Human perturbations to the global Nitrogen cycle

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Human perturbations to the global Nitrogen cycle"

Transcription

1 Human perturbations to the global Nitrogen cycle Lecture for Biogeochemistry and Global Change Edzo Veldkamp

2 The pace of human caused global change has increased in modern history, but none so rapidly as industrial production of nitrogen. % of extent seen in late 1980 s 75% 50% 25% deforestation CO 2 release Human population Industrial N-fertilizer (Vitousek et al, 1997)

3 Nitrogen -Essential component of proteins, genetic material, chlorophyll, etc. -Before human activities, nitrogen was scantily available -78% of earth s atmosphere is Nitrogen, but most plants and animals cannot use N 2 directly - Instead they can only use nitrogen in fixed form (NH 4 and NO 3 )

4 History of Nitrogen late 18th century: named by Jean Claude Chaptal mid 19th century: role in crop production recognized (von Liebig) late 19th century: biological N fixation discovered early 20th century: Haber-Bosch process invented

5 History of Nitrogen Haber-Bosch Process N is discovered Biological N-fixation N is nutrient Humans (billions) Haber-Bosch, Tg N (Galloway & Cowling, 2002)

6 Gaseous losses N fixation N 2 N 2 O NH 3 Industrial Symbiotic Residues, Manures NO 3 - Soil Organic Matter Organisms NO 2 - NH 3 Leaching NH 4 + Clay minerals

7 Natural Nitrogen sources -N-fixing organisms (free living and symbiotic) Tg of N / yr (1 Tg = 1 Gt = ton) Lupine is an example of a legume that form a close relationship with N-fixing bacteria such as Rhizobia

8 Natural Nitrogen sources -Lightning (Probably less than 5 Tg N)

9 Human-driven Nitrogen sources -Industrial fixation of fertilizer approx. 80 Tg / yr

10 Human-driven Nitrogen sources

11 Human-driven Nitrogen sources -Nitrogen fixing crops (legumes, but also rice) approx. 40 Tg / yr

12 Human-driven Nitrogen sources -Fossil fuel burning releases fixed N from long-term geological formations high temperature combustion also fixes small amount of atmospheric N directly more than 20 Tg / yr

13 Human-driven Nitrogen sources -Mobilization of stored N from biological pools Biomass burning: more than 40 Tg / year

14 Human-driven Nitrogen sources -drainage of wetlands, followed by oxidation of peat. More than 10 Tg / year

15 Human-driven Nitrogen sources -Land clearing for agriculture followed by oxidation of SOM. More than 20 Tg

16 Denitrification 130 Biological fixation 140 Global N-Cycle (in Tg) Human activities 90 lightning <5 River flow Internal Cycling (Schlesinger, 1994)

17 Comparison of natural and human-driven Nitrogen sources 160 Terrestrial N-fixation Tg N yr Range of estimates of natural N fixation N fertilizer Fossil fuel 20 Legume crops Year Galloway et al., (1995)

18 Global N budget in 1890 lightning rivers biomass fossil fuel natural ecosystems legumes rice animals oceans (Galloway & Cowling, 2002)

19 lightning Global N budget in 1990 rivers biomass fossil fuel natural ecosyst. Haber Bosch legumes rice animals oceans (Galloway & Cowling, 2002)

20 Impacts of increased N Global atmospheric deposition (mg N m -2 yr -1 ) of reactive nitrogen in 1993 (Galloway & Cowling, 2002)

21 Impacts on atmosphere Increased emissions of nitrogen based trace gases such as N 2 O, NO and NH 3. N 2 O: greenhouse gas, Ozone layers in stratosphere NO: precusor of acid rain and photochemical smog

22 Global N 2 O budget Tg N y Natural sources Ocean 3.0 (1-5) Tropical forest soils 3.0 ( ) Tropical savanna soils 1.0 ( ) Temperate forest soils 1.0 ( ) Temperate grasslands 1.0 ( ) Anthropogenic sources Agricultural soil 3.3 ( ) Biomass burning 0.5 ( ) Industrial Sources 1.3 ( ) Cattle and feedlots 2.1 ( ) Σ 16.2 ( ) Sinks Atmospheric Increase 3.9 ( ) Soils? Stratospheric Sink 12.3 (9-16) Σ 16.2 ( ) (IPCC, 2002)

23 Global NO budget Tg N y Natural sources Lightning <5 Tropical savanna soils 2.0 Tropical forest soils 1.0 Anthropogenic sources Biomass burning 15 Fossil fuels >20 Agricultural soils 2.3 Sum ~50

24 Nitrogen saturation Nitrogen saturation occurs when the vegetation can no longer respond to further additions of nitrogen

25 Nitrogen saturation Build-up of NH 4 + => increasing formation of NO 3 - (+H +!!) Leaching of NO 3 - leads to leaching of basic cations Progressive acidification => mobilization of Al (toxic!) Result: damage to tree roots, nutrient imbalance, fish killing

26 The Nitrogen cascade (Galloway & Cowling, 2002)

27 Effects on biodiversity and species mix Fertilization leads to dominance of fertilizer responsive species. E.g. in Netherlands, species rich heathlands are converted into species poor grasslands and forests. Species-poor ecosystems may be more vulnerable to drought, etc.

28 Example of heathland

29 Future prospects N-fertilizer use The world s growing population needs more food production which requires large quantities of N fertilizer Prediction: by 2020 global production of N fertilizer will increase from currently 80 Tg / yr to 134 Tg / yr (Smil, 2002)

30 Future prospects Reactive N created in 1995 and at time of max. human population (about 9 billion people) (Galloway & Cowling, 2002)

31 N 2 O and NO losses (% of applied fertilizer Future prospects N 2 O NO Banana Plantation Agriculture in temperate areas (Veldkamp & Keller, 1997)

32 Choice of diet Management options a= vegetarian diet; b= carnivorous diet (Galloway & Cowling, 2002)

33 Choice of diet Management options Feed conversion (FC in kg of feed/kg of edible weight) and Protein conversion efficiency (PCE in %) for different animal products: FC PCF Milk: % Carp: % Eggs: % Chicken: % Pork: % Beef: % (Smil, 2002)

34 Management options Increase efficiency of applied nitrogen Kg grain / kg N (Cassman et al., 2002)

35 Conclusions Human activities have doubled the natural rate at which N enters the land based N cycle Serious environmental consequences are already apparent (trace gases, acidification) N input can be reduced by changing diet and increasing the efficiency It is urgent that policies address the N issue, slow the pace of this global change and moderate its impacts.

36 Cited literature: Cassman KG, Dobermann A, Walters DT, (2002). Agroecosystems, nitrogen-use efficiency and nitrogen management. Ambio 31 (2): Galloway, JN and Cowling, EB (2002). Reactive Nitrogen and the world: 200 years of change. Ambio 31 (2): IPCC, Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Contribution of working group 1 to the third assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, 881p. Schlesinger WH, (1997). Biogeochemistry, an analysis of global change. 2nd edition Academic Press, San Diego, California, 588 p. Smil V, (2002). Nitrogen and food production: proteins for human diets. Ambio 31(2): Veldkamp E, Keller M, (1997). Nitrogen oxide emissions from a banana plantation in the humid tropics. Journal of Geophysical Research 102 (D13): Vitousek PM, Aber J, Howarth RW, Likens GE, Matson PA, Schindler DW, Schlesinger WH, Tilman D, (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: causes and consequences. Issues in Ecology, No 1, 15p.

Nutrients elements required for the development, maintenance, and reproduction of organisms.

Nutrients elements required for the development, maintenance, and reproduction of organisms. Nutrient Cycles Energy flows through ecosystems (one way trip). Unlike energy, however, nutrients (P, N, C, K, S ) cycle within ecosystems. Nutrients are important in controlling NPP in ecosystems. Bottom-up

More information

Human nitrogen fixation and greenhouse gas emissions: a global assessment

Human nitrogen fixation and greenhouse gas emissions: a global assessment Human nitrogen fixation and greenhouse gas emissions: a global assessment Wim de Vries 1,2, Enzai Du 3, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl 4, Lena Schulte-Uebbing 2, Frank Dentener 5 1 Alterra Wageningen University

More information

7.014 Lecture 20: Biogeochemical Cycles April 1, 2007

7.014 Lecture 20: Biogeochemical Cycles April 1, 2007 Global Nutrient Cycling - Biogeochemical Cycles 7.14 Lecture 2: Biogeochemical Cycles April 1, 27 Uptake Bioelements in Solution Weathering Precipitation Terrestrial Biomass Decomposition Volatile Elements

More information

Ecosystem element cycling

Ecosystem element cycling Ecosystem element cycling Introduction An ecosystem consists of all the biological organisms and the physical environments they occupy together within a defined area [1]. The actual boundaries of an ecosystem

More information

Acid deposition accumulation of potential acid-forming particles on a surface acids can result from natural causes

Acid deposition accumulation of potential acid-forming particles on a surface acids can result from natural causes 1 Air Quality Issues: Part 2 - Acid Deposition, Greenhouse Gases EVPP 111 Lecture Dr. Largen 2 Air Quality Issues Air Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Acid Deposition Greenhouse Gases & Global Warming 3

More information

Ch. 5 - Nutrient Cycles and Soils

Ch. 5 - Nutrient Cycles and Soils Ch. 5 - Nutrient Cycles and Soils What are Nutrient (biogeochemical) Cycles? a process by which nutrients are recycled between living organisms and nonliving environment. The three general types of nutrient

More information

1. Where are nutrients accumulated or stored for short or long periods?

1. Where are nutrients accumulated or stored for short or long periods? Use with textbook pages 68 87. Nutrient cycles Answer the questions below. Comprehension 1. Where are nutrients accumulated or stored for short or long periods? 2. Name a biotic process and an abiotic

More information

Ecosystems: Nutrient Cycles

Ecosystems: Nutrient Cycles Ecosystems: Nutrient Cycles Greeks, Native Peoples, Buddhism, Hinduism use(d) Earth, Air, Fire, and Water as the main elements of their faith/culture Cycling in Ecosystems the Hydrologic Cycle What are

More information

A Global View of N 2 O Impact on Net GHG Savings from Crop Biofuels: LCA Comparisons

A Global View of N 2 O Impact on Net GHG Savings from Crop Biofuels: LCA Comparisons A Global View of N 2 O Impact on Net GHG Savings from Crop Biofuels: LCA Comparisons Arvin Mosier 1, Paul J. Crutzen 2, Keith Smith 3, and Wilfried Winiwarter 4 1 Mount Pleasant, SC, USA (USDA-ARS/retired)

More information

THE INTRODUCTION THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

THE INTRODUCTION THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT THE INTRODUCTION The earth is surrounded by atmosphere composed of many gases. The sun s rays penetrate through the atmosphere to the earth s surface. Gases in the atmosphere trap heat that would otherwise

More information

Ecology, the Environment, and Us

Ecology, the Environment, and Us BIOLOGY OF HUMANS Concepts, Applications, and Issues Fifth Edition Judith Goodenough Betty McGuire 23 Ecology, the Environment, and Us Lecture Presentation Anne Gasc Hawaii Pacific University and University

More information

Agricultural statistics and environmental issues 1

Agricultural statistics and environmental issues 1 Agricultural statistics and environmental issues 1 The article that follows provides an example of how agriculture-related statistics can be used in an integrated fashion to examine developments occurring

More information

Consequences of Nitrogen Deposition to Rocky Mountain National Park

Consequences of Nitrogen Deposition to Rocky Mountain National Park Consequences of Nitrogen Deposition to Rocky Mountain National Park Jill S. Baron, US Geological Survey M.Hartman, D.S.Ojima, K. Nydick, H.M. Rueth B.Moraska Lafrancois, A.P. Wolfe, J. Botte, W.D. Bowman

More information

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: The RECYCLING of MATERIALS through living organisms and the physical environment.

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: The RECYCLING of MATERIALS through living organisms and the physical environment. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: The RECYCLING of MATERIALS through living organisms and the physical environment. BIOCHEMIST: Scientists who study how LIFE WORKS at a CHEMICAL level. The work of biochemists has

More information

Interactions between C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems: progress and uncertainties

Interactions between C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems: progress and uncertainties Interactions between C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems: progress and uncertainties M. Mencuccini School of GeoSciences University of Edinburgh (UK) OUTLINE Brief review of N cycle and links to C

More information

an ecosystem is a community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy

an ecosystem is a community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy 1 Ecocsystems: Energy Flow and Materials Cycling 2 EVPP 111 Lecture Dr. Largen Spring 2004 Energy Flow and Matter Cycling Energy flow s through ecosystems ecosystems global energy budget physical laws

More information

2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems. Review How energy flows What is the difference between a food chain, food web, and food pyramid?

2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems. Review How energy flows What is the difference between a food chain, food web, and food pyramid? 2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems Review How energy flows What is the difference between a food chain, food web, and food pyramid? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xhr1iebeops https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=alusi_6ol8m

More information

Plant Nutrients (1): Nitrogen and Sulfur

Plant Nutrients (1): Nitrogen and Sulfur Plant Nutrients (1): Nitrogen and Sulfur Main Objectives Capable of asking a systematic set of questions about all relevant nutrients, and providing a basic answer to each questions. Comprehend the global

More information

2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems

2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems 2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems CARBON CYCLE A. Carbon Facts: Carbon is found in all living matter. Places that carbon is found are called stores or sinks Short-term Stores Long-term Stores - living

More information

Soils and Climate Change

Soils and Climate Change Soils and Climate Change Susan Trumbore Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry and Earth System Science, UC Irvine thanks to Marion Schrumpf, MPI-BGC and EAG Schuur, Northern Arizona University CO 2

More information

Nutrient Cycling 1: The nitrogen cycle

Nutrient Cycling 1: The nitrogen cycle Nutrient Cycling 1: The nitrogen cycle I. Introduction A. Changes to the global N cycle (Ch. 15) 1. Global pools and fluxes 2. Changes 3. Consequences B. Overview of the ecosystem N cycle (Ch. 9) 1. Major

More information

Chapter 5: How Ecosystems Work Section 1, Energy Flow in Ecosystems

Chapter 5: How Ecosystems Work Section 1, Energy Flow in Ecosystems Life Depends on the Sun Chapter 5: How Ecosystems Work Section 1, Energy Flow in Ecosystems Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when plants use sunlight to make sugar molecules. This happens through

More information

ECOSYSTEMS. Follow along in chapter 54. *Means less important

ECOSYSTEMS. Follow along in chapter 54. *Means less important ECOSYSTEMS Follow along in chapter 54 *Means less important How do ecosystems function? What is an ecosystem? All living things in an area and their abiotic environment Ecosystem function can be easily

More information

Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P and S

Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P and S Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P and S OCN 401 - Biogeochemical Systems Reading: Schlesinger, Chapter 6 1. Nitrogen cycle Soil nitrogen cycle Nitrification Emissions of N gases from soils

More information

Ecology Part 2: How Ecosystems Work

Ecology Part 2: How Ecosystems Work Ecology Part 2: How Ecosystems Work Name: Unit 2 1 In this second part of Unit 2, our big idea questions are: SECTION 1 How is energy transferred from the Sun to producers and then to consumers? Why do

More information

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES INTRODUCTION THE CYCLING PROCESS TWO CYCLES: CARBON CYCLE NITROGEN CYCLE HUMAN IMPACTS GLOBAL WARMING AQUATIC EUTROPHICATION

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES INTRODUCTION THE CYCLING PROCESS TWO CYCLES: CARBON CYCLE NITROGEN CYCLE HUMAN IMPACTS GLOBAL WARMING AQUATIC EUTROPHICATION BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES INTRODUCTION THE CYCLING PROCESS TWO CYCLES: CARBON CYCLE NITROGEN CYCLE HUMAN IMPACTS GLOBAL WARMING AQUATIC EUTROPHICATION BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: The RECYCLING of MATERIALS through

More information

Cycles in Nature Standard 1 Objective 2:

Cycles in Nature Standard 1 Objective 2: Cycles in Nature Standard 1 Objective 2: Explain relationships between matter cycles and Energy a) use diagrams to trace the movement of matter through a cycle b) Explain how water is a limiting factor

More information

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Status on Land Use Change and Forestry Sector in Myanmar

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Status on Land Use Change and Forestry Sector in Myanmar Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Status on Land Use Change and Forestry Sector in Myanmar CHO CHO WIN ASSISTANT RESEARCH OFFICER FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE YEZIN, MYANMAR International Workshop on Air Quality in Asia-Impacts

More information

Agriculture, Diet and the Environment. by David Tilman University of Minnesota, and University of California Santa Barbara

Agriculture, Diet and the Environment. by David Tilman University of Minnesota, and University of California Santa Barbara Agriculture, Diet and the Environment by David Tilman University of Minnesota, and University of California Santa Barbara Environmental Impacts of Agriculture N, P, Pesticides Biodiversity Loss; GHG Water

More information

WHY DO WE NEED NITROGEN?? Nitrogen is needed to make up DNA and protein!

WHY DO WE NEED NITROGEN?? Nitrogen is needed to make up DNA and protein! Nitrogen Cycle 2.2 WHY DO WE NEED NITROGEN?? Nitrogen is needed to make up DNA and protein! In animals, proteins are vital for muscle function. In plants, nitrogen is important for growth. NITROGEN Nitrogen

More information

Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P, S, and K

Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P, S, and K Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P, S, and K OCN 401 - Biogeochemical Systems 20 September 2016 Reading: Schlesinger & Bernhardt, Chapter 6 2016 Frank Sansone 1. Nitrogen cycle Soil nitrogen

More information

Dynamics of Ecosystems. Chapter 57

Dynamics of Ecosystems. Chapter 57 Dynamics of Ecosystems Chapter 57 1 The Water Cycle Nutrient Cycles Trophic Levels Primary Productivity Outline The Energy in Food Chains Ecological Pyramids Interactions Among Trophic Levels Species Richness

More information

Slide 1 / All of Earth's water, land, and atmosphere within which life exists is known as a. Population Community Biome Biosphere

Slide 1 / All of Earth's water, land, and atmosphere within which life exists is known as a. Population Community Biome Biosphere Slide 1 / 40 1 ll of Earth's water, land, and atmosphere within which life exists is known as a Population ommunity iome iosphere Slide 2 / 40 2 ll the plants, animals, fungi living in a pond make up a

More information

Nitrates are essential for plant growth

Nitrates are essential for plant growth THE NITROGEN CYCLE Nitrates are essential for plant growth Plant protein Root uptake Nitrate NO 3 Nitrates are recycled via microbes Animal protein Soil organic nitrogen Ammonification Ammonium NH 4 +

More information

Organic agriculture and climate change the scientific evidence

Organic agriculture and climate change the scientific evidence Organic agriculture and climate change the scientific evidence >Andreas Fließbach >BioFach 2007, Nürnberg, 17.02.2007 Organic Agriculture and Climate Change > The report of the Intergovernmental Panel

More information

The Water-Climate Nexus and Food Security in the Americas. Michael Clegg University of California, Irvine

The Water-Climate Nexus and Food Security in the Americas. Michael Clegg University of California, Irvine The Water-Climate Nexus and Food Security in the Americas Michael Clegg University of California, Irvine The Global Challenge Global population is projected to increase by about 30% between now and 2050

More information

Managing Soils for Improved Pasture

Managing Soils for Improved Pasture Managing Soils for Improved Pasture Jonathan Deenik, PhD Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences University of Hawaii Rota Grazing and Livestock Management Workshop June 10-12, 12, 2010 1 Water

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology. Tuesday, September 19, 17

Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology. Tuesday, September 19, 17 Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology Reversing Deforestation in Haiti Answers the following: Why is deforestation in Haiti so common? What the negative impacts of deforestation? Name three actions intended counteract

More information

CALIFORNIA EDUCATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT INITIATIVE

CALIFORNIA EDUCATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT INITIATIVE Water Vapor: A GHG Lesson 3 page 1 of 2 Water Vapor: A GHG Water vapor in our atmosphere is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). On a cloudy day we can see evidence of the amount of water vapor in our atmosphere.

More information

A perspective on reactive nitrogen in a global, Asian and Indian context

A perspective on reactive nitrogen in a global, Asian and Indian context SPECIAL SECTION A perspective on reactive nitrogen in a global, Asian and Indian context James Galloway 1, *, N. Raghuram 2 and Y. P. Abrol 3 1 Environmental Sciences Department, University of Virginia,

More information

Carbon is an element. It is part of oceans, air, rocks, soil and all living things. Carbon doesn t stay in one place. It is always on the move!

Carbon is an element. It is part of oceans, air, rocks, soil and all living things. Carbon doesn t stay in one place. It is always on the move! The Carbon Cycle Carbon is an element. It is part of oceans, air, rocks, soil and all living things. Carbon doesn t stay in one place. It is always on the move! Carbon moves from the atmosphere to plants.

More information

Chapter 4. Ecosystems

Chapter 4. Ecosystems Chapter 4 Ecosystems Chapter 4 Section 1: What Is an Ecosystem Key Vocabulary Terms 7 Adapted from Holt Biology 2008 Community A group of various species that live in the same habitat and interact with

More information

Unit III Nutrients & Biomes

Unit III Nutrients & Biomes Unit III Nutrients & Biomes Nutrient Cycles Carbon Cycle Based on CO 2 cycling from animals to plants during respiration and photosynthesis. Heavy deposits are stored in wetland soils, oceans, sedimentary

More information

Soil Carbon Sequestration

Soil Carbon Sequestration Soil Carbon Sequestration Rattan Lal Carbon Management and The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA 1 BIOSEQUESTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CO 2 Only 0.05% of the 3800 zettajoules (10 21 J) of solar

More information

2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems Name: Date: (Reference: BC Science 10 pp. 68 to 91) Block: NUTRIENT CYCLING IN THE BIOSPHERE. nutrients: aka.

2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems Name: Date: (Reference: BC Science 10 pp. 68 to 91) Block: NUTRIENT CYCLING IN THE BIOSPHERE. nutrients: aka. 2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems Name: Date: (Reference: BC Science 10 pp. 68 to 91) Block: NUTRIENT CYCLING IN THE BIOSPHERE nutrients: stores: aka Nutrients are accumulated for short or long periods

More information

MLA Header: coal oil natural gas burning of fossil fuels volcanoes photosynthesis respiration ocean sugar greenhouse decayed

MLA Header: coal oil natural gas burning of fossil fuels volcanoes photosynthesis respiration ocean sugar greenhouse decayed MLA Header: s worksheet Please answer the following using the words in the text box. Carbon coal oil natural gas burning of fossil fuels volcanoes photosynthesis respiration ocean sugar greenhouse decayed

More information

The Cycling of Matter

The Cycling of Matter Section 2 Objectives Describe the short-term and long-term process of the carbon cycle. Identify one way that humans are affecting the carbon cycle. List the three stages of the nitrogen cycle. Describe

More information

Key messages of chapter 3

Key messages of chapter 3 Key messages of chapter 3 With GHG emissions along livestock supply chains estimated at 7.1 gigatonnes CO 2 -eq per annum, representing 14.5 percent of all human-induced emissions, the livestock sector

More information

USDA GLOBAL CHANGE FACT SHEET

USDA GLOBAL CHANGE FACT SHEET USDA GLOBAL CHANGE FACT SHEET Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Agriculture and Forestry The global concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased measurably over the past 250 years, partly

More information

The Biosphere and Biogeochemical Cycles

The Biosphere and Biogeochemical Cycles The Biosphere and Biogeochemical Cycles The Earth consists of 4 overlapping layers: Lithosphere Hydrosphere (and cryosphere) Atmosphere Biosphere The Biosphere The biosphere is the layer of life around

More information

Ecosystems Section 1 What Is an Ecosystem? Objectives Distinguish Describe Sequence Interactions of Organisms and Their Environment Ecology Habitat

Ecosystems Section 1 What Is an Ecosystem? Objectives Distinguish Describe Sequence Interactions of Organisms and Their Environment Ecology Habitat Name Period Ecosystems Section 1 What Is an Ecosystem? Objectives Distinguish an ecosystem from a community. Describe the diversity of a representative ecosystem. Sequence the process of succession. Interactions

More information

Global. Carbon Trends. Pep Canadell Global Carbon Project CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Canberra, Australia

Global. Carbon Trends. Pep Canadell Global Carbon Project CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Canberra, Australia Global Carbon Trends Pep Canadell Global Carbon Project CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Canberra, Australia Outline 1. Recent Trends 2. Perturbation Budget 3. Sink Efficiency 4. Attribution 5. Processes

More information

Energy, Greenhouse Gases and the Carbon Cycle

Energy, Greenhouse Gases and the Carbon Cycle Energy, Greenhouse Gases and the Carbon Cycle David Allen Gertz Regents Professor in Chemical Engineering, and Director, Center for Energy and Environmental Resources Concepts for today Greenhouse Effect

More information

Mr.Yashwant L. Jagdale Scientist- Horticulture KVK, Baramati (Pune)

Mr.Yashwant L. Jagdale Scientist- Horticulture KVK, Baramati (Pune) KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA BARAMATI (PUNE) M.S. International Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry &Agricultural Meteorology Presentation On Effect of Green House Gases On Crops On Farm Land. Mr.Yashwant L. Jagdale

More information

How Ecosystems Work Section 1. Chapter 5 How Ecosystems Work Section 1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems DAY 1

How Ecosystems Work Section 1. Chapter 5 How Ecosystems Work Section 1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems DAY 1 Chapter 5 How Ecosystems Work Section 1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems DAY 1 Life Depends on the Sun Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when plants use sunlight to make sugar molecules. This happens through

More information

LABEL AND EXPLAIN THE PROCESSES AT EACH NUMBER IN THE DIAGRAM ABOVE

LABEL AND EXPLAIN THE PROCESSES AT EACH NUMBER IN THE DIAGRAM ABOVE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE 3 4 5 2 5 1B 6B 1A 6A 7 6C LABEL AND EXPLAIN THE PROCESSES AT EACH NUMBER IN THE DIAGRAM ABOVE 1A. Evaporation of water from oceans 1B. Evaporation of water from land sources (water and

More information

The Carbon Cycle. Goal Use this page to review the carbon cycle. CHAPTER 2 BLM 1-19 DATE: NAME: CLASS:

The Carbon Cycle. Goal Use this page to review the carbon cycle. CHAPTER 2 BLM 1-19 DATE: NAME: CLASS: CHAPTER 2 BLM 1-19 The Carbon Cycle Goal Use this page to review the carbon cycle. CHAPTER 2 BLM 1-20 The Carbon Cycle Concept Map Goal Use this page to make a concept map about the carbon cycle. What

More information

Who cares? You do! In India, one child dies every minute from severe acute malnutrition.

Who cares? You do! In India, one child dies every minute from severe acute malnutrition. Soil & Agriculture Who cares? You do! In India, one child dies every minute from severe acute malnutrition. Case Study: The Dust Bowl In the dirty thirties a large area of cropland was abandoned due to

More information

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ECOLOGISTS ECOLOGICAL SPECTRUM NITROGEN AND WHEAT ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ECOLOGISTS ECOLOGICAL SPECTRUM NITROGEN AND WHEAT ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ECOLOGISTS ECOLOGICAL SPECTRUM 2012 1103 NatašaČereković 1 UDK 502.175:[504.5:663.11 Sretenka Marković 2 NITROGEN AND WHEAT ABSTRACT The high yields of today s modern wheat cultivars

More information

Current understanding of global climate change and of its possible impacts on agriculture. Maurizio Sciortino.

Current understanding of global climate change and of its possible impacts on agriculture. Maurizio Sciortino. Current understanding of global climate change and of its possible impacts on agriculture Maurizio Sciortino maurizio.sciortino@enea.it Outline 1. Scientific understanding of climate change The greenhouse

More information

Chapter 6 Review. 3. A resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes is called a. common. b. renewable. c. nonrenewable. d. conserved.

Chapter 6 Review. 3. A resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes is called a. common. b. renewable. c. nonrenewable. d. conserved. Name Hour Chapter 6 Review 1. Which of the following human activities was NOT important in transforming the biosphere? a. agriculture b. industry c. urban development d. aquaculture 2. Civilizations could

More information

3/5/2012. Study Questions. Global Warming. Weather: daily temperature and moisture conditions Climate: long-term weather patterns

3/5/2012. Study Questions. Global Warming. Weather: daily temperature and moisture conditions Climate: long-term weather patterns Study Questions Global Warming 1. Explain what is meant by the term Greenhouse effect. 2. List 3 indications that global climate is currently increasing. 3. Describe 3 possible consequences of global warming.

More information

How Ecosystems Work Section 1. Chapter 5 How Ecosystems Work Section 1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems DAY 1

How Ecosystems Work Section 1. Chapter 5 How Ecosystems Work Section 1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems DAY 1 Chapter 5 How Ecosystems Work Section 1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems DAY 1 Life Depends on the Sun Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when plants use sunlight to make sugar molecules. This happens through

More information

Recent carbon trends and the fate of the natural sink

Recent carbon trends and the fate of the natural sink Recent carbon trends and the fate of the natural sink Biosphere between sink & source 22.01.2008 Johannes Enssle GCM 2007 Student presentation Physical Fundamentals of Global Change Content 1. Recent global

More information

Greenhouse gases and agricultural: an introduction to the processes and tools to quantify them Richard T. Conant

Greenhouse gases and agricultural: an introduction to the processes and tools to quantify them Richard T. Conant Greenhouse gases and agricultural: an introduction to the processes and tools to quantify them Richard T. Conant Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University Perturbation of Global Carbon

More information

UN Climate Council Words in red are defined in vocabulary section (pg. 9)

UN Climate Council Words in red are defined in vocabulary section (pg. 9) UN Climate Council Words in red are defined in vocabulary section (pg. 9) To minimize the negative effects of global climate change, scientists have advocated for action to limit global warming to no more

More information

Challenges in assessing mitigation and adaptation options for livestock production: Europe, Africa & Latin America

Challenges in assessing mitigation and adaptation options for livestock production: Europe, Africa & Latin America Challenges in assessing mitigation and adaptation options for livestock production: Europe, Africa & Latin America Jean-François Soussana 1 & Peter Kuikman 2 1. INRA, France 2. Alterra Wageningen UR, Netherlands

More information

What is Ecology? The study of the interactions between organisms and the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of their environment.

What is Ecology? The study of the interactions between organisms and the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of their environment. Chapter 18 What is Ecology? The study of the interactions between organisms and the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of their environment. What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity is the sum

More information

Section 6.1: A Changing Landscape. Name: Block: Date:

Section 6.1: A Changing Landscape. Name: Block: Date: Section 6.1: A Changing Landscape Name: Block: Date: 1. Our daily activities impact the quality of Earth s natural resources:,, a. These activities are:,, 2. The Effect of Human Activity :Agriculture a.

More information

Transboundary pollution generated by industrial animal production in the Baltic Sea Region

Transboundary pollution generated by industrial animal production in the Baltic Sea Region Transboundary pollution generated by industrial animal production in the Baltic Sea Region Jakub Skorupski GREEN FEDERATION GAJA 2012 Definitions Industrial animal production intensive rearing, maintenance

More information

The Nutrient Cycle. Atmospheric pool. Organic material. 5 Soil solution storage

The Nutrient Cycle. Atmospheric pool. Organic material. 5 Soil solution storage The Nutrient Cycle Atmospheric pool Precipitation Canopy, wood, and root Litter fall SOIL 2 Soil and rock minerals cations 1 2 3 Groundwater level Organic material 5 Soil solution storage 4 4 Channel BEDROCK

More information

Carbon fluxes and sequestration opportunities in grassland ecosystems

Carbon fluxes and sequestration opportunities in grassland ecosystems GCP, Beijing, 15-18 November 2004. Regional Carbon Budgets: from methodologies to quantification Carbon fluxes and sequestration opportunities in grassland ecosystems Jean-Francois Soussana INRA, Grassland

More information

Bio 112 Ecology: Final Study Guide

Bio 112 Ecology: Final Study Guide Bio 112 Ecology: Final Study Guide Below is an outline of the topics and concepts covered on the final exam. This packet also includes a practice test, along with answers to questions 1-44. You may submit

More information

Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future

Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future Biogeochemistry 70: 153 226, 2004. Ó 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. -1 Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future J.N. GALLOWAY 1, *, F.J. DENTENER 2, D.G. CAPONE 3, E.W.

More information

Cycles of Ma,er. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 3.4 Cycles of Matter

Cycles of Ma,er. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 3.4 Cycles of Matter Lesson Overview Cycles of Ma,er Lesson Overview 3.4 Cycles of Matter THINK ABOUT IT A handful of elements combine to form the building blocks of all known organisms. Organisms cannot manufacture these

More information

NOTEBOOK. Table of Contents: 9. Properties of Water 9/20/ Water & Carbon Cycles 9/20/16

NOTEBOOK. Table of Contents: 9. Properties of Water 9/20/ Water & Carbon Cycles 9/20/16 NOTEBOOK Table of Contents: 9. Properties of Water 9/20/16 10. Water & Carbon Cycles 9/20/16 NOTEBOOK Assignment Page(s): Agenda: Tuesday, September 20, 2016 Properties of Water Water & Carbon Cycles 1.

More information

WORKSHEET GEOGRAPHY CLASS-12 Forest resources and Impact of population

WORKSHEET GEOGRAPHY CLASS-12 Forest resources and Impact of population WORKSHEET GEOGRAPHY CLASS-12 Forest resources and Impact of population NAME: DATE: Losses of biomass through deforestation and the cutting down of tropical forests put our supply of oxygen (O2) gas at

More information

Master 5.1, Newspaper Articles. Special Edition December 14. Special Edition March 17

Master 5.1, Newspaper Articles. Special Edition December 14. Special Edition March 17 Master 5.1, Newspaper Articles THE DAILY HERALD Special Edition December 14 Study Forecasts Future Food Shortage A new study published in the Journal of World Agriculture raises concerns that in the future

More information

Current status on LCA as applied to the organic food chains

Current status on LCA as applied to the organic food chains Current status on LCA as applied to the organic food chains John E. Hermansen, University of Aarhus & Niels Halberg, ICROFS Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods, models and databases with focus on GHG emission

More information

Is the Climate Changing? Is the Climate Changing? Is the Climate Changing? Is the Climate Changing? 12/13/2016. Yes!

Is the Climate Changing? Is the Climate Changing? Is the Climate Changing? Is the Climate Changing? 12/13/2016. Yes! 1 2 3 Yes! 4 Yes! But Earth's climate is always changing! 5 Yes! But Earth's climate is always changing! 6 Throughout its 4.5 billion year history, Earth's climate has alternated between periods of warmth

More information

The Nutrient Cycle. Atmospheric pool. Organic material. 5 Soil solution storage

The Nutrient Cycle. Atmospheric pool. Organic material. 5 Soil solution storage The Nutrient Cycle Atmospheric pool Precipitation Canopy, wood, and root Litter fall SOIL 2 Soil and rock minerals cations 1 2 3 Groundwater level Organic material 5 Soil solution storage 4 4 Channel BEDROCK

More information

FAO S work on climate change Soils, land and water. SOILS, LAND AND WATER for climate change adaptation and mitigation

FAO S work on climate change Soils, land and water. SOILS, LAND AND WATER for climate change adaptation and mitigation FAO S work on climate change Soils, land and water SOILS, LAND AND WATER for climate change adaptation and mitigation Soils constitute the largest store of terrestrial carbon. When managed using Sustainable

More information

Soil Charcoal Amendments to Maintain Soil Fertility and Fix Carbon

Soil Charcoal Amendments to Maintain Soil Fertility and Fix Carbon Soil Charcoal Amendments to Maintain Soil Fertility and Fix Carbon CSD 16 New York 9 May 2008 UNCCD Learning Course http://www.ecoworld.com/maps/world_ecoregion.cfm Scenarios for Major Eco-Regions Christoph

More information

Ecology: Part 2. Biology Mrs. Bradbury

Ecology: Part 2. Biology Mrs. Bradbury Ecology: Part 2 Biology Mrs. Bradbury Model 1: Food Chains Food Chain simple model showing the movement of matter and energy through ecosystems. Autotrophs Heterotrophs Decomposers Arrows show energy transfer

More information

Sequestration Fact Sheet

Sequestration Fact Sheet Sequestration Fact Sheet Alex Higgins, Agricultural & Environment Branch, AFBI ABOUT SAI PLATFORM The Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI) Platform () is the global industry initiative helping food

More information

Unit 2: Ecology. Chapters 2: Principles of Ecology

Unit 2: Ecology. Chapters 2: Principles of Ecology Unit 2: Ecology Chapters 2: Principles of Ecology Ecology Probe: Answer the questions and turn it in! This is a standard aquarium with a population of fish. There is no filter in this aquarium and no one

More information

Niche and Habitat a species plays in a community. What it does all

Niche and Habitat a species plays in a community. What it does all Ecosystem Dynamics What is ecology? Study of the interactions between parts of the environment Connections in nature Abiotic: soil comp. Biotic: and Abiotic and Biotic factors factors in the environment

More information

Chapter 54. Ecosystems. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition. Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Chapter 54. Ecosystems. PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition. Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Chapter 54 Ecosystems PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Overview: Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community,

More information

Biology Ecology Unit Chapter 2 Study Guide

Biology Ecology Unit Chapter 2 Study Guide Name: Date: Block: Biology Ecology Unit Chapter 2 Study Guide 1. Directions: Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. Ecology Biotic factors Nonliving Environments Atmosphere Humans

More information

Cool Farming Climate impacts of agriculture and mitigation potential

Cool Farming Climate impacts of agriculture and mitigation potential Cool Farming Climate impacts of agriculture and mitigation potential Summary of Report greenpeace.org Campaigning for Sustainable Agriculture For more information contact: enquires@int.greenpeace.org Authors

More information

Chapter Two: Cycles of Matter (pages 32-65)

Chapter Two: Cycles of Matter (pages 32-65) Chapter Two: Cycles of Matter (pages 32-65) 2.2 Biogeochemical Cycles (pages 42 52) In order to survive and grow, organisms must obtain nutrients that serve as sources of energy or chemical building blocks,

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology. Reading Questions

Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology. Reading Questions APES Name 22 Module 7 Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 17 Module 6 The Movement of Energy 18 Ecosystem Field Walk 19 Module 7 The 23 Module 8 Responses to Disturbances

More information

The Role of Agriculture and Forestry In Emerging Carbon Markets

The Role of Agriculture and Forestry In Emerging Carbon Markets The Role of Agriculture and Forestry In Emerging Carbon Markets David W. Wolfe Dept. of Horticulture; dww5@cornell.edu ; Websites: http://www.hort.cornell.edu/wolfe hort edu/wolfe http://www.climateandfarming.org

More information

Chapter 36: Population Growth

Chapter 36: Population Growth Chapter 36: Population Growth Population: Population Concepts interbreeding group of same species Carrying Capacity: maximum population size an ecosystem can sustainably support Critical Number: minimum

More information

BIOMES. Living World

BIOMES. Living World BIOMES Living World Biomes Biomes are large regions of the world with distinctive climate, wildlife and vegetation. They are divided by terrestrial (land) or aquatic biomes. Terrestrial Biomes Terrestrial

More information

Denitrification - eutrophication

Denitrification - eutrophication Figure 58.7 Temp normally fluctuates Humans are forcing climate change The Nitrogen Cycle Most Nitrogen gas (N 2 ) (78 %) is in the atmosphere Can plants and animals use this directly? How then? Nitrogen

More information

to global warming. The biotechnology industry says it will genetically engineer plants

to global warming. The biotechnology industry says it will genetically engineer plants No sure fix I S S U E B R I E F I N G D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 9 Prospects for Reducing Nitrogen Fertilizer Pollution through Genetic Engineering Excess nitrogen fertilizer applied to farm fields pollutes

More information

Class IX Chapter 14 Natural Resources Science

Class IX Chapter 14 Natural Resources Science Question 1: How is our atmosphere different from the atmospheres on Venus and Mars? Earth s atmosphere is different from those of Venus and Mars. This difference lies essentially in their compositions.

More information

Sustainable Conservation Practices for Natural Resources

Sustainable Conservation Practices for Natural Resources Sustainable Conservation Practices for Natural Resources Rajdeep Mundiyara 1, Prem Kumar 2 and Mamta Bajya 3 1 Seed Officer, Rajasthan State Seeds Corporation,Mandore, Jodhpure 2 Department of Plant Philology,

More information

Foundation Course. Semester 3 THREATS TO THE ENVIRONMENT

Foundation Course. Semester 3 THREATS TO THE ENVIRONMENT Foundation Course Semester 3 THREATS TO THE ENVIRONMENT INTRODUCTION Atmosphere, water and soil are the most important components of environment in which we live. Atmospheric factors like rainfall, humidity,

More information