Energy Economic of Small Farming Crop Production Operations

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1 World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4 (4): , 2008 ISSN IDOSI Publications, 2008 Energy Economic of Small Farming Crop Production Operations D.S. Karale, V.P. Khambalkar, S.M. Bhende, Sharddha B. Amle and Pranali S. Wankhede All India Coordinate Research Project on Farm Implements and Machinery, Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources and Electrical Engineering, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola (MS), India Abstract: The present study has been carried out on Central Research Farm (CRF) Dr PDKV, Akola and farmer based at village Gorwha. The operational energy input of the cotton and soybean crop were collected for traditional and self propelled mechanized small farming. The operations considered were as sowing, interculture, harvesting and picking of the crop. The energy input like human power, bullock power for traditional operation was examined in entire work of this study. Similarly, the energy used in operations of mechanized farming was examined for the exact quantification of the operational energy input. The study reflects the comparison of the operational energy input of both small farming. The operational energy input in traditional farming of soybean crop was observed more than mechanized farming. In cotton crop practices operational energy used was more in traditional farming as compared to mechanized farming. The cost of energy is four times more in traditional farming as compared to mechanized for soybean crop. Similar way in cotton the cost of energy is double in traditional farming as compared to mechanized farming. On the basis of the cost of energy, the soybean crop with the mechanized farming is the best option for maximize the net profit of the small farmers in the region. Key words: Small farming Traditional Mechanized Operational energy input Energy intensity Energy economics INTRODUCTION power is very crucial for timely farm operations for increasing production and productivity and handles the In the Indian economy agricultural shares is near crop produce to reduce losses [2]. about 28% of the total GDP. The peoples of India are But now days the animal powers are reduce. Not mainly depends on the agriculture and allied field which only because of the reduction in population of animal but is near about 65% more or less. But, Indian context have also increase in mechanical power. The tractors are use in the second largest population in the world and contribute field and transportation of other vehicles is used. And as near about 17 to 18% of total population of the world. So, compare to man and animal power to machine power is it is clear that land system of traditional farmers is being most important for developing countries. It is save time change due to pressure of growing population of the and increase production. The precision in mechanization country. Now a day, majority of the farmer in our country of farm is very important because of increase in crop came under small marginal lands (area) system. These production, best quality product. In small farm it is very fragmented lands have lower productivity due to the difficult to use tractor operated implement. Hence, for inadequate operation and merger use of the precise farm small farm self- propelled machine are used such as power machineries [1]. tiller, rice transplanted tiller, sprayer etc. It is the extreme Power is needed on the farm for operating different need of human being to increase the productivity of the tools, implements and during various farm operations. small farm because of increasing population day by day. While mobile power is used for doing field jobs, the In agriculture sector of India, the energy use pattern for stationary power is used for lifting water and operating unit production of crops has varied under different agro irrigation, thresher s sellers, cleaner s graders and for climatic zones. The use of energy in crop production other post harvest operation. The mobile farm power depends on availability of energy sources in particular comes from human, draught animal, power tiller, tractor region and also on the capacity of the farmers. There is a and self-propelled machines. Availability of adequate farm need to carry out energy analysis of crop production Corresponding Author: V.P. Khambalkar, Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources and Electrical Engineering, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola (MS), India

2 system (practices) and to establish optimum energy input assessment of operational energy input on farmers field. at different levels of productivity. The appropriate use of Similarly data regarding the traditional power required at energy input to crop production could originate from picking and harvesting stage of the crop have been several types of conservation practices. The reduction, collected to find out the operational energy input. elimination or combination at machinery operation will reduce energy (fuel) input and also may reduce the uses Mechanized Farming by Self Propelled Tool Bar: To of labor and time [3]. know the operational energy input in the crop like Human and animal energy is predominately used in cotton and soybean, data were collected from CRS farm, most of the farming operations in Vidharbha region, Dr. PDKV., Akola. The operational input related to the starting from land preparation to harvesting of the crops. energy in crop production for operation of sowing, inter Due to much involvement of labour in different farm culture and picking / harvesting has been recorded at operations, the cost of production of most crops in our every step of operation. The data percept at the stage of country is quite high as compared to developed countries. sowing has been collected by means of man power, Also the unavailability of human power due to migration machinery working duration and fuel consumption towards town in peak period accounts more expenditure requirement per hector. Similar way the data of operational with less productivity. Human energy account Rs. 125 to input in intercultural operation has recorded for man 156 for produce the 1 kwh of energy of and for draught power and machinery working for the said operation. The animal it is estimated as Rs /kWh and for the data regarding picking / harvesting of crop have been mechanical it is in the range of Rs. 3 to per kwh [4]. collected to the exact assessment of operational energy Keeping in view the above facts the project works entitled input. In this, picking of cotton have been carried out by Determination of energy consumption for various crop traditional way due to non availability of the machinery. production operations by self propelled tool bar has Soybean crop have been harvesting by self propelled tool been taken for identifying the operational energy input bar of reaper assembly. The data of man power, machinery with compare to traditional farming of small farm. with the fuel consumption have been collected for traditional and mechanized operations. METHODOLOGY Theory for Analysis: The operational energy analysis The present study has been carried out at CRF, was performed based on field operations from sowing Dr. PDKV, Akola and near by farmer s field at Gorwha to crop harvesting management as well as on the direct village by using the self-propelled toolbar. The energy (fuel and human labour) consumption for the production consumption of the various operation of the self- processes. The operation energy input of various stages propelled toolbar in crops like cotton, soybean was has been calculated for sowing intercultural and collected. Similarly, the energy consumption in the crop harvesting of soybean and cotton crop. production by using the tradition farm operation was recorded from the Gorwha village. Based on the use of Theory for the Mechanized Cropping System: The direct self-propelled toolbar operation and traditional farm power energy use per hectare for each field operation like source, the operational energy evaluation of the crop sowing, interculture and harvesting/ picking was production was calculated. computed by the following equation [5]: Traditional Farming at Gorwha Village: To know the ED = h AFU PEU RU (1) operational energy input in the crop like cotton and soybean, data were collected from the farmer field of where, ED = Specific direct energy use (fuel) for field Gorwha village. The operational input related to the operation (MJ/ha), h = Specific working hours per run energy in above said crop production, for operation like (h/ha), AFU = Average fuel use per working hour (l/h), sowing, intercultural and picking / harvesting have been PEU = Specific energy value per liter of fuel (MJ/l), recorded at every step of operations. The data percept at RU = Runs, number of applications in the considered field the stage of sowing has been collected by means of the operation. man power requirement per hector and bullock power The rate of labour use in the various crop production requirement per hector. The data regarding to power or operations in studied area was determined for each stage. energy used at the stage of inter cultural operations which The labour energy input (MJ/ha) at every stage in the includes hoeing and weeding at various stage of crop production process was estimated by the following have been collected for the exact quantification and equation 477

3 Theory for the Traditional Cropping System : The power requirement at the various stages of traditional cropping system was computed by means of various stage involvement of operation. This has included the sowing of crops, intercultural (hoeing and weeding), harvesting/picking of the crops. The formula used to calculate the power or energy requirement was as below [6] [4]: (4) ED = TMW X h X EE (3) Hm ED = TFW X h X EE Hf where, ED Hm = Direct energy human for male (MJ), TMW = Total male working, h = Specific working hours per run (h/ha), EE= Energy equivalent (kw), ED Hf= Direct energy human for female. ED = ED + ED (5) H Hm Hf where, ED = Total Direct energy for human H The bullock power requirement in the various operation of the crop production was computed as follows: ED = TBW X h X EE (6) B World J. Agric. Sci., 4 (4): , 2008 LABOUR TIME (2) The total traditional operational energy is the LABEN = LABENF AREA cumulative function of the human power and bullock power input was computed as follows: where, LABEN = Labour energy (MJ/ha), LABOUR = Number of working laborers, TIME = Operating time (h), ED = ED H + ED B (7) AREA =Operating area (ha), LABENF=Labour energy factor (MJ/h) Where, ED = Total direct energy, ED H = Direct energy for Human, ED B= Direct energy for Bullock. The energy input intensity (e) was determined from the summation of equations of all energy inputs in traditional and mechanized cropping system by the following expression: e = E/A (8) where, e = Operational energy input intensity (MJ/ha), E = Total energy consumption(mj), A = The effective production area (ha) Energy Economics: The operational energy economics of traditional and mechanized system were calculated by using the current cost spends on the various parameters. The cost of human power, cost of bullocks, cost of fuel required have been considered for the exact assessment of the cost involvements in crop production operations [7]. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The data collected in cotton and soybean crop production small farming system were analyzed for the exact quantification. The various operation in crop production of crops like sowing, intercultural and harvesting and picking were considered for the operation energy input determination. Results obtained by the self propelled toolbar i.e. mechanical farming and by human i.e. traditional farming in CRS farm and Gorwha. where, ED = Direct energy for Bullock, TBW = Total B Bullock working, h = Specific working hours per run, EE = Energy equivalent Traditional Operation Energy Input: The operational energy input of traditional cropping of soybean crops is depicted in Table 1 In tradition sowing soybean crop Table 1: Assessment of operational energy input in various operation of Soybean crop of traditional farming Sowing Intercultural operation Picking /Harvesting Par. Male Female Bullock Par. Male Female Bullock Par. Male Female Bullock TOE (MJ/ha) No No No OH (h) OH (h) OH (h) OEI (MJ/ha) OEI (MJ/ha) OEI (MJ/ha) Total Op. Energy input = MJ/ha Total Op. Energy input = MJ/ha Total Op. Energy input = MJ/ha, MJ/ha Note: OEI is operational energy input, TOE is total operational energy Crop: Soybean Area : 1 ha, Source of data : Village Gorwha 478

4 Table 2 : Assessment of operational energy input in various operation of Cotton crop for traditional farming Sowing Intercultural operation Picking /Harvesting Par. Male Female Bullock Par. Male Female Bullock Par. Male Female Bullock TOE (MJ/ha) No No No OH (h) OH (h) OH (h) OEI, (MJ/ha) OEI, (MJ/ha) OEI, (MJ/ha) Total Op. Energy input = MJ/ha, Total Op. Energy input = MJ/ha Total Op. Energy input = MJ/ha MJ/ha Note: OEI is operational energy input, TOE is total operational energy, OH is the operating hours Crop : Cotton Area : 1 ha., Source of data : Village Gorwha Table 3: Assessment of operational energy input for Soybean crop for mechanized farming Sowing Intercultural Harvesting Par Man Mech. RUN Par Man Mech. RUN Par Man Mech. RUN TOE, MJ/ha No No No OH, h OH, h OH, h F, l/h 1.00 F, l/h 0.50 F, l/h OEI, MJ/ha OEI, MJ/ha OEI, MJ/ha Total Op. Input = MJ/ha Total Op. Input = MJ/ha Total Op. Input = MJ/ha MJ/ha Note: OEI is operational energy input, TOE is total operational energy, OH is the operating hours, F is the fuel consumption Crop : Soybean, Area : 1 ha, Source of data: Central Research Farm. Dr PDKV., Akola energy input was observed to be 262 MJ/ha which of 35 MJ/ha of energy is required for the harvesting of included the mainly of bullock power of MJ/ha. A cotton crop. The total operational energy input in cotton preparation data of soybean crop from early stage of crop by traditional method was observed to be 696 MJ/ha. operation to the mature stage of crop has been collected It was realized that intercultural operations of the cotton from the farmer field. It was observed that bullock and and soybean crops require more operational energy input female power is used more for the intercultural operation. than other operations. It was observed that the overall The power used by the bullock in intercultural operation operational energy input of the cotton and soybean crop of soybean crop system was observed to be 343 MJ/ha. is the interlinked of the various power sources which are A total of power used for the operational energy inputs in the human and the livestock. The labour shortage in the intercultural operations of soybean crop was found to be traditional crop and the bullock deficiency increases the 379 MJ/ha. The data penetrating towards the harvesting cost of operational energy input. The energy studied was of the soybean crop from the farmers was analyzed for the reported in wheat and cotton crop for interculture determination operational energy input. It was found that operation [9] of 51 MJ/ha of energy is required for the harvesting of soybean crop. The total operational energy input in Mechanized Operations Energy Input: The self propelled soybean crop by traditional method was observed to be mechanized energy input in soybean crop is depicted in 693 MJ/ha. Similar energy assessment in sorghum Table 3. In mechanized system of sowing for this crop cropping system was reported in Vidarbha region [8]. energy input was observed to be 149 MJ/ha which The operational energy input of traditional cropping included the mainly of fossil fuel power of 143 MJ/ha. A of cotton crops is depicted in Table 2. In tradition system preparational data of soybean crop from early stage of of sowing for this crop energy input was observed to be operation to the mature stage of crop has been collected 262 MJ/ha which included the mainly of bullock power of from the CRS field. It was observed that mechanized 171 MJ/ha. A preparation data of cotton crop from early power is used more for the intercultural operation. The stage of operation to the mature stage of crop has been power used by the machine in intercultural operation of collected from the farmer field. It was observed that soybean crop system was observed to be 179 MJ/ha. A bullock and female power is used more for the intercultural total of power used for the operational energy inputs in operation. The power used by the bullock in intercultural intercultural operations of soybean crop was found to be operation of cotton crop system was observed to be 193 MJ/ha. The data penetrating towards the harvesting 343 MJ/ha. A total of power used for the operational of the soybean crop from the field was analyzed for the energy inputs in intercultural operations of cotton crop determination operational energy input. It was found that was found to be 399 MJ/ha. of 155 MJ/ha of energy is required for the harvesting of The data penetrating towards the harvesting of the soybean crop. The total operational energy input in cotton crop from the farmers was analyzed for the soybean crop by mechanized method was observed to be determination operational energy input. It was found that MJ/ha. It was realized that intercultural operations 479

5 of soybean crop require more operational energy input observed to be MJ/ha. In traditional operation of than other operations in self propelled mechanized cotton cropping system operational energy intensity was system. The operational energy input of mechanized observed to be MJ/ha. In mechanized operation of cropping of cotton crops is depicted in Table 4. In this soybean cropping system operational energy intensity system sowing required operational energy input of was observed to be MJ/ha. In mechanized MJ/ha which included the mainly of fossil fuel operation of cotton cropping system operational energy power of 143 MJ/ha. Data of cotton crop from early stage intensity was observed to be MJ/ha. of operation to the mature stage of crop has been collected from the field. It was observed that mechanized Energy Economics of Crops: The input energy economics power is used more for the intercultural operation. The of various operations have been calculated for exact power used by the machine in intercultural operation of quantification of energy economics in crop production. In cotton crop system was observed to be 298 MJ/ha. A soybean and cotton crops operation required energy is total of power used for the operational energy inputs in then transferred in costs. The actual expenses paid for the intercultural operations of cotton crop was found to be various power sources have been incorporated in 323 MJ/ha. The data penetrating towards the harvesting traditional and mechanized farming. of cotton crop by traditional ways was considered and analyzed for the determination operational energy input. Energy Economics of Soybean Crop: It is necessary to It was found that of 33 MJ/ha of energy is requiredfor the determine the effect of various operation energy input on harvesting of cotton crop. The total operational energy the cost of crop production. The cost required in sowing, input in cotton crop by mechanized method was observed interculture and harvesting of soybean crop for traditional to be 507 MJ/ha. and mechanized are depicted in Table 6. It was seen that It was realized that intercultural operations of cotton sowing of soybean crop in traditional farming requires and soybean crop require more operational energy input INR 1200 per hectare. In mechanized farming cost required than other operations. It was observed that the overall for sowing comes to be INR 205 per hectare. The cost operational energy input of cotton and soybean crop is calculated showed that there is a possibility of saving the interlinked of the various power sources which are the cost in sowing operation in mechanized farming. The cost human and the machine. The labour shortage in the of interculture operations in soybean was observed to be mechanized crop production system does not reflect on 2800 and 694 INR per hectare in traditional and the cost of operational energy input. The traditional and mechanized farming, respectively. It seems to be four mechanized systems were compared in various crop times more cost has required in traditional farming for systems [7]. interculture operations. The cost of harvesting based on the energy input was observed to 5500 and 1309 INR per Operational Energy Input Intensity: Table 5 depicted the hectare in traditional and mechanized farming, information about the operational energy input intensity respectively. various operation in traditional and mechanized crop It is also realized that in harvesting four times more production system. In traditional operation of soybean cost is involved in the traditional farming compared to the cropping system operational energy intensity was mechanized farming. Table 4: Assessment of operational energy input for Cotton for mechanized farming Sowing Intercultural Harvesting Par Man Mech. RUN Par Man Mech. RUN Par Female Mech. RUN TOE, MJ/ha No No No OH, h OH, h OH, h F, l/h F, l/h F, l/h - - OPE, MJ/ha OPE, MJ/ha OPE, MJ/ha Total Op. Input = MJ/ha Total Op. Input = MJ/ha Total Op. Input = MJ/ha MJ/ha Note: OEI is operational energy input, TOE is total operational energy, OH is the operating hours, F is the fuel consumption Crop : Cotton, Area : 1 ha, Source of data : Central Research Farm. Dr PDKV., Akola Table 5: Comparison of operational energy input intensity of traditional and mechanized farming for Cotton and Soybean crop Method Crops Sowing Intercultural Harvesting Total (MJ/ha) Traditional Soybean Cotton Mechanized Soybean Cotton

6 Table 6: Energy economics assessment of soybean crop in traditional and mechanized farming Sowing Interculture Harvesting/ Picking TC MC TC MC TC MC Par H B H B DF H B H B DF H B T H B DF TOC(Rs/ ha) No R/U Tsoc TTC (Rs/ha) TMC (Rs/ha) Note: TC is the traditional cropping, MC is the mechanized cropping, H is for human power, B is for bullock power, DF is the diesel fuel in litre, R/U is the rate per unit (Human/ bullock/ diesel fuel), T TC is the traditional operational cost, T MC is the mechanized operational cost, T soc is the sub operational cost, TOC is the total operational cost Table 7: Energy economics assessment of cotton crop in traditional and mechanized farming Sowing Interculture Harvesting/ Picking TC MC TC MC TC MC Par H B H B DF H B H B DF H B T H B DF TOC(Rs/ha) No R/U Tsoc TTC (Rs/ha) TMC (Rs/ha) Note: TC is the traditional cropping, MC is the mechanized cropping, H is for human power, B is for bullock power, DF is the diesel fuel in litre, R/U is the rate per unit (Human/ bullock/ diesel fuel), T TC is the traditional operational cost, T MC is the mechanized operational cost, T soc is the sub operational cost, TOC is the total operational cost Energy Economics of Cotton Crop: The similar way saves the much more energy input in operation and operation energy economics of cotton crop have been reduces the cost. carried out. The cost of energy require in sowing came to Once we look towards the cost of energy, it is clear be 1200 and 205 INR per hectare in traditional and that the cost of energy is four times more in soybean crop mechanized farming. The interculture operation of the for traditional farming as compared to mechanized farming. cotton crop has require 3500 and 1585 INR per hectare in But in cotton crop, the cost of energy moreover doubles traditional and mechanized farming. The picking required in traditional as compared to mechanized farming and 3290 INR per hectare. Overall in cotton crop It is now concluded that mechanized farming of operation cost of energy is double for traditional farming soybean crop shows the significant saving in operational as compare to mechanized farming. Similar evaluation cost energy as well of energy in traditional and mechanized farming has been carried for crop production operation [7]. REFERENCES CONCLUSION 1. Shrivastava, N.S.L., Farm power sources their availability and future requirement to sustain In present study we have analyses traditional and agriculture production: Status of farm mechanization mechanized farming system for the small farm. Farmers of in India, IASRI, ICAR, PUSA, New Delhi publication, the studied area grew cotton and soybean thereby these pp: two crops have been taken for knowing the operational 2. Singh, S., J.P. Mittal and S.R. Varma, Energy energy. It was observed that in both crop energy required requirement for production of major crops in India in sowing, interculture and harvesting/ picking operation AMA., 28(4): was more in traditional farming as compared to the 3. De Sankar and N.N. Sarkar, Power availability in mechanized farming. It means that mechanized farming Indian Agriculture. CIAE, Bhopal, pp:

7 4. Shrivastava, N.S.L., Small farm mechanization- 7. Shrivastava, A.C., A comparative study of A problem and prospects. Small farm mechanization, conventional and mechanized farming relative to ISAE Rajasthan chapter publication, pp: 1-15 energy use and cost. AMA Spring. 5. Bockari-Gevao, S.M, W.I. Wan Ishak, Y. Azmi and 8. Jadhao, A.K. and H.N. Pandey, Energy C.W. Chan, Analysis of energy consumption in requirement for sorghum crop production in lowland rice-based cropping system of Malasia. Vidhargha region. Agri. Engg. Today, 28(3-4): Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 27(4): Adil, S.A. and H.C. Joshi, Energy output 6. Amale, S. and W. Pranali, Determination of relationship: A case study of cotton and wheat. energy consumption for various crop production J. Rural Develop. Admin., 24(4): operations by self propelled tool bar. Unpublished B. Tech. (Agril. Engg.) project report Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola, MS India. 482

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