Source of data. (amount) Four-wheel Tractor Under 18 hp 59, hp 130, hp and over 97,360 Hand Tractor ( 2-Wheel) 2,644,982 32,239 4,450

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1 RESEARCH REPORT FROM THAILAND 1. General information concerning agricultural machines being used in Thailand Focus Area Agricultural Tractors * Paddy Threshers Corn Sheller Planter and Seeder: -Manual -Engine -Attached to 2-wheel tractor -Attached to 4-wheel tractor Knapsack Sprayers Manual engine Mechanical Harvesters: -Sugarcane Combine Harvester -Rice Combine Harvester Post- Harvest Machinery: umber in use (amount) Four-wheel Tractor Under 18 hp 59, hp 130, hp and over 97,360 Hand Tractor ( 2-Wheel) 2,644,982 32,239 4, ,471 58, ,384 77,825 2,066,666 1,020,369 2,271 41,143 Source of data The 2008 Agriculture Intercensal Survey, National Statistical Office, Ministry of Information and Communicati on Technology Averag Source of data e Age (years) 10 estimate 10 estimate 6 estimate 7 estimate Rice mill 56, estimate Weeder 984, estimate Water pump -Engine -Electric motor -Natural energy 1,615, ,666 13,158 6 estimate Total machines Addendum for tractors: Most of agricultural tractors are used in the field for land preparation; the average power of the engines is 11 kw ANTAM - () page 1 of 5

2 At present, most of the agricultural equipment used in Thailand is locally produced such as tractor, power tiller, disc ploughs, disk harrow, water pump, sprayer, threshing machine, reaper, combine harvester, cleaning equipment, dryer, rice milling machines, and processing equipment etc. However local machines, produced from small manufacturer, are not standardized in quality, efficiency and durability. Some agricultural machines are import from overseas by companies for Thai agricultural productions. The information in Table 1 was obtained from survey of the top 70 agricultural machinery factories in Thailand in Table 1. Major products of Local manufacturer in Thailand Machine Production in units per year Two wheel walking tractors 80,000 Large tillage implement 3,000 Small tillage implement 90,000 Threshing machines 2,000 Combine harvester 600 Sprayers with hand operated 60,000 Irrigation pump 55,000 Source: The Agricultural Engineering Research Institute 2. Information related to the use of agricultural machinery - Total amount of injuries and % of fatalities The amount of accidents and injuries caused by agricultural machinery was not reported. In Thailand, a study has been conducted to assess the prevalence rate of accident and of hearing loss of workers handling agricultural machines in 5 districts of Ubon Ratchatani Province. Total of 528 agricultural workers were selected as the case studies. The study included the measurement of noise level caused by agricultural machines process during April to September Questionnaire results and hearing test were analyzed to assess the prevalence rate of accident and of hearing loss on workers according to handling agricultural machines. 55.2% of the average sound levels (L Aeq ) measured by the SPL were in the range of dba. None of the sound level results were higher than the safety standard. Total of 253 workers (97.1% males and 2.9% females), most of their ages range from 41 to 50 years, were examined their hearing abilities. The average working time of these workers was 9.4 ± 5.8 years. Hearing test results revealed that the prevalence rate of hearing abnormality of these workers was roughly 88.1% at all hearing level. It should conclude from this study that noise pollution caused by farm machinery process has significant impact on worker s health and life quality. Therefore knowledge about safety in handling this kind of machinery must be recognized by the workers themselves. Source of data: Department of Disease Control (organization or indicate if estimation) ANTAM - () page 2 of 5

3 - Existence of any subsidy system for farmers, i.e., how it works. The government of Thailand doesn t subsidize all kinds of agricultural machinery. - Estimation of the social cost of injuries for the public and private sector The estimation of the social cost of injuries caused by agricultural machinery is not available. (This data is very useful in order to motivate the use of safer machines in order to reduce the cost for Governments) - Existence of testing procedures used in Thailand (if there is and indicate if it is a national system or an international system and the standards being used ISO, Asabe, En or other) Thai Industrial Standard Institute (TISI), Ministry of Industry is responsible for standardization of agricultural machinery. TISI was established in It is the official agency with the responsibility in the development of Thai Industrial Standards (TIS), including agricultural machinery standards. The preparation of agricultural machinery standards is undertaken by the Technical Committee (TC). The TC, appointed by the TISI, includes representatives from Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), manufacturers, the Bank of Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC), and universities. Approved standards are published in the government gazette. Agricultural machinery standards from various countries have been studied and then adapted to suit with Thai agricultural machines and their corresponding working conditions. Research is required to get a basic data for developing standards. Safety standard is one part of each agricultural machinery standard. However, most of agricultural machinery standards are voluntary standards. Only small size water cooled diesel engine standard is a mandatory one. Only a few number of agricultural machinery manufacturers apply for the TISI standard certification. Agricultural machinery standards are being used for the testing at the present time as follows. TIS (1997) Test methods for power tillers TIS (1993) Groundnut shellers TIS (1988) Power maize shellers TIS (1997) Rice reapers TIS (2000) Soy - bean reapers TIS (2001) Rice combine harvesters TIS (1995) Rotary slashers TIS (2001) Axial flow rice threshers TIS (1993) Sorghum threshers TIS (1991) Soybean threshers TIS (1997) Sugar cane planters TIS (1996) Rotary cultivators TIS (1996) Paddy dryers TIS (1989) Small rice mill TIS (1992) Vertical/Inclined pumps ANTAM - () page 3 of 5

4 TIS (1994) Seeders TIS (1990) Agricultural discs TIS (1990) Tapioca pellet die TIS (1993) Dozers for agricultural wheeled tractors TIS (1994) Three-point hitch-mounted poly disc tillers TIS (1992) Tractor-operated disc ploughs TIS (1997) Disc ploughs for walk-behind tractors TIS (1992) Moldboard ploughs for power tiller TIS (1989) Rubber brake blocks for rice whitener machine TIS (1998) Crop protection equipment : air compression sprayers TIS (1996) Crop protection equipment: slide-action (trombone) sprayers TIS (1996) Crop protection equipment : lever-operated knapsack sprayers TIS (1996) Hitch pins for walk-behind tractors TIS (1996) Wheel flanges for walk-behind tractors TIS (1990) Dimension of three-point linkage of agricultural wheeled tractors TIS (1995) Hydraulic spray nozzle for crop protection TIS (1995) Agricultural vehicles: farm trucks TIS (1996) Trailers for walk-behind tractors TIS (1996) Walk-behind tractors TIS (1997) Small four-wheeled tractors - Collection of proposals (describe any proposal you have for a better use of mechanical harvesters and for the development of an international testing system) In Thailand standards of some agricultural machinery are already defined but few number of Agricultural machinery manufactures requested for the certificate for their products. However, only few numbers of requested cases were awarded the certificates. Therefore, revising standards is required. This wills able Agricultural machinery manufactures to increase their potential to compete in the market against imported machines. Recommendations set up are: 1. Revise the existing standards and mechanism to achieve those standards. 2. Improve regulation to ensure using of the standards. 3. Stimulate and promote agricultural machinery production in line with standards. The following incentives may be used: - Reduce tax charged from the registered manufactures. - Support low interest rate of loan money for their improvement and for their products that received standard certificate. Promote standardization of local agricultural machinery is needed: Good and high standard agricultural machinery will benefit to both farmers and Agricultural machinery manufactures. Extend knowledge and training for operators of big size, high price and high performance agricultural machinery: Trend of using these machines for crops production in Thailand is increasing viz. rice combine harvester, sugarcane harvester etc. High skilled operators are required to maximize utilization efficiency of these ANTAM - () page 4 of 5

5 machines. This will result in good quality of work done; decreasing repair and maintenance cost and thereby reduce cost for custom service may be possible. Supporting custom service system of agricultural machinery: Agricultural machinery in custom service is popularly used in Thai crop production. The advantages are: increased utilization of machine; reduced fixed cost for holding machine; option to use high performance machine for increasing production efficiency; and relax the problem of labor shortage. This is practiced intensively in the Central, as compared to the North and the Northeast, which have low competition causing high hiring rate and increased cost of production. There fore, the promotion of custom service for agricultural machinery should be practiced ANTAM - () page 5 of 5

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