Soil biology for soil health

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Soil biology for soil health"

Transcription

1 Soil biology for soil health Sarah Hargreaves, PhD PFI Annual Conference 2015 Healthy Soil for Health Crops Short Course

2 Outline 1. What is a microbe anyway? 2. Why do microbes matter? i.e. What do microbes do to promote to soil health? 3. What does a healthy microbial community look like? 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? Nitrogen, tillage, crop choice & rotation 5. How do we measure soil microbes?

3 1. What is a microbe?

4 1. What is a microbe? (http://www.denniskunkel.com/)

5 100 million - 1 billion bacteria in a teaspoon of soil David Schefif

6 1. What is a microbe? https://sites.google.com/a/apaches.k12.in.us/mr-evans-science-website/fungi

7 1-100 yards of fungi in a teaspoon of soil Worldpress

8 2. Why do microbes matter? Microbes promote soil health in 3 ways: i) Biological ii) Physical iii) Chemical

9 2. Why do microbes matter? i) Biological: Microbes are a critical part of the soil food web

10 2. Why do microbes matter? ii) Physical: Microbes are important to the physical structure of soil Bacterial biofilms and fungal glomalin ( glue ) help bind aggregates together Fungal networks mycelia contribute to stabilization of aggregates

11 2. Why do microbes matter? iii) Chemical: Microbes perform important chemical transformations in soil Decomposition = microbial digestion

12 2. Why do microbes matter? iii) Chemical: Microbes perform important chemical transformations in soil Decomposition = microbial digestion Extracellular enzymes = Digestive enzymes Organic matter (dead leaves, roots, organisms) = Food

13 2. Why do microbes matter? Microbes perform important chemical transformations in soil Decomposition of organic matter via extracellular enzymes Mineralization or release Inorganic nutrients to plant and other microbes

14 2. Why do microbes matter? Microbes perform important chemical transformations in soil Decomposition of organic matter via extracellular enzymes Mineralization or release Soil organic matter formation Inorganic nutrients to plant and other microbes Nutrient and water retention Long-term suitability of soil to life (e.g. reduced soil erosion)

15 2. Why do microbes matter? Microbes perform important chemical transformations in soil Decomposition of organic matter via extracellular enzymes Mineralization or release Soil organic matter formation Inorganic nutrients to plant and other microbes Nutrient and water retention Long-term suitability of soil to life (e.g. reduced soil erosion)

16 3. What does a good microbial community look like? A diversity community of bacteria and fungi Diversity of functions Diversity of growth rates Why? Greater chance a plant will find a microbial friend Nutrient release evenly across a field and over a season Resistance, resilience and recovery

17 3. What does a good microbial community look like? More fungi than bacteria i.e. high fungal: bacterial ratios Why? Mycelium = decomposition and aggregate formation Slower growing = greater N retention and release Internet of the soil

18 Outline 1. What is a microbe anyway? Diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi 2. Why do microbes matter? What do microbes do to promote to soil health? Integral to food web Help build soil structure Decompose organic matter into nutrients and soil organic matter 3. What does a good microbial community look like? Diverse, predominance of fungi

19 Outline 1. What is a microbe anyway? 2. Why do microbes matter? What do microbes do to promote to soil health? 3. What does a good microbial community look like? 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? Nitrogen, chemical use, tillage, crop choice & rotation 5. How do we measure soil microbes?

20 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? In general: Decisions to till, the type and amount of organic fertilizer, and crop choice and rotations act together to affect microbial communities. However, inorganic nitrogen and chemical use have effects on microbes that are hard to overcome, irrespective of other on-farm decisions.

21 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? Fertilizer use Inorganic Microbial biomass, size of community Diversity Important groups of bacteria (Verrucomicrobia) Fast growing bacteria = fast release of nutrients Fungal: bacterial ratios Decomposition (i.e. nutrient release and SOM)

22 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? Fertilizer use Inorganic Organic? Microbial biomass, size of community Diversity Important groups of bacteria (Verrucomicrobia) Fast growing bacteria = fast release of nutrients Fungal: bacterial ratios Decomposition (i.e. nutrient release and SOM)

23 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? Tillage Disruption of soil structure Soil aggregates Turnover, aeration Microbial habitat Microbial stimuli

24 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? Chemical use Most research is on glyphosate, and is still limiting. All or nothing response. Glyphosate is a potent microbiocide Root colonization by mycorrhizae Fungal spores Beneficial bacteria Pathogenic bacteria

25 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? Crop species and rotation Different plant-microbe linkages Jim Richardson, National Geographic

26 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? Crop species and rotation Plant growth Time

27 5. How do we measure soil microbes? i) Measure microbes directly: Ingham microscope method Microbial biomass Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) Diversity (DNA sequencing) ii) Measure what microbes do (decomposition, mineralization): Haney test

28 5. How do we measure soil microbes? Method What it tells you Price Difficulty Main advantage Service lab Ingham microscope method Coarse count of morphological groups of bacteria and fungi $ * Ease Microbial biomass Size (in carbon) of microbial community $ ** Long-term data to compare Phospholipid fatty acid Size of biochemical groups of bacteria and fungi; Fungal: bacterial ratio $$ *** Fungal: bacterial ratio is very good indicator of function Diversity Diversity of community; who s there $$$$$ ***** Detailed analysis Haney test Mineralization rates (digestion rates), products $$ ** Soil function; data to compare; standards

29 Outline 4. How does what we do on our farms affect microbes? Nitrogen has long-term affects on soil diversity Aggregate stability is critical to diversity Plant-microbe interactions are critical to diversity 5. How do we measure soil microbes? Measure microbes and/or what they do And many others...

30 I hope you know a little more about: 1. What a microbe is, 2. Why microbes matter, 3. What a good microbial community looks like, 4. How our farming affects microbes, 5. How we measure soil microbes

31 Caroline Homer 2011

32 Decomposition via extracellular enzymes Soil organic matter formation Mineralization Nutrient and water retention Long-term suitability of soil to life Release of inorganic nutrients for plant and microbial growth

33 2. Why do microbes matter? Microbes are responsible for important chemical transformations in soil release N - nitrogen P -phosphorus C - sugars decomposition

34 Microbial communities have spatial structure Plants, in part, structure microbial communities The rhizosphere ( soil gut ) is a hotspot for change Change in relative abundance Turner et al The ISME Journal, 7:

35 Corn Switchgrass Prairie?

Cover Crops for Soil Health and Water Quality

Cover Crops for Soil Health and Water Quality Cover Crops for Soil Health and Water Quality 2014 SURFACE WATER FORUM - NOVEMBER 12, 2014 JILL L. SACKETT EXTENSION EDUCATOR 1 BACKGROUND University of Minnesota Extension Local Extension Educator, Ag

More information

THE BIOLOGY OF SOIL HEALTH A PRIMER FOR FARMERS

THE BIOLOGY OF SOIL HEALTH A PRIMER FOR FARMERS THE BIOLOGY OF SOIL HEALTH A PRIMER FOR FARMERS Our Purpose Today This morning s webinar Introduction: What is soil health? The Biology of Soil Structure The Biology of Fertility The Biology of Disease

More information

Grapes, Wine, Balance and Soil Health. George W. Bird, Professor Department of Entomology Michigan State University

Grapes, Wine, Balance and Soil Health. George W. Bird, Professor Department of Entomology Michigan State University Grapes, Wine, Balance and Soil Health George W. Bird, Professor Department of Entomology Michigan State University Presentation Overview Balance: How it Works Soil Biology in Action Soil Health Indicators

More information

Indiana Soil and Water

Indiana Soil and Water EXTENSION AY-363-W Indiana Soil and Water Authors Jennifer Woodyard and Eileen Kladivko Four Strategies to Improve Your Field s Soil Health Purdue Agronomy ag.purdue.edu/agry What Is Soil Health? The definition

More information

The Soil Community: Managing it. Kristy Borrelli REACCH Extension Specialist

The Soil Community: Managing it. Kristy Borrelli REACCH Extension Specialist The Soil Community: Managing it for Better Crops Kristy Borrelli REACCH Extension Specialist kborrelli@uidaho.edu Outline Soil Community Soil Quality Soil Organic Matter and Carbon Soil Organic Matter

More information

How to measure soil health. Caley Gasch NDSU Soil Health Research

How to measure soil health. Caley Gasch NDSU Soil Health Research How to measure soil health Caley Gasch NDSU Soil Health Research caley.gasch@ndsu.edu Ecosystem Soil Health Time Soil Function Biology Physics Chemistry What is soil health? Contamination Natural & industrial

More information

Creating and Sustaining Soil Health

Creating and Sustaining Soil Health Creating and Sustaining Soil Health Jill Clapperton Ph.D. Principal Scientist Rhizoterra Inc Jill@Rhizoterra.com Copyright Rhizoterra Inc We help you make decisions based on science So why do we treat

More information

Product Description: 1300 SW 2 nd Street Pompano Beach, FL / Soil Amendment H2H All Natural Bio-stimulant

Product Description: 1300 SW 2 nd Street Pompano Beach, FL / Soil Amendment H2H All Natural Bio-stimulant Product Description: H2H harvest-to-harvest is a cold processed, enzymatically digested, fresh food soil amendment and plant food, that acts as an all-natural bio-stimulant. Due to the uniqueness of both

More information

Nutrient Recycling with Manure and Cover Crops

Nutrient Recycling with Manure and Cover Crops Nutrient Recycling with Manure and Cover Crops James J. Hoorman and Dr. Rafiq Islam OSU Extension Center at Lima and OSU Piketon Center Ohio State University Extension Introduction Converting from conventional

More information

Why Every Farmer Needs a Microscope. by Dr. Mary Lucero Systems Biologist, CEO End-O-Fite Enterprises, LLC

Why Every Farmer Needs a Microscope. by Dr. Mary Lucero Systems Biologist, CEO End-O-Fite Enterprises, LLC Why Every Farmer Needs a Microscope by Dr. Mary Lucero Systems Biologist, CEO End-O-Fite Enterprises, LLC In the 20 th Century, society launched a collective experiment: What would happen if we grew more

More information

FACT SHEET. Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling. Agriculture and Natural Resources SAG-16-10

FACT SHEET. Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling. Agriculture and Natural Resources SAG-16-10 FACT SHEET Agriculture and Natural Resources Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling James J. Hoorman Cover Crops and Water Quality Extension Educator Ohio State University Extension Rafiq Islam

More information

SOIL QUALITY AND CROP PRODUCTION. Dick Wolkowski Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin

SOIL QUALITY AND CROP PRODUCTION. Dick Wolkowski Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin SOIL QUALITY AND CROP PRODUCTION Dick Wolkowski Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin WHAT IS SOIL QUALITY DEPENDS ON WHO YOU ARE: Farmer: Highly productive, sustainable media for growing

More information

Soil Biology. Susan Samson-Liebig & Beth Burdolski USDA-NRCS Bismarck, ND. North Dakota Teacher Workshop August 7, 2013 USDA-NRCS

Soil Biology. Susan Samson-Liebig & Beth Burdolski USDA-NRCS Bismarck, ND. North Dakota Teacher Workshop August 7, 2013 USDA-NRCS Soil Biology Susan Samson-Liebig & Beth Burdolski Bismarck, ND North Dakota Teacher Workshop August 7, 2013 USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer Presentation Overview Brief overview of soil

More information

Residue and Nutrient Management Under Reduced Tillage Systems

Residue and Nutrient Management Under Reduced Tillage Systems Residue and Nutrient Management Under Reduced Tillage Systems Warren A. Dick* and Dean A. Martens *The Ohio State University dick.5@osu.edu OUTLINE 1. Introduction A.Historic Uses and Management of Residues

More information

Principles of Soil Health Management

Principles of Soil Health Management Principles of Soil Health Management John Idowu Extension Agronomist, New Mexico State University April 24 th, 2014 Extension Plant Sciences Online Contact: John Idowu Email: jidowu@nmsu.edu Phone: 575-646-2571

More information

Nematodes and Soil Quality

Nematodes and Soil Quality Nematodes and Soil Quality George W. Bird, Professor Marisol Quintanilla Department of Entomology Michigan State University August 8, 2005 NEMATODES AND SOIL QUALITY August 8, 2005 Schedule 1:00 to 1:50

More information

Management-Intensive & Multiple-Species Grazing

Management-Intensive & Multiple-Species Grazing Management-Intensive & Multiple-Species Grazing Tipton D. Hudson Washington State University Extension Rangeland & livestock management specialist 3 keys to grazing success 1. Match animal demand to forage

More information

NRCS s Soil Health Initiative and its Relationship to Water Quality

NRCS s Soil Health Initiative and its Relationship to Water Quality NRCS s Soil Health Initiative and its Relationship to Water Quality Kip Potter, NRCS, Vermont United States Department of Agriculture is an equal opportunity provider and employer. The NRCS Soil Health

More information

Multiple, Unmatched Economic Benefits

Multiple, Unmatched Economic Benefits How Holganix Works Multiple, Unmatched Economic Benefits Holganix creates healthy plants and reduces costs by: Reduced Inputs Holganix allows for more efficient use of nutrients and inputs, requiring up

More information

The NM Sustainable Agriculture Conference Deming, NM (December 3, 2013)

The NM Sustainable Agriculture Conference Deming, NM (December 3, 2013) The NM Sustainable Agriculture Conference Deming, NM (December 3, 2013) Soil & Water analyses Farming in the 21 st Century A practical approach to improve Soil Health Rudy Garcia NM State Agronomist, USDA-NRCS

More information

Understanding Biochar. Living Web Farms Biochar Crew

Understanding Biochar. Living Web Farms Biochar Crew Understanding Biochar Living Web Farms Biochar Crew Who we are: Living Web Farms: Mills River based sustainability-minded working farm, permaculture research facility and center for educational outreach

More information

BGWA information session - Improving soil health

BGWA information session - Improving soil health BGWA information session - Improving soil health Belinda Rawnsley South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) Tuesday 27 May 2014 Outline What is soil health and importance of soil biology

More information

ONE-TIME TILLAGE OF NO- TILL CROP LAND: FIVE YEARS POST-TILLAGE. Charles Wortmann

ONE-TIME TILLAGE OF NO- TILL CROP LAND: FIVE YEARS POST-TILLAGE. Charles Wortmann ONE-TIME TILLAGE OF NO- TILL CROP LAND: FIVE YEARS POST-TILLAGE Charles Wortmann cwortmann2@unl.edu No-till Well documented benefits Fewer field operations Less cost, time, fuel Reduced erosion Surface

More information

Sequestration Fact Sheet

Sequestration Fact Sheet Sequestration Fact Sheet Alex Higgins, Agricultural & Environment Branch, AFBI ABOUT SAI PLATFORM The Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI) Platform () is the global industry initiative helping food

More information

Best Management Practices ADDING ORGANIC AMENDMENTS

Best Management Practices ADDING ORGANIC AMENDMENTS Best Management Practices ADDING ORGANIC AMENDMENTS The amount of organic matter strongly influences the health, productivity, and resilience of cropland soils. Building and maintaining the level of organic

More information

ENGINEERED FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE GROWTH. IgniteS HEALTHIER SOILS STRONGER PLANTS HIGHER YIELDS

ENGINEERED FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE GROWTH. IgniteS HEALTHIER SOILS STRONGER PLANTS HIGHER YIELDS ENGINEERED FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE GROWTH IgniteS HEALTHIER SOILS STRONGER PLANTS HIGHER YIELDS Start Strong... To finish on top you need a strong start is formulated to get your crops out of the gate early

More information

Cycles of Matter. Slide 1 of 33. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Cycles of Matter. Slide 1 of 33. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cycles of Matter 1 of 33 The purpose of this lesson is to learn the water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles. This PowerPoint will provide most of the required information you need to accomplish

More information

Gordon Johnson Janet McAllister Nevin Dawson John Jordan

Gordon Johnson Janet McAllister Nevin Dawson John Jordan Soil Health Gordon Johnson, Extension Fruit and Vegetable Specialist, Univ. of DE Coop. Extension Janet McAllister, Program Associate, NE SARE Professional Development Program Nevin Dawson, Sustainable

More information

Measuring and Managing Changes in Soil Health

Measuring and Managing Changes in Soil Health Measuring and Managing Changes in Soil Health PA DEP s Ag Advisory Board April 15 th, 2015 DEP South-Central Regional Office, Susquehanna Room A, Harrisburg, PA Dan Dostie USDA NRCS Presentation Topics

More information

Daniel Moebius-Clune, Bianca Moebius-Clune, Robert Schindelbeck, Janice Thies, and Harold van Es. Soilhealth.cals.cornell.edu

Daniel Moebius-Clune, Bianca Moebius-Clune, Robert Schindelbeck, Janice Thies, and Harold van Es. Soilhealth.cals.cornell.edu Cornell Soil Health Update Daniel Moebius-Clune, Bianca Moebius-Clune, Robert Schindelbeck, Janice Thies, and Harold van Es Soilhealth.cals.cornell.edu Now a National Focus: Today s soils are limited by

More information

Does Organic Matter Really Matter? Jodi DeJong-Hughes Regional Extension Educator, Willmar x 2006

Does Organic Matter Really Matter? Jodi DeJong-Hughes Regional Extension Educator, Willmar x 2006 Does Organic Matter Really Matter? Jodi DeJong-Hughes Regional Extension Educator, Willmar 320-235-0726 x 2006 dejon003@umn.edu Soil health affects the resiliency of the soil or the ability of a soil to

More information

Improving Soil Health with Grazing

Improving Soil Health with Grazing Improving Life through Science and Technology Improving Soil Health with Grazing Soil Health Workshop Gatesville, TX 2015 Richard Teague, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Vernon 90% of Soil function is mediated

More information

Managing Upland Grazing to Restore Soil Health and Farm Livelihoods

Managing Upland Grazing to Restore Soil Health and Farm Livelihoods Managing Upland Grazing to Restore Soil Health and Farm Livelihoods Richard Teague, Texas A&M AgriLife Research Wimberley, Texas 30 th September 2016 Carbon rich soil: Benefits the entire ecosystem Healthy

More information

Soil Biology AGRICULTURE. The Living, Breathing Soil: Farming with Soil Biology by Kristin Williams, Agronomy Outreach Professional

Soil Biology AGRICULTURE. The Living, Breathing Soil: Farming with Soil Biology by Kristin Williams, Agronomy Outreach Professional E X T E N S I O N AGRICULTURE Soil Biology UVM Extension Fact Sheet: Champlain Valley Crop, Soil and Pasture Team The Living, Breathing Soil: Farming with Soil Biology by Kristin Williams, Agronomy Outreach

More information

BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS IN GRASSLAND SOILS AND PRODUCTIVITY. Abstract

BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS IN GRASSLAND SOILS AND PRODUCTIVITY. Abstract ID # 04-05 BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS IN GRASSLAND SOILS AND PRODUCTIVITY R. Cook 1, R. D. Bardgett 2, W. R. Eason 1, L. Skøt 1 and K. J. Webb 1 1 Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Aberystwyth,

More information

MASTPAWG Steve Culman School of Environment and Natural Resources The Ohio State University, OARDC, Wooster

MASTPAWG Steve Culman School of Environment and Natural Resources The Ohio State University, OARDC, Wooster Using active organic matter measurements to predict agronomic performance MASTPAWG 2015 Steve Culman School of Environment and Natural Resources The Ohio State University, OARDC, Wooster Outline What is

More information

Soil Best Practices. Gardens on the Go Connie Kuramoto

Soil Best Practices. Gardens on the Go Connie Kuramoto Soil Best Practices Gardens on the Go Connie Kuramoto What is Good Soil? Good soil Has equal water and air holding capacity Contains organic matter Is full of microbes Nature builds soil by feeding microbes

More information

Supercharging your P fertilizer Does it Work? Cynthia Grant,

Supercharging your P fertilizer Does it Work? Cynthia Grant, Supercharging your P fertilizer Does it Work? Cynthia Grant, Cynthia.grant@agr.gc.ca Phosphorus Phosphorus is critical for crop growth Structural component of nucleotides, nucleic acids and phospholipids.

More information

Soil Testing for Soil Health. Rick Haney PhD, USDA ARS, Temple, TX

Soil Testing for Soil Health. Rick Haney PhD, USDA ARS, Temple, TX Soil Testing for Soil Health Rick Haney PhD, USDA ARS, Temple, TX Natures Way Grows a skin for living systems Cycles nutrients Diverse, no monoculture Seeks balance Sustainable R & D experience Plant root

More information

Soil Quality, Nutrient Cycling and Soil Fertility. Ray Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE

Soil Quality, Nutrient Cycling and Soil Fertility. Ray Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE Soil Quality, Nutrient Cycling and Soil Fertility Ray Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE www.wardlab.com Purposes of Soil Quality Employ new & modified crop management systems Increase efficiency

More information

Soil Health Research Landscape Tool, v Data Dictionary Soil Health Institute 12/21/2016

Soil Health Research Landscape Tool, v Data Dictionary Soil Health Institute 12/21/2016 Soil Health Research Landscape Tool, v.12-21-16 Data Dictionary Soil Health Institute 12/21/2016 The Soil Health Research Landscape tool provides up-to-date information on soil health-related research

More information

Managing Soil Biology to Increase Agricultural Production and Sustainability

Managing Soil Biology to Increase Agricultural Production and Sustainability Managing Soil Biology to Increase Agricultural Production and Sustainability Kate Scow Dept. of Land, Air & Water Resources Agricultural Sustainability Institute Soil biodiversity: like an iceberg... most

More information

USDA-NRCS Programs and Interpretation of Haney Soil Health Test Results

USDA-NRCS Programs and Interpretation of Haney Soil Health Test Results USDA-NRCS Programs and Interpretation of Haney Soil Health Test Results Carissa Spencer MN NRCS State Agronomist Jennifer Hahn MN NRCS Resource Soil Scientist 1 Nutrient and Pest Management Standards Upcoming

More information

Chapter 2. Table of Contents. Section 1 Organisms and Their Releationships. Section 2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem. Section 3 Cycling of Matter

Chapter 2. Table of Contents. Section 1 Organisms and Their Releationships. Section 2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem. Section 3 Cycling of Matter Ecosystems Table of Contents Section 1 Organisms and Their Releationships Section 2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem Section 3 Cycling of Matter Section 1 Organisms and Their Releationships Interactions

More information

Tillage Management and Soil Organic Matter

Tillage Management and Soil Organic Matter Resources Conservation Practices Tillage Management and Soil Organic Matter Conservation Quiz 1. What are the two classes of soil organic matter? 2. How does soil disturbance by tillage decrease soil organic

More information

Florida International University Department of Earth and Environment

Florida International University Department of Earth and Environment Florida International University Department of Earth and Environment SWS 4303 SOIL MICROBIOLOGY EVS 6194 APPLIED SOIL BIOLOGY Syllabus - Fall 2016 (3 credits) Class Time: Tuesday/Thursday 2:00 PM to 3:15

More information

Calcium, ph and Soil Health. Tim Reinbott, MU Field Operations

Calcium, ph and Soil Health. Tim Reinbott, MU Field Operations Calcium, ph and Soil Health Tim Reinbott, MU Field Operations Soil ph Fix it First Before You Do Anything Else! But What Is it? What Is ph? The lower the ph the more Hydrogen is Present ph Scale-In Soils

More information

Lori Hoagland Assistant Professor Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture Purdue University

Lori Hoagland Assistant Professor Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture Purdue University Soil health and how to measure it Lori Hoagland Assistant Professor Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture Purdue University Outline What is soil health and why should we care about it? What

More information

Andrew Sparda Horizons in Soil Health

Andrew Sparda Horizons in Soil Health Andrew Sparda Horizons in Soil Health Center For Sustainability Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, California May 15, 2015 Now a National Focus: Today s soils are limited by their HEALTH Beyond nutrient limitations

More information

Soil health and fertility

Soil health and fertility Soil health and fertility Two statements: tillage reduces soil productivity conservation agriculture benefits the soil Conventional tillage Advantages Disadvantages Machinery is present Incorporates fertilizers

More information

THE INTRODUCTION THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

THE INTRODUCTION THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT THE INTRODUCTION The earth is surrounded by atmosphere composed of many gases. The sun s rays penetrate through the atmosphere to the earth s surface. Gases in the atmosphere trap heat that would otherwise

More information

Farming For Healthier Soil Changes & Challenges

Farming For Healthier Soil Changes & Challenges RODALE INSTITUTE Farming For Healthier Soil Changes & Challenges By Jeff Moyer Executive Director Our Broken Food System When Only Yields Are Considered Healthy Soil = Healthy Food = Healthy People Written

More information

Soil Management: How Cover Crops Can Impact Soil Health and Water Quality

Soil Management: How Cover Crops Can Impact Soil Health and Water Quality Soil Management: How Cover Crops Can Impact Soil Health and Water Quality Iowa Water Conference Tuesday March 4, 2014 Ames, IA USDA-ARS National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment Ames, Iowa

More information

Managing Soils for Improved Pasture

Managing Soils for Improved Pasture Managing Soils for Improved Pasture Jonathan Deenik, PhD Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences University of Hawaii Rota Grazing and Livestock Management Workshop June 10-12, 12, 2010 1 Water

More information

The Management of Soil Nutrients: Chemical Fertilisers or Not?

The Management of Soil Nutrients: Chemical Fertilisers or Not? 30 May 2017 The Management of Soil Nutrients: Chemical Fertilisers or Not? Christopher Johns Research Manager Northern Australia and Landcare Research Programme Key Points There are 17 chemical elements

More information

3 3 Cycles of Matter. EOC Review

3 3 Cycles of Matter. EOC Review EOC Review A freshwater plant is placed in a salt marsh. Predict the direction in which water will move across the plant s cell wall, and the effect of that movement on the plant. a. Water would move out

More information

Soil Quality How can we improve soil quality?

Soil Quality How can we improve soil quality? Activitydevelop Soil Quality How can we improve soil quality? Overview Students explore the conditions that make high-quality soils. Using data from field research and interactive computational models,

More information

The Role of Agriculture and Forestry In Emerging Carbon Markets

The Role of Agriculture and Forestry In Emerging Carbon Markets The Role of Agriculture and Forestry In Emerging Carbon Markets David W. Wolfe Dept. of Horticulture; dww5@cornell.edu ; Websites: http://www.hort.cornell.edu/wolfe hort edu/wolfe http://www.climateandfarming.org

More information

Grassland Ecosystem Function: Uplands

Grassland Ecosystem Function: Uplands Improving Life through Science and Technology Grassland Ecosystem Function: Uplands Richard Teague, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Vernon 25 th September 2015, Fredericksburg Soil health differences due

More information

Activating Biochar. Activate your Biochar by using BiotaMax tm, a soil probiotic. BiotaMax tm contains beneficial bacteria and beneficial fungi.

Activating Biochar. Activate your Biochar by using BiotaMax tm, a soil probiotic. BiotaMax tm contains beneficial bacteria and beneficial fungi. Activating Biochar Activate your Biochar by using BiotaMax tm, a soil probiotic. BiotaMax tm contains beneficial bacteria and beneficial fungi. The Use of BiotaMax tm, by Custom Biologicals, to Activate

More information

Science Project. Michael Jones

Science Project. Michael Jones Science Project by Michael Jones Purpose To find out how biologically active different soils are and what makes different soils like that. Introduction I was in grade 7 when I did this project. I competed

More information

background info: organic agriculture

background info: organic agriculture natural/organic food background info: organic agriculture organic farming in Africa There are two levels of organic farming in Africa, certified organic production and non-certified or agro-ecological

More information

Soil Health Impacts of Cover Crops Bob Kremer & Kristen Veum USDA-ARS & University of Missouri

Soil Health Impacts of Cover Crops Bob Kremer & Kristen Veum USDA-ARS & University of Missouri Soil Health Impacts of Cover Crops Bob Kremer & Kristen Veum USDA-ARS & University of Missouri Cover crop screening trials - Bradford Farm - 1997 Acknowledgments University of Missouri Soil Health Lab

More information

Rick Maurice. Central West Conservation Farming Association

Rick Maurice. Central West Conservation Farming Association Conservation Farming & Carbon Sequestration Rick Maurice Vice Chairman Central West Conservation Farming Association Conservation Agriculture (Direct Seeding or No-Till farming) De-carbonize energy use,

More information

Cover Crops to Improve Soil Health and Reduce Soil Erosion. Dr. Eileen Kladivko Agronomy Department Purdue University

Cover Crops to Improve Soil Health and Reduce Soil Erosion. Dr. Eileen Kladivko Agronomy Department Purdue University Cover Crops to Improve Soil Health and Reduce Soil Erosion Dr. Eileen Kladivko Agronomy Department Purdue University Thanks to many colleagues over past 10 yrs! Midwest Cover Crops Council www.mccc.msu.edu

More information

Introduction to Aquaponics. Presented by

Introduction to Aquaponics. Presented by Introduction to Aquaponics Presented by Aquaponics Nutrients Recirculating Aquaculture Farming fish in a closed loop of water Mechanical and biological filtration remove waste and clean water Nutrient

More information

Carbon Flow from Roots to Microbes to Soil Humic Substances

Carbon Flow from Roots to Microbes to Soil Humic Substances 2001-2006 Mission Kearney Foundation of Soil Science: Soil Carbon and California's Terrestrial Ecosystems Final Report: 2001017, 1/1/2002-12/31/2003 Carbon Flow from Roots to Microbes to Soil Humic Substances

More information

The Biology of Composting

The Biology of Composting The Biology of Composting Mark King, Sustainability Division mark.a.king@maine.gov MAINE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Protecting Maine s Air, Land and Water Systems Covered First We ll Discuss

More information

What is Ecological or ECO Farming?

What is Ecological or ECO Farming? ECO Farming in the 21 st Environment Century: Improving Farm Profitability and the James J. Hoorman, Assistant Professor, Ohio State University Extension Educator K. Rafiq Islam, Associate Professor, Ohio

More information

CHAPTER 14 ECOSYSTEM POINTS TO REMEMBER Startification : Vertical distribution of different species occupying different levels in an ecosystem. Primary Production : Amount of biomas or organic matter produced

More information

Building healthy soils for healthy crops LORI HOAGLAND ASSISTANT PROFESSOR PURDUE UNIVERSITY

Building healthy soils for healthy crops LORI HOAGLAND ASSISTANT PROFESSOR PURDUE UNIVERSITY Building healthy soils for healthy crops LORI HOAGLAND ASSISTANT PROFESSOR PURDUE UNIVERSITY Outline v What is soil health and why is organic ma7er so important? v How do management prac:ces influence

More information

Natural Resources Conservation Service

Natural Resources Conservation Service Natural Resources Conservation Service Soil Health 101 What is soil health and how do we measure it? Name: Tom Roth Title: Conservation Agronomist Location, Salina Kansas Email: thomas.roth@ks.usda.gov

More information

Ecology, the Environment, and Us

Ecology, the Environment, and Us BIOLOGY OF HUMANS Concepts, Applications, and Issues Fifth Edition Judith Goodenough Betty McGuire 23 Ecology, the Environment, and Us Lecture Presentation Anne Gasc Hawaii Pacific University and University

More information

Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P and S

Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P and S Cycling and Biogeochemical Transformations of N, P and S OCN 401 - Biogeochemical Systems Reading: Schlesinger, Chapter 6 1. Nitrogen cycle Soil nitrogen cycle Nitrification Emissions of N gases from soils

More information

MICROBES IN ECOLOGY INTRODUCTION

MICROBES IN ECOLOGY INTRODUCTION MICROBES IN ECOLOGY INTRODUCTION - Microbes usually live in communities and rarely as individuals They are Present in every known ecosystem Over 99% of microbes contribute to the quality of human life

More information

MYCORRHIZA important for sustaining the earth.

MYCORRHIZA important for sustaining the earth. MYCORRHIZA important for sustaining the earth. Increasing World Food Demand and Industrialisation of Food - It s estimated that by 2030 the earth will need to support 8.3 billion people. The UN Food and

More information

MWELO Providing Insight on Soil and Compost Requirements. Will Bakx

MWELO Providing Insight on Soil and Compost Requirements. Will Bakx MWELO Providing Insight on Soil and Compost Requirements Will Bakx www.sonomacompost.com willbakx@sonomacompost.com Soils: 2 Sections 492.5 Soil Management report 492.6(3) Soil Preparation, Mulch and Amendments

More information

Outline. Farmer Goals/Needs for their Soil 1/23/2017. Compost. Challenges Using Compost. Other Support

Outline. Farmer Goals/Needs for their Soil 1/23/2017. Compost. Challenges Using Compost. Other Support Outline Elsa Sanchez Brian Caldwell What are the farmers goals/needs for their soil? (Brian and Elsa) 5 min Nutrient building (Elsa) 20 min Soil tests and recommendations (Brian and Elsa) 5 min Nutrients

More information

The Asia-Pacific Natural Agriculture Network (APNAN): A Case Study for Regional Research Kyusei Nature Farming Development of EM Technology

The Asia-Pacific Natural Agriculture Network (APNAN): A Case Study for Regional Research Kyusei Nature Farming Development of EM Technology The Asia-Pacific Natural Agriculture Network (APNAN): A Case Study for Regional Research T. Hussain, G. Jilani, M. Yaseen and M. A. Abbas Department of Sod Science University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

More information

Soil Organic Matter. Soil degradation has become a major concern in. What is organic matter? Organic matter in virgin and cultivated soils

Soil Organic Matter. Soil degradation has become a major concern in. What is organic matter? Organic matter in virgin and cultivated soils Agdex 6- Soil degradation has become a major concern in Canada. Erosion, salinization, acidification and loss of organic matter are the main forms of soil deterioration. This factsheet deals with the role

More information

Effects of ph on Herbicide Activity

Effects of ph on Herbicide Activity Effects of ph on Herbicide Activity November 16, 2017 Stephen Van Vleet Recommendations Reduction in crop response Less stress Soil factors affecting herbicide persistence include soil composition, soil

More information

B.Sc. MICROBIOLOGY SYLLABUS DDU GORAKHPUR UNIVERSITY, GORAKHPUR Industrial Microbiology D. D. U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur B.Sc.

B.Sc. MICROBIOLOGY SYLLABUS DDU GORAKHPUR UNIVERSITY, GORAKHPUR Industrial Microbiology D. D. U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur B.Sc. Industrial Microbiology D. D. U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur B.Sc. III B.Sc. II: Three papers and a practical examination as follows: Paper I: Food Microbiology Papers II: Fermentation Technology Papers

More information

Managing Soil Nutrients

Managing Soil Nutrients SESSION III... Managing Soil Nutrients What will be covered in Session III: Minimizing Environmental Risks Through Nutrient Management LESSON 1: Managing the Plant and Soil Ecosystem LESSON 2: Potential

More information

know and what we don t

know and what we don t Biofuels in Wisconsin: What we know and what we don t M A T T R U A R K, D E P A R T M E N T O F S O I L S C I E N C E U N I V E R S I T Y O F W I S C O N S I N - M A D I S O N ; U N I V E R S I T Y O

More information

Nutrients elements required for the development, maintenance, and reproduction of organisms.

Nutrients elements required for the development, maintenance, and reproduction of organisms. Nutrient Cycles Energy flows through ecosystems (one way trip). Unlike energy, however, nutrients (P, N, C, K, S ) cycle within ecosystems. Nutrients are important in controlling NPP in ecosystems. Bottom-up

More information

The Understanding around Soil Compaction in Crop Production

The Understanding around Soil Compaction in Crop Production The Understanding around Soil Compaction in Crop Production John Fulton CompactionSmart, Waterloo, ON Your decision on field operations / practices: Right decision Wrong decision NDVI Image Early July

More information

Concept of Organic Farming S S R A N A S R S C I E N T I S T

Concept of Organic Farming S S R A N A S R S C I E N T I S T S S R A N A S R S C I E N T I S T Concept 2 Organic farming endorses the concept that the soil, plant, animals and human beings are linked. In philosophical terms organic farming means farming in sprits

More information

ARE TILLAGE AND SOIL QUALITY MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE. Dick Wolkowski Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin

ARE TILLAGE AND SOIL QUALITY MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE. Dick Wolkowski Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin ARE TILLAGE AND SOIL QUALITY MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE Dick Wolkowski Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin WHAT IS SOIL QUALITY DEPENDS ON WHO YOU ARE: Farmer: Highly productive, sustainable soil

More information

Biology 318 Introduction to Microbiology

Biology 318 Introduction to Microbiology Biology 318 Introduction to Microbiology Microbiology The study of small living things Cells - Bacteria, Algae, Protozoa, Fungi Not Cells - Viruses and Prions All are UBIQUITOUS Prokaryotic Cells Simpler,

More information

3 Organic Matter, Soil Structure and Crop Yield

3 Organic Matter, Soil Structure and Crop Yield // Department of Geography and Environmental Science Structure of talk Organic Matter Soil Structure and Crop Yield Dr Tom Sizmur What is soil structure? Soil organic matter: Does size matter? Organic

More information

Manure Land Application and Soil Health Indicators

Manure Land Application and Soil Health Indicators SOIL HEALTH Manure Land Application and Soil Health Indicators Project Summary This project aimed to correlate important soil health variables and land application of manure data collected in Missouri.

More information

LTAR Soil Data Summary

LTAR Soil Data Summary Improving Soil Quality During and After Organic Transition athleen Delate and Cynthia mbardella Iowa State University and USDA-ARS National Soil Tilth Lab Introduction: The organic agriculture industry

More information

Soil remediation through organic matter

Soil remediation through organic matter Soil remediation through organic matter Audrey Litterick Copyright Earthcare Technical Summary Why do some soils need remediation? Organic matter the one size fits all solution for sick soils? Why SOM

More information

Nitrogen & Bacteria. A biological journey through the environment

Nitrogen & Bacteria. A biological journey through the environment Nitrogen & Bacteria A biological journey through the environment Sources of Nitrogen to the Environment Agricultural Natural Industrial Transportation Nitrogen as a pollutant Too much Nitrogen can cause

More information

Compost Successes, Failures and Opportunities: Growing Better Plants

Compost Successes, Failures and Opportunities: Growing Better Plants Compost Successes, Failures and Opportunities: Growing Better Plants by Thomas R. Halbach Department of Soil, Water and Climate University of Minnesota SROC s Season Extension Day Wednesday, March 4, 2015

More information

Growing degree days and growth requirements for Corn.

Growing degree days and growth requirements for Corn. Growing degree days and growth requirements for Corn. Growing Degree days are a daily accumulation of heat for crop growth. Corn does not grow when temperatures are below 5 F, and temperatures above 86

More information

Fire and Soil Health on Rangelands. J. Derek Scasta - Assistant Professor and Extension Rangeland Specialist University of Wyoming

Fire and Soil Health on Rangelands. J. Derek Scasta - Assistant Professor and Extension Rangeland Specialist University of Wyoming Fire and Soil Health on Rangelands J. Derek Scasta - Assistant Professor and Extension Rangeland Specialist University of Wyoming Introduction TAMU, TTU, OSU Education Patch-burn grazing in mixed and tallgrass

More information

Considerations for Corn Residue Harvest in Minnesota

Considerations for Corn Residue Harvest in Minnesota Considerations for Corn Residue Harvest in Minnesota Jodi DeJong-Hughes, Regional Extension Educator; and Jeff Coulter, Assistant Professor Introduction In most fields, corn residue is incorporated into

More information

Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in Human Welfare Chapter-14 Microbes in Human Welfare 1. Give different types of cry genes and pests which are controlled by the proteins encoded by these genes? A: cryiac, cryiiab and cry IAb cryiac, cryiiab control the

More information