Anil Kumar, Neeraj Kumar, S.K. Singhal, Vinay Singh 1 and V. K. Sharma

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1 Agric. Sci. Digest., 33 (4) : , 2013 DOI /j AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION CENTRE / indianjournals.com SOIL PHOSPHORUS FRACTIONS IN A TYPIC HAPLUSTEPT AS INFLUENCED BY ORGANIC SOURCES AFTER SOYABEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.) WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) CROPPING SEQUENCE IN SEMI ARID CONDITION* Anil Kumar, Neeraj Kumar, S.K. Singhal, Vinay Singh 1 and V. K. Sharma Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi , Indian Received: Accepted: ABSTRACT Rock phosphate enriched biogas slurry, pressmud and farm yard manure alone and in combination with DAP in different ratios (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) were evaluated in field with soybean- cropping sequence at the IARI, New Delhi on a sandy loam soil. Soil samples (0-15 cm) after the harvest of were taken to examine the residual effect of various treatments on available, inorganic and organic P pools in soil. Application of manure showed significant increase in available P over control. Among the fractions of phosphorus Fe-P, Ca-P and organic P fractions in soil remained almost unaltered while Saloid-P and Al-P fractions were increased in comparison to their initial concentration noted before sourcing the soybean. The extent of increase was more at higher rates of P application to soybean. Application of rock phosphate enriched biogas slurry in the ratio of 1:1 and 3:1 of DAP and manure on P 2 basis gave the highest increase in the P fractions of soil. Therefore, a change in different inorganic and organic P fraction in soil can be influenced by the manipulation of sources and levels of phosphorus. Key words: Biogas slurry, Fractions, FYM, Phosphorus, Pressmud, Rock phosphate. INTRODUCTION Phosphorus is considered to be the second most limiting nutrient in crop production. Nearly 80 per cent of Indian soils are low to medium in available P and need adequate fertilization (Prasad, 2008). Phosphorus fractions in soil provides an alternative for characterizing soil phosphorus availability without quantifying the component of P species. P fractions of similar availability provides insight into differences in availability and cycling of added P in soils. Furthermore, little information exists in the effect of manure and P application on the distribution of P wi thin inorganic and organic pools. Such information is needed to evaluate the effect of long term cultivation on soil P fertility and to determine the transformation between inorganic and organic pools related to soil properties. Soybean- cropping system has emerged as a predominant cropping system since previous three decades in Central India in irrigated * This research work is the part of Ph.D thesis of the senior author 1RBS College, Bichpuri, Agra (U.P) and rainfed conditions. The productivity of these crops in India is nearly stagnated or even showing a slight decline trend due to inadequate supply of fertilizer nutrients. The nutrient mainly phosphorus contribute significant improvement in the yield of soybean crop. Thus proper application of P may increase the production and productivity of both soybean and crops. Phosphorus removal by first crop rarely 15-20% of added phosphorus and therefore its application to main crop which have residual benefits for succeeding crop. Thus assessment of residual phosphorus in different soil fractions is necessary for efficient use of phosphatic fertilizers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The rock phosphate enriched pressmud compost (RPEPMC) and enriched biogas slurry (RPEBGS) were evaluated with diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer in field condition in kharif and rabi season with soybean- cropping

2 sequence in relation to their contributing towards phosphorus nutrition at IARI, New Delhi farm in The soil of the experimental field belongs to the Mehrauli series of Delhi, which represents alluvial association of Indo gangetic plains and is a member of sandy loam, non acid mixed hyperthermic family of Typic Haplustept. The initial characteristics of soil were determined by following standard procedures (Jackson, 1973). The soil was alkaline in reaction ph : 7.9, EC: 0.34 ds m -1, organic carbon : 4.2 g kg -1, CEC: 8.55 c mol (p + ) kg -1 and the status of available N, P and K were 223.9, 17.2 and kg ha -1, respectively. The initial values of soil P fractions (mg P kg -1 ) were as Saloid -P: 5.8; Al-P: 63.4; Fe-P: 34.6, Ca-P: and organic P: There were eighteen treatments comprising of four levels of P 2 with DAP alone (20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha -1 ), three organic manures (FYM, RPEPMC and RPEBGS) each 80 kg P 2 ha -1 and three combination rates of each manure with DAP on P 2 basis (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1). A fresh treatment of 80 kg P 2 ha -1 through DAP was applied in to compare the residual effect of different levels of DAP, FYM, RPEPMC and RPEBGS and their various combination ratios applied in soybean on crop. The surface soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from each plot at the harvest of crop for the determination of Vol. 33, No. 4, organic P and inorganic P fractions (saloid-p, Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P). Inorganic phosphorus fractionation was carried out as per the method given by Chang and Jackson, For available P content of soil, Olsen s extractant 0.5M NaHCO 3 adjusted to ph 8.5 (Olsen et al., 1954) was used and P in extract was determined calorimetrically (Dickman and Bray, 1940). The organic P was taken as difference between the P moved by after removal of organic matter and the one by 0.5 N NH 4 F without H 2 O 2 treatment from the same sample (Bray and Kurtz, 1945). The analysis of variance to factorial randomized block design to test difference among treatments was carried out as per the procedure described by Gomez and Gomez (1984). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION O lsen s extractable available P: Olsen s extractable available P increased consistently with increasing doses of P applied through DAP to the previous crop of soybean (Table 1). All these levels were significantly greater than that of control (13.56 kg ha -1 ) in available P in soil. The manures applied at 80 kg P 2 ha -1 FYM and RPEPMC showed significant increase in the Olsen s extractable P as evident from the value kg ha -1 for FYM and kg ha -1 for RPEPMC. The RPEPMC (18.24 kg ha -1 ) was at par with RPEBGS (18.76 kg ha -1 ) in respect of available P content in soil. TABLE 1: Residual effect of levels of P 2 applied through DAP and manures on inorganic and organic fractions of phosphorus in soil after harvest Treatments Available P fractions (mg kg-1) (kg P ha -1 ) Soloid P Fe-P Al-P Ca-P Organic P Control DAP (20 kg P 2 ha -1 ) DAP (40 kg P 2 ha -1 ) DAP (60 kg P 2 ha -1 ) DAP (80 kg P 2 ha -1 ) FYM (80 kg P 2 ha -1 ) RPEPMC (80 kg P 2 ha -1 ) RPEBGS (80 kg P 2 ha -1 ) DAP+ FYM ( kg P 2 ha -1 ) (1:3) DAP+ FYM ( kg P 2 ha -1 ) (1:1) DAP+ FYM ( kg P 2 ha -1 ) (3:1) DAP+ RPEPMC ( kg P 2 ha -1 ) (1:3) DAP+ RPEPMC ( kg P 2 ha -1 ) (1:1) DAP+ RPEPMC ( kg P 2 ha -1 ) (3:1) DAP+ RPEBGS ( kg P 2 ha -1 ) (1:3) DAP+ RPEBGS ( kg P 2 ha -1 ) (1:1) DAP+ RPEBGS ( kg P 2 ha -1 ) (3:1) DAP 80 kg P 2 ha -1 fresh applied SEm± CD at 5% NS NS

3 306 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE DIGEST Similar trend was observed with the ratios (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1). The ratio 1:3 and 1:1 of DAP and FYM had significant increase in Olsen s extractable P. These values were and kg ha -1 respectively, while the ratios 1:1 and 3:1 were found to be at par (19.92 and kg ha -1, respectively) in available P content in soil. The ratio of other two manures (DAP and RRPEPMC and DAP and RPEBGS) showed similar trend for the Olsen s extractable P. Combined use of fertilizers with manures can influence the availability of phosphorus in soils due to release of organic acids and other microbial products of decomposition which solubilize the insoluble P by interacting with P bonding actions and clay minerals. Integrated use of manures and fertilizer P is promising strategy to improve soil P fertility status. Organic matter has a positive beneficial influence on P availability due to its microbial population and decomposition products. Reddy et al. (2003) noticed that after crop the P applied to first soybean maintained significantly higher Olsen s P as compared to control Akbari et al. (2001) reported that P 60 kg P 2 ha -1 recorded significantly higher available P after soybean in comparison to control but did not differ 30 kg P 2 ha -1. Phosphorus fractions: Data on P fractions in soil after harvest of crop as influenced by levels and sources of P are presented in Table 1. Saloid-P and Fe-P fraction: A consistent increasing trend was observed in saloid P and Fe-P in soil after the harvest of as a consequence of increase in P 2 levels from 20 to 80 kg P 2 ha -1 applied through DAP (Table 1). However, the rate of increase in saloid-p was greater than Fe-P. These two fractions of P in soil also improved significantly with organic manures over control. But the amounts of saloid P could not improve with these organic manures over P levels applied as DAP. Among the three organic manures the saloid-p and Fe-P were higher with the application of RPEBGS followed by FYM and RPEPMC and these fractions of P were further improved with the combined application of DAP and organic manures. Among the three ratios 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 of DAP and manures the ratio 3:1 gave the highest amount of saloid - P (14.10) followed by ratio 1:1 (13.37) and ratio 1:3 (12.53), respectively (Table 2). All the three ratios differed significantly among lhemselves and the lowest value of saloid-p was recorded under 1:3 ratio of P. H owever, the interaction effect of ratios of P and manures on saloid-p was non significant. Data in Table 3 revealed that the organic manures did not affect the Fe-P in soil after the harvest of crop significantly. On the other hand, the various ratios of P had significant beneficial effect on Fe-P content. Both the ratios (1:1 and 3:1) was at par which showed significantly superior in Fe-P content in soil over 1:3 ratio. The interaction effect was found non significant. Al-P and Ca-P fraction: Al-P and Ca-P fraction (Table 4) showed a consistent increase with increasing doses of phosphorus applied through DAP to the previous crop soybean over control. The Al-P increased significantly at all the levels (20 to 80 kg P 2 ha -1 ) of P applied as DAP. On the other hand, values of Ca-P were not affected significantly with P levels applied as DAP. Application of manures FYM, RPEPMC and RPEBGS decreased the Al-P whereas Ca-P consistently increased with application of manures. Al-P with 3:1 and 1:1 were found to be at par. The lowest values of Al-P was recorded under 1:3 ratio. The interaction effect between manure and the ratio was found to be non significant. Ca-P fraction was at par with 1:1 and 3:1 ratio (Table 5). TABLE 2: Effect of 80 kg P 2 proportions from DAP and manures on saloid P (mg kg -1 ) after FYM RPEPMC RPEBGS Mean TABLE 3: Effect of 80 kg P 2 proportions from DAP and manures on Fe-P (mg kg -1 ) after FYM RPEPMC RPEBGS Mean

4 The lower value of Ca-P was recorded under 1:3 ratio of DAP and RPEPMC. The interaction effect was non significant. Vol. 33, No. 4, 2013 Organic P fraction: A consistent increase in organic P with the increasing levels of phosphorus from 20 kg P 2 ha -1 to 80 kg P 2 ha -1 applied as DAP was recorded (Table 6). These values ranged from mg kg -1 at 20 kg P 2 ha -1 to mg kg -1 at 80 kg P 2 ha -1. Among the manures RPEBGS gave the highest value of organic P ( mg kg -1 ), followed by FYM ( mg kg -1 ) and RPEPMC ( mg kg -1 ). No significant difference was observed among these values. The three ratios 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 of DAP and manures applied in combination did not have any significant effect on the values of organic P fraction. No significant effect was found between the manure and the ratio also. The values of organic-p for the ratio 1:1 and 3:1 were at par ( mg kg -1 ) followed by mg kg -1 for the ratio 1:3. Increasing levels of P applied through DAP to preceding soybean crop exhibited increasing trend with respect to Saloid-P, Fe-P and Al-P whereas individual manure did not show any significant variation among themselves. The 3:1 and 1:1 ratios TABLE 4: Effect of 80 kg P 2 proportions from DAP and manures on Al-P (mg kg -1 ) after FYM RPEPMC RPEBGS Mean TABLE 5: Effect of 80 kg P 2 proportions from DAP and manures on Ca-P (mg kg -1 ) after FYM RPEPMC RPEBGS Mean CD at 5% NS NS 307 TABLE 6: Effect of 80 kg P 2 proportions from DAP and manures on organic P (mg kg -1 ) after Treatment DAP- manure ratio Mean FYM RPEPMC RPEBGS Mean CD at 5% NS NS of DAP and manures combination applied at 80 kg P 2 ha -1 level had lower difference in different P forms. At the harvest of Fe-P, Al-P, Ca-P, Saloid- P and organic P increased with increasing levels of DAP to previous crop of soybean. Fe-P, Ca-P and organic-p fractions in soil remained almost unaltered while saloid-p and Al-P fractions were increased in comparison to their initial concentration. The extent of increase was more at higher rates of P application to soybean. This may possibly be due to the enrichment of available P pools of soil from different inorganic and organic P forms. The low utilization of P by the crops may be due to the transformation of added P into different reaction products with lower solubility by reacting with soil components causing fixation of applied P with iron and Al. Bhakare and Sonar (2004) reported that inorganic P fraction was higher than that of organic P fraction after soybean and. Kaistha et al. (1999) revealed that all the inorganic P forms increased significantly by the application of FYM, pressmud or biogas slurry and phosphorus except Ca-P in a Tyic Haplustept soils of Jabalpur. FYM proved very effective in raising organic-p content of soil over control (Qureshi et al. 2005). Basavaraj and Manjunathaih (2002) reported that application of P enriched poultry manure along with P levels increased the conversion of applied P into saloid-p, Al-P, Fe-P, Ca-P and occluded-p. CONCLUSION A change in the amount of different inorganic and organic P fractions in soil can be influenced by the manipulation of P sources and its levels. Hence a desired change in available P pools of soil can be expected from the optimization of proportion of P under integrated use of P sources.

5 308 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE DIGEST REFERENCES Akbari, K.N.; Sutari, G.S.; Hirpara, D.S.; Kunjadia, B.A. and Patel, V.N. (2001). Effect of phosphorus fertilization with and without FYM on groundnut and soil fertility under rainfed condition. Legume Res., 2: Basavaraj, and Manjunathaiah, H.M. (2002). Effect of phosphorus enriched organic manures on phosphorus transformation in to different forms in vertisol. Karnataka. J. Agri. Sci., 15: Bhakare, B.D. and Sonar, K.R. (2004). Influence of phosphorus application on yield, P uptake and nutrient status of soil after soybean- cropping sequence in an inceptisol. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 29: Bray, R.H. and Kurtz, L.T. (1945). Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soil. Soil Sci., 59: Chang, S.C. and Jackson, M.L. (1957). Fractionation of soil phosphorus. Soil Sci., 84: Dickman, S.R. and Bray, R.H. (1940). Colorimetric determination of phosphorus. Indus. Engg. Chem. Anal., 12: Gomez Kwanchi, A. and Gomez Arturo, A. (1984). Statistical procedures for Agricultural Research. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Jackson, M.L. (1973). Soil Chemical Analysis, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. Kaistha, B.P.; Sharma, P.C. and Dubey, Y.P. (1999). Effect of manure and phosphorus on the inorganic phosphorus fractions and its relationship with different forms of phosphorus in mountain soil of Himalayas. Crop Res., 18: Olsen, S.R.; Cole, C.V.; Watanabe, F. and Dean, L.A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. US Dept. Agric. Circ., 939. Prasad, R. (2008). Phosphorus management : The key to sustainable Indian Agriculture. Indian J. Fert., 4: Qureshi, Azia, Narayansamy, G.; Chhonkar, P.K. and Balasunderan, V.R. (2005). Direct and residual effect of phosphate rocks in presence of phosphate solubilizers and FYM on the available P, organic carbon and viable counts of phosphate solubilizers in soil after soybean, mustard and crops. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 53: Reddy, K.S.; Subba Rao, A.; Singh, S. and Reddy, D.D. (2003). Crop responses to residual phosphorus and economic evaluation in soybean- system in vertisol. J. Maharashtra Agric. Unvi., 28:

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