LIVESTOCK SURVEYS. Hukum Chandra I.A.S.R.I., New Delhi

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1 LIVESTOCK SURVEYS Hukum Chandra I.A.S.R.I., New Delhi Introduction Livestock form an important constituent of the economy of our country in general and that of agricultural sector in particular. Numerically, the livestock wealth of the country is highly impressive. India's livestock population according to 2003 livestock census is 187 million cattle, 96 million buffaloe, 441 million poultry, 62 million sheep, 120 million goat and about 14 million pig besides other livestock like horse, ponie, mule, donkey, camel, etc. A comparative picture of India s position in world livestock population, according to 2003 (FAO Production Year Book Vol. 57) data is that India ranks first in case of cattle and buffaloes, second in goat, third in sheep, fourth in camel and fifth in poultry*. As far as the production is concerned, India ranks first in milk and fourth in egg production*. Though India ranks first in the milk production, yet the per capita availability is much below the nutritional standard. With such a large livestock population, it is expected to have a large contribution to national income from livestock and livestock products. But because of poor genetic potentiality of our livestock, the national income derived from their products is about 5 to 6 percent. The economic importance of livestock and need for increasing production was realised as early as in the first decade of the last century. Accordingly, steps were taken to improve the conditions of livestock by organising veterinary and animal husbandry departments in the States. Thereafter, research in developing good breeds of livestock for improving their production potential was also initiated. A reliable base for livestock statistics plays an important role in formulation of various livestock developmental programmes in the country. Some of the important components of livestock statistics are livestock population and their products, breed, age composition, feeding and management practices, extent of availability of improved breeding facilities and veterinary aid availed of, etc. Collection of such statistics on regular basis help in assessing and evaluating the success and impact of various developmental programmes implemented in the livestock sector, constraints in their implementation, if any and their continuous monitoring. 2. Sources of Livestock Data The only source of livestock statistics in the country prior to 1950 was quinquennial livestock census which was started in 1919.The last one was conducted in Presently, the census provides statistics on age-wise, sex-wise, breed-wise (crossbred and non-descript) number of animals at one point of time. Since these censuses are normally conducted after every five years, Intercensal estimates are not available from this source. Sample surveys provide an answer to such problem. These surveys are also needed to be conducted for collecting data on additional items not covered in the census *Source: FAO Production Year Book , Volume 57.

2 Before start of regular surveys, for livestock products, the available official estimates of production were those obtained by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI), Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Govt. of India through market surveys. These surveys were not based on objective criteria and as such had limited utility. There was a need to obtain the estimates based on objectively planned sample surveys. For this purpose, a series of methodological studies were carried out at IASRI which are described below. 3. Estimation of Livestock Numbers and Products 3.1 Estimation of Livestock Numbers For obtaining reliable estimates of livestock population, IASRI initiated a number of pilot investigations for evolving an appropriate sampling technique for estimation of livestock numbers and also providing a plan of rationalised supervision for the census work to improve the quality of the data in the districts of Etawah (Uttar Pradesh) and Wardha of Madhya Pradesh (now in Maharashtra) during 1951 and 1953 respectively. The design evolved under these two pilot investigations was tested on wider scale in whole of the former Bombay State during 1954 and results of the survey demonstrated the efficacy of the sampling approach for estimation of livestock numbers. 3.2 Estimation of Livestock Products During the Second Five Year Plan ( ), Institute also conducted a series of pilot surveys for evolving suitable sampling technique for estimation of output of major livestock products viz. milk, egg, wool and meat on individual basis. The regions covered for estimation of milk production were Punjab plains, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and coastal districts and adjoining areas of Andhra Pradesh and also the coastal districts of Orissa. For estimation of egg production, the States covered were Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and West Bengal; for estimation of wool production, the States covered were Gujarat, Rajasthan, Mysore (now Karnataka), Himachal Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh whereas for estimation of meat production, the States of Tamil Nadu and Haryana were covered. In the Third Five Year Plan ( ), some tracts covered during Second Plan Period were repeated to test the soundness of the techniques developed and also to study the changes in the level of output and total production of these principal livestock products. These surveys clearly demonstrated the feasibility of estimating the individual products, through well planned sample surveys. However, it required a lot of infrastructure to conduct these surveys regularly, if continuity of data was to be maintained. Such a system could provide yearly estimates with seasonal break up also. But it was felt that if the estimates of individual products are to be estimated regularly and the emphasis is also to be laid on estimation of changes taking place over time (such as yearly changes or changes over plan periods) then the surveys may be planned in an integrated way. Pilot sample surveys with this concept of integrated approach were carried out in Northern region comprising the States of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh during and Andhra Pradesh of southern region during for developing a sampling technique for simultaneous estimation of all the principal livestock products in one single survey. An essential feature of these surveys was that the stratification of each region was done on the basis of taluks important for a particular product viz. important for poultry alone, important for sheep alone and important for both poultry and sheep. In southern region taluks important for both poultry and sheep were further divided into two sub-strata viz. important for poultry and mutton type sheep & poultry and wooly type sheep. In each year, one product was covered on intensive scale whereas the other products on smaller scale. Milk, poultry and egg production, wool and meat production were covered on larger scale in first, second and I.56

3 third year respectively. In three seasons of each year, successive sampling procedure was strictly followed whereas over the years this pattern was not adopted as no independent unmatched samples were selected except in first year. Thus, in order to obtain an improved estimate of mean of the character (say milk) per season in the first year successive sampling methodology was used and obtained similar estimates for subsequent years and double sampling procedure was utilised by using information collected on large scale in the first year. The studies undertaken in these two regions demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining reliable estimates of these four products simultaneously in a single survey if we strictly use the suggested design. This approach, however, had a limitation that the estimation was rather complex and in the actual follow up, the approach was simplified to the extent that it could be implemented conveniently through the State Departments. 4. Sampling Design Adopted and Sample Size Covered Under Integrated Sample Surveys The sampling design being adopted for the surveys for the estimation of production of milk, egg, wool and meat is a stratified multi-stage random sampling with villages as the first stage unit, households/cluster of households as the second stage unit and the animals within the households as the third and ultimate unit whereas no sub-sampling of layers within a household is done for recording data on egg production. The animal husbandry districts in the states are taken as strata. For the estimation of livestock numbers a sample of 15% of the villages are selected in the State for complete enumeration of livestock population (5% villages in each season viz. rainy, winter and summer). The sample of villages in each season is allocated to different strata in proportion to the population of livestock in them. From the selected villages, a representative sample of villages is selected for collection of detailed information for the estimation of district level estimates of milk, egg, wool and meat. The sample of villages is allocated to different tehsils/group of tehsils which constitutes a sub-stratum according to livestock population in them. The selection of second stage units was done with equal probability and without replacement with sample size as follows: 1 st Round Milk: 2 clusters of 2 households each Egg: 2 clusters of 5 households each Wool: Sample of 5 households (flocks) Meat: 2 recognised slaughter houses 2 nd, 3 rd and 4 th Rounds Milk: 4 clusters of 2 households each Egg: 4 clusters of 5 households each Wool: Sample of 8 households (flocks) Meat: 2 recognised slaughter houses The recording of wool yield will be done in the shearing season in the selected villages from the sample of 5/8 households having sheep. The selection of ultimate unit of sampling was also done with equal probability and without replacement and the sample size covered was as follows: I.57

4 Milk: Two animals in milk (one cow and one buffalo or both cow or both buffaloe as the case may be) and all goat in milk. Egg: All the laying birds (this will include all laying ducks where the same are available) Wool: Two ram/two wether, two ewe, two lamb Meat: Three sheep, three goats, three pigs. For estimation of meat production, an additional sample of two registered slaughter houses are selected at random in each stratum in a round and the information on meat production are collected from the sample of three animals of each species viz. sheep, goat, pig and buffaloe. Type of Data Collected The type of data from the selected households for all the four major livestock products are collected on the following items: (i) Details of livestock and poultry maintained (ii) Yield rates of livestock products and attendant animal husbandry practices (iii) Consumption of livestock feeds and their costs (iv) Number of deaths and causes of death (v) Protection and treatment against diseases (vi) Disposal of livestock products and by-products 5. Estimation of Cost of Production of Milk, Poultry and Egg 5.1 Estimation of Cost of Production of Milk Besides conducting surveys on estimation of production of major livestock products viz. milk, egg, wool and meat, the Institute also conducted surveys on estimation of cost of production of milk and egg. The first survey on estimation of cost of milk production was conducted in and around Delhi during and in and around Madras and Calcutta cities during and respectively to test soundness of the methodology developed in Delhi survey. In these surveys data were recorded at weekly intervals and covered both commercial and private producer households. The deeper study revealed that it will be more appropriate if only commercial producer households are kept under observation for estimating the production cost and data be collected at fortnight interval. These observations were taken into consideration while developing the methodology for simultaneous estimation of availability of milk and its cost in milk shed areas of milk supply schemes. For this purpose a series of surveys were conducted in Krishna Delta area of Andhra Pradesh (1975), Dhulia region of Maharashtra (1978) and I.C.D. area of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh (1980). Surveys were planned in such a way that the area under the survey was divided into eight sectors on the basis of number of milch animals and geographical contiguity. In each sector four clusters of three villages each (p.s.u.'s) were selected and out of four p.s.u.'s, two p.s.u.'s were retained throughout the period of enquiry for cost study whereas the other two were for the study on availability of milk and selected afresh during each season. The cost of milk production was obtained by pooling the cost involved in feeding and management of the animal, labour (hired as well as family labour), depreciation on animal and on capital investment, interest on capital, etc. minus the income from dung produced by the animal. 5.2 Estimation of Cost of Production of Poultry and Egg The Institute conducted surveys for estimating of cost of poultry and egg production separately under commercial management i.e. farms having at least 50 layers and habitually I.58

5 sold egg and/or bird as well as under small scale farming i.e. the farmers maintaining 10 to 15 birds in the households. Under commercial management, two pilot surveys were undertaken in Tanda and Dasuya areas of Hoshiarpur district of Punjab during and in around Delhi during Similarly, under small scale farming, four taluks viz. Warangal, Mahbubnagar, Janagaon and Narsampet of Warangal district in Andhra Pradesh during were covered. In cost of production of poultry and egg study, a large number of villages were selected for preliminary enumeration and for detailed enquiry a sub-sample of villages having poultry farms was selected. In addition to these villages, urbanised localities having at least one commercial poultry farm were also included in the study. For obtaining cost of egg production, certain cost components viz. feed, labour, depreciation of bird, assets and equipments, interest on capital cost of maintaining an adult bird and other expenses were included in the study. In order to have the overall cost, the information on miscellaneous income from disposal of gunny bags, poultry manure, etc. was also collected. The cost of production per egg was calculated from selected villages and commercial poultry farms separately. It is evident that there is basic difference in the methodological approaches for estimation of production of major livestock products and cost of production of these products. In estimation of production of livestock products same p.s.u.'s (villages) are observed and s.s.u's (households) vary from round to round in a particular season and information on number and yields are collected whereas in cost of production surveys same p.s.u.'s and s.s.u.'s are observed throughout the period of study and information on cost aspects are collected. Since the sampling units and information to be collected under these studies are entirely different so by clubbing these two in a single survey, the enumerator finds it difficult to collect entire information on these aspects and he is likely to loose some information on either of the study. Besides this, there are other problems like non-cooperation from the villagers in supplying data needed by actual weighment by the enumerator, etc. Keeping these facts in mind, it is advisable not to club these two studies in a single survey and separate staff may be provided for each study so that reliable estimates can be prepared. 6. Role of Technical Committee of Directions (TCD) On the basis of these pilot investigations, a workable methodology was available for conduct of surveys for estimation of livestock products and as well as cost of production of important livestock products. During the Fifth Plan Period, Government of India initiated a centrally sponsored scheme for establishing and strengthening statistical cell in Animal Husbandry Directorates of various states and union territories for conducting sample surveys for estimation of livestock products. A Technical Committee of Direction (TCD) for improvement of Animal Husbandry and Dairying Statistics was also set up in which the representatives from the Centre and the States/UTs were appointed as the members of the committee during This was an important step towards smooth implementation and conduct of these surveys. It provided a platform for continuous monitoring and improvements in the data collection system of livestock statistics. A sub-committee was also constituted by this committee to review the methodologies developed by IASRI for estimation of these products and the one being followed in some of the states. The sub-committee noted that all India estimates of production of these products could not be built up because the regular surveys on any one product were not being carried out in all the states at one point of time. The other shortcomings were lack of uniformity in coverage, questionnaires being used, proper supervision, tabulation and analysis of data. It was I.59

6 suggested that the surveys should be conducted every year in all the states and union territories for all the products simultaneously on uniform pattern. Keeping in view the simplicity and field convenience, necessary modifications were also suggested to be made by IASRI so that these can be carried out on regular basis and work be coordinated by statistical cell created in the Ministry of Agriculture at the centre. The Institute made an effort to simplify the sampling plan, estimation procedure for estimation of different livestock products and also for estimation of cost of production of milk and egg and schedules to be canvassed under this scheme and passed on to the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Agriculture for smooth implementation of this scheme by the State Animal Husbandry Departments of various states on regular basis. The main task of the TCD constituted during 1976 is to streamline the statistical activities, identify data gaps and to provide technical guidance in the statistical programmes relating to animal husbandry and dairying. This committee meets on regular intervals with the representatives of State Animal Husbandry Departments under the Chairmanship of Director, IASRI and seven such meetings have been organized to approve the state-wise estimates of major livestock products viz. milk, egg, wool and meat prepared by the State Animal Husbandry Departments on the basis of the surveys conducted by them and thus to build up all India Estimates. The committee also discusses the difficulties being faced in data collection and suggests the remedies. It also identifies the data gaps and suggests the suitable measures to be taken up by state departments and other organizations engaged in this field. The committee also discusses the issues like conduct of livestock census, uniformity in data collection and the reporting of annual estimates on uniform basis in time. During the previous TCD meeting some problems and suggestions have been put forward. One of the important points has been that the estimates of milk and egg are obtained for all the states but for meat and wool there have been some problems. As regards for building up wool production estimates some states show their inability to do so because of non-existence of sheep in the selected villages of certain tracts and also the areas which have sheep population, the enumerators fail to record the wool yield data in their presence even after regular follow up. In order to overcome these problems, TCD suggested to identify some pockets in the state having the sheep population before the start of the survey and efforts should be concentrated in those areas only. Secondly, the data on wool yield may also be collected from various shearing centres, sheep breeding farms in addition to the selected flocks in the villages. Regarding meat production, major portion of meat is produced in the slaughter houses and since slaughter houses come under the preview of local self-government and there is no check by the officials of the animal husbandry departments, so it is difficult to collect information on meat production and also the reliability of the number of animals slaughtered there as given in their records is not ensured. Secondly, there is no clear-cut concept and definition of slaughter houses and varies from state to state. TCD recommended having a fresh list of slaughter houses on the basis of some uniform concept and definition for each state. The committee also recommended to have a sample checking of the data provided by the slaughter houses, make provision for weighing equipment for weighing the animals in the slaughter houses and also to collect information on meat production not only from slaughter houses but also from other sources viz. unregistered slaughter houses (butcher houses) and sample of households in the selected villages. The TCD also emphasised to have a quality check of the data being collected by the staff engaged for this purpose. For this an intensive supervision of work may be done by the officers of the animal husbandry departments and also by the team from the centre and the I.60

7 scientists from the IASRI on regular basis. It was also pointed out that the methodologies on estimation of these products were developed two decades before and since then a lot of changes have occurred in livestock sector. With the implementation of cross breeding programme in the country, certain new breeds have come up which have boosted the yield of these products. Under this changing scenario, it was felt that the reappraisal of the methodologies being adopted by the states at present might be done by incorporating breed and other relevant information in the study. This will help in giving correct and reliable picture of the estimates of production of these products in the country. Production Estimates of Milk, Egg, Wool and Meat ( ) States/UTs Milk(000Tns) Egg(Lakh No.) Wool(000Kg) Meat(000Tns) Andhra Pradesh # 457 Arunachal Pradesh# Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh # 3 Jammu & Kashmir# Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu # 119** Tripura * Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal # 487 Andaman & Nicobar Chandigarh Dadar & Nagar Haveli Daman & Diu Delhi Lakshadweep 2# 124# - - Pondicherry All India I.61

8 ** unregistered sector also included - N.A # The milk production of Bihar is considered abnormal due to phenomenal growth of about 70%. The estimate should be again examined and reasons for the same to be provided. Source : State/UT Animal Husbandry Departments 7. Data Gaps in Livestock Statistics A large number of surveys are being conducted regularly for the estimation of major livestock products and also for the cost of production studies, but there are gaps both in coverage as well as to the less important products and by-products. However, these data are needed for the estimation of value of output from this sector. Some of the gaps in basic studies, which need immediate attention, are: i) Estimation of yield rates of livestock products like other meat products, hair, pig bristle and bone, etc. ii) Estimate of value of inputs e.g. cattle feed including salt, etc. iii) Production estimates of dung especially of small animals and droppings of birds, etc. iv) Estimation of losses of various livestock products. v) Estimation of animal draught power. vi) Production estimates of poultry meat. vii) Price of livestock and livestock products. viii) Conversion ratio of milk into ghee, butter, etc. and the cost of conversion. ix) Deaths of different categories of animals due to natural calamities and other reasons. x) Consumption of roughages and concentrates by different categories of livestock. xi) Utilization of milk, egg and dung, etc. 8. Suggestions for Improvement of Livestock Statistics In above, we have discussed the different methodologies available for estimation of major livestock products viz. milk, egg, wool and meat under different sampling schemes and thus the availability of livestock statistics on production of these products. But there are still a number of data gaps, which are required to be filled in to have a strong database in livestock sector. Some of the data gaps can be filled in by making use of other information collected in these surveys but not processed and analysed. For example, under Integrated sample surveys on estimation of production of major livestock products and cost of production of these products, the information on utilization of milk and egg, and dung, roughages and concentrates fed to the animals, causes of deaths of animals and details of veterinary aid given to animals, prices of livestock and livestock products, etc. are also collected besides the yields of these major products. Therefore, there is a need for providing/updating infrastructural support for better utilisation of data being collected under different surveys relating to livestock. There is also a need for improvement in the quality of livestock statistics. There should be regular upgrade in the knowledge of statistical as well as field staff through frequent training, workshops, etc. I.62

9 9. Other Related Studies Undertaken by IASRI 1. Estimation of livestock by-products (Hides and Skin) i) Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar and Ferozepur Districts of Punjab during ii) Agra and Kanpur Districts of Uttar Pradesh during iii) Chingleput and North Arcot Districts of Tamil Nadu during iv) Surat District of Gujarat during Feed intake by bovines through stall feeding and grazing i) Jhansi District of Uttar Pradesh during ii) Puri District of Orissa during Post production losses of milk in rural areas: Estimation of post production losses of milk in rural area in the district of Rohtak (Haryana) 4. Estimation of production of poultry meat in the district of Gurgaon (Haryana) Collaborative Studies Undertaken by IASRI i. Estimation of wool production emerging data needs and a methodological reappraisal in the districts of Bikaner of Rajasthan State and Kolar of Karnataka State (AP Cess Fund) ii. Assessment of harvest and post-harvest losses (NATP Project) References 1. FAO Production Year Book , Volume Khatri, R.S., Goyal, J.P., Jayasankar, J. and Geethalakshmi, V. (2005). Estimation of wool production-emerging data needs and a methodological reappraisal. Project Report (AP-Cess Fund Project), IASRI, New Delhi Khatri, R.S., Goyal, J.P. and Singh, K.B.(1998). Pilot sample survey for estimation of post production losses of milk in rural areas. Research Report-IASRI, New Delhi Nadkarni, U.G., Somayazulu, L.B.S. & Jain, T.B. (1981). Monograph on estimation of cost of production of poultry and eggs. Research Series - IASRI, New Delhi Singh, D., Garg, J.N., Goel, B.B.P.S., Rajagopalan, M. and Singh, K.B. (1977). Sampling methodology for estimation of milk production, Northern region, ( ). Research Report - IASRI, New Delhi Singh, D., Goel,, B.B.P.S., Garg, J.N. and Singh, K.B. (1979). Sampling methodology for estimation of milk production, Southern region, ( ). Research Report - IASRI, New Delhi Singh, D., Goel, B.B.P.S., Garg, J.N., Singh, K.B. and Rajagopalan, M. (1978). Sampling methodology for estimation of egg production and study of poultry keeping practices in Northern region ( ) and Southern region ( ) Research Report - IASRI, New Delhi Singh, D., Goel, B.B.P.S., Maini, J.S. and Goyal, J.P. (1979). Sampling methodology for estimation of wool production in Northern region ( ) and Southern region ( ) Research Report- IASRI, New Delhi-12 I.63

10 9. Singh, D., Maini, J.S., Goel, B.B.P.S., and Bassi, G.S. (1978). Sampling methodology for estimation of meat production in Northern region ( ) and Southern region ( ). Research Report - IASRI, New Delhi Singh, D., Murty, V.V.R. and Goel, B.B.P.S. (1970). Monograph on estimation of milk production. Research Series - IASRI, New Delhi Singh, D., Goel, B.B.P.S., Garg, J.N. and Rao, D.V.S. (1975). Monograph on Sample Survey Techniques for Estimation of Egg Production. Research Series - IASRI, New Delhi Singh, D., Rajagopalan, M. and Maini, J.S. (1972). Monograph on estimation of wool production, Research Series - IASRI, New Delhi Singh, D., Rajagopalan, M., Maini, J.S. and Singh, K.B. (1978). Monograph on sample survey techniques for estimation of meat production. Research Series - IASRI, New Delhi-12 I.64

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