Spotted Profits VS. Solid Profits Jessica Leetch AGEC 4960 March 1, 2010

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1 Spotted Profits VS. Solid Profits Jessica Leetch AGEC 4960 March 1, 2010

2 Presentation Overview Introduction Review of Other work/background Methods Results Conclusions/Recommendations

3 Dairy Background Most view dairy steers as by products Slightly less than 9 million dairy cows in U.S. About 4 million dairy steers born in U.S. Steers are taken off mother shortly after birth and sent to growing program then feedlot Between 2.64 and three million dairy steers will enter beef markets as finished steers The remaining enter calf slaughter programs to produce veal Average slaughter weight 1200 lbs

4 Beef Background Calves are left on the cow for 6-7 months Most steers enter backgrounding program to improve uniformity, composition and maturity Go to feedlot after backgrounding Then begin finishing rations Average slaughter weight 1100 lbs

5 Review of Other Work John Maday By Product or Bonus? Daniel Shaefer (2003) of University of Wisconsin-Madison Dairy meat quality Dairy breeds score higher in marbling, probably due to their age

6 Methods Benefit Cost Analysis Dairy data versus Angus data Feed/input prices Dairy meat quality versus Angus meat quality Compile Break even

7 Results Overall, not significant differences Production and marketing differences clearly exist, but both sectors face similar factors Holstein steers take longer to finish out than Angus steers Angus more sought after

8 Finishing Steer Calf Costs

9 Dairy Break even Cost to raise Holstein steers on a conventional (roughage) ration. (100 to 1270 lbs.) Item Unit Price Cost Calf cost $ Feed cost Milk replacer 45 lbs. $45/bag $40.50 Starter mix 50 lbs. $.15/lb $22.50 Alfalfa hay 330 lbs. $60/ton $9.90 Corn silage 8447 lbs. $30/ton $ Corn 4166 lbs. $1.80/bu. $ % protein 1038 lbs. $325/ton $ Total feed costs $ Veterinary per head $9.00 Medicine per head $9.00 Yardage $0.20/day $93.20 Death loss 5.0% $15.65 Total cost $ Expected income Expected profit 1270 lbs. $0.60/lb. $ $7.98 Days on feed: 462 Average daily gain: 2.5 Lbs. feed/lb. gain: Feed cost/lb. gain: $0.43 Break even price:$0.59/lb. at 1270 lbs. Source: University of Nebraska, Cooperative Extension, Feeding and Managing Holstein Steers, G A

10 Beef Break even Table 3. Feeder Cattle Breakeven Worksheet Calf Value (500 lbs live wt x $1.25/lb) $ Projected Sale Value (800lbs sale wt x $1.17/lb) $ Feed Costs ($/day) Hay (12lbs x $0.03/lb) 0.36 Rolled Barley (5 lbs/day x $0.05/lb) 0.25 Supplement (includes Elanco Rumensin ) (0.75 lbs/day x $0.15/day) 0.11 Total Daily Feed Cost $0.72 Total Feed Costs (total daily feed cost X days on feed) $ Other Costs Profit and risk margin $5.00 Veterinary, medicine and induction costs $9.00 Yardage ($0.35/day x 150 days) $52.50 Death loss (2 % x $625.00/head) $ Total Other Costs $79.00 Total Production Costs (feed and other) $ Total Costs (calf, feed and other) $ Net Profit = Projected Sale Value Total Cost $ Cost/lb of gain = Total Production Costs Breakeven Sale Price = 300 lbs. $0.66/lb of gain $1.02/lb live wt Total Cost/Head 800 lb sale wt.

11 Major Input Costs Feed Cost Corn and Soybean Animal cost Holstein $125 Angus $650

12 Feed Costs

13 Dairy Meat Quality Dairy breeds take longer to finish out than traditional beef breeds Maintenance requirement is 20% higher than traditional beef due to milk production and metabolic capacity Low muscle to bone ratio Holsteins do not convert feed as efficiently as Angus, making cost of gain greater

14 Traditional Beef Meat Quality Demand has changed in the past years Consumer has asked for leaner, smaller cuts of meat Angus generally grade USDA Choice, or better

15 Conclusions/Recommendations Cheaper to finish Angus steers Angus easier to market Feeding Holsteins can be profitable-niche markets Profit depends on type of market (sale barn, private sale, video auctions)

16 Ideal Study Controlled study with same number, sex, weight of each animal breed Each breed to be fed similar rations Each breed to be slaughtered at similar weights

17 Bibliography "Agriculture Alternatives." Feeding Beef Cattle. Penn State Cooperative Extension, Web. 23 Nov <2. Burdine, Kenneth, Meyer, A.L., & Maynard, L.J. (2004). Understanding the market for holstein steers. Retrieved from Enterprise comparison: which is the most profitable for you?. (2002). Tend-R-Leen Tech Report, 10(68), Retrieved from Hofstrand, Don. (2009, April). Impact of rising feed prices on beef profitability. Retrieved from Kirk, John, and Dale Moore. "Dairy Beef: Maximizing Quality & Profit." UC Davis Veterinary Medicine, Web. 23 Nov 2009 < Loken, B.A., Maddock, R.J., Stamm, M.M., Schauer, C.S., & Rush, I. (2009). Growing rate of gain on subsequent feedlot performance, meat, and carcass quality of beef steers. Retrieved from Maday, John. "By-product or bonus?." Food Systems Insider (2006): n. pag. Web. 23 Nov < Peters, W.H,. "The Middle Ground in Finishing Livestock to meet Market Preferences Beef Cattle." Journal of Animal Science Web. 23 Nov < Ridlen, Ray. (n.d.). Beef cattle information. Oklahoma County Cooperative Extension Service, Retrieved from Schaefer, Daniel M. "YIELD AND QUALITY OF HOLSTEIN BEEF." Department of Animal Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Web. 23 Nov < Short, Sara. "Characteristics and Production Operations." United States Department of Agriculture. Nov United States Department of Agriculture, Web. 23 Nov <

18 Questions?

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