milk yield, kg (-20 %) MJ/Kg CH 4, MJ/Milk yield kg 1,40 1,36 1,20 1,00 0,80 0,94 0,92 0,86 0,90 0,73 1,10 1,04 0,91 0,79 0,92 0,95 0,60 0,40 0,20 0,00
24 Predicted Methane Production / Metabolic Weight MJ/Kg ,17 Intensive vs Extensive: 0.15 vs 0.13 MJ/ Metabolic Weight, kg (+13 %) CH4, MJ/kg of Metabolic Weight 0,165 0,16 0,15 0,149 0,142 0,14 0,135 0,135 0,138 0,135 0,137 0,138 0,13 0,128 0,128 0,12 0,121 0,11 0,10
25 ADDED VALUE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHAIN
26 CONCLUSIONS Analyses on added value for dairy chain was better on extensive systems than intensive systems, so cheese yield is prefer for extensive systems than milk fluid production which is more appropriate to intensive systems. Similarly, analyses on added value for environmental chain, showed that added value is better with extensive systems respect to intensive systems. Hence, extensive systems showed to cope better with mitigation of predicted CH 4 emission in absolute value and per unit of metabolic weight than for unit of milk.
27 CONCLUSIONS Therefore, the comparison of different livestock systems should be evaluated in different terms as environmental and not only in term of productivity or maximization of the production. Livestock systems need to be evaluated not only per unit of output but for others direct and indirect units of output related to social and human returns, valorizing added values for cheese yield and environment mitigation and for other social and public goods, as territory preservation, consumer habits, turists requests, and history and cultural aspects of link between breed and food.
28 CONCLUSIONS In conclusion the sustainable model should be base on a combination of Intensive and Extensive farming systems, not as alternatives to each other, Intensive and Extensive farming systems must be combined in order to respond to different social, environmental and sustainable needs. Both systems must still consider the modern demands that modern agriculture requires as, guarantee the food security, improving the technological characteristics of animal products and reducing the carbon footprint.
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