Agriculture in Hokkaido Japan. January 2018 Department of Agriculture Hokkaido Government

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1 Agriculture in Hokkaido Japan January 2018 Department of Agriculture Hokkaido Government

2 January 2018 Department of Agriculture Hokkaido Government Characteristics of Agriculture in Hokkaido In Hokkaido, agriculture makes use of a large area of cultivated acreage, which accounts for 25% of Japan s total cultivated area. Hokkaido contributes 13.5% of the total agricultural output of Japan. The cultivated land area per farm household in Hokkaido is about 13.4 times greater than that of any other prefecture. Business farm households account for 75% of the total prefectural farm households, compared with 21% in other prefectures. Farmers in Hokkaido run their businesses on a large scale, full-time basis. Share of Hokkaido Agriculture in Japan Farm Households in Hokkaido Compared with other Prefectures Classification Unit Hokkaido Japan Share Year Cultivated Land Area Commercial Farmers Full-time Farmers Part-time Farmers (Class I) Part-time Farmers (Class II) Agricultural Population Agricultural Output Crop farming Livestock farming ha households people Hundred million yen 1,146 4, % ,852 5,340 6,512 1, % 6.8% 4.4% 0.5% , % ,979 56,245 31, % 9.5% 20.9% 2015 Source: Survey on Cultivated Land Area, Survey of Movements in Agriculture Structure, World Census of Agriculture and Forestry, Statistics of Agricultural Income Produced, Statistical Survey on Livestock, and Statistical Survey on Farm Management and Economy by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; Census of Manufactures by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Note 1: Business farm indicates a farm household whose principal income source is agriculture and which contains a person under 65 years old who is engaged in farm work for 60 days or more in a year. 2: Agricultural dependency indicates agricultural income as a percentage of gross income (agricultural income + agricultural production related business income + nonagricultural income). Classification Cultivated Land Area Under Management per Household Percentage of Farmers under 65 Years Old (core agricultural workers) Percentage of Business Farms Number of Milk Cows Number of Cattle (per household) Agricultural Gross Income Agricultural Income Nonagricultural Income Agricultural Dependency (per household) Unit Hokkaido (a) prefectures (b) a/b Year ha % % head yen % 28,978 8, ,753 1,318 1, Share of food manufacturers in all manufacturing businesses in terms of shipment value Classification Japan Hokkaido Share (2014) 8.5% 29.7%

3 Food Self-sufficiency Ratio by Prefecture While the calorie-based food self-sufficiency ratio in the nation hovered at a low level, 38% in FY 2016, Hokkaido s ratio was 221% in FY 2015, the highest in Japan. Besides Hokkaido, five prefectures, including Akita, Yamagata, Aomori, Iwate and Niigata, have a food self-sufficiency ratio of over 100%. Hokkaido, whose major products are upland field, has an output based food self-sufficiency ratio of 212%. However, Aomori, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima, prefectures whose major products (fruits, vegetables, and beef cattle) have a high profitability, have higher ratios than Hokkaido. Agriculture, forestry and fisheries in Hokkaido, which supply approximately 20% of domestically-supplied calories, significantly contribute to a stable food supply in Japan. Food Self-sufficiency Ratio of Hokkaido and Major Prefectures (Unit:%,million yen) Self-sufficiency ratio Calorie (A) Output (B) B/A Japan Hokkaido Aomori Iwate Akita Yamagata Niigata Miyazaki Kagoshima The figures are as of FY2015(estimate). Hokkaido s contribution to domestically-supplied calories Total calorie supply 2,421 kcal A. Japan 954 kcal Domestic calorie supply B. Hokkaido 227 kcal Source: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Department of Agriculture Hokkaido Government (per capita per day) (2015) C. Hokkaido s contribution rate (B/A) 23.8 % Source: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 2

4 Value of Agricultural Production: Changes and Component Ratio While the value of agricultural production is declining throughout the country, the value of agricultural production in Hokkaido has remained at nearly one trillion yen since The component ratio of the value of production throughout Hokkaido is greater for dairy cattle, vegetables and field than other prefectures. The ratio between cultivation and live stock is almost half and half. (100 million yen) Value of Agricultural Production of Hokkaido and Its 14,000 Nationwide Share 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2, ,852 (13.5) Value of agricultural production Nationwide share Source: Statistics on Agricultural Income Produced by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (%) Note) The policy for ensuring consistency in the operating income of rice paddies and field farming was introduced in This led to some of the grants that had been previously included in the value of production of wheat, soybeans, beets and potatoes for starch materials being given to management bodies in a lump sum as grants based on past records of production. They are not included in the value of production of the relevant. In the past, each municipality was considered to be a unit when estimating the figures. Instead, a prefecture is now considered to be a unit when estimating the figures. For this reason, intermediate products that are sold/purchased between municipalities within the same prefecture are not included in the value of production. Hokkaido Nationwide 2015 Component Ratio of the Value of Agricultural Production % 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Rice Field crop farming Milk cows livestock farming Processed farm products Source: Statistics on Agricultural Income Produced by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 3

5 Status of Agriculture in Hokkaido Hokkaido makes significant contributions to a stable food supply in Japan, and produces the largest volume in major agricultural and livestock products in Japan. Major agricultural and livestock products of which Hokkaido produces the largest volume in Japan (2016) Wheat 66.3% Soybeans 35.5% Adzuki beans 91.9% Kidney beans 97.0% Potatoes 79.5% 524,000 t, 123,000 ha 84,000 t, 40,000 ha 27,000 t, 16,000 ha 5,000 t, 8,000 ha 1,715,000 t, 51,000 ha Sugar beets 100% Buckwheat 42.0% Onions 67.9% Pumpkins 44.7% Carrots 25.9% 3,189,000 t, 59,000 ha 12,000 t, 22,000 ha 844,000 t, 14,000 ha 83,000 t, 7,000 ha 147,000 t, 5,000 ha Sweet corn 31.9% Asparagus 13.8% Milk 53.1% 19.5% Bloodhorses 97.8% 63,000 t, 9,000 ha Source: 4,000 t, 1,000 ha 3,871,000 t, 786,000 heads 90,000 t, 513,000 heads 7,000 heads Crop Survey, Survey on Production of Milk and Milk Products, and Statistical Survey on Livestock and Survey on Fishery Production and Aquaculture Production by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 4

6 Agricultural Characteristics in Each Area Hokkaido contains a large area of Japan, and its weather and geographical conditions vary between regions. For this reason, many regions of Hokkaido have unique agricultural practices. Central Hokkaido area Agriculture based mainly on rice cultivation, but each region makes use of it's unique characteristics, with some growing vegetables and others raising beef cattle or bloodhorses. Agricultural output billion yen (2015) East and North Hokkaido (upland farming) area Agriculture based on large-scale and mechanized upland farming management, mainly producing wheat, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, and dairy products Agricultural output billion yen (2015) Rice 25.3% 25.0% livestock 20.5% Milk cows 11.8% Upland field 8.1% cattle 5.9% 3.4% Milk cows 37.5% Upland field 27.2% 18.2% catte 11.4% livestock 5.0% Rice 0.2% 0.4% South Hokkaido area Agricultural output 91.3 billion yen (2015) 35.3% Milk cows 15.0% Agriculture based on the intensive cultivation of greenhouse horticulture, upland farms, and fruit as well as rice cultivation. Rice Upland 12.4 livestock field cattle % 12.2% 12.1% 6.9% 6.1% East and North Hokkaido (dairy farming) area Agricultural output billion yen (2015) Milk cows 89.2% Agriculture based on large-scale dairy farming at EU level making use of vast meadows cattle 5.9% livestock 1.4% 1.9% 0.8% Upland field 0.8% 5

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