Sreedhar Patil 5/30/2013

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1 Farming in India Sreedhar Patil 5/30/2013

2 Location of India in World Map

3 States in India Bangalore, Karnataka, INDIA 28 states and seven union territories

4 Annual Rainfall in India

5 Rivers in India River Ganga in the North India River Cauvery in the South India

6 Types of Soil in India Black Soil Red Soil Alluvial Soil

7 Major Food Crops in India Rice Wheat Jowar (Millet) Ragi (Millet)

8 Major Commercial Crops in India Sugarcane Cotton Jute Tea Leaves Coffee Seeds

9 Food grains Major Food Crops in India Spices Seeds and pulses Wheat Rice Jowar Ragi and Bajra (millets) Corn Vegetables Lemons Chickpeas Okra Cauliflowers Green peas Pumpkins Potatoes Tomatoes Cabbages Onions Dry beans Limes Pigeon peas Brinjal Cardamom Cinnamon Garlic Turmeric Ginger Dry chilies and peppers Coriander Cloves Fruits Banana Mangoes Guavas Sugarcane Grapes Pomegranate Jack fruit Papaya Melons Chickoo Orange Pineapple Apple Sunflower seeds Castor oil seeds Pulses Sesame seeds Cotton seed Lentil (bean) Mustard Cumin Soybeans Nuts Cashew nuts Peanut Arecanut Coconut Beverages Tea Coffee

10 Cropping Seasons in India India has many growing seasons due to prevalence of high temperature through a long period. Different crop seasons are: Kharif: Crops are sown at the beginning of the south-west monsoon (May to July) and harvested at the end of the south-west monsoon (September to October). Important crops: Rice, Jowar, corn, cotton, peanut, sunflower, sugarcane, chilies, onions, tomatoes, pulses, beans, bajra, ragi etc. Rabi: Crops need relatively cool climate during the period of growth but warm climate during the germination of their seed and maturation. Sowing season - October to December. Harvesting season February to April Important crops: wheat, barley, gram, mustard, masoor (lentils), peas and potatoes. Zaid: Certain crops which are being raised throughout the year due to artificial irrigation. Zaid kharif: sown in August-September and harvested in December-January. Important crops: rice, jowar, rapeseed (canola), cotton, oilseeds. Zaid rabi: sown in February-March. Harvesting is in April-May. Important crops: watermelon, cucumber, leafy and other vegetables.

11 Agriculture vs Horticulture: Cultivation Methods in India What is agriculture? Oldest method Agriculture Agri means field and cultura which means cultivation, Agriculture is the cultivation of fields for production of food and goods mono cropping or the mono culture Example: Rice, wheat, seeds, sugarcane, corn, pulses etc What is horticulture? New cultivating method Hortus means garden and cultura which means cultivation that means plant cultivation. Small scale enclosed plots using special techniques and is multi-cropping Example: fruits, berries, nuts, vegetables, flowers, trees, shrubs, and turf Hoticulture

12 Canal irrigation: Perennial canals Irrigation Systems in India - Artificial reservoirs or dams across rivers for perennial canals. Canal Inundation canals - During flood, the extra water flows in the canals rising from the rivers. Such canals are effective only during floods Tank irrigation: Storage tanks of any size Individuals or groups of farmers by raising bonds across seasonal streams. Well irrigation: Accessing ground water through wells Watering methods in India Check dam (tank) Check Basin Method - Rice, Sugarcane etc Furrows watering Sprinkler irrigation Drip irrigation - Corn, Jowar, Wheat, seeds, pulses etc - Sugarcane, vegetables etc - vegetables, plantations, gardens etc

13 Irrigation Systems in India Dam Pulley water lifting system from well Tank Old fashioned water lifting method from well Watering lifting using pumps from wells/bore wells Canal Watering lifting using submersible pumps Old fashioned water lifting method from well

14 Watering Methods in India Furrows for watering Furrows for watering Check Basin watering Drip irrigation Sprinkler irrigation

15 Common Steps followed in Indian Agriculture 1. Preparation of the soil: Ploughing & turning the soil loose with the help of ploughs, cultivators and spade & other mechanical implements 2. Sowing the seeds: treating the seeds with fungicides & sowing them with hand or using a seed drill. preparing a seed bed & growing seedlings when plants are transplanted like paddy adding weedicides to remove the weeds. 3. Adding fertilizers: chemical fertilizer, organic manure and compost manure 4. Irrigation: supply water 5. Spraying pesticides to protect crops 6. Harvesting: using sickle, mechanical harvesters, combines 7. Storage drying the crops in case of cereals & pulses & storing in air tight containers like gunny bags in moisture proof, rat proof godowns.

16 Preparation of Land with Animal Drawn Equipment in India Oxen Ploughing Oxen Ploughing Leveling Leveling Oxen ploughing in rice fields Leveling in rice fields

17 Sowing Methods in India Manual drawn sowing equipment Oxen drawn sowing equipment Oxen drawn sowing equipment Sowing sugarcane seeds Planting paddy seedlings Transplanting paddy seedlings

18 Agriculture using Machinery in India Cultivators Ploughs Sowing equipment Cage Wheels

19 Intercultural Operations during Farming in India Watering Watering Weeds control Weeds control Adding fertilizers Spraying pesticides

20 Paddy harvesting Manual Harvesting in India Paddy Drying Peanut harvesting Paddy threshing Corn harvesting Tea leaves harvesting Sugarcane harvesting Coffee seeds harvesting Mustard harvesting

21 Paddy (Rice) Harvesting using Paddy Harvester in India Paddy ready for harvesting

22 Women working in Agricultural Fields in India Cleaning Vegetable market

23 Livestock associated with farming in India Hybrid cow breeds Murra Buffalo farm Goat Herd Ram fight Sahiwal cow breed Murra Buffalo farm Sheep Herd Broiler Chicken Indian Chicken Poultry for eggs Kankrej cow breed

24 Common Farming Tools used in India

25 Animal Drawn Farming Equipment used in India Levelers

26 Tractor Drawn Farming Equipment used in India Cage Wheel

27 Harvesting Equipment used in India

28 My Farm Pictures

29 Bore Well Areca nut farm

30 Banana b/w areca plants Areca nuts Dairy barn Areca nut farm New born

31 Hay for dairy farm Paddy Straw for dairy farm Paddy fields Sheep

32 Fields and Plantations

33 Paddy (Rice) Fields in India

34 Coconut Plantations in India

35 Tea Plantations in India

36 Coffee Plantations in India Coffee plants grown along with silver oak trees Black Pepper

37 Mustard Fields in India

38 Thank You

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