Commercial Crops in South Asia

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1 Commercial Crops in South Asia Lecture 5 Cotton & Sugarcane Ambrish Dhaka MA Course, 07 Economic and Political Geography of South Asia IS 59 N

2 Cotton Area (Ha) - Rankings

3 Yield (ha) - Rankings

4 Production (tonnes) - Rankings

5 Source:

6 Cotton Area in South Asia Cotton Area (ha) Afghanistan Bangladesh India Pakistan

7 Cotton Yield (hg/ha) - S_Asia Cotton Yield (hg/ha) Afghanistan Bangladesh India Pakistan

8 Cotton Lint Production S_Asia Cotton Lint Production (tonnes) Afghanistan Bangladesh India Pakistan

9 Common Terms in Cotton Processing What is kapas? Kapas is raw cotton or seed cotton What is lint? Cotton fibre separated from seed cotton is called lint. What is FP bales? FP bales are full pressed bales with standard weight of 70 kgs. What is meant by ginning? Ginning is process, which separates cotton fibres from cottonseed. What is pressing? Lint cotton separated from cottonseed is pressed in the form of full pressed bales with standard weight of 70 kgs. ( Courtesy: google images

10 Cotton Cropping in Pakistan cotton account for 5.6 percent of the value added in overall agriculture and 5.4 percent to GDP. July-March 03-4, textile industry fetched foreign exchange of US$ billion. less rates of cotton nationally and internationally prevailed during last two years that discouraged the growers to put more area under crop and shifting the area to maize and rice.

11 Yield is an important Concern

12 Cotton as Oilseed

13 Problems of Cotton sector The signing of the GATT agreement added other concerns, in particular the affect on consumers of carcinogenic dyes and chemicals (especially azodyes), and production processes resulting from inadequate environmental safeguards and standards that create a competitive disadvantage for cleaner industries in the North. These concerns have led to a number of actions to induce a switch to such sustainable alternatives as organic cotton, integrated pest management, chemicalfree textile processing. At one extreme are.3 million cotton farms (of which roughly half are smaller than hectares) competing in almost classic perfect competition, a vast majority operated as family farms by owners/ cultivators with limited literacy or access to technology. we could divide the cotton commodity chain into three broad segments: Apparel and textiles, Yarn and grey cloth and Cotton growing.

14 Significance for Pakistan Cotton production supports Pakistan s largest industrial sector, comprising some 400 textile mills, 7 million spindles, 7,000 looms in the mill sector (including 5,000 shuttleless looms), over 50,000 looms in the non-mill sector, 700 knitwear units, 4,000 garment units (with 00,000 sewing machines), 650 dyeing and finishing units (with finishing capacity of,50 million square meters per year), nearly,000 ginneries, 300 oil expellers, and 5,000 to 0,000 indigenous, small scale oil expellers (kohlus).

15

16 Cotton farming in India

17

18 Minimum support prices

19 Cropping Season Cotton in India

20 Cotton industry scenario The cotton industry has, employs an estimated 46.6 million people. India s cotton exports during 008/09 faltered as the high minimum support price (MSP) made Indian cotton uncompetitive in the international market. India s exports reached 75,000 tons in 005/06 and continued to climb in subsequent seasons (960,000,,500,000, tons in 006/07 and 007/08, respectively). In 008/09 estimated at 450,000 tons. Major export destinations are Bangladesh, Pakistan, China (Mainland) and other Far-east countries. India s textile industry is of considerable volume. India is the second largest producer of textiles and garments after China (Mainland) and has a share of 3.9% in the global textile trade. Textile plays a pivotal role through its contribution to industrial output, employment generation and the export earnings of the country. In 008, it contributed about 4% of industrial production, 4% of the GDP and provided direct employment to over 33 million people.

21 ...contd. The Indian textile industry is composed of two sectors. The "organized" sector (large-scale spinning units and composite mills); produces 95% of yarn. The organized sector weaving mills account for 5% of cloth production. The "unorganized" sector, (small-scale spinning units, power looms, handlooms, hosiery units) account for the rest of production. The weaving industry is mainly supplied by the unorganized sector, with power looms accounting for 60%, handlooms for 8%, and hosiery units for 7 % of total cloth production (008 estimates).

22 Industry structure The Indian government actively participates in the industry and serves as an umbrella for government agencies like Cotton Corporation of India (CCI) and state marketing federations. Furthermore, the state governments and regions in which the majority of the cotton planting occurs are also highly involved. In addition, there are committees and institutions responsible for the improvement of quality such as Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) and the Central Institute of Cotton Research (CICR). Finally, though not limited to the cotton industry but also playing a large role is the Ministry of Textiles. Source: COTTON FACT SHEET, Emeka Osakwe May 9, 009

23 Sugarcane Area (ha) - Rankings

24 Yield (hg/ha) Rankings

25 Production (tonnes) - Rankings

26 Sugarcane Area Harvested (ha) Sugarcane Area Harvested (ha) Bangladesh India Pakistan

27 Sugarcane Yield (hg/ha) S_ Asia Sugarcane Yield (hg/ha) Bangladesh India Pakistan Sri Lanka

28 Refined Sugar Imports (tonnes)

29 Sugarcane Season in India

30 Sugarcane Farm Scenario Source:

31 Sugarcane in Indian Agriculture Source:

32 Sugarcane Processing Source:

33 Source:

34 Production and Market

35

36

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