LECTURE OUTLINES B.Sc.(Hons.) Horticulture

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3 LECTURE OUTLINES B.Sc.(Hons.) Horticulture 2011 Dr.Y.S.R. Horticultural University Venkataramannagudem, West Godavari (Dist) Andhra Pradesh iii

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5 DR. C.V.S.K.SARMA VICE-CHANCELLOR Dr. Y.S.R. HORTICULTURAL UNIVERSITY FOREWORD The Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University (formerly A.P. Horticultural University) has been established during 2007 by the Government of Andhra Pradesh with the objectives of developing human resources and technology in accordance with the changing demands of Horticultural industry. The university offers a four year B.Sc. (Hons.) Horticulture Programme in four constituent colleges, namely Colleges of Horticulture at Venkataramannagudem (West Godavari District); Rajendranagar (Ranga Reddy District); Mojerla (Mahaboobnagar District) and Anantharajupet (Kadapa District), to produce graduates in Horticulture with professional competence and up to date knowledge. To make the Horticultural Education more relevant to the ever changing scenario of the Horticulture in the State and to meet the challenges and users needs, the course curriculum of B.Sc.(Hons.) Horticulture is prepared during the year, Hence, this Lecture Outlines is brought out for the students of B.Sc (Hons.) Horticulture based on the revised syllabus in the light of the recommendations of the IV Deans Committee of ICAR giving due importance to location specific topics of the state. As per the new course catalogue the Lecture Outlines for all the courses as well as Experiential Learning Programme which emphasizes on practical training to the students is incorporated in the final year of B.Sc.(Hons.) Horticulture Programme. I appreciate the efforts made by the Dean of Horticulture and the members of the faculty in the preparation of the Lecture Outlines and bringing out a publication on Lecture Outlines for U.G. Programme which is helpful to the Teachers as well as Students of the University. Dt Venkataramannagudem. VICE-CHANCELLOR v

6 DR. K. HARI BABU DEAN OF HORTICULTURE Dr. Y.S.R. HORTICULTURAL UNIVERSITY ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Constant encouragement and guidance rendered by Dr. C.V.S.K.Sarma, Hon'ble Vice-Chancellor, of Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University in bringing out this publication is hereby acknowledged. The help rendered by the, Dr. K. Purushotham, Director of Research, and B.Srinivasulu, Controller of Examination, Dr.Y.S.R.H.U. is here by acknowledged. Thanks are also due to Dr. G.Subbi Reddy, Associate Dean & COH, Venkataramannagudem, Dr. D. Srihari, Associate Dean, COH, Mojerla, Dr M. Lakshminarayana Reddy, COH, AR Peta and Dr. S. Amarender Reddy, COH, Rajendranagar is acknowledged. The assistance extended by all the Teachers in the Colleges of Horticulture of Various departments is acknowledged. The coordination extended by Dr. B. Prasanna Kumar, Technical officer to D.H, of Dr. Y.S.R.H.U in bringing out this publication of Lecture Outlines for B.Sc (Hons.) Horticulture Programme is acknowledged. Dt Venkataramannagudem (K.HARI BABU) Dean of Horticulture Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University vi

7 DR. B. SRINIVASULU CONTROLLER OF EXAMINATIONS Dr. Y.S.R. HORTICULTURAL UNIVERSITY PREFACE Dr.Y.S.R. Horticultural University (formerly Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University) has been established during 2007 by the Government of Andhra Pradesh with the objectives of developing human resources and technology in accordance with the changing demands of Horticultural industry. The university offers a four year B.Sc. (Hons.) Horticulture programme to produce graduates in Horticulture with professional competence and upto date knowledge. To make the Horticultural Education more relevant to the ever changing scenario of the Horticulture in the State and to meet the challenges and users needs Course Catalogue is brought out for the students for B.Sc. (Hons.) Horticulture duly revising the syllabus in the light of the recommendations of the IV Deans Committee of ICAR giving due importance to location specific topics of the state. While several courses are strengthened and new courses introduced, there is a need to provide lecture outlines. Lecture Outlines prepared for fifty five courses belonging to twelve Departments is an excellent document and also a planner for teachers. Appreciation goes to the Dean of Horticulture and the members of faculty in the preparation of the syllabus and bringing out a publication on Lecture Outlines for B.Sc. (Hons.) Horticulture. Dt : Venkataramannagudem (B.SRINIVASULU) CONTROLLER OF EXAMINATIONS vii

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9 Contents Sl.No. Particulars Page No. A) DEPARTMENTS: 1. Fruit Science Vegetable Science Floriculture and Landscaping Spices, Plantation, Medicinal and Aromatic crops Post-harvest Technology Entomology Plant Pathology Genetics and Plant Breeding Agronomy and Soil Science Plant Physiology, Biochemistry and Microbiology English, Statistics and Social Sciences Horticultural Engineering and Environmental Science B) Experiential Learning Programme: 1. Nursery production and management Protected cultivation of high value horticultural crops Floriculture and land scape gardening Post harvest technology and value addition of horticultural crops ix

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11 DEPARTMENT OF FRUIT SCIENCE FRSC Fundamentals of Horticulture 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Definition of horticulture, importance of horticulture in terms of economy, production, employment generation, environmental protection and human resource development. Scope for horticulture in India 2 Nutritive value of horticultural crops. Divisions of horticulture with suitable examples and their importance. 3 Horticultural research stations in Andhra Pradesh and National level horticultural research stations in India. 4 Classification of horticultural crops based on soil and climatic requirements 5 Fruit and Vegetable zones of India and Andhra Pradesh. 6 Definition of a nursery, different types of nursery beds-flat beds, raised beds and sunken beds, their merits and demerits 7 Different nursery techniques and their management 8&9 Vegetable gardens nutrition and kitchen garden, truck garden, vegetable forcing, market gardens and roof gardens 10 Establishment of orchards Explanation of points to be kept in mind while selecting site for the establishment of orchards 11 Different steps in planning and layout of orchards. 12 Different steps in establishment of orchards and management of orchards 13&14 Different systems of planting orchards-square, rectangle, quincunx, hexagonal and contour systems of planting-their merits and demerits 15 Calculation of planting densities in different systems of planting 16 Definition of pruning, objectives of pruning, principles and methods of pruning of fruit crops. 17&18 Definition of training, objectives and training, principles and methods of training of fruit crops-open centre, closed centre and modified leader systems their merits and demerits 19 Practical use of growth regulators in horticulture 20&21 Definition of irrigation-different methods of irrigation followed in horticultural crops, their merits and demerits 22&23 Definition of manures and fertilizers-different methods of application of manures and fertilizers to horticultural crops 1

12 24&25 Cropping systems-inter cropping and multi-tier cropping, their merits and demerits with suitable examples 26 Definition of mulch-objectives of mulching-different types of mulches-organic and inorganic mulches with suitable examples 27 Bearing habits of fruit trees 28&29 Definitions of fruitfulness and unfruitfulness-factors influencing the fruitfulness and unfruitfulness with suitable examples. 30 Rejuvenation of old orchards-importance of rejuvenation-top working and frame working. 31 Maturity-definition of maturity, different methods of judge maturity in horticultural crops 32 Harvesting, grading, packaging and storage of horticultural produce, different methods of storage. PRACTICALS: 1 Study of Tools and implements in Horticulture 2 Study of features of orchard 3 Lay out of different planting systems 4 Lay out of nutrition garden 5 Preparation of nursery beds for sowing of vegetables seeds 6 Digging of pits for fruit plants 7 Study of different methods of Training 8 Study of different methods of pruning 9 Preparation of fertilizer mixtures and field application 10 Preparation and application of growth regulators 11 Lay out of different irrigation systems 12 Identification and management of nutritional disorders in fruits 13 Identification and management of nutritional disorders in vegetables 14 Study of bearing habits in horticultural crops 15 Study of maturity standards and harvesting of important fruits and vegetables 16 Study of grading, packaging and storage of fruits and vegetables. 2

13 FRSC Plant Propagation & Nursery Management 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Propagation, Need and Potentialities for plant multiplication, sexual and asexual methods of propagation, advantages and disadvantages 2 Seed dormancy means to break seed dormancy (Stratification and Scarification) internal and external factors and seed treatment for germination and disease control; use of growth regulators to overcome the seed dormancy 3 Nursery techniques, apomixes, mono embryony, poly embryony, chimera and bud sports; nursery tools and implements. 4 Propagation by division suckers, rhizomes, corms, tubers, cloves and bulbs 5 Propagation structures: Mist chamber, humidifier, greenhouses, glasshouses, cold frames, hot beds and poly houses 6&7 Propagation by cutting Hard wood, Semihard wood, Herbaceous physiological and bio-chemical basis of rooting; Factors influencing rooting of cuttings; means to enhance the rooting of cuttings use of growth regulators in rooting of cuttings. 8 Propagation by layering types of layering; establishment of layers in the field; physiological and biochemical basis for rooting in layering use of growth regulators in layering. 9&10 Methods of grafting Approach grafting; Veneer grating; Wedge grafting; Saddle grafting; Tongue grafting; Whip grafting; Bridge grafting; Epicotyl grafting; Sofwood grafting. Physiological basis for graft union, Graft incompatibility (Localised and translocated) Selection of mother plant Establishment of progeny orchard/mother plant block; - procuring of section. 11 Anatomical studies of graft unions means for graft success 12 Methods of budding T budding, Inverted T budding, Shield budding; Chip budding; Flute budding; Ring budding; I budding. 13 Stock scion relation ship; Characteristics of a good root stock 14&15 Micro propagation Choice of explant (Totepotency); media-ms-media, Growth regulators in culture, sterilization of the explant, sub-culturing of the callus, Organogenesis Somaclonal Variation-Hardening of plants 16 Bud wood certification and nursery registration Act 3

14 PRACTICALS: 1 Study of various propagation media for nursery beds, pots and mist chamber. 2 Preparation of nursery beds (raised and flat beds) and sowing of seeds. 3 Raising of root stocks of different fruit plants like Mango, Citrus, Cashew etc. 4 Preparation of plant material for planting 5 Hardening of plants in the nursery different methods like reducing Irrigation, Shade, exposure for short periods to sun etc. 6 Study and practicing of different propagation methods by cutting. 7 Study and practicing of different propagation methods by layering. 8 Study and practicing of different propagation methods by grafting 9 Study and practicing of different propagation methods by budding 10 Study and practicing of different propagation methods by divisions 11 Preparation of layout for commercial nurseries 12 Visit to a commercial nursery in the locality 13 Visit to tissue culture / biotechnology laboratories. 14 Study of plant propagation structures and equipment 15 Use of different types of tools & implements in the nursery. 16 Application of nutrients and plant protection chemicals in the nursery. 4

15 FRSC Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Classification of Fruits 2 Mango: Introduction & History, Nutritive Value, Uses, Origin & Distribution Area and Production, Export Potential, Importing Countries, Important Species of Mango Production Technology: Climatic requirements Temperature, rainfall and other requirements for optimum vegetative growth, flowering, and fruit development under North Indian and South Indian conditions Soil requirements 3 Mango Varieties: Indian and Exotic varieties Varieties suitable for export, Commercial varieties Table varieties, Juicy varieties, Table and Juicy Varieties, Pickle Varieties, Varieties suitable for Preservation, Early, Late and. Off-Season Varieties, Mono & Polyembroynic, Varieties suitable for different regions of A.P. (Rayalseema, Telangana and Coastal) and Varieties of North, South, East and West; Hybrids of Mango released for cultivational all over India. 4 Propagation: Commercial propagation by Epicotyl grafting, Veneer grafting planting Density; High Density Planting system. Nutritional and Irrigation requirement; Role of Major & Minor nutrients, Inter cultivation; Intercropping, Weed management. 5 Special Horticultural Practices: Manipulation of flowering through canopy management & application of plant growth regulators, Flowering: Environmental factors influencing flowering, types of flowers, agents of pollination, fruit set, fruit drop and its control. 6 Alternate Bearing / Biennial Bearing: Causes and control Physiological Disorders & their control: Malformation (Vegetative & Floral), Black Tip, Spongy Tissue, and leaf Scorch. Harvesting & Yield: Harvest Indices, Methods of Harvesting, Grading, Packing, Transport, Storage and Ripening 7 Banana and Plantains: Economic importance Nutritive value, Uses, Origin of various groups & Distribution, Area & Production; Genomic classification and Nomenclature; Taxonomic Classification: Musa acuminate, Musa bulbisiana Major genomic groups and Cultivars in the World and Hybrids. 8 Production Technology: Climate, Soil requirements. Propagation by Suckers, Treatment of suckers before planting; Micro propagation: Planting density Irrigation, Nutritional requirements: Fertilizer doses recommended. 9 Management of Banana crop: Desuckering, Ratoon sucker selection, Weed control, Mulching, Earthing up. Leaf removal, Provision of Wind breaks; Bunch management: Propping of bunches, Wrapping, Trimming, Removal of Male bud, Bunch covering. Harvesting indices in Banana, Harvesting, Yield, Ripening and Storage Physiological Disorders: 1) Chilling injury 2) Choke throat. 5

16 10 Citrus: Introduction and History, Economic importance, Nutritive value of Sweet and Acid groups, Uses, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production and Export Potential, classification of Citrus: I. Swingle Classification (1948) Eucitrus (10) and Papeda (6) : II. Tanaka Classification (1954). III. Hodgsons Classification: Acid members, Oranges, Mandarins, Pummelos and Hybrids of Citrus 11 Production Technology: Climatic & Soil requirements of important citrus groups Varieties: Citrus Indian and Exotic varieties of Sweet Oranges, Mandarins, Grape Fruit and Pummelo, Lemons, Limes Propagation: Seedling stocks, Root stocks tolerant to diseases, Stock & Scion relationship, methods of propagation -Bud Wood Certification Virus free bud wood, Nucellar clones, Virus indicator species. 12 Planting Densities, Irrigation, Root Stocks, Age & Bearing Capacity; Nutrient management: Major & Minor nutrients, Deficiencies, Weed Management; Pruning of young, pre bearing plants, and bearing trees, Root pruning and Bahar Treatment (Ambebahar, Mrig Bahar and Hasth bahar) 13 Flowering: Factors effecting fruit set, Fruit drop and its control, Physiological Disorders like Granulation, and Rind pitting; Citrus Decline: Symptoms, Factors responsible and Control measures. Harvesting: Maturity Indices, Yield of fruits, Post Harvest Handling: Grading, Packing, Transport, Storage and Ripening. 14 Grapes: Economic importance, Nutritive value, Uses, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production; Genera; Vitis & Muscadinia, Species grown in different regions of the World; Varieties:Indian and Exotic Varieties Seeded & Seedless Varieties, Coloured varieties, Varieties suitable for table, wine, Juice, Canning and raisin purpose. 15 Production Technology: Climatic requirements, Soil requirements, Propagation, Method of propagation of root stocks, Planting Density, Planting, Irrigation: Symptoms of water deficit; Nutrition: role of Major & Minor nutrients, Fertilizer Scheduling. 16 Training: Purpose, systems of training (Bower, telephone system, Trellis system-t and Y, vertical cordon system single & double, kniffin system, Gable system) Pruning: Objectives, Definitions of Cane, Spur, Soot, Fruiting Spur, Foundation Spur, / Renewal Spur, Long Spur, Medium Spur, Arms, Trunk, Suckers etc., Pruning for vegetative growth (summer) and for fruiting (winter), Level of pruning. 17 Improvement of yield through practices like girdling, pinching thinning of flowering and berry drop. Fruit set, Stenospermocarpy, Stages of berry growth; Use of plant growth regulators to induce 1) Seedlessness, 2) Improve quality and for 3) crop regulation. Maturity Standards, Harvesting & Yield, Grading, Packing, Storage and Ripening; Physiological Disorders: Blossom end rot, Inter-veinal chlorosis, Poor Bud Burst, flower and Berry drop, Barrenness of vine, Pink berry, Cracking of Rachies, shot berry, Hen & Chicken disorder. 6

17 18 Sapota : Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production; Species & Types: Types based on growing habit (Erect, Drooping and Spreading), Varieties and hybrids; Production Technology: Climatic & Soil requirements; Propagation, Root Stocks, Planting Density, methods of irrigation, nutrient management, Interculture, weed management and inter-cropping, Maturity Indices, Harvest & Yield; Handling, Grading, Packing, Transport, Marketing, Ripening and Storage. 19 Guava:Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production; Species & Varieties (Indian & Exotic), Hybrids; Production Technology: Soil & Climatic requirements, propagation by Vegetative methods (Air layering, Ground layering and Stooling); Planting, Planting density, Irrigation, Nutrient management, training and pruning. Bahar treatment (Ambe bahar, Mrig bahar and Hasta bahar), Flowering, Plant Growth Regulators for Fruit thinning, and Parthenocarpy; Maturity Indices, Harvesting & Yield, Packing, Transportation, and Storage. 20 Papaya: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production; Varieties: (Pusa varieties, Coimbatore varieties, Taiwan varieties etc.); Sex expression and Sex identification. Production Technology: Soil & Climatic requirements, Propagation, Planting, Irrigation & Nutrient management. 21 Maturity indices, Harvesting, Yield and Storage. Latex extraction: Papain: Classification, uses, Factors effecting Papain Production, Suitable varieties for Papain, Extraction & Yield of Papain, Marketing & Prospcts. 22 Pine Apple: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production, Varieties: Groups: Spanish, Abacaxi, Queen, Cayene, Maipore Production Technology: Soil & Climatic requirements; Propagation by shoot suckers, Ground suckers, slips, crowns, stumps, micro propagation, High Density Planting, Water and Nutrient management, Interculture, flowering and fruiting. Use of chemicals and plant growth regulators for improving the flowering and fruiting, Maturity indices, Harvesting for local market and Distant markets Yield, Post harvest handling and storage. 23 Pomegranate: Economic importance, nutritive value, origin and distribution, Area and Production, Varieties: Hard seeded and soft seeded. Production technology: Soil & climatic requirements; Propagation, Planting, Training and Pruning, Irrigation, Nutrient Management, Bahar treatment, Flowering, flower and Fruit thinning, Harvest indices, Yield, and storage. Physiological disorders Fruit cracking. 24 Custard Apple: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production, Annona squamosa, A muricata, A. reticulate, A.cherimola, Atemoya Hybrid; Varieties & Groups Green fruit & Red fruit; Production Technology: Soil and Climate; Propagation: Seed, Vegetative Planting, Planting density; Irrigation & 7

18 Nutrient management, Flowering time, Fruit Development, Stone Fruit formation and their control, Harvest, Yield, Storage. 25 Ber: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production, Spices & varieties; Adaptive features of Ber, Production technology: Soil & climatic requirements; Training and Pruning, irrigation and nutrient management; Flowering & fruit set, Fruit drop and its control, maturity indices, yield. 26 Fig: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production, Types & varieties (Capri fig, Adriatic fig, Smyrna fig and sanpedro fig) Production technology: Soil & climatic requirements; Training and Pruning, irrigation and nutrient management; Flowering & fruit set, caprification, maturity indices, yield. Problems like sun burn, fruit cracking and fruit drop. 27 Litchi: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production, Species & varieties: Exotic / Indian Varieties-Early, Mid-season and Late season varieties; Production technology: Soil and climatic requirements; propagation, Nutrient Management, Irrigation, Interculture, flowering and fruiting, fruit drop and its control; Maturity indices, Harvesting, yield, Post Harvest handling and Storage; Regulation of colour break in litchi, Physiological disorders: Fruit cracking. 28 Rambutan: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production, Exotic varieties, Propagation, Planting density, Nutrient Management, Flowering, Harvesting and Yield Jack Fruit: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production, Species and cultivars of Jack fruit (India, Exotic). Production technology Soil & climatic requirements, propagation, planting, Irrigation, nutrition, flowering, fruitset, harvesting and yield. 29 Avocado: Economic Importance, Nutritie value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production; Species and Varieties: Different Races-Mexican, Guatemalan and West Indian races, Cultivars of three races, production technology: Soil and Climatic requirements; propagation, density, planting, pruning; Irrigation, Nutrition, Flowering and Fruiting: Diurnally Synchronous Dichogamy; Maturity indices, Harvesting, Yield. Passion Fruit: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area & Production; Species & Cultivars (Purple, Golden yellow, Hybrid (kavery), Noel s special), Soil, Climate, Propagation, Irrigation, Flowering, Fruiting, fruit set, Harvesting indices and Harvesting, Yield 30 Durian, Bael, Carombola, Mangosteen: Economic Importance, Nutritive value, Origin & Distribution, Area Production; Important Species & Cultivars, Production technology, Harvesting. 31 Rain fed Horticulture: Scope and Importance of Arid Fruit Culture, Nutritional Value of Arid Fruits, Production from Arid Fruits, Present Status of Arid Fruit culture in India. Limitations of Arid Zones: Land use capability classes, saline soil and irrigation water, low and erratic rain fall and intense radiation. 8

19 32 Special Characteristics: of Fruit crops which make them suitable for Arid Zone- 1) Ber 2) Aonla 3) Annona 4) Jamun 5) Wood Apple 6) Pomegranate 7) Carissa 8) Date Palm 9) Phalsa 10) Fig 11) Bael 12) Tamarind PRACTICALS: 1 Description and identification of varieties of Mango and Banana based on flower and Fruit morphology. 2 Description and identification of varieties of Grape and Citrus. 3 Description and identification of varieties of Papaya, Sapota, Guava and pine apple. 4 Description and identification of varieties of Avocado, Litchi, Jack fruit, passion fruit Carambola, Durian and Mangosteen. 5 Description and identification of varieties of Pomegranate, Ber and Aonla. 6 Description and identification of varieties of Annona, Jamun, Wood apple, Bael, Carissa, Fig, Phalsa, Date-Palm, Tamarind and West Indian Cherry. 7 Training and Pruning of Grapes. 8 Training and Pruning of Mango, Guava and Citrus. 9 Visit to commercial orchards. 10 Pre-treatment of Banana suckers and de-suckering in Banana. Study of sex forms in Papaya. 11 Use of plastics in fruit production viz., in propagation, mulching, irrigation, packaging, storage etc. 12 Visit to commercial orchards and diagnosis of maladies (Nutrient deficiencies, Pest & Diseases, Physiological disorders etc.) 13 Manure & Fertilizer application including Bio-fertilizers in different fruit crops (Methods of application, calculation of the required Manure & Fertilizers based on the nutrient content). 14 Seed production in Papaya, latex extraction and preparation of crude papain. 15 Ripening of fruits, grading & packaging and production economics for tropical and sub-tropical fruits. 16 Visit to cold storage unit. 9

20 FRSC Temperate Fruit Crops 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Definition of temperate region, climatic conditions of temperate zone, Classification of temperate fruits. 2 Apple: Introduction, origin, and distribution, composition and uses, area, production, varieties, climate and soil requirements, root stocks (Dwarf, Semi-dwarf, Vigorous root stocks, M-Series and MM- Series root stocks), Propagation, planting methods, Training & Pruning methods of Apple. 3 Manures and fertilizers and After care, Flowering, Induction of early flowering, use of growth regulators in flowering, Pre harvest drop, Blossom and fruit thinning. 4 Factors effecting colour development, Harvesting, Different maturity indices, Postharvest handling, Grades followed in India, storage and physiological disorders of apple. 5 Pear: Introduction, centers of origin, and distribution, different species of pear, composition and uses, area, production, varieties, climate and soil requirements, root stocks, propagation, Training & pruning of pear 6 Manures and fertilizers, Intercropping, flowering and fruiting and use of growth regulators, harvesting, maturity indices, post -harvest handling and storage of Pear 7 Apricot: Introduction, origin, and distribution, varieties, Composition and uses, different species of Apricot, area, production, climate and soil requirements, root stocks, propagation, Training & pruning of young trees, bearing trees and rejuvenation of old Apricot trees. 8 Manures and fertilizers, Intercropping, flowering and different stages of stone fruit growth and stages of maturity, maturity indices, harvesting, post-harvest handling and storage and physiological disorders of Peach 9 Apricot: Introduction, origin, and distribution, varieties, composition and uses, different species of Apricot, area, production, climate and soil requirements, root stocks, propagation, Training & pruning of young trees, bearing trees and rejuvenation of old Apricot trees. 10 Manures and fertilizers, flowering, pollination and fruit set, maturity indices, harvesting, post-harvest handling and storage of Apricot. 11 Plum: Introduction, origin, and distribution, varieties, composition and uses, difference between European plums and Japanese plums, Types of European plums, area, production, climate and soil requirements, root stocks, propagation, Manures and fertilizers, Training & pruning, flowering, pollination and fruit set, maturity indices, harvesting, post-harvest handling and storage of Plum. 12 Strawberry: Introduction, origin, and distribution, varieties, composition and uses, Ploidy series, climate and soil requirements, Vegetative propagation, rising of runners 10

21 13 Different systems of planting, Matted rows, spaced beds and Hill system Mulching, Flowering (June/Ever/day neutral bearers), pollination, defoliation and deblossoming operation, Fruit set, Harvesting and Post harvest management and Physiological disorder (Albinism) in Strawberry 14 Almond: Introduction, origin, and distribution, varieties, composition and uses, area, production, climate and soil requirements, root stocks, propagation, Manures and fertilizers, Training & pruning, flowering, pollination and fruit set, maturity indices, harvesting(mechanical), post-harvest handling and storage, Kernel use, shelling yield, grades of kernels for the international trade. 15 Introduction, origin, and distribution, composition and brief production technology of Minor temperate fruit and nut crops viz., cherry, walnut, persimmon, kiwi, queens land nut(macadamia nut), pecan nut, hazel nut and chest nut. 16 Re-planting problems, rejuvenation and special production problems like pre-mature, leaf fall, unfruitfulness, alternate bearing, control of pre-harvest fruit drop, important insect pests and diseases and their control. PRACTICALS: 1 Description and identification of varieties of apple, 2 Planting systems followed in Apple. 3 Root stock characteristics of Apple. 4 Description and identification of varieties of pear 5 Description and identification of varieties of peach, 6 Description and identification of varieties of plums 7 Use of growth regulators in flowering of Temperate fruit crops 8 Manuring and fertilization of Apple, Pear, Peach, and Plum 9 Description and identification of varieties of apricot, almond and Cherry 10 Description and identification of varieties of strawberry 11 Description and identification of varieties of Kiwi and persimmon 12 Description and identification of varieties of walnut and pecan nut 13 Description and identification of varieties of hazel nut, chest nut and queens land nut 14 Training and Pruning methods followed in apple and Pear 15 Training and Pruning methods followed in plum and peach 16 Physiological disorders of Apple. 11

22 FRSC Orchard Management 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Definition of Orchard Objectives of orchard management Importance of Orchard management Soil Management Basic principles Methods of soil management 2 Clean cultivation by Ploughing Application of weedicides Mud plastering Merits and Demerits Sod culture Characteristics of ideal sod methods of growing Types of sod culture Sod culture method Sod pasture method Sod mulch method Temporary sod Merits and Demerits 3 Weed management in orchards Cultural (mechanical) methods Biological methods Chemical methods Guidelines for using Herbicides in orchards Herbicides used for weed control in the orchards. 4 Mulching in orchards Definition of Mulch and Mulching Objectives of Mulching Types of Mulches Organic mulches Garden compost Peat Leaves and leaf mould Straw and Hay Saw dust and Wood chopping Husk Flax Hop waste Pine needles = News paper and Card board = Inorganic mulches Plastic mulch Clear and black plastic Coloured Plastic mulches Dust mulches Gravel Stones Sand Merits and Demerits of Mulching. 5 Cropping Systems Tropical and subtropical Horticultural Systems Mono cropping Multiple cropping Inter cropping Factors determining choice of inter crop Mixed cropping Ratoon cropping Multi storey or Multi tier cropping Temperate Horticultural Systems Medium High density planting Optimum high density planting viz., - Tatura trellis Pyramid system Cordon system Curtain system Hedge row system Ultra High Density planting viz., - Meadow orchard Mechanized system Intersive system. 6 Plant Interaction Types of Interactions in cropping systems Competitive interaction above ground and below ground Complimentary Interactions Annidation in space and time Allelopathy Types. Biological efficiency of cropping systems Crop Equivalent Yield Land equivalent Ratio Cropping Intensity Index. 7 Systems of Irrigation Surface systems Flooding Check or bed method Furrow method Border method Basin method Ring method Drip (surface) method Pitcher method Pipe method Soil sloping method Merits and Demerits. 8 Sub surface systems Straight trench method Cross trench method Circular trench method Perforated pipeline method Trench drip method Buried drip method Merits and Demerits Over Head System Sprinkler system of irrigation Merits and Demerits. 12

23 9&10 Soil Management in relation to soil organisms Ploughing and tillage continuous cultivation crop rotation Irrigation Liming Gypsum Fertilizers and manures Oil cakes Soil Aggregation Soil management in relation to Nutrient uptake Soil physical conditions Soil Fertility Soil reaction Climatic factors Crop factors Soil management in relation to water uptake Soil water Factors influencing infiltration Soil properties Continuous cultivation Tillage Inter cultivation Soil management on soil environment Soil environment Soil temperature and plant growth Soil temperature. 11&12 Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) Concept Need for INM Components of INM Soil source Mineral fertilizer Organic sources Biological sources Merits of INM Nutrient Management in orchards Factors affecting fertilizer use Soil Crop Climate Economic factors Time of application Root distribution and nutrition Frequency of application Method of application of fertilizers in orchards Surface application Trench application Punch bar method Feeding needles Foliar application Fertigation Tree injection. 13&14 Pollination and fruit set problems Pollination Self and Cross pollination Definitions of fruit setting Fruit fullness Fertility Self Fertility Self sterile Cross unfruitful Pollinator Polliniser Causes of unfruitfulness Internal factors Evolutionary tendencies Structural peculiarities Dichogamy Impotency from abortive flowers Impotency of pollen Genetic influences Sterility or unfruitfulness due to hybridity Incompatibility Physiological influences slow pollen tube growth premature or delayed pollination nutritive condition of plant External factors Nutrient supply Pruning and grafting Locality Season Temperature Light Pests and diseases Age and Vigour of plant Distributed water relations Rain Wind Spraying. 15&16 Crop regulations in relation to cropping systems Crop regulation in pine apple fig Aonla Bahar treatment Citrus Guava Pomegranate Canopy management in Mango Apple Plum Pear Peach Guava. 13

24 PRACTICALS: 1 Layout of different systems of orchard soil management 2 Study of clean cultivation 3 Study of Inter-cropping systems in orchards 4 Study of cover cropping with suitable examples 5 Study of mixed cropping with suitable examples 6 Study of filler crops in orchards, characteristics of a filler plant 7 Study of Use of Organic and Inorganic mulches 8 Study of moisture conservation methods 9-10 Use of different weedicides in orchards Layout of Basin and ring system of irrigation Layout of Drip irrigation 15 Layout of sprinkler irrigation 16 Visit to local orchards 14

25 DEPARTMENT OF VEGETABLE SCIENCE VGSC-121 Tropical and Sub-Tropical Vegetables 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Olericulture definition-area, Production and Productivity of Tropical and Sub- Tropical Vegetables in India India s position in the World Vegetable production, India s contribution to Indian economy-leading States in Vegetable area, production and Productivity Export Potential of vegetables. 2 Importance of vegetables: Economic and nutritional importance of vegetables. 3 Classification of Vegetable Crops: 1) Botanical 2) Based on Hardiness 3) Parts Used 4) Method of culture 5) Season 4 Vegetable Gardening: Types of vegetables Gardens Kitchen Garden, market garden, Truck Garden, Vegetable Forcing, Garden for Processing, Seed production garden and Floating Garden 5 Tomato (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, Composition and use, Pigmentation, Distribution and Export Potential of Tomato: Description of Cultivars (Indian/Exotic) Determinate, Semi-Determinate and Indeterminate types; Cultivars suitable for Hills and Cultivars suitable for Processing-Exotic Cultivars. 6 Production Technology: Soil and Climate Method of raising the crop Nursery Vs Direct Sowing, Seed Rate Nursery techniques Main field preparation Basal Application of Nutrients Transplanting, Spacing Irrigation Nutrition Fertilizers Schedule, Major Nutrients, Minor Nutrients, Deficiency of Nutrients. 7 Inter cultivation Weed Control Mulching. Effect of Chemicals & Growth Substances on various growth and Yield Parameters, stages of maturity, Harvesting and Yield Grading (4Grades-Super A, Super, Fancy & Commercial) Post Harvest Handling and Storage. 8 Physiological Disorders: Blossom end Rot, Cracking, Cat Face, Puffiness, Sun Scald, Gold Fleck, Blotchy ripening, Crease Stem, Internal Blackening, Lower Stem Swelling, Low Temperature Injury etc. 9 Off-Season Tomato Production; Value Addition-Economics. 10 Brinjal (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, nutritional Composition, Distribution and Export Potential of Brinjal; Flower types based on Style Length-cultivars. 11 Production Technology: Soil and Climate; Cultivation; Seed Rate, Seed Treatment and Raising of Nursery, Land Preparation, Transplanting, spacing, Irrigation, Manures and fertilizers-inter culture and rationing in Brinjal. 15

26 12 Effect of Growth Substances on Fruit set, Harvest Indices Colour, Glossy Appearance, Calyx and Stem Ends; Yield, Grading and storage and Economics. 13 Chilli (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, Composition and Uses of chilli and bell pepper-pigmentation and Pungency, Distribution and Export Potential of Chilli-Taxonomy-Cultivars. 14 Production Technology: Soil and Climate-Methods of raising the crop-nursery Vs. Direct Sowing, Seed Rate-nursery techniques-main field preparation-spacing- Irrigation-nutrition-Fertilizers Scheduling, Bio-Fertilizers-Inter cultivation. 15 Effect of Growth Substances on Flowering, fruit set and fruit Maturity: Stage of maturity for harvesting For Green Chilli and Dry Chilli, Harvesting and yielddrying and Storage; Value Addition & Economics. 16 Okra (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, nutritional composition and uses-distribution and Export Potential of Okra-cultivars and hybrids. 17 Production Technology: Soil & climate; cultivation; land preparation, sowing season, seed rate, spacing, nutrition, irrigation and inter culture. Use of growth substances-stage of harvest, harvesting & yield, storage; economics and value addition. 18 Cucurbits: Introduction, Area and Production, Origin and distribution, composition and uses, characteristics of cucurbitaceous family-list of cultivated cucurbits (Botanical Names & common names) Bitter Principle-Flowering, Sex mechanisms sex expression-use of Plant Growth Regulators for Sex modification. 19 Cucurbits: Cultivation details of Cucumber, Pumpkin and squashes production technology soil and climate-cultivars-propagation and planting methods seed rate, spacing, irrigation, nutrient management inter culture Weed control, Mulching, plant growth regulators maturity indices harvesting and yield. 20 Cucurbits: Cultivation details of gourds- Production technology soil and climate cultivars propagation and planting methods seed rate, spacing, irrigation, nutrient management Inter culture Weed Control, Mulching, plant growth regulators maturity indices harvesting and yield. 21 Cucurbits: Cultivation details of melons- Production technology soil and climate cultivars propagation and planting methods seed rate, spacing, irrigation, nutrient management Inter culture Weed Control, Mulching, plant growth regulators maturity indices harvesting and yield Production of seedless watermelons. 22 Cucurbits: Cultivation details of Coccinia & Chowchow- Production technology soil and climate cultivars propagation and planting methods spacing, irrigation, 16

27 nutrient management Inter culture Weed Control, Mulching, plant growth regulators maturity indices harvesting and yield. 23 Seedless watermelon production River and cultivation of Cucurbits Off-season production of Cucurbits 24 Legume vegetables:- French Bean: (Botanical Name) Introduction, Origin, Area, Nutritive composition Classification: According to Habit (pole, semi pole and bush types) Production Technology: Climate and Soil-cultivars-Season-Seed Rate, Seed Inoculation, Spacing, Nutrition, Irrigation and Inter-cultivation; maturity standards, Harvesting, Yield, Storage & Economics. 25 Lab-Lab (Dolichos) bean (Botanical Name) : Introduction, Origin, Area, Nutritive value and uses-cultivars (bush and pole types)-differentiate field beans and garden beans cultivation: climate and soil, seeds and sowing, season, spacing, nutrient requirements, irrigation, intercropping; harvesting, yield. 26 Cluster Bean(Botanical Name) :Introduction, Origin, Area, Nutritive value and industrial importance of guar gum-cultivars classification according to Branching, Presence / Absence of hair and Kind of Fruit-cultivation-climate and soil; seed rate sowing, spacing, nutrition, irrigation-stage of harvest based on the purposes, yield and storage and economics. 27 Vegetable Cow pea (Botanical Name) : Introduction, Origin, Area, Nutritive value -cultivars climate & soil, seed rate, spacing, nutrition, irrigation and inter cultureharvesting indices harvesting & yield. 28 Leafy Vegetables: Importance of leafy vegetables and types of leafy vegetables Amaranthus: Introduction, Origin, Area, Nutritive value cultivars-soil & climate land preparation, sowing seed rate, spacing, irrigation and nutrition methods of harvesting and yield. 29 Basella (Botanical Name):Introduction, Origin, Area and Nutritive value -cultivars (Reddish stem type & commonly grown green types)-soil and Climate; Propagation Seed, stem cuttings, crop duration-seed rate, spacing, nutrition, and irrigation harvesting and yield. 30 Portulaca (Botanical Name) :Introduction, Origin and Nutritive value -cultivars soil & climate - land preparation, sowing, seed rate, spacing, irrigation and nutrition harvesting and yield. 31 Perennial Vegetables: Curry Leaf (Botanical Name) : Introduction, Origin Area and Nutritive value - cultivars soil & climate, cultivation - land preparation, nursery raising-sowing/ Planting, seed rate, spacing, Irrigation, nutrition harvesting and yield. 17

28 32 Drumstick / Moringa (Botanical Name) : Introduction, Origin, Composition of Pods, Leaves and uses of Moringa-cultivars-soil and climate; Propagation and planting methods-seed rate field preparation-sowing/planting-nutrition, Irrigation and inter culture; pruning for extension of cropping season- harvesting and yield. PRACTICALS: 1. Classification of vegetable crops 2. Nursery techniques for vegetable production and Hi-tech vegetable nursery production 3. Planning and layout of a kitchen garden 4. Identification and description of Solanaceous vegetable varieties 5. Methods of main field preparation and transplanting of nursery grown seedlings 6. Seed extraction methods in tropical and sub tropical vegetables 7. Nutritional deficiencies and physiological disorders in tropical and sub tropical vegetables. 8. Inter cultural and special cultural operations In vegetable plots. 9. Identification and description of Okra and Legume vegetables. 10. Plant growth regulators in vegetable production. 11. Identification and description of varieties of cucurbits. 12. Harvesting indices and maturity standards in tropical vegetables. 13. Visit to vegetable farmers fields 14. Post harvest handling of vegetables 15. Identification and description of varieties of Amaranthus, Drumstic and Curry leaf 16. Visit to vegetable markets for study of marketing problems 18

29 VGSC Temperate Vegetables, Potato and Tuber Crops 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Area, Production and Productivity of temperate vegetables, potato and other tuber crops in India - economical, industrial nutritional importance of temperate vegetables, potato and tuber crops. 2 Cole crops: Cabbage (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, nutritional value, bitter principle, Distribution and Export Potential- Cultivars- classification based on shape, colour and crop duration. Soil and climate requirements. 3 Production Technology: - Nursery techniques Seed Rate and nursery sowing. Main field preparation Transplanting, Spacing, - Irrigation Nutrition Inter cultivation Stage of maturity method of harvesting and Yield Post Harvest Handling and Storage- Physical disorders. 4 Cauliflower (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, nutritional value Distribution and Export potential Cultivars- types and classification Soil and climate- Seed Rate and nursery sowing Transplanting, Spacing and Irrigation- Nutrition Deficiency symptoms of Nutrients. 5 Inter cultivation and blanching- Stage of maturity, Harvesting and Yield post Harvest Handling and Storage- Physiological disorders and their control. 6 Brussels Sprouts (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, nutritional composition and Uses Cultivars Production Technology Soil and climate Seed Rate and sowing Transplanting, Spacing, - Irrigation Nutrient management Inter cultivation Harvesting and Yield Post Harvest Handling and Storage. 7 Sprouting Broccoli (Botanical Name): Introduction origin, Area and Production, nutritional value- Cultivars Production Technology Soil and climate- Seed Rate and sowing. Transplanting, spacing and Irrigation Nutrition Inter cultivation- Harvesting and Yield Post harvest handling and Storage. 8 Knol Khol (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, nutritional value- Cultivars Production Technology Soil and climate- Seed Rate and sowing. Transplanting, spacing and Irrigation Nutrition Inter cultivation- Harvesting and Yield Post harvest handling and Storage. 9 Chinese Cabbage (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, nutritional value- Cultivars Production Technology Soil and climate- Seed Rate and sowing. Transplanting, spacing and Irrigation Nutrition Inter cultivation- Harvesting and Yield Post harvest handling and Storage. 19

30 10 Bulb Crops: Onion (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, history, Area, production and productivity Distribution and Export Potential nutritional value and pungency principle Cultivars Soil and climate requirements. 11 Production Technology: Propagation and planting methods seed Rate and sowing. Main field preparation Transplanting, Spacing, - Irrigation - Nutrition Deficiency symptoms of nutrients Inter cultivation stage of maturity, Harvesting, curing and Yield Post Harvest Handling and Storage Physiological disorders. 12 Garlic & Leek (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area and Production, nutritional value- Cultivars Production Technology Soil and climate- Seed Rate and sowing. Transplanting, spacing and Irrigation Nutrition Inter cultivation- Harvesting and Yield Post harvest handling and Storage. 13 Salad crops: Lettuce & Celery (Botanical Name) : Introduction, Origin, importance and nutritional value Cultivars types of lettuce Production Technology Soil and climate seed rate, sowing/ planting spacing, Irrigation Nutrition Inter cultivation Harvesting and Yield Post Harvest Handling and Storage. 14 Root crops: Carrot (Botanical Name) : Introduction, Origin, Area, Production and productivity nutritional value pungency and pigmentation Cultivars- classification of cultivars based on root shape and temperature response to flowering (Asiatic and European) Production Technology Soil and climate seed rate, sowing and spacing, - Irrigation - - Nutrition Inter culture Harvesting and Yield Post Harvest Handling and Storage. Physiological disorders (splitting, forking and cavity spot) 15 Radish (Botanical Name) : Introduction Origin, Area, Production and productivity nutritional value- pungency and pigmentation Cultivars Asiatic and European ty0pes production Technology Soil and climate seed rate, sowing and spacing, - Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture Harvesting and Yield Post Harvest Handling and storage. 16 Beet root (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area, Production and productivity nutritional value pigmentation Cultivars Classification based on root shape- Production Technology soil and climate seed rate, sowing and spacing, - Irrigation, - Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture Harvesting and Yield Post Harvest Handling and Storage. 17 Turnip( Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area, Production and productivity nutritional value pungency and pigmentation Cultivars Asiatic and European 20

31 types production Technology Soil and climate seed rate, sowing and spacing, - Irrigation Nutrition technology- Soil and climate seed rate, sowing and spacing, - Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture Harvesting and yield Post Harvest Handling and Storage. 18 Legume vegetables: Pea (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin and taxonomy Area, Production and productivity nutritional value-botany distinguishing characters Cultivars classification of cultivars based on seed texture, height of plant of, maturity and use of pods. 19 Production Technology Soil and climate seed rate, methods of sowing and spacing, - Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture use of plant growth regulators maturity indices (tenderness) Harvesting and Yield Post harvest handling and Storage. 20 Broad bean (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, Area, Production and productivity nutritional value Cultivars Production Technology Soil and climate seed rate, sowing and spacing, Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture- Harvesting and Yield Post Harvest Handling and Storage. 21 Leafy vegetables: Palak/Spinach beet (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, nutritional value- botany and cultivars differentiation with spinach Production Technology Soil and climate seed rate, sowing and spacing Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture- Harvesting, yield and storage. 22 Spinach(Botanical Name) : Introduction, Origin, nutritional value botany- Cultivars classification of cultivars based on seed type and leaf type- production Technology Soil and climate seed rate, sowing and spacing, Irrigation- Nutrition Inter culture Stage of maturity- Harvesting, Yield and storage. 23 Specialty vegetables: 24 Potato : Rhubarb, Asparagus and Globe artichoke (Botanical name) : Introduction, Origin, importance and nutritional value Cultivars production Technology Soil and climate- propagation and planting methods seed rate, sowing and spacing,- Irrigation Nutrition- Inter culture- Stage of maturity Harvesting, Yield and storage. Introduction, Origin, Area, Production, Productivity, history and distribution role in Indian economy- importance and nutritional value- Cultivars- potato zones. 21

32 25 Production Technology Soil and climate Propagation and planting material True potato seed(tps) seed rate Main field preparation, sowing/planting and spacing Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture. 26 Harvesting, curing and Yield Post Harvest Handling and Storage- Physiological disorders- Production of certified seed Suggestions to produce healthy seed in Indian plains. 27 Tuber crops: Sweet potato (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, area and productionnutritional value Cultivars Soil and climate propagation and planting- seed rate and spacing, - Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture(turning of vines)- Harvesting, curing and yield Post harvest handling and Storage 28 Tapioca/Cassava(Botanical Name): Introduction, origin, area and production nutritional value and toxic principle Cultivars production Technology Soil and climate Propagation and planting material seed rate and spacing, -Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture Harvesting, Yield and storage. 29 Yams(Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, area and production nutritional value and uses alkaloids types of Yams Cultivars Production Technology Soil and climate propagation and planting material seed rate and spacing, Irrigation Nutrient management Inter culture (training of vines Harvesting, Yield and storage. 30 Elephant foot Yam (Amorphophallus) (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, area and production nutritional value acridity principle Cultivars production Technology Soil and climate propagation and planting material seed rate and spacing, - Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture Harvesting, curing, yield and storage. 31 Colocasia/ Taro (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin, area and production nutritional value acridity principle Cultivars Production Technology Soil and climate- propagation and planting material seed rate and spacing, - Irrigation- Nutrition Inter culture Harvesting, curing, yield and storage. 32 Arrow root (Botanical Name): Introduction, Origin and importance nutritional value Cultivars Production Technology Soil and climate propagation and planting material seed rate and spacing, - Irrigation Nutrition Inter culture Harvesting, yield and storage. 22

33 PRACTICALS: 1 Nursery bed preparation and management. 2 Identification and description of cabbage and cauliflower. 3 Identification and description of Knol-Khol, Sprouting broccoli and Brussels sprout. 4 Preparation of field, sowing/transplanting. 5 Identification and description of root crops. 6 Visit to farmer s field. 7 Identification and description of potato. 8 Identification and description of bulb crops. 9 Visit to vegetable research station. 10 Identification and description of pea. 11 Identification and description of Tuber Crops. 12 Calculation of cost of cultivation for important vegetable crops and project preparation of commercial cultivation. 13 & 14 Identification of physiological, nutritional disorders and their corrections. 15 Visit to local vegetable markets. 16 Final practical examination. 23

34 VGSC Seed Production of Vegetables, Tuber and Spice crops 3(2+1) THEORY: 1. Introduction and History of seed industry in India. 2. Importance and scope of vegetable seed production in India 3. Classification of vegetable crops based on pollination and reproduction behaviour. 4. Seed-definition-differences between grain and seed. Basics of agronomics 5. Role of climatic factors (temp, humidity, light, wind velocity and wind direction) I vegetables seed production. 6. Principles of vegetable seed production Genetic Principles (Maintenance of Genetic Purity by crop rotation, isolation, rouging, seed certification and grow out tests) Agronomic Principles (area and land selection, source of seed, seed treatment and better agronomic practices. 7. Seed production of Solanaceous vegetables: Tomato: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 8. Brinjal: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 9. Chilli and Bell pepper: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 10. Seed production of cole crops: Cabbage: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 11. Cauliflower: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 12. Seed production of Root vegetables: Carrot: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 13. Radish: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, 24

35 seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 14. Beetroot: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 15. Seed production of Bulb vegetables: Onion & Garlic: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 16. Garlic: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 17. Seed production of Cucurbits Melons: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 18. Gourds: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 19. Radish: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 20. Sweet Potato: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 21. Tapioca: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 22. Seed production of Legumes French bean: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 23. Dolichos bean: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 25

36 24. Peas: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 25. Seed production of Okra: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 26. Seed production of Leafy vegetables: Amaranthus: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 27. Palak: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 28 Seed production of Spice vegetables: Coriander and Fenugreek: Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 29 Seed production of Major Spices: (Turmeric and Ginger): Climate, land requirements, season, planting time, nursery management, seed rate, flowering and seed setting, rouging, harvesting and threshing, seed extraction and seed storage 30 Seed germination and purity analysis 31 Field and seed certification standards 32 Seed legislation and seed laws 26

37 PRACTICALS: 1. Study of seed structure, color, size, shape and texture 2. Field inspection of seeds in vegetable crops 3. Practices of rouging in vegetable crops 4. Harvesting and seed extraction in vegetable crops 5. Germination and purity analysis in vegetable crops 6. Methods of seed production in solanaceous vegetables 7. Methods of seed production in cole crops 8. Methods of seed production in root vegetables 9. Methods of seed production in bulb crops 10. Methods of seed production in cucurbits 11. Methods of seed production in tuber vegetables 12. Methods of seed production in leafy vegetables 13. Methods of seed production in legume vegetables 14. Methods of seed production in spice vegetables 15. Visit to seed processing units 16. Visit to seed production farms 27

38 DEPARTMENT OF FLORICULTURE AND LAND SCAPING FCLS Principles of Landscape Gardening 1(0+1) 1. Study of principles to be observed in preparation of landscape design & elements of landscape design 2. Study of symbols, tools and implements used in landscape design. 3. Plant materials for landscaping and their identification i.e., annuals, herbaceous perennials, trees, Shrubs, Climbers, bulbous plants, cacti and succulents, aquatic plants, ground covers i.e., grasses etc, bamboos etc 4. Study of various features of an ornamental garden with suitable plants and identification of plants for each feature. 5. Study of formal gardens i.e., Mughal, Persian, Italian and French gardens with their different features. 6. Study of informal gardens i.e., Japanese and English gardens with their different features; and wild, countryside. 7. Study of special type of gardens (Terrace garden and Rock garden) 8. Study of special type of gardens(sunken garden and Bog or Marsh garden) 9. Visit to near by nurseries of ornamental plants. 10. Study of landscaping Highways, Railway stations, Bus terminus and Airports. 11. Study of landscaping cities, towns, country side, canals and along the bank of rivers. 12. Study of landscaping factories, places of historic importance, places of worship. 13. Study of Designing of conservatory and lath house. Materials required, requirement of plants i.e., light, shade, temperature, humidity etc 14. Identification and description of indoor plants, Interior plant-scaping 15. Study of climatic factors (light, temperature, humidity fresh air and watering) on successful culture of indoor plants. 16. Visit to near by landscape gardens. 28

39 FCLS Ornamental Horticulture 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Definition of Ornamental Horticulture Importance of Ornamental Horticulture (gardening) History of gardening During Aryan Civilization (Epic Era) Budha Period Emperor Ashoka period Gupta period Mughal Period British Period Post Independence Period. 2 Definition of Floriculture Scope and importance of floriculture industry in India Present Status of floriculture in India Area and Production of floricultural Products in India International Scenario Major exporters and importers in the world Industrial importance via., - Cut flowers Ornamental plants Flowers seeds Floral extracts dry flowers and plants other floricultural related services. 3 Definition of land scape and land scaping Historical back ground of land scaping Principles of land scape gardening Initial approach Axis Focal Point Mass effect Unity Space Divisional Lines Proportion and Scale Texture Time and Light Tone and Colour Mobility Rhythm Balance Contract Harmony Vista Style. 4&5 Garden components or features Garden walls Retaining wall Fences and Gates Steps Garden Drives (Gravel and Asphalt) and Paths (Gravel, Brick, Grass, Stone, Crazy pavings) Arches and Pergolas Screens Bridges Outdoor garden rooms (Gazebos, garden pavilions, band stand, bower and thatched huts) Garden components or features Hedges and Edges Flower bed Borders Carpet Bedding. 6 Garden adornments via., Garden Seats Ornamental tubs, urns and Vases Bird baths Sun dials Floral Clocks Japanese Lanterns Ornamental Stones Fountains statues Towers Wells Plants Containers Plant Strands. 7 Types of garden Formal Informal Wild Garden Styles of garden in the world Mughal Garden Site and design Walls and gates Terrace Running water Baradari Trees and Flowers. 8&9 Features of English Italian French Persian Gardens Japanese Garden Types of Japanese Garden Hill Flat Tea Passage Sand Gardens Features of Japanese Garden Ponds Streams Water falls Fountains Islands Bridges Water Basins Stone Lanterns Stones Pagodas Fences and Gates Vegetation (Ever green, Deciduous and Flowering plants) 10&11 Famous Gardens of India Lal bagh (Bangalore) Brindavan Garden (Mysore) Government Botanic Gardens (Ootacamud) Mughal garden (Pinjore) Chandigarh Rose garden. 29

40 12 Specialized gardens Herb garden Bog Garden Sunken garden Topiary Garden Kitchen garden Paved garden Moon Garden Gardening in hanging baskets Window garden Miniature garden Mini Zoo Importance of Green house Conservatory Lath house Fernery in ornamental horticulture. 13 Rock Garden Types of rock Garden Selection of site Construction of the Rockery Planting Management of the Rockery Plants for rock garden Examples of Cacti and succulents, ferns, shrubs, herbaceous plants, bulbs, flowering annuals. 14 Water garden Informal pool Formal Pool Construction Planting methods Filling the pool (water course and falls) Care of the water garden Plants for water garden Surface flowering acquatics Oxygenators Floaters Marginals. 15&16 Roof garden Need for roof garden Limitations Types of roof garden (Private or cooperative) Planning Suitability of the roof Drainage and water proofing Making of flower beds, pots and containers Gardening Concept Soil Media Planting Planting materials Examples Flowering annuals Herbaceous perennials Shrubs Trees Creepers Bulbs water plants Maintenance of plants. 17 Lawn Selection of Grass Bermuda grass Korean grass Poa grass Fescue grass Kentucky blue grass - Grasses for shady areas Site Selection Soil Preparation of soil drainage digging manuring and grading Methods of planting Sowing of Seeds Dibbling Turfing turf plastering Bricking Planting on Polythene Maintenance of lawn Mowling Rolling Sweeping Scraping Raking Weeding Irrigation Top dressing with compost and fertilizers Diseases and other problems Fairy ring Pale Yellow Laws. 18 Oanamental and shady Trees Definition Classification based on purpose with suitable examples Specimen trees Shady trees Flowering trees Avenue or road side trees Screening trees Fragrant flowering trees Pollution controlling trees Selection of trees based on Climatic Soil availability and Cost factor s- Methods of planting Time of planting Manuring Care and Maintenance Planting Schemes for avenue planting One kind of flowering tree on both sides two kinds of lowering trees blooming at one time on both sides of road Two kinds of flowering trees blooming at different time on both sides of road shady trees only on both sides of road. 19 Shrubs Definition Utility (aesthetic values) Classificaiton with suitable examples based on Purpose of growing Flowering Foliage Flowering and foliage Fragrant shrubs based on sunlight requirement shrubs requiring full sunlight semi shade intermediate group (semi shade and sun shrubs Planting of Shrubs in garden Specimen shrub Standard shrub Shrubbery border Arrangement of shrubs According to height and colour Growing of shrubs 30

41 Soil Climate Preparation of soil Planting Propagation seeds Cuttings layering After care Irrigation weeding Pruning. 20 Herbaceous perennials Definition Introduction Classification with suitable examples Herbaceous perennials for plains and for hills Planting Manuring Propagation. 21 Climbers Definition Climbers twiners ramblers creepers Utility (aesthetic values) Classification with suitable examples Sunny situation Partial shade shade loving climbers Showy flowering climbers Climbers with scented flowers Climbers with attractive foliage Climbers for pots Annual climbers Climbers for hedge making Classification based on vegetative growth Heavy climbers Light climbers Soil Digging of pits Planting of climbers After care Manuring Maintenance. 22 Palms Definition Introduction Utility (aesthetic values) Classification with examples Feather leaved Palm Fan leaved Palm Propagation Pot culture Potting Re-potting - Potting media Manuring Aftercare. 23 Ferns Introduction Utility (aesthetic values) Propagation Spore Division of Clumps Suckers bulbils Site of growing Soil media Pot culture repotting Irrigation Indoor culture Important Examples. Selaginellas Introduction Propagation Cultural hints Important Examples. Ornamental grasses, Bamboos and reeds Introduction Propagation Soil and climatic requirements Site of growing Planting Important Examples. 24 Cacti Introduction Characteristics of Cactaceae Classification Pereskieae Opuntieae Cereae (8tribes) with Examples Site of growing Natural habitat Domestication (Housing of cacti) Propagation Seeds Offsets Grafting Soil Climate Containers Time and method of planting Potting Re-potting Irrigation Staking. 25 Succulents Characteristics Difference between cacti and succulents Utility (aesthetic values) Climate Soil Housing Propagation Seeds Cuttings Watering Re-potting Summer protection 26 Bio-aesthetic Planning Definition Aim and Concept Need for Bio-aesthetic planning Air pollution Human welfare. Land scaping Educational Institutions (Schools and Colleges) Importance Need Planting materials for different areas of institution Land scaping Country side and Village home Land scaping Railway stations and railway lines. 27 Land scaping cities and towns Road side plantation Planting trees in colonies Land scaping City parks Large medium small parks pleasure grounds Examples of ornamental shade and flowering trees for town roads. 31

42 28 Floral Ornaments Garlands Floral crowns Hair decoration Rangoli Floral Bouquets Button holes Floral arrangement Western style Principles of Design viz., Emphasis Balance Proportion Rhythm Harmony Unity Elements of Design viz., Line Form Texture Colour 29 Selection of flowers and foliage Line flowers Form flowers Mass flowers Filler flower Materials required Design rules Types of floral arrangement Circular Triangular Radiating Crescent Horizontal Hogarthian curve Conditioning Reconditioning of flowers. 30 Japanese floral arrangement Ikebana Moribana Nageire Jiyu-bana-Zen eika Zen ei-bana-morimono Materials required General rules for Moribana and Nageire styles of arrangement Basic styles of Moribana and Nageire Basic upright and Basic slanting arrangements. 31&32 Bonsai Definition Criteria for selecting plants Examples Classification of Bonsai Upright (formal and informal) Winding Winding Oblique Gnarled Semi-cascade-cascade Clasped to stone Containers (pots) and Media Potting and Re-potting Training Pruning and Pinching (Shoot, leaf and root) Watering manuring Defoliation Mame Bonsai. PRACTICALS: 1. Identification and description of annuals. 2. Identification of Herbaceous perennials. 3. Identification of climbers, creepers, foliage and flowering shrubs. 4. Identification of avenue trees, palms and ferns. 5. Identification of ornamental grasses cacti and succulents. 6. Visit to nearby landscape garden layout. 7. Study of planning, designing of gardens and layout. 8. Study of components of a garden and functional uses of plants in the landscape. 9. Study of planning and designing of house garden, roadside planting and avenues for new colonies, traffic islands. 10. Preparation of land for lawn and planting. 11. Study of the design of garden structures and layout of rockery. 12. Study of water garden, terrace garden and Japanese gardens, recreational and children s corner. 13. Layout of terrarium, traffic islands, bottle garden and dish garden. 14. Flower arrangement, Bonsai practicing and training. 15. Visit to nearby gardens 16. Visit to nearby recreational and children s corner. 32

43 FCLS Commercial Floriculture 3(2+1) THEORY: 1. Scope and importance of commercial floriculture in India. Present status, Future prospects and strategies needed for improvement. Area, production and exports. 2. Rose: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation Rootstocks, Stock scion compatability, land preparation, planting 3. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations (pruning, pinching and mulching) use of growth regulators, physiological disorders, harvesting, post harvest management, yield and rose bi-products Loose flower production 4. Marigold: Introduction, origin and distribution, species and varieties, F1 Hybrids, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 5. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, (pinching and disbudding) use of growth regulators, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 6. Chrysanthemum: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 7. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, (pinching and disbudding) use of growth regulators, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 8. Carnation: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 9. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, (pinching and disbudding) use of growth regulators, physiological disorders, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 10. Gladiolus: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification of varieties, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 11. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, use of growth regulators, physiological disorders, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 12. Jasmine: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 13. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, use of growth regulators, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 14. Tuberose: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 15. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, use of growth regulators, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 33

44 16. Dahlia: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 17. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, (pinching and disbudding) use of growth regulators, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 18. China aster: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 19. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, (pinching and disbudding) use of growth regulators, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 20. Crossandra: Introduction, origin and distribution, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 21. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, use of growth regulators, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 22. Bird of paradise: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 23. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, use of growth regulators, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 24. Anthurium: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and shade requirements, growing media, propagation, systems of growing, planting 25. fertigation, cultural operations, de-suckering, defoliation, use of growth regulators, physiological disorders, harvesting, grades, post harvest management and yield. 26. Gerbera: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and soil requirements, propagation, land preparation, planting 27. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, defoliation, soil loosening, shading, use of growth regulators, physiological disorders, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 28. Orchids: Introduction, origin and distribution, classification, species and varieties, climate and growing medial requirements, propagation, orchidarium construction, planting 29. Manures and fertilizers, cultural operations, physiological disorders, use of growth regulators, harvesting, post harvest management and yield. 30. Growing of flowers under protected environments such as glass house, plastic house etc. Rose, Orchids, Anthurium, Carnation, Gerbera and cut flower type Chrysanthemums require special climatic conditions 34

45 31. Post harvest technology of cut flowers causes for deterioration of cut flower quality Food depletion Bacterial and fungal infections Maturation and ageing Wilting Bruising Temperature Ethylene Water Factors affecting cut flower longevity Handling Harvest stage Grading and Bunching Packaging Pre cooling Storage Floral preservatives viz., (Pulsing solution Bud opening solution Vase solution Conditioning ) Sanitation. 32. Dehydration technique for drying of flowers Importance Pot pourri Dehydration methods Air drying Embedding and drying viz., room drying Sun drying hot air oven vacuum drying microwave drying Embedding individual flower embedding individual flower with stem Embedding branch with flowers Press drying (simple method, herbarium method). PRACTICALS: 1. Propagation methods in chrysanthemum 2. Preparation of nursery bed for flower seeds sowing. 3. Identification of important flower crops and their varieties 4. Identification of important fillers and foliage plants. 5. Propagation of rose by cutting and budding 6. Layering methods for Jasmine propagation 7. Visit to green house to study protected cultivation of carnation 8. Field visit to commercial flower growing area 9. Visit to green house to study protected cultivation of Gerbera 10. Training and Pruning of Roses in open and polyhouse 11. Visit to green house to study protected cultivation of Rose 12 Horticultural practices like Pinching and laying of supporting nets for Carnation under protected cultivation. 13. Study on drip irrigation, misting and Fertigation of flower crops under cover. 14. Study on the influence of PGR s on important flower crops 15. Use of floral preservatives and other compounds for prolonging vase life of cut flowers. 16. Drying / Dehydration techniques for flower drying. 35

46 DEPARTMENT OF SPICES, PLANTATION, MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC CROPS SPMA Spices and Condiments 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Introduction, history of spices, definition of spices and condiments, important spice crops of India (List of the crops with Common name, Botanical name and family) Importance, role of spices in human nutrition, Industry, Exports and Imports of spices in improving the national economy. 2 Classification of Spices- Different classifications based on economic importance, cultivation methods, family, longevity of spice plants, type of the spice, origin and flavour, plant part used, active principle. Institutes working on spices and condiments. Role of organizations for improvement of spices and condiments like II SR Calicut ICAR, DCASD, Cochin, Spices Board Cochin. 3 Black Pepper History, scope and Importance area and production, uses, export potential and its role in increasing the National Economy, Role of pepper export promo0tion council. Botany varieties, soil and intercrop and mixed crop. Propagation with seed, vegetative method Cuttings, Rapid Multiplication Method. 4 Black Pepper Establishment of pepper garden planting of standard plants, planting of the vines, shade and shade regulation, Training and pruning of pepper vines. Nutritional management, Irrigation, weed control, harvesting, Post harvest technology types of pepper white pepper 1. Water Steaming technique, 2. Steaming or Boiling technique. Black pepper Drying and Curing various forms of Black pepper. Package and storage, value added products lime dehydrated green pepper, freeze dried green pepper, oil, pepper oleo resin, pepper hulls. 5 Cardamom History, Scope and importance area and production, uses, export potential, Botany, varieties, types of cardamom like, Malabar, Mysore and Vazukka soil and climate, selection of site and repartition, propagation lime seed ( Primary and Secondary nurseries advantages and disadvantages) seed and vegetative method like suckers. 6 Cardamom Systems of cropping lime inter cropping and mixed cropping planting, shade and shade regulation, Nutrient management, Irrigation, Weeding, Intercultural Operations like Thrashing, Mulching Earthling up Racking, Harvesting indices, and yield Post Harvest Techno logy Dry ginger Bleached and Un b leached ginger, Preserved ginger. Storage, value added products like soft drink ginger candy, Murabba, Pickles Ginger wine. 36

47 7 Ginger Introduction, scope and importance, area and production, uses export potential, Botany, varieties, soil and climate, propagation, preservation of seed rhizome, selection of land and preparation. 8 Ginger Planting season, Seed rate Spacing, Methods bed system and ridge and furrow system seasons Region wise Mulching, Systems of cultivation like rotations and mixed cropping Irrigation, Nutrient Management 9 Turmeric Introduction, History, scope and importance, area and production, uses, export potential, Botany, varieties, soil and climate, propagation, preservation of seed rhizome, selection of land and preparation. Methods of cultivation like bed system ridge and furrow system Planting Seasons Seed rate, Spacing Mulching, Irrigation, Nutrient Management, Weeding and Intercultural Operations, Shade provision Cropping Systems like inter cropping, rotations Harvesting indices, yield Post Harvest Technology Different methods of cooking 1. Traditional method 2. Improved method Packing and Storage, value added products like Turmeric powder, oil and oleoresin 10 Clove Introduction, History, scope importance, area and production, uses, export potential, Botany, varieties, Soils and Climate, Propagation by seed Raising of the nursery Planting, Weeding, Staking, Manuring, Intercultural, Irrigation, Pruning, Harvesting, curing and Processing like preparation of clove to the market Grading packing and storage, value added products like clove bud oil, clove stem oil, clove leaf oil, clove root oil, oil of mother clove. 11 Nutmeg History, Importance, Area, Production, Uses, Botany, varieties, Export value, Propagation Nursery techniques Soil and Climate Planting, Cropping System like mixed cropping Manuring, Weeding, Intercultural, Constraints like sex determination and improvement in Nutmug Cultivation, Harvesting, Post Harvest Technology, Grading and Packing, value added products like oil of the flowers. 12 Cinnamon Importance area and production, uses, Botany, Varieties, Export Potential Propagation Seed, Cuttings, Tree stumps, Botany, Varieties, Export potential Pruning, Soil and Climate, Planting, Weeding. Cinnamon - Manuring, Harvesting, Post Harvest Technology Cutting and Peeling, Preparation of Quills, Drying, Grading Quills, Quillings, Featherings, Chips, Packaging and Storage, Value added products 13 All Spice and Curry Leaf ( In brief) Introduction, Area and Production, Uses, Export value, Soil and Climate, Propagation like Seed and Vegetative Method Budding, approach Grafting in Allspice and Seed in Curry leaf Planting, Weeding, Manuring, Harvesting, Post Harvest Technology like Drying and Curing and value added products like Berry oil, Leaf oil, Oleo resin in oil spice and Volatile oil and Dehydrated leaves in Curry leaf. 37

48 14&15 Coriander, Fenugreek, fennel, cumin History, Importance, Area and production, uses, Botany, Varieties, Soil and Climate, Sowing, Seasons seed rate, Spacing, Irrigation, Weeding, Intercultural, Harvest Management like Cleaning and Drying value added products like, whole seed, Ground form, Volatile oil Oleoresin, Dal in coriander etc 16 Vanilla History, Importance, Area and Production, Export Value, Uses, Botany, Varieties, constraints of production, Propagation by Cuttings Soil and Climate, Land preparation, Staking, Planting, Manuring, Flowering and Pollination Hand Pollination, Harvesting, Curing and processing and types of vanilla like Mexican vanilla, Bourbon vanilla, Indonesian vanilla value added products like vanilla pods, vanilla essens, vanilla sugar, vanilla oleoresins Grading, Packing, Storage. PRACTICALS 1 Identification of Spices and Condiments. Preparation and Submission of minimum of 30 specimen of Spices and Condiments. 2 Seed treatment, Sowing layout and Planting Method of Spices and Condiments 3&4 Raising of crops of spices and condiments. 5&6 Propagation methods and role of growth regulators in spices and condiments. 7&8 Identification of varieties of spices and condiments. 9 Important operations followed in spices like manuring, use of weedicides and earthing up operations. 10 Training and Pruning in Spices and Condiments. 11 Economics of cultivation in Spices and Condiments. 12 Curing, Processing and Grading of Spices and Condiments. 13 Methods of extraction of essential oils and oleoresins in Spices and Condiments. 14&15 Visits to Commercial Spice Gardens & Plantations and Processing Units. 16 Visit to essential oil extraction units. 38

49 SPMA: Plantation Crops 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Plantation crops History, scope and importance COCONUT Introduction, Scope and importance, area and production, products/ by products, uses The wet meat or kernel, Coconut flour, Edible copra, Coconut oil, coir and coconut fibre, Coconut leaves, Varieties- Tall x dwarf hybrids (TxD), Dwarf x tall hybrids ( DxT), Tall x tall hybrids (T x T). 2 COCONUT : Soil, Climate, Propagation Seed propagation, Selection of seed nuts, Selection of mother palm, Collection of seed nuts, Nursery site selection and preparation, Planting of seed nuts, Management of nursery, selection of seedling for planting. 3 COCONUT Preparation of pits and planting, Irrigation, Manuring and fertilization, Foliar diagnosis as an index for fertilizer requirement, Methods of application of fertilizers, weeding. 4 COCONUT Coconut based cropping system, Inter and multiple cropping, multi storied cropping, Shedding of buttons, immature nuts, production of barren nuts and their control, Harvesting, preparation of cup and ball copra, Yield, Storage, Deficiency disorders Crown choke. 5 ARECANUT Introduction, Scoope and importance, area and production, uses, varieties, Soil, Climate, Nursery raising techniques- Selection of mother palms, Seed nut selection, Primary and secondary nurseries selection of nursery plant material. 6 ARECANUT Establishment of plantation Spacing, Season of planting, Plantation management Inter Cultural operations- Manuring, Irrigation, weeding. 7 ARECANUT Multiple cropping- Intercropping, Mixed cropping, Multi storied cropping, Harvesting- processing- Dried ripe nuts, Kempedike, Chali and Kalipak, Scented supari, Colour development on chewing, Alternative uses 8 OIL PALM Introduction, Area and production, uses, products/ byproducts, varieties, seed propagation, Commercial Nursery Selection, Climate Sunshine and Temperature requirement Oilpalm growing areas. 39

50 9 OIL PALM Soil Types of soils for oil palm growing regions, Spacing, Planting, Irrigation, Manuring, Weeding and Mulching 10 OIL PALM Harvesting and yield, Processing Extraction of oil from Mesocarp and kernel. 11 PALMYRAH Introduction, Area and production Products/ byproducts from palmyrah palm Neera, Varieties Black skin fruit, Male & female palms differentiation, Soil and Climate, Propagation Raising Nursery. 12 PALMYRAH Pre-treatment of seeds with nutrient solution, Pretreatment of palmyrah seeds in ethrel, pre-treatment of seeds with thiourea. Nursery practices Raising seedlings in situ, in mound nursery bed and in masonary bed Transplanting, Cultural Practices leaf pruning, Irrigation, Fertilization, Taping, Yield. 13 COCOA Introduction, Area and production, origin & distribution, uses Cocoa products/ Byproducts cacao liquor or cocoa mass, Cocoa powder, Cocoa butter, chocolate, varieties, Climate, Soil. 14 COCOA Propagation Mother tree selection, Seed and Vegetative propagation, Cuttings, preparation of land, provision of Shade, Spacing, planting-cocoa under Natural Shade, Cocoa under Artificial Shade, Intercropping. 15 COCOA Irrigation, Manuring, weeding, types of branching, training and pruning, Harvesting, Preparation of cocoa to the market. 16 COCOA Processing1) Burrow method 2) Heap method 3) Basket Fermentation 4) Tray fermentation 5) Box fermentation, End point of fermentation. Drying- Sun drying, Artificial drying, Storage of Kernels. 17 CASHEW NUT Introduction, Area and production, by products uses, Climate, Soils, varieties/ hybrids, Propagation Vegetative propagation, Epicotyl grafting and Cuttings. 18 CASHEW NUT Planting, Branching Pattern, Irrigation, weeding, Manuring, Nutrient deficiency symptoms of major nutrients. 19 CASHEW NUT Training and pruning, Rajuvenation, flowering Season, type of flowers, pollination, Fruit and Nut development, Fruit drop control, Harvesting, Yield. 40

51 20 CASHEW NUT Processing Methods Karnataka (Manglore) method, Tamilnadu (Panruti) method, Kerala (Quilon) method etc., CNSL extraction, Grading, packing. 21 COFFEE Introduction, Area, Origin and distribution, Production, Export, Soil, Climate, typesdifferences Arabica/robusta, branching climatological differences, Varieties, propagation, Raising nurseries. 22 COFFEE Preparation of main field and planting, Type of shades, Provision of shade, Temporary shade Advantages of shade, Disadvantages of shade, shade Trees their characteristics, Temporary shade and Permanent shade. 23 COFFEE Irrigation, Manuring, Training and pruning Rajuvenation pruning, Inter cultural practices, Digging, Scuffling or soil stirring, Trenching, Mulching, Weeding, Liming, Flowering- season of flowering, Fruit set and control of premature fruit drop, Bean disorders. 24 COFFEE Cropping Pattern and harvest types of harvest, Processing Preparation of parchment coffee, Cherry coffee, Types of beans Elephant bean, Pea berry, Yield, storage. 25 TEA Introduction, Origin and Distribution, Area and Production, Role of tea industry in Indian economy, Export, Soil, Location and Climate, Varieties, Propagation- Vegetative propagation, Source of propagation materials. 26 TEA Method of planting and bush population, planting season, Mulching, weeding, Shade and its management, Types of Branching, Pruning First year pruning, Second year pruning, Third year pruning. 27 TEA Types of prunig 1. Collar pruning. 2. Medium pruning, 3. Fringe or lung pruning, 4. Skiffing, Rejuvenation pruning, Manuring, Liming, Application of zinc sulphate, Irrigation 28 TEA Leaf plucking, Yield of leaves, Manufacturing of tea Blended tea, Green Tea, Oolong tea, Grading, Packing. 29 RUBBER Introduction, Origin and distribution, Area and production, Demand potential, Climate and soil, Varieties & Types, Propagation- Seeds, Vegetative methods, Bud 41

52 wood nursery for stump planting, Basket plants, Planting season, spacing, manuring, Cover crops, Irrigation, Weeding. 30 Types of Planting material, Improved clones, Polyclonal seed garden, Planting Seed at stake planting, Stump planting, Basket plants, Planting- season, spacing, manuring, Cover crops, Irrigation, weeding. 31 RUBBER Types of rubber trees- Immature rubber trees, under tapping, Tapping tapping systems, puncture tapping, slaughter tapping, use of growth regulates for latex flow, rain guarding, latex collection, yield of latex. 32 RUBBER Processing of rubber latex Marketable forms Processing steps Smoked rubber, sheet rubber, storage marketing. PRACTICALS : 1. Description and identification of Coconut, Arecanut &oil palm varieties/ Hybrids 2. Description and identification of Cacao, Cashew nut varieties/ Hybrids. 3. Selection of mother palm, seed nuts and planting of seed nuts in the nursery of Coconut and Arecanut selection criteria for planting seedlings. 4. Layout and planting of Coconut, Arecanut and Oil palm. 5. Identification of branching pattern in Cashew Nut & Cacao. 6. Description and identification of branching pattern in Coffee. 7. Methods of Processing of Coffee beans 8. Methods of Processing of Tea. 9. Processing methods of Rubber. 10. Working out of economics and project preparation for Coconut, Arecanut plantations. 11. Working out of economics and project preparation for Oilpalm, Cashew nut plantations. 12. Working out of economics and project preparation for Tea and Coffee plantations. 13. Mother plant selection, preparation of cuttings and planting in Tea Visit to Commercial plantations and processing centers. 42

53 SPMA Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 3(2+1) THEORY: 1. Introduction History, importance, present status (export & import), future prospects and constraints in the cultivation of Medicinal crops 2. ALOE Importance and uses, origin and distribution, description of plant, species and varieties, soil, climate, land preparation, propagation crop duration, spacing & planting, manuring, irrigation, intercultivation, harvesting, yield and chemical composition. 3 ASWAGANDHA Importance and uses, origin and distribution, description of plant, varieties, soil, climate, propagation manures, fertilizers and inter cultivation 4 ASWAGANDHA Harvesting, crop duration, method of harvesting drying, grading and yield, chemical constituents. 5. BELLADONA Importance and uses, origin and distribution, description of plant, varieties, soil and climate, land preparation, propagation, spacing, fertilizer application, irrigation, intercultivation, harvesting, drying and yield. 6. CINCHONA Importance and uses, origin and distribution of species, varieties, soil, climate, land preparation, propagation, spacing, planting, manures and fertilizers, weeding, cover cropping, staking, harvesting method of harvesting and yield of bark. 7. COLEUS Importance and uses, origin and distribution, botany, varieties, soil and climate, propagation, spacing, planting, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, weeding, harvesting and yield of tubers. 8. DIOSCOREA Importance and uses, origin and distribution botany species, varieties, soil, climate requirements of various species, propagation 9. DIOSCOREA Field preparation, spacing, planting, staking, manures & fertilizers, irrigation, interculture & inter cropping, duration of the crop, harvesting, yield & marketing. 10. ISABGOL Importance and uses, origin distribution area, production, description of plant, varieties, soil, climate propagation, manures & fertilizers, irrigation, harvesting, yield, chemical composition. 43

54 11 KALMEGH Importance and uses, origin and distribution botany, soil, climate propagation, manures & fertilizers, irrigation, harvesting & yield, chemical composition. 12 LONG PEPPER Importance and uses, origin and distribution botany, wild species and varieties, soil, climate land preparation, propagation, spacing & planting, manures & fertilizers, irrigation, interculture, mulching, harvesting, drying & yield, grading. 13 POPPY Importance and uses, origin and distribution botany, varieties, soil, climate, propagation spacing, manures & fertilizers, irrigation, interculture and weeding flowering and fruit set, lancing and latex collection, processing, harvesting of seeds, yield of crude opium and seed, chemical composition. 14. PERIWINKLE Importance and uses, origin and distribution botany types and varieties, soil, climate propagation spacing, planting, manures & fertilizers, irrigation, weed control, interculture, mulching, harvesting & yield. 15 RAUVOLFIA Importance and uses, origin and distribution botany varieties, soil, climate propagation spacing, planting, manuring, irrigation, weeding, harvesting, root yield 16. SENNA Importance and uses, origin and distribution, botany varieties, soil, climate land preparation propagation, sowing, manures and fertilizers, crop rotation and intercropping, irrigation, weeding and interculture, harvesting, drying & storage, yield. 17. STEROID BEARING SOLANUM Importance and uses, distribution botany varieties, soil, climate land preparation, propagation nursery raising and transplanting, spacing, planting, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, weeding, harvesting and yield 18 SWEET FLAG Importance and uses, origin and distribution botany species and varieties, soil, climate planting season, land preparation propagation, spacing, planting, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, weeding, harvesting & yield. 19 PYRETHRUM Importance and uses, origin and distribution botany, types and varieties, soil, climate season, land preparation propagation, planting, and fertilizers, irrigation, harvesting, drying yield of flowers and pyrethrin content, extraction and storage. 44

55 20 GLORY LILY, GUGGAL, LIQUORICE, HONEY PLANT, BETELVINE, DATURA Common name, botanical name, family economic part and uses. 21 INTRODUCTION History, importance, present status (export & import), future prospects, opportunities and constraints in the cultivation of aromatic plants. 22 EXTRACTION METHODS Extraction methods for essential oil crops distillation methodology and advantages and disadvantages of water distillation, water & steam distillation, steam distillation. 23 COMMINUTION Distillation process, enfleurage or cold fat extraction, Maceration or Hot fat extraction, Solvent extraction, Expression, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SCFE), storage of essential oils, Technical terms used in the trade 24 AMBRETTE (MUSK) Importance and uses, origin, distribution, botany, soil, climate, land preparation, propagation, sowing, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, harvesting & yield 25 BURSERA (Indian Lavender Tree) Importance and uses, botany, varieties, soil, climate propagation, planting, pruning and training, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, inter cropping, harvesting, yield. 26 CITRONELLA & LEMONGRASS Importance and uses, origin, distribution, area and production, botany, varieties, soil, climate, land preparation, propagation, spacing, planting, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, interculture, harvesting & yield of herb and oil. 27 ROSEMARY Importance and uses, origin, distribution, botany, varieties, soil, climate, land preparation, propagation, transplanting, spacing, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, interculture, harvesting, yield. 28 GERANIUM Importance and uses, origin, distribution, botany, varieties, soil, climate, propagation, spacing, planting and after care, manures and fertilizers, harvesting & yield. 29 KHUS GRASS & PALMAROSA Importance and uses, origin, distribution, botany, types and varieties, soil, climate, land preparation, propagation, spacing, planting, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, interculture, harvesting & yield. 30 MINT Importance and uses, distribution, description of species of mint, varieties, chemical 45

56 composition and uses, seasons, soil, climate, land preparation, propagation, spacing, planting, manures and fertilizers, irrigation, interculture, harvesting & yield. 31 OCIMUM SPECIES Importance and uses, origin, distribution, botany, varieties, soil, climate, season, propagation, cultivation details, harvesting & yield. 32 LAVENDER, LEMON, SCENTED GUM & DAVANA PATCHOULI Common name, botanical name, family economic par and uses. PRACTICALS: 1 & 2 Collection of locally available medicinal plants, plant description and preparation of herbarium two classes. 3 & 4 Collection of locally available aromatic plants, plant description and preparation of herbarium two classes 5 & 6 Propagation and nursery techniques for important aromatic crops two classes 7 & 8 Propagation techniques for important medicinal plants. 9 Important cultural aspects and harvesting techniques for important medicinal plants. 10 Drying, curing and primary processing for important medicinal plants 11 Harvesting techniques for important aromatic crops 12 Extraction of aromatic oil through steam distillation process at filed level, parts of steam distillation unit, principle of distillation process. Hydro distillation of aromatic oil in the laboratory. 13 Visit to Ayurvedic pharmacy 14 Visit to commercial perfumery industry 15 Visit to CIMAP or any other research institute working on medicinal and aromatic plants 16 Visit to commercial farms. 46

57 DEPARTMENT OF POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGY PHTH -151 Fundamentals of Food Technology 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Food its importance for health.definition of food, Food technology, Food science)abbreviations, Institutes and head quarters. 2 Functions of foods. 3 Food grouping (Basic IV, V, VII) and classification of food based on nutritional contribution. 4 Balanced diets for different age groups. 5 Physico chemical properties of foods. 6 Food processing Techniques dry heat, moist heat, microwave heating. 7 Processing of cereals dextrinization, gelatinization, malting, parboiling effect on nutritive value. 8 Processing of legumes & pulses germination, fermentation etc. effect on nutritive value. 9 Processing of fruits & vegetables effect on nutritive value. 10 Processing of milk and milk products effect on nutritive value. 11 Processing of meat and meat products effect on nutritive value. 12 Processing of fish & poultry and egg effect on nutritive value. 13 Sugar processing, Browning reactions enzymatic & non-enzymatic 14 Processing of Oils and fats in food preparation smoking point, Rancidity changes. 15 Food additives 16 Sanitation and hygiene in food preparation. 47

58 PRACTICALS: 1 Weighment and measurement of food ingredients using standard cups and measures. 2 Microscopic examination of cereal starches. 3 Malting of cereals. 4 Effect of cooking on volume and weight of cereals.(gelatinization) 5 Cooking of legumes and pulses using different methods effect of volume and weight. 6 Germination of legumes. 7 Determination of edible portion of fruits and vegetables. 8 Browning reactions in fruits and vegetables. 9 Cooking of vegetables using various methods effect on volume and weight. 10 Cooking of meat and meat products using various methods effect on volume and weight. 11 Cooking of egg using different methods. 12 Preparation with milk curdling of milk, thickening etc. 13 Determination of different stages in sugar cookery. 14 Determination of smoking point of various oils effect on oil absorption in food preparation. 15&16 Microwave cooking effect on cooking time and quality. 48

59 PHTH Post harvest Management of Horticultural crops 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 & 2 Importance of post harvest technology of horticultural crops Importance of fruits and vegetables Nutritional aspects. National Economy, Area and production of fruits and vegetables in India and Andhra Pradesh, extent PHT losses, factors affecting for post harvest losses (A) primary causes (i) Mechanical injury (ii) Pathological action (iii) Environmental factors (B) Secondary causes: Storage and marketing facilities. Control of post harvest losses cultural operation, harvesting and filed handling, packing house, transportation, creation of cold storage and processing of fruits and vegetables, Research and Development needs. 3, 4 & 5 Maturity indices: Definition of maturity, methods to determine maturity visual means, physical methods, chemical methods, computation, physiological methods Maturity indices for fruits banana, grapes, sweet orange, mango, papaya, pineapple and guava. Maturity indices for vegetable tomato, Brinjal, peas, okra, baggage, cauliflower, cucumber, beans, onion, watermelon and musk lemon. 6, 7 & 8 Harvesting: Definition, methods of harvesting, manual harvesting, mechanical harvesting Advantage and disadvantages: Handling: (1) Removal of heat of the produce Pre-cooling, methods of pre-cooling hydro cooling, vacuum cooling, air cooling and contact icing. (2) Pre-packaging Definition, curing, degreening, disinfestations and waxing. (3) Packing house operations Cleaning, grading and packing Handling sequence of pack house operations. (4) Damage in the transport bruising compact and impact injuries. 9 & 10 Grading: Definition, benefits of grading type of grading colour grading and grading for size. Methods of grading hand grading, machine sizing Equipment for machine sizing sizing by weight, sizing by diameter. Grading of fruits: Mango, sweet orange, papaya, pineapple, grapes, banana, guava, grading of vegetables tomato, okra, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumber, onion, Brinjal, potato, grading of cut flowers rose, carnation, gerbera and gladiolus. 11 Harvesting handling and grading of cut flowers Anthurium, gerbera, lily, orchids, rose and tuberose. Medicinal plants Rouvolfia, Coleus, Aswaganda Aromatic plants lemon grass, vanilla, davanam, eucalyptus. 12 & 13 Pre-harvest factors Environmental factors, (a) light, (b) temperature (c) wind (d) rainfall. Cultural operations: Variety, topography of orchard, soil conditions, root stock, water, natural management, training and punning and harvesting types. 49

60 14, 15 & 16 Factors responsible for deterioration of Horticulture produce 1. Respiration 2. Transpiration 3. Ethylene 4. Mechanical damage 5. Pest and diseases pests: Fruit flies (Dacus species), control measures Orchard sanitation and adult trapping. Diseases (Pathogen) Collectotrichum sp. Botrytis, Xanthomonas, Phytophthora, Aspergullus, Rhizophus and its control measures. Post harvest control measure cold sterilization, lonising radiation Di-electric heating, hot-water treatment, vapour heat treatment, Physiological disorder internal browning, black heart chilling and freezing injury 17 & 18 Physiological and Biochemical changes: Physiological Softening, Physiological loss in weight (PLW), texture, respiration and transpiration, Bio-chemical changes Change in carbohydrates, organic acids, pigments, phenolic compounds, flavouring compounds, enzyme activity. 19 Hastening ripening Ethylene and ethylene releasing compounds, smoke, alcohols, Fatty acid. Delaying ripening 2, 4D, 2,4,5T and 2,4,5 TP. 20 Post harvesting treatments Washing, use of growth regulators, hot water dip, fungicidal treatment, in-package treatment, waxing and irradiation. 21 Quality parameters and Specifications: Mango, banana, citrus, grapes, tomato, cucumber, beans and okra 22 Structure of fruits and vegetables. Protective tissue, Ground system, Vascular system and textural characteristics. 23 & 24 Methods of storage for local market and export (A) Traditional storage: (Local market) On site storage (in-situ); clamp storage; cellars / underground storage, Evaporative cool storage, hypobaric storage. (B) improved storage methods (Export): Refrigerator storage; Modified atmospheric packaging, silicon membrance technology, Controlled atmospheric (CA) storage. 25 Type of packaging: Groups of packaging materials (A) Shipping containers (i) Wooden containers (ii) Bag / Textile (ii) metal (iv) paper (B) Retail containers Packing methods: Individual fruit packing, Bulk packing, MAP, Packing with divisions, Consumer size packing 26 & 27 New innovation in packing materials A. Active packaging: major active packaging systems 1. Oxygen scavenging systems, 2. Moisture absorbing and controlling system, 3. CO2 generating system, 4. Ethanol generators, 5. Ethylene absorbents, 6. Edible coatings, 7. Bio packaging 50

61 28 & 29 Types of containers and Cushioning materials Typing containers A) Paper board and fibre board: Advantages and Disadvatages (B) Plastics: Advantages and Disadvantages (i) Poly styrene (ii) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) (iii) Polyvinyledene chloride (PVDC) (iv) Polyethylene (v) Polypropylene (C) Rigid plastic containers: Cushioning material: Paper waste, paddy straw, banana leaf etc. 30 Vacuum packaging and shrink films: Definition and uses. 31 Grape guard packing treatments: Types of grape guards (i) Slow release type (ii) Quick release type 32 Mode of transport: By road (i) Truck or Railway wagon, (ii) Sea or waterway by ship or barges and (iii) by air craft. PRACTICALS: 1 Practice in judging the maturity of various horticultural produce 2 Determination of physiological loss in weight and quality 3 Grading of horticultural produce 4&5 Post-harvest treatment of horticultural crops, physical and chemical methods. 6 Packing studies in fruits, vegetables by using different packing material 7 Packing studies in plantation crops and cut flowers by using different packing material 8 Methods of storage 9&10 Post harvest disorders in horticultural crops 11 Identification of storage pests and diseases Visit to markets, packing houses and cold storages 51

62 PHTH Processing of Horticultural Crops 3(1+2) THEORY: 1. Importance and scope of fruit and vegetable preservation industry in India. Losses in Post Harvest operations 2 & 3 Principles and method of preservation: Preservation by Asepsis, High Temperature, low temperature, chemicals Drying, filtration, carbonation, sugar salt, fermentation, acids, oil and spices, antibiotics, irradiation 4 & 5 Canning and Bottling of fruits and vegetables Principles and process of canning and bottling General considerations in Establishing a commercial fruit and vegetable cannery 6 Causes for spoilage of canned foods a) Spoilage due to physical and chemical changes b) Microbial spoilage c) Discolouration of fruit and canned products 7 & 8 Unfermented fruit beverages: Preparation and preservation of unfermented fruit beverages juices, RTS, Nectar, cordial, squash, syrup, fruit juice concentrate, crush Fermented fruit beverage: Different types of Wines 9 Jams, jellies and Marmalades Procedure for preparation Jams: Problems of Jam production Jelly: Important considerations in jelly making and problems of jelly preparations. Marmalade: Jelly Marmalade and jam Marmalade 10 Preservation by sugar: Candies, Crystallised fruits, Preserves procedure for preparation Important considerations and problems in preparations 11 Preservation by salt: Pickles Procedure for preparation Preservation by vinegar: Problems of pickle making 12 Chutneys and Sauces/ketchups Procedure for preparation Problems in the preparation of sauces and ketchups 13 Tomato processing: 14 Mushroom processing Different sps of mushrooms including poisonous sps 52

63 15 Preservation by Freezing Methods of Freezing Changes during Freezing and Storage of Frozen food 16. Food laws: Fruit Product order Statutory provisions of quality control of India Food Standardization and Regulatory agencies in India PRACTICALS: 1 & 2 Identification of equipment used in processing industry 3 Estimation of TSS 4 Estimation of reducing and Non reducing sugars 5 Estimation of Ascorbic acid 6 Estimation of Titrable acidity 7 & 8 Canning of Fruits and vegetables 9 Preparation of syrups and brines 10 Preparation of Jams Preparation of Jellies and marmalades Preparation of RTS, Cordials, Squash and syrup Preparation of Candies and preserves Preparation of Chutneys Preparation of Pickles (Hot and sweet) Preparation of Sauces Preparation of Pickles Dehydration of Fruits and vegetables Refrigeration and Freezing Visit to Processing units 53

64 DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY ENTO Fundamentals of Entomology 3(2+1) THEORY: 1. Important characters of Phylum Arthropoda, relationship of Class Insecta with other Arthropods (Class: Onychophora, Crustacea, Arachnida, Chilopoda and Diplopoda) 2. Economic importance of Class Insecta. 3. Dominance of insects in Animal Kingdom. 4. Definition, divisions, history and scope of entomology. 5. Cuticle: Its structure and function, process of moulting. 6. Body segmentation, head, thorax, abdomen and abdominal structure in insects. 7. Types of insect antenna and legs. 8. Wings: Venation, cross veins, margin and angles, areas of wing. 9. Types of insect wings, types of wing coupling mechanism. 10. Metamorphosis, types of metamorphosis in insects (Ametabola, Hemimetabola, Paurometabola, Holometabloa, Hypermetabola), types of larvae and pupae 11. Types of insect head, sutures and scelerites of head, tentorium 12. Types of insect mouth parts: Biting and chewing type, Piercing and sucking (bug type and mosquito type), Rasping and sucking type, Sponging type and Siphoning type. 13. Digestive system in insects: structure foregut, midgut and hind gut, peritrophic membrance, filter chamber. Digestive enzyme and process of digestion. 14. Excretory system in insects: Organs involved (Malphigian tubules, integument, tracheal system etc.,) accessory organs of excretion (nephrocytes, fat bodies, labial glands etc.) process of excretion and osmoregulation, functions of Malphigian tubules, cryptonephry. 15. Circulatory system: Blood, Circulatory organs involved in circulation of blood- Dorsal vessel dorsal and ventral diaphragms, accessory pulsatory organs. 16. Process of circulation in insects. 17. Female reproductive system-structure, physiology of sperm production, different types of reproduction in insects. 54

65 18. Male reproductive system structure, physiology of sperm production, different types of reproduction in insects. 19. Nervous system: Different types of neurons, nerve impulse conduction. 20. Structure of insect nervous system: Central nervous system, Visceral nervous system and Peripheral nervous system. 21. Respiratory system: Organs of respiration-spiracles, tracheae and tracheoles, air sacs, mechanism of respiration. 22. Classification of respiratory system on the basis of functional spiracles. Respiration in aquatic insects. 23. Postembryonic development, eclosion in insects. 24. Classification of insects up to orders and families of economic importance. 25. Study of order and family characters of Orthoptera (Acrididae), Dictyoptera (Blattidae, Mantidae) 26. Isoptera (Termitidae), Thysanoptera (Thripidae), Hemiptera (Pentatomide, Tingidae, Miridae) Homoptera (Cicadellidae, Aphididae, Coccidae, Aleurodidae, Pseudococcidae). 27. Lepidoptera (Noctuidae, Sphingdae, Pyralidae, Hesperidae, Papilionidae, Arctidae, Gelechiidae, Lymantriidae, Cochlididae). 28. Coleoptera (Coccinellidae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Scarabaeidae, Apoinidae) 29. Hymenoptera (Tenthridinidae, Trichogrammatidae, Formicidae, Apidae, Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Chalcididae) 30. Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, Trypetidae Tachinidae, Agromyzidae) 31. Binomial nomenclature: importance, history, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Law of Priority 32. Plant mites: Morphological features, important families with examples. 55

66 PRACTICALS: 1. Methods of collection and preservation of insects including immature stages. 2. External features of grasshopper / Blister beetle. 3. Types of insect antennae and legs 4. Types of mouth parts. 5. Types of wings and wing coupling apparatus. 6. Types of larvae and pupae 7. Dissection of digestive system in insects (Grasshopper) 8. Dissection of male and female reproductive systems in insects (Grasshopper) 9. Study of characteristics or orders Orthoptera and Dictyoptera and their families. 10. Study of characteristics or orders Isoptera and Thysanoptera and their families. 11. Study of characteristics or order Hemiptera and its families. 12. Study of characteristics or order Lepidoptera and its families. 13. Study of characteristics or order Lepidoptera and its families. 14. Study of characteristics or order Coleoptera and its families. 15. Study of characteristics or order Hymenoptera and its families. 16. Study of characteristics or order Diptera and its families. 56

67 ENTO Nematode Pests of Horticultural Crops 1(0+1) and Their Management PRACTICALS: 1 History and importance of phytonematology 2 & 3 Study of general characters of plant parasitic nematodes 4 & 5 Classification of nematodes and their description 6 Methods of sampling and extraction of nematodes from soil 7 Extraction of nematodes from plant parts. Killing and fixing of nematodes 8 Preparation of temporary and permanent mounts 9 Symptoms of damage by nematodes in vegetable crops 10 Symptoms of damage by nematodes in fruit crops 11 Symptoms of damage by nematodes in flowers and ornamental crops 12 Symptoms of damage by nematodes in spices, plantation crops 13 Field visit to collect nematode damaged plant parts. Staining of nematodes in roots. 14 Recording of data and other nematode damaged plant parts. Staining of nematodes in roots. 15 Management of plant parasitic nematodes. 16 Role of nematodes in disease complex 57

68 ENTO Integrated Pest Management and Insects pests 3(2+1) of Fruits, Plantation, Medicinal and Aromatic crops THEORY: 1 IPM Introduction, definition, causes of pest outbreak 2 Categories of pests, pest surveillance, pest forecasting 3 Concepts of IPM, components of IPM, phases of IMP 4 Agro ecosystem characters. Definition: Resistance, resurgence, secondary pest out break, biotypes. 5 Cultural control 6 Physical control 7 Mechanical control 8 Host plant resistance (antixenosis, antibiosis, tolerance) 9 Legislative control (plant quarantine) 10 Chemical control Classification of insecticides 11 Insecticidal formulations 12 Application techniques for insecticides 13& 14 Biological control Parasitoids, predators, athogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses and entomopathogenic nematods) 15& 16 Other methods antifeedants, attractants, repellents, sex pheromones, genetic control, chemosterilants, insects growth regulators ( chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone, anti juvenile hormone, precocenes) 17 TROPICAL FRUITS Mango : Hoppers, red banded caterpillar, nut weevil, stem borer, leaf webber, mealy bug, oriental fruit fly, leaf gall midges, thrips 18 Guava: Tea mosquito bug, fruit fly, fruit borer, mealy scale, bark eating caterpillar. Sapota : Leaf webber, bud borer, fruit fly. 19 Cashew: Cashew shoot and root borer, shoot and blossom webber, tea mosquito bug, thrips, leaf miner, fruit borer 20 Ber : Ber fruit fly, fruit borer Banana : Rhizome weevil, pseudostem borer, aphid Papaya : Mealy bug, spiraling white fly 21 Pomegranate : Pomegranate butterfly, fruit sucking moths Wood apple : Castor shoot and fruit borer 58

69 Custard apple : Mealy bug Tamarind : Fruit borer 22 SUBTROPICAL FRUITS Grapavine : Flea beetle, thrips, stem girdler, mealy bug, stem bore, 2 spotted spider mite 23 Citrus : Citrus butterfly, Fruit sucking moths, citrus leaf miner, psylla, white fly, black fly, mangu mite. 24 Litchi : Fruit borer, leaf miner, rust mite 25 TEMPERATE FRUITS Apple : Sanjose scale, woolly aphid, cottony cushion scale, codling moth, tent caterpillar, gypsy moth, European red mite. 26 Peach : Leaf curl aphid, borer Plum : Weevil, Apricot : Chalcid 27 PLANTATION CROPS Coconut & Oil palm : Black headed caterpillar, rhinocerous beetle, red palm weevil, Eriophid mite, coconut scale 28 Tea : Tea mosquito bug, thrips, mite complex (red spider mite, yellow mite, pink mite, purple mite, scarlet mite) Coffee : Green scales, white borer, red borer, shot hole borer, berry borer 29 Arecanut : Scales, mites, thrips, nymphalid butterfly Cocoa : Tea mosquito bug, chaffer beetles Rubber : Bark caterpillar, scales 30 MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS Cinchona : Root grub, bugs Neem : Root grub, slug caterpillar, mired bug, mealy bug, tea mosquito bug Crotalaria : Sun hemp hairy caterpillar Cinnamon : Leaf eating caterpillar, Jumping bug Camphor : Leaf roller, mealy bug, scales 31 Mint : Leaf roller, hairy caterpillars, termites, pyralid moth Datura : Spotted borer, thrips Opium : Cutworm, capsule borer, weevil Bellodona : Cut worm, potato beetle, flea beetle Dioscorea : Aphids, red spider mites 32 Insecticide residues problem n fruit, plantation, medicinal and aromatic plants and their tolerance limits. 59

70 PRACTICALS 1 Sampling techniques for estimation of insect damage 2 Survey, surveillance and fore casting of pest incidence 3 Calculations of insecticide doses/concentrations of different formulations 4 Mass multiplication of parasites, predators and insect pathogens 5 Typical symptoms of damage caused by various phytophagous insects. 6 Identification of insects and damage symptoms of pests of Mango 7 Identification of insects and damage symptoms of pests of citrus 8 Identification of insects and damage symptoms of pests of gape vine, pomegranate, custard apple. 9 Identification of insects and damage symptoms of pests of sapota, ber banana and papaya 10 Identification of insects and damage symptoms of pests of coconut, areca nut and oil palm 11 Identification of insects and damage symptoms of pests of coconut, areca nut and oil palm 12 Identification of insects and damage symptoms of pests of cashew, cocoa, tea and coffee 13 Identification of insects and damage symptoms of pests of aromatic crops 14 Identification of insects pests attacking stored fruits, Plantation, medicinal and aromatic crops and their processed products. 15 Study of bird pests of horticultural crops and their management 16 Study of rodent pests of horticultural crops and their management 60

71 ENTO Insect Pests of Vegetable, 3(2+1) Ornamental and Spice Crops THEORY: 1 Economic importance of insects in vegetable, ornamental and spice crops their pest surveillance, ecology and management. 2 Distribution, host range, bio-econoly, nature and symptoms of damage and integrated management of important insect pests affecting VEGETABLES Brinjal: Shoot and fruit borer, stem borer, Epliachna beetle, leaf hoppers, aphids, lace wing bug, mealy bugs, leaf webber 3 Bhendi: Spotted boll worms, Cotton jassid, While fly, Red cotton bug, dusky cotton bug 4 Tomato: Fruit borer, Serpentine leaf miner, While fly, Brinjal stem borer 5 Cucurbits: Fruit files, Pumpin beetles, Aphids, Sake guard semilooper, pumpkin leaf caterpillar, Coccinia gall fly, Serpentine leaf miner 6,7 Crucifers: Diamond back moth, Cabbage head borer, Cabbage leaf webber, Cabbage semilooper, Painted bug, Aphids, Cabbage butterfly, Tobacco caterpillar 8 Carrot and turnip: Pea leaf miner, Flea beetle, Carrot rust fly Sugarbeet & Beetroot: Beet leaf miner, Web worm 9 Potato: Potato tuber moth, black cut worm, bihar hairy caterpillar, Epilachna beetle, Golden cyst nematode 10 Sweet Potato: Sweet potato weevil, Vine borer, Sweet potato hopper, Tortoise beetle Colacasia: Flea beetle, Grass hopper 11 Yams: Yam beetles, Saw fly, Leaf eating caterpillars, Scale insects Curry leaf: Psylid bug, Citrus butterfly, bark borer 12 Moringa: Hairy caterpillar, Bud worm, Bud midge, Leaf caterpillar, Scale, Pod fly, Bark caterpillar 13 Leafy vegetables: Amaranthus: Amaranthus caterpillar, Leaf webber, Stem weevil, Palak & Spinach: Leaf eating caterpillar, Aphids. 14 Peas: Pea leaf miner, Pea stem fly, Pea pod borer Beans: Gram pod borer, Flower webber, Bean aphid, Leaf hopper, White fly, Blister beetle 61

72 15 ORNAMENTALS Rose: Rose aphid, Thrips, Scales, Leaf cutter bee, Tomato fruit borer 16 Chrysanthemum: Black aphid, Composite thrips, Leaf folder, Tomato fruit borer, Leaf miner 17 Jasmine: Bud worm, Gallery worm, Blossom midge, Eriophyid mite, Jasmine thrips, Stink bug. 18 Marigold: Tomato fruit borer, Leaf hopper, Hairy caterpillar, Tarnished plant bug Red spider mite. 19, 20 Pests of cutflowers: Lily leaf caterpillar, Gladiolus thrips, Carnation totrix moth, Tuberose bulb mite, Gerbera mite, Bird of paradise scale, Dahlia aphid, Orchid weevil, Orchid bulb mite and orchid fly, Tulip bulb aphid, Green peach aphid in anthurium. 21 Pests of indoor plants: Aphids, Mealy bugs, White fly, Scale, Red spider mite 22 SPICES Pepper: Pollu beetle, top shoot borer, berry gall midge, hard scales, soft scale, two tailed mealy bug, white fly, wild silkmoth 23, 24 Cardamom: Cardamom aphid, Cardamom thrips, Castor capsule borer, Early capsule borers, Rhizome weevil, shoot fly, Cardamom hairy caterpillars 25 Chillies: Chilli thrips, Fruit borers, Green peach aphid, Fruit bug, cotton white fly, Lucerne caterpillar, Termite. 26 Coriander and cumin: Mealy plum aphid, Coriander sphid, Cotton white fly, Tobacco caterpillar 27 Mint: Leaf roler, Lace wing bug, potato cut worm, Lucerne caterpillar, Semilooper Fenugreek: Lucerne caterpillar 28 Onion, Garlic: Onion fly, ear wig, onion thrips, tomato fruit borer, tobacoo caterpillar, cutworms 29 Turmeric and Ginger: Rhizome maggots, Rhizome scales, Castor capsule borer, shoot borer 30 Important storage insect pests of vegetable and ornamental crops 31 Important storage insect pests of spice crops, processed vegetables and their management. 32 Insecticidal residue problems in vegetables and ornamental crops, tolerance limits. 62

73 PRACTICALS: 1 Identification of insect pests of Brinjal and their damage symptoms. 2 Identification of insect pests of bhendi and tomato and their damage symptoms. 3 Identification of insect pests of cucurbits and their damage symptoms 4 Identification of insect pests of crucifers and their damage symptoms 5 Identification of insect pests of potato, sweet potato, sugarbeet and beetroot and their damage symptoms 6 Identification of insect pests of moringa, spinach and amaranthus and their damage symptoms 7 Identification of insect pests of rose and chrysanthemum and their damage symptoms 8 Identification of insect pests of peas an beans and their damage symptoms 9 Identification of insect pests of jasmine and their damage symptoms 10 Identification of insect pests of crossandra and marigold and their damage symptoms 11 Identification of insect pests of cutflowers and their damage symptoms 12 Identification of insect pests of pepper and cardamom and their damage symptoms 13 Identification of insect pests of chillies and their damage symptoms 14 Identification of insect pests of fenugreek and coriander and their damage symptoms 15 Identification of insect pests of onion and garlic and their damage symptoms 16 Identification of insect pests of attacking vegetable, ornamental and spice crops and processed vegetables and their management. 63

74 ENTO Apiculture, Sericulture and Lac culture 2(1+1) THEORY: 1. Importance and history of bee keeping, apiculture and apiary, different species of honey bees rock bee, little bee, Indian bee, European bee / Italian been and Dammar bee 2. Different castes of honey bees, biology, their duties, morphological differences, caste determination, communication in bees 3. Bee colony maintenance bee colony activities starting of new colony location site, transferring a colony, replacement of queen, combining colonies, swarming, swarm prevention, colony management in different seasons, been pasturage. 4. Types of bee hives, their description. Equipment and accessories for apiary comb foundation sheet, dummy division board, queen excluder, drone trap, swarm trap, been brush, smoker, decapping knife, honey extractor 5. Bee products: Honey extraction, honey composition and value, test of pure honey, been wax and its uses. 6. Diseases of bees: Protozoa Nosema, Malpighamoeba. Bacterial American foul brood, European foul brood. Fungal Chalk brood, Stone brood, Viral Sac brood. Natural enemies: Greater wax moth, lesser wax moth, ants, wasp, wax beetles, mites, crow, bee eater etc. Their prevention and control. 7. SERICULTURE Importance, history and development in India, silk worms kinds and their hosts distribution, life cycles in brief, silk glands. 8. MORICULTURE Mulberry varieties, package of practices, pests and diseases and their management 9. Mulberry silkworm morphological features, rearing house and equipments rearing stands, ant wells, rearing trays, paraffin paper, chop sticks, feathers, leaf chamber, chopping board, knives and mats, cleaning nets, mountages (chandrikes) disinfection and hygiene. 10. Silk worm rearing young age / chawki rearing and old age rearing of silk worms procurement of quality seeds, quality of food, shape and size of leaves, preparation of feed bed, bed cleaning, spacing, mounting, care during cocoon spinning, harvesting of cocoons. 11. Silk worm egg/ seed production (Grainage technology) mother moth examination, diapause of eggs, artificial breaking of diapause- acid treatment, chilling, packing and transportation of eggs, incubation and black boxing of eggs. Commercial, physical characters of cocoons colour, shape, hardiness, shell ratio, length of filament, denier, floss and raw silk per cent, reelability fo cocoons. 64

75 12. Post Harvest processing of cocoons- stifling, cocoon boiling, brushing, reeling, rereeling, finishing, testing. 13. Diseases of silkworm: Protozoa: Pebrine, Fungal: White muscardine, green muscardine, Viral: Grasserie, Bacteria: Flacherie. Natural enemies: Uzi fly, Beetles. 14. LAC CULTURE: Introduction, history and importance of lac, lac growing areas in India, Lac insect, biology, behaviour, its strains (Kusumi & Rangeeni), Aghani, Tethwi, Katki and Baisakhi crops production. 15. Lac cultivation, food plants, propagation of lac insects, harvesting of lac, pruning of host trees, enemies / predators of lac insects 16. Lac extraction production of shellac. Other by products: Molemma, Kiri, Passewas PRACTICALS: 1. Study of important species of honey bees. 2. Seasonal management and colony maintenance of bees 3. Study of different bee hives and apiculture equipments. 4. Handling of bee hives and honey extraction 5. Study of pests and diseases of honey bees. 6. Establishment of mulberry garden, planting methods under irrigated and rain fed conditions 7. Maintenance of mulberry garden pruning, fertilization, irrigation and leaf harvest 8. Mulberry pests and diseases and their management and nutritional disorder. 9. Study of different kinds of silk worms 10. Sericulture equipments for silk worm rearing 11. Mulberry silkworm rearing room requirements 12. Rearing of silkworms chawki rearing 13. Rearing of silkworms late age silkworm rearing and study of mountages 14. Study of silk worm pests and diseases and their management. 15. Study of lac insects 16. Lac extraction production of shellac. 65

76 DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY PATH Fundamentals of Plant Pathology 3(2+1) THEORY: 1, 2, 3 Introduction to Plant Pathology Definition and objectives of Plant Pathology Different kinds of Plant Pathology viz., fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, fastidious vascular bacteria (RLOs), Phytoplasmas (MOLs), Spiroplasmas, algae, protozoa, nematodes-economic importance of plant diseases in terms of losses caused and socio-economic charges specifying plant disease epiphytofies (late bright of potato, brown spot of rice, coffee rust, southern corn blight, sigatoka, disease of banana). History of plant pathology contributions of Micheli, Tillet, Prevost, Persoon, Fries, Anton de Bary and his students (Woronin, Befeld, Millarded, Marshal ward) Buffer, Mundkur, Tirumalachar, Subramanian. 4, 5, 6 Terms and concepts used in Plant Pathology disease disorder, pathogen, parasite, pathogenisity, casual organism, pathogenesis, sing, symptom, syndrome, biotroph, hemibiotroph / neerotroph, inoculum, inoculum potential, infection, incubation period, pre-disposition, hypersensitivity, disease triangle and disease pyramid. Classification of plant diseases based on cause (parasitic and non parasitic diseases), occurrence (endemic, epidemic, sporadic and pandemic) and symptoms (necrotic, hyperplastic and hypoplastic diseases) 7, 8, 9 Parasitic causes of plant diseases Fungi classification upto sub division (according to Ansiworth, 1973). Kingdom Mycota Division 1. Myxomycetes Class 1. Plasmodio-phoromyectes, Division 2. Eumycetes sub-division 1. Mastigo Myeotins, 2. Zygomycotena, 3. Ascomycotena, 4. Basidiomycotina, 5. Deuteromycotina Distinguish (general) characters of each sub-division with important examples of plant pathogenic fungi. 10,11, 12 History of plant bacteriology contributions of Burril, Smith and Patel. Classification of phytopathogenic bacteria (BMSB, 1984), important characteristic of individual genera pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Clavibacter, Streptomyces and their diseases General characteristics of plant pathogenic bacteria History of plant virology contributions of Adolf Mayer, Iwanowski, Beijerink, Stanley and Bawden & Pirie. General characters of plant viruses classification of plant viruses with examples of diseases (mosaic, mettle, streaks or stripes, yellows, chlorosis, chlorotic rings, vein banding, reddening, local lesion, etch, Bronzing, shoe-string leaves, leaf curling and enations) transmission of viruses-artificial and natural contributions of diener study of viroids important characters and diseases caused by them. 13, 14, 15 History of phytoplasmas contributions of Doi et al and Ishiie et al. Classification and general characters of phytoplasmas, common disease (as per yellow, sesamum phyllody, potato wilt s, bromm, little leaf of bringal, etc) and 66

77 transmission contributions of Rickets Fastidious vascular bacteria (RLOs) important characters of fastidious vascular bacteria examples of disease caused by phloem limited and xylem limited bacteria. Tropanosomatid flagellates (flagellate protozoa). Classification important characters. Phytomonas sp. and disease caused by them. Algae classification, important characters. Cephalecuors sp and diseases caused by them. Flowering parasites, classification and important characters partial and complete parasites on stem and root. 16, 17 Environmental factors that causes plant diseases (non-plastic causes) light, low temp, drought, mineral deficiency (Fe,Mg,Ca,Zn), perbidude / Pesticide injury with examples of diseases. 18, 19 Survival of plant pathogens Kinds of inoculum produced by different plant pathogens with examples. Pattern of survival a) infected host (main host, alternate host, collateral host) b) saprophytic survival outside the host (soil and rock in habitants, rhizosphere colonizers) c) dormant spores structures (seed borne, soil borne, borne on infected plant parts Dispersal of plant pathogens. d) Autonomous dispersal (soil, seed, plant parts and plant organs) e) Passive dispersal viz., water, members of animal kingdom (man, insets, nematodes, animals and birds), fungi and phanerogams. 20,21,22Phenomenon of infection process of infection pre-penetration and post penetration pre-penetration in fungi (spore germination, perm fube, formation of specialized structures like appressorium, houstoria, rhizomorphs), bacteria and viruses-indirect penetration through wounds or natural openings like stomata, hydathodes and lenticels. Diect penetration through plant surface (epidermis or cuticle) by chemical or mechanical. Post penetration colorization of the host. 23,24 Plant disease epidemiology meaning and importance difference between compound and simple interest diseases. Factors affecting plant disease epidemics fore casting-advantages, methods of forecasting- Measurement of plant disease with examples of systemic disease (loose smut of the wheat and stripe disease of barley Principles and methods of plant disease management, general principles of plant disease management (1) Avoidance of the pathogen (selection of pathogen free material and seed, selection of field, choice of time of sowing, disease escaping varieties) (2) Eradication-inspection and certification (plant quarantine with examples) 67

78 (3) Cultural practices (d) Biological control (important fungal and bacterial Biocontrol agents( (e) physical methods (soil solarization and hot water treatment) (4) Protection-classification of fungicides Based on chemical nature (commonly used fungicides, bactericides and nematicides), mode of action and general use (5) Host plant resistance (immunization)-definition importance and advantages of resistant varieties. 31, 32 Integrated plant disease management concept importance and advantages and some examples. PRACTICALS: 1. Familiarity with general plant pathological laboratory and equipments 2. Preparation of culture media for fungi (PDA) and bacteria (NA) 3. Isolation of fungal and bacterial plant pathogens. 4. Study of Oomycetes fungi 5. Study of Zygomycotina fungi 6. Study of Ascomycotina fungi 7. Study of Basidiomycotina fungi 8. Study of Deuteromycotina fungi 9. Study of Deuteromycotina fungi 10. Study of diseases symptoms and signs of important horticultural crops, phaenerogamic parasites, non parasitic diseases. 11. Preparation of fungicides Bordeaux mixture, Chaubattia paste, Cheshunt compound and calculations. 12. Study of non-systemic and systemic group of fungicides and calculations related to fungicide concentrations (Copper, Sulphur, Heteroclic nitrogenous compounds, other systemic fungicides etc.,) 13. Demonstration of virus transmission 14&15 Methods of application of fungicides, demonstration of seed treatment, soil application, foliar spray and post-harvest treatment of fruits. 16. Semester final practical examination 68

79 PATH Mushroom Culture 1(0+1) PRACTICALS: 1. General introduction scope of mushroom production in India. Different types of mushrooms nutritive value. Button mushrooms (Agaricus sp.) Oyster mushroom (Pleuostus sp.) paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella sp.) milky mushrooms (Calocyb indica) Black mushroom (Auricularia sp.), shitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) medical mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) their identification and uses. Identification of poisonous and edible mushrooms. 2 & 3 Equipment and Sterilization techniques for preparation of culture media (PDA, oat meal agar etc.) 4 & 5 Isolation of mother culture Mother spawn preparation, inoculation nd multiplication of spawn 6 Cultivation of Oyster mushroom, Spawn running Cropping Harvesting and Packaging. 7 Cultivation of Volvariella sp. Milky mushroom Cropping and Harvesting. 8 Production of spawn Cultivation methods of White button mushroom preparation and compost and casing soil, bed preparation and harvesting 9&10 Major diseases, Pests, Nematodes of mushrooms Symptoms, etiology and their management. 11 Mushroom Preservation, Drying, Canning, Recipes and value added products post harvest technology. 12 Survey, collection and identification of mushrooms in the natural ecosystem. 13 Economics of mushroom cultivation 14 Visit to Commercial Production Units of mushroom production 15 Visit to Small Scale Units of mushroom production 16 Examination. 69

80 PATH Diseases of fruit, plantation, 3(2+1) medicinal and aromatic crops THEORY: 1,2&3 Mango 1. Powdery mildew, 2. Ananthracnose, 3.Stem end rot, 4. Sooty mould, 5. Malformation, 6. Red rust, 7. Gummosis, stem bleeding and bark cracking 4, 5&6 Citrus 1. Gummosis, 2. Diplodia gummosis, 3. Twig blight, 4. Gelt, 5.Pink, 6.Ganoderma root rot, 7.dry root rot, 8.Scab, 9.Powdery mildew, 10. Sooty mould, 11. Canker, 12.Tristeza,13.Greening, 14.Exoxortis, 15.Psorosis, 16.Mosaic,17.Post harvest disease (Penicillium fruit rots, sour rot, brown rot) 7&8 Grapevine 1.Anthracnose, 2.Downy mildew, 3.Powdery mildew, 4.Alternaria leaf spot, 5.Rust, 6.Deadarm, 7.Bacterial leaf spot, 8.Post harvest diseases, (Grey mould rot, black rot) 9 & 10 Banana 1.Panama wilt, 2. Sigatoka leaf spot, 3.Anthracnose, 4.Cigar end rot, 5.Freckle leaf spot, 6.Moko disease, 7.Bacterial soft rot/head rot/tip rot, 8.Bunchy top, 9. Mosaic, 10.Infectious Chlorosis, 11.Banna Streak, 12.Bract mosaic, 13.Post harvest diseases, (Botryodiplodia fruit rot) 11 Guava 1. Canker, 2. Wit, 3.Anthracnose, 4.Red rust/, 5.Post harvest diseases (Phytophthora, Botryodiplodia and, Phoma fruit rots) 12 Sapota 1.Phavopleospora leaf spot, 2.Pestalolia leaf spot, 3.Flat limb, 4. Fruit rot (different fungi), 5.Post harvest diseases( Phytophthora, Botryodiplodia and, Phoma fruit rots) 13 & 14 Papaya 1.Damping off/ foot rot, 2.Anthracnose, 3.Powdery mildew, 4.Alternaria leaf spot, 5.Phytophthora root rot, 6. Ring spot, 7.Mosaic, 8.Leaf curl, 9.Post harvest diseases. (Rhizpopus fruit rot & Fusarium fruit rot) 15 Pomegranate 1.Cercospora leaf spot, 2.Anthracnose, 3.phomopsis fruit rot, 4.Bacterial leaf spot, 5.Post harvest diseases ( Aspergillus and Fusarium and Cladosporium fruit rots) 16 Ber 1.Powdery mildew, 2.Sooty mould, 3.Alternaria leaf spot `Fig 1.Rust, 2.Anthracnose,3.Cylindrocladium Leaf spot, 4.Mosaic 17 & 18 Phalsa 1.Rust, 2.Powdery mildew, 3.Cerospora leaf spot Apple 1.Scab,2.Powdery mildew,3.fire blight, 4.Crown gall, 5.Mosaic, 6.Post harvest diseases( soft rot, Bitter rot, Pink mould rot) 70

81 19,20 & 21 Custard apple 1.anthracnose, 2.Glomerella fruit rots, Anola 1.Rust, 2.Anthracnose Peach 1. Leaf Curl, 2.Rust, 3.Scab, 4.List of minor diseases Almond, Pear List of important diseases Plum Jack fruit 1.Die back 2.Rhizopus Fruit rot Pine apple 1.Heart rot & root rot, 2. Base rot, 3. Wilt, 4.List of minor diseases 22 Coconut 1.Bud rot 2. Ganoderma root rot 3. Stem bleeding 4.Grey blight 5.Tatipaka 23 Oil palm 1. Nursery Leaf Spots 2. Spear rot 3. Bunch rot 4. Bud rot 5. Basal stem rot Areca nut 1. Fruit rot/mahali/ Koleroga 2. Foot rot/ Ganoderma root rot 24 Coffee 1.Rust, 2. Black rot, Tea 1. Blister blight 25. Cashew 1.Anthracnose, 2.Pink disease Cocoa 1. Phytophthora blight, 2. Charcoal pod rot, 3. Swollen shoot, 4. Black pod rot Rubber: 1.Root rot, 2. Powdery mildew 26 Betelvine 1. Phytophthora root rot, 2. Sclerotium foot rot, 3.Leaf spot, 4.Powdery mildew, 5. Bacterial leaf spot, 6.Mosaic Pepper 1. Phytophthora foot rot, 2. Anthracnose/pollu 27 Mint 1. Stolon rot, 2.Rust, 3.Alternaria leaf blight, 4.Verticilium wilt,5. Powdery mildew Opium 1. Downy mildew, 2. Alternatia leaf spot, 3. Powdery mildew, 4.Mosaic 28 Neem 1. Phoma twig blight Pyrethrum 1.Damping off, 2. Wilt, 3.Rust, 4.Leaf blotch, 5.Grey mould Senna 1. Damping off 2. Leaf Spot 29,30 & 31 Integrated management of post harvest diseases of fruits with special emphasis on Mango, Sweet Orange, Pomegranate, Apple, Grape and Banana. 71

82 PRACTICALS: Study of Symptoms, etiology host-parasite relationship and specific management measures of the following crop diseases. 1. Diseases of Mango 2. Diseases of Citrus 3. Diseases of Grapevine 4. Diseases of Banana 5. Field Visit 6. Diseases of Guava and Sapota 7. Diseases of Papaya and Pomegranate 8. Diseases of Peach, Pear, Plum and Almond 9. Diseases of Ber, fig and Phalsa 10. Field Visit 11. Diseases of Apple, custard apple, Cashew, Jack, fruit and pine apple 12. Diseases of Coconut, arecanut, oilpalm and cocoa 13. Diseases of Betelvine, Pepper and Rubber 14. Diseases of medicinal and aromatic plants 15. Diseases of Coffee and tea 16. Field visit Note: Student should submit 40 specimens during the semester 72

83 PATH Diseases of Vegetable, Ornamental and Spice Crops 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Crop - Diseases Tomato 1. Early blight 2. Damping off 3. Cercospora leaf spot 4. Stemphylium leaf spot 5. Septoria leaf spot 6. Anthracnose 7. Buck eye rot 2 Tomato 8. Collar rot 9. Wilt 10 Bacterial leaf spot 11. Bacterial fruit canker 12. Tomato spotted wilt 13. Mosaic 14. Leaf curl 3 Brinjal 1. Damping off 2. Cercospora leaf spot 3. Alternaria leaf spot 4. Collar rot 5. Bacterial wilt 6. Phomopsis blight and fruit rot 7. Verticillium wilt 8. Little leaf 4 Chillies & Green pepper 1. Damping off 2. Anthracnose / Die back and fruit rot 3. Powdery mildew 4. Cercospora leaf spot or Frot eye leaf spot 5. Alternaria blight 6. Wilts (Sclerotial wilt, Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt) 5 Chillies & Green pepper 7. Bacterial leaf spot 8. Leaf curl 9. Mosaic complex Bhendi 1. Powdery mildew 2. Cercospora leaf spot 3. Aleternaria leaf spot 4. Fusarium wilt 5. Yellow vein mosaic 6 Crucifers (Cabbage, Cauliflower, Knol-Kohl, Brussels Sprout, Raddish) 1. Damping off and wire stem 2. Club root 3. White rust 4. Powdery Mildew 5. Anthracnose 7 Crucifers (Cabbage, Cauliflower, Knol-Kohl, Brussels Sprout, Raddish) 6. Downy mildew 7. Alternaria Leaf spot 8. Black Rot 9. Black leg 10.Cabbage yellows 8 Peas 1. Pythium seed and root rot 2. Downy mildew 3. Powdery Mildew 4. Rust 5. Fusarium wilt 6. Anthracnose 7. Ascochyta blight 9 Peas: 8. Cercospora leaf spot 9. Bacterial blight 10. Pea Mosaic 11. Enation Beans 1. Cercospora leaf spot 2. Rust 3. Powdery Mildew 4. Anthracnose of beans 10 Beans 5. Stem and spot (Anthracnose) 5. Angular leaf spot 6. Halo blight 7. Bacterial wilt 8. Bacterial blight 9. Dry root rot 10. Bean common mosaic 11. Yellow Mosaic 73

84 11 Beet root 1. Seedling disease of beet and sugar beet 2. Cercospora leaf spot 3. Sclerotium root rot 4. Rhizoctonia root rot and blight 5. Phoma blight and heart rot of beet 6. Beet yellows. 12 Potato 1. Late blight 2. Early blight 3. Common scab 4. Sclerotium rot 5. Brown rot 6. Soft rot 7. Wart 8. Dry rot 9. Black leg and soft rot 10. Witches broom 11. Leaf roll 12. Spindle tuber 13 Cucurbits 1. Powdery mildew 2. Downey mildew 3. Cercospora Leaf spot 4. Fruit rot or cottony leak 5. Fusarium wilt (water melon & musk melon & cucurbits) 6. Anthracnose 7. Angular leaf spot 8. Bacterial leaf spot 9. Mosaic 14 Carrot 1. Cercospora Leaf blight 2. Alternaria leaf blight 3. Powdery mildew 4. Bacterial blight & root scab 5. Soft rot 6. Yellows 15 Colocasia 1. Phytophthora blight 2. Pythium rot Sweet potato 1. White rust 2. Fusarium wilt, stem rot and surface rot 3. Soft rot or pox. 16 Amaranthus, Spinach, Sorrel, Portulaca 1. White rust 2. Downy mildew 3. Damping off 4. Anthracnose 5. Cercospora leaf spot 6. Phyllosticta leaf spot 7. Wilt 8. Rust 9. Mosaic Fenugreek 1. Collar rot 2. Powdery mildew 3. Leaf spot 4. Downy mildew 17 Basella 1. Cercospora leaf spot Hibiscus 1. Root and stem rot 2. Leaf spot Lettuce 1. Downy mildew 2. Bacterial leaf rot 3. Bacterial leaf spot and head rot 4. Mosaic Moringa 1. Twig canker 18 Onion & Garlic 1. Leaf blight (purple blotch) 2. Downy mildew 3. Smut 4. Smudge 5. Neck rot and bulb rot 6. Blast 7. Stemphylium blight 8. Rots (soft rot, slippery skin, sour skin, neck rot, brown stain, black mold and blue mold) 19 Ginger 1. Phyllosticta Leaf spot 2. Rhizome rot or soft rot (Pythium) 3. Banded leaf / sheath blight and leaf blight 4. Bacterial wilt 74

85 Turmeric 1. Taphrina leaf blotch 2. Anthracnose or leaf spot 3. Rhizome Rot or Root Rot (Pythium) 4. Rhizome rot (Fusarium) 20 Clove 1. Sudden death 2. Acute die back 3. Sumatra disease Cinnamon 1. Bark canker 2. Leaf spot and die back Nutmeg 1. Die back and fruit rot 2. Wilt 3. Leaf spot Cardamom Small cardamom 1. Damping off 2. Azhukal disease 3. Mosaic Large cardamom 1. Foorkey disease 2. Chirkey disease 21 Coriander 1. Powdery mildew 2. Stem Gall Curry leaf 1. Phyllostictina leaf spot 2. Macrophoma leaf spot 3. Dry root rot. Cumin 1. Fusarium wilt 2. Powdery mildew 3. Blight 22 Rose 1. Die back 2. Verticillium Wilt 3. Stem canker 4. Black spot 5. Powdery Mildew 6. Alternaria leaf spot 7. Rust 8. Crown Gall 23 Jasmine 1. Rust 2. Cercospora leaf spot 3. Alternaria leaf spot 4. Anthracnose 5. Collectotrichum leaf spot 6. Phyllosticta leaf spot 7. Myrothecium leaf spot 8. Chlorotic ring spot 9. Mosaic 24 Crosandra 1. Cercospora leaf spot 2. Wilt 3. Anthracnose 4. Corynespora lef spot 5. Stem rot 25 Chrysanthemum 1. Septoria blotch 2. Powdery mildew 3. Cercospora leaf spot 4. Grey mould 5. Phyllosticta leaf spot 6. Rust 7. Fusarium wilt 8. Bacterial blight 9. Chlorotic Mottle 10. Chrysanthemum stunt 26 Tuberosa 1. Alternaria leaf spot 2. Macrophema leaf spot Marigold 1. Cercospora leaf spot 2. Collectotrichum leaf spot 3. Powdey mildew 4. Alternaria leaf spot 5. Flower blight 27 Asters 1. Anthracnose 2. Stemphylium leaf spot 3. Septoria leaf spot 4. Ascochyta leaf 75

86 spot 5. Stem canker and flower blight 6. Alternaria leaf spot 7. Wilt 8. Root rot and Foot rot 9. Phyllody 10. Aster yellows 28 Gladiolus 1. Wilt / Yellow / brown rot / dry rot 2. Corm rot (several fungi) 3. Leaf spot and corm scab 4. Mosaic 29 Gerbera 1. Anthracnose 2. Phyllosticta leaf spot 3. Powdery mildew 4. Ascochyta leaf spot 5. Blossom blight or stalk rot 6. Foot and root rot 7. Bacterial blight 8. Mosaic 9. Chlorotic mottle 30 Carnation 1. Damping off 2. Alternaria leaf spot 3. Septoria leaf spot 4. Mycosphaerella leaf spot 5. Wilt 6. Die back and stem rot 7. Bacterial wilt. 31 Orchids 1. Black rot (Pythium splendens) 2. Phomopsis leaf spot 3. Cercospora leaf spot 4. Black rot and brown rot (Pythium ultimum) 5. Anthracnose 32 Postharvest diseases Listing of various post harvest diseases along with pathogens in the above crops and general management practices for post harvest diseases with examples. PRACTICALS: 1 Diseases of Tomato 2 Diseases of Brinjal 3 Diseases of Chillies / Capsicum 4 Diseases of Bhendi 5 Diseases of Cabbage & Cauliflower 6 Diseases of Peas and Beans 7 Diseases of Beet root 8 Diseases of Potato & Cucurbits 9 Filed visit 10 Diseases of Carrot, Colocasia, Spinach and Sweet potato 11 Diseases of Onion, Garlic and Ginger 12 Diseases of Turmeric and other species 13 Diseases of Rose 14 Diseases of jasmine and other ornamental crops 15&16 Field visits 76

87 DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS & PLANT BREEDING GPBR Principals of Genetics & Cytogenetics 3(2+1) THEORY: 1. Introduction and Definitions of Cytology, Genetics, Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding, Interrelationships among Cytology, Genetics, Plant Breeding and also with other branches of science. 2. Ultrastructure of Cell and Cell organelles cell wall, Plasma membrane cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticuium 3. Golgi complex-lysosomes Microbodies Microtubules and microfilaments, Ribosomes 4. Mitochondria plastids structure of chloroplast Nucleus Nucleolus, Nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm 5. Morphology of chromosomes Shape, size and number of chromosomes structure of the chromosome Euchromatin and heterochromatin. 6. Special types of chromosomes Lamp brush chromosomes, salivary gland chromosomes, super numerary, chromosomes, isochromosomes and sex chromosomes Karyotype and ideogram. 7. DNA and its structure Watson and Crick model Function and types. 8. Modes of DNA replication semi-conservative DNA replication experimental proof. 9. Structure of RNA messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA. 10. Genetic code outline of protein synthesis, Transcription and translation 11. Mitosis Definition Process of mitosis Mitotic cycle significance and role in plant breeding. 12 Meiosis Definition Process differences between Mitosis and Meiosis Significance in Plant Breeding. 13. Arrangement of genes on chromosomes Linkage Definition Linkage groups coupling phase and repulsion phase-types of linkage-distinction between linkage and pleiotropoism. 14. Theories of linkage estimation of linkage Morgan s work in Drosophila importance of test cross in linkage studies significance in plant breeding. 77

88 15. Crossing over Mechanism of crossing over Factors effecting crossing over Crossing over at 4 strand stage Cytological proof of crossing over significance in Plant Breeding. 16. Chromosome mapping 2 point and 3 point test cross. Cytological maps and genetical maps. 17. Mendelain Genetics: Terminology Mendel s experiments Reasons for selection of pea as experimental material Characters studies Reasons for Mendel s success. 18. Mendel s Laws: Law of segregation Law of independent assortment-principle of dominance Principle of unit characters Exceptions of Mendel s Laws. 19. Monohybrid, dihybrid ratios Modification of F2 ratios in Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses and lethal factors. 20. Types of Gene action dominance over dominance codominance Pleiotropism Multiple alleles Pseudo alleles. Pseudo alleles. Penetrance and expressivity. 21. Qualitative and quantitative characters definition monogenic and polygenic inheritance and their differences Multiple factor hypothesis. 22. Cytoplasmic inheritance definition Eg. 4 O clock lant characteristics of extrachromosomal inheritance. 23. Gene mutations Introduction Definition Types of mutations spontaneous and induced mutations point mutations chimeras Types and their significance in plant breeding. 24. Character s mutations physical and chemical mutagens Induction of Mutations Detection of sex linked lethals in Drosophila (CLB method given by Muller). 25. Detection of mutations in plants Importance of mutation in plant breeding progammes. Xenia and metaxenia Molecular basis of mutations. 26. Structural Chromosomal aberrations Breakage Fusion Bridge cycle Deletions (Deficiency), duplications and their significance in Plant Breeding 27. Inversions Pericentric Inversions ans paracentric inversions Inversions as cross over suppresors. 28. Translocations Simple and reciprocal pairing pattern their role in Plant Brreding. 29. Numerical chromosomal aberrations Terminology Classification Euploidy Aneuploidy Autopolyploids Segmental polyploids. 30. Haploids Triploids Tetraploids Cytological behaviour and their significance in plant breeding. 31. Evolution of crop species (Eg. Wheat, cotton, Triticale, Brassica, Tobacco etc.) 78

89 32. Aneuploidy type of aneuploids Their cytological behaviour and their significance in plant breeding. PRACTICALS: 1. Microscopy (Light microscopes and electron microscopes; Preparation and use of fixatives ad stains for light microscopy. 2. Cytological techniques. 3. Preparation of micro slides and identification of various stages of mitosis. 4. Preparation of micro slides and identification of various stages of meiosis. 5. Monohybrid ratio and its modifications. 6. Dihybrid ratio and its modifications; Trihybrid ratio; Chi-square analysis. 7. Trihybrid ratio 8. Chi-square analysis 9. Interaction of factors, Epistatic factors. 10. Complementary factors 11. Supplementary factors. 12. Duplicate factors. 13. Additive factors and Inhibitory factors. 14. Linkage Two point test cross. 15. Linkage Three point test cross. 16. Induction of polyploidy using colchicines and induction of chromosomal aberrations using chemicals 79

90 GPBR Principles of Plant Breeding 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Definition, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Plant Breeding 2 History and development of plant breeding Scientific contributions of eminent scientists. Landmarks in Plant Breeding. 3 Modes of reproduction Asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, Genetic consequences and its significance in Plant Breeding 4 Modes of pollination, Genetic consequences cultivated crops with the botanical names belonging to self- pollinated, cross- pollinated crops and often crosspollinated crops. Differences between self-pollinated and cross-pollinated. 5 Plant genetic resources genetic erosion, gene banks, gene sanctuaries, germplasm and its maintenance 6 Methods of plant breeding Introduction and acclimatization, History of plant introduction, NBPGR and its activity, procedure of plant introduction 7 Purpose of plant introduction Genetic erosion, gene banks, gene sanctuaries and its maintenance 8 Selection- natural and artificial selection Basic characteristics and requirements of selection selection intensity, selection differential, heritability and genetic advance. 9 Mass selection Procedure, modification of mass selection, merits, demerits and achievements. 10 Johannsen s Pure line theory and its concepts and significance Origin of variation in pure lines and characters of pure lines. 11 Progeny test Genetic basis of pure line selection general procedure for evolving a variety by pure line selection. Its merits, demerits and achievements. Comparison between mass and pure line selection. 12 Biometrics Definition, components of genetic variation i.e., additive, dominance and epistasis and their differentiation 13 Hybridization Aims and objectives, different types of hybridization and prerequisites and procedures and techniques 14 Handling of segregating generations Pedigree method Procedure, modification of pedigree method Merits, demerits and achievements 15 Bulk method Procedure, modification of bulk method, merits, demerits and achievements. Comparison between pedigree and bulk method. 80

91 16 Backcross method of breeding, its requirements and application, procedure for transfer of single dominant gene and transfer of single recessive gene. 17 Merits, demerits and achievements of backcross breeding Comparison between pedigree and backcross method Multilane concept Its definition and uses 18 Incompatibility and its classification Genetic basis of incompatibility Heteromorphic, homomorphic, gametophytic and sporophytic system of incompatibility. 19 Male sterility- different types Genetic, Cytoplasmic and Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility. Its inheritance and maintenance. 20 Utilization of male sterile lines in hybrid seed production Their limitation, advantages and disadvantages 21 Hardy Weinberg Law- Factors disturbing equilibrium in populations 22 Heterosis & inbreeding depression Manifestation of heterosis Genetical, physiological and biochemical causes of heterosis 23 Concepts and hypothesis of genetical causes of heterosis in self, cross- pollinated crops 24 Inbreeding depression Effects of inbreeding in different crops Procedure for development of inbred lines and their evaluation. 25 Exploitation of heterosis History of Hybrid varieties- Important steps in production of single and double cross hybrids Brief idea of hybrids in Maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Rice, Forage crops 26 Synthetics and composites Production procedures, Merits, demerits and achievements comparison- between Synthetcs and composites 27 Recurrent selection- Different types- Detailed procedure of simple recurrent selection and brief description of other recurrent selection methods 28 Methods of breeding for vegetatively propagated crops, clones, genetic variation within clone, clonal degeneration characteristic features of asexually propagated crops and clones Methods of improvement of clonal crops, clonal selection, hybridization, problems in breeding of clonal crops, Merits, demerits and achievements of clonal selection. 29 Mutation breeding Spontaneous and induced mutation Mutagens 30 Procedure of mutation breeding for oligogenic and polygenic characters Limitations and achievements 31 Wide hybridization Barriers in distant hybridization 32 Techniques to overcome sterility in wide hybridization Application, limitations and achievements 81

92 PRACTICALS 1 Botanical description and floral biology 2 Study of megasporogenesis and microsporogenesis 3 Fertilization and life cycle of an angiospermic plant 4 Plant Breeder s kit 5 Hybridization techniques and precautions to be taken, floral morphology, selfing, emasculation and crossing techniques in Horticulture crops like (Tomato, Bhendi etc) 6 Hybridization techniques and precautions to be taken, floral morphology, selfing, emasculation and crossing techniques in Horticulture Crops like (Tomato, Bhendi etc) 7 Handling of segregating generations in pedigree methods 8 Handling of segregating generations in backcross methods 9 Handling of segregating generations in backcross methods 10 Development of hybrids(one line, two line and three line breeding) 11 Field lay our of experiments,. Field trials maintenance of records and registers 12 Calculation of Heterosis, Heterobeltiosis and Standard heterosis 13 Calculation inbreeding depression 14 Calculation of General combining ability, specific combining ability, variances and effects. 15 Calculation of General combining ability, specific combining ability, variances and effects. 16 Calculation of General combining ability, specific combining ability, variances and effects. 82

93 GPBR Breeding of fruit, Plantation and Ornamental Crops 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 History and improvement of ornamental Crops 2 History of Breeding Horticultural crops and achievements 3 Breeding objectives, and methods of different Horticultural crops, important concepts of Breeding ornamental crops. 4 Breeding objectives and Breeding Methods of Chrysanthemum and achievements. 5 Breeding objectives and Breeding Methods of Rose and achievements 6 Breeding objectives and breeding Methods of gaillardia. And achievements 7 Breeding objectives and Breeding Methods of gerbera and achievements 8 Breeding objectives and Breeding Methods of Marigold and achievements 9 History and development of hybrids different Breeding Methods for self pollinated, crops pollinated crops. 10 Varieties development of important Ornamentals 11 History of hetaerist and its explanation. 12 History, Breeding objectives, Breeding, Methods for development of fruit Crops. 13 History Breeding objectives, Methods for Mango and achievements 14 History Breeding objectives, Methods for guava and achievements 15 History Breeding objectives, Methods for custard apple and achievements 16 History Breeding objectives, Methods for banana and achievements 17 Breeding objectives and Methods for Papaya 18 Breeding objectives and methods for Amla 19 Breeding objectives and methods of pomegranate and achievements 20 History of clove, clonal selection importance in Horticulture Crops 21 History of mutation importance of bud mutations in Horticultural crops, fruits and ornaments 22 Importance of mutations, mutagens types of mutagens chemical mutagens and irradiations 23 Application of mutation, mutagens in Horticultural crop and achievements 24 History, and development of hybrids, different breeding methods used in fruit crops. 25 Breeding methods and objectives in developing hybrid water melon and achievements 26 Breeding methods and objectives in developing hybrid musk melon and achievements 27 History and importance of plantation crops. 83

94 28 Breeding methods and objectives for development of tea and achievements 29 Breeding methods and objectives for development of coffee and achievements 30 Breeding methods and objectives for development of clonal and achievements 31 Breeding methods clonal selection for varieties and hybrid clonal selection for hybrid clone. 32 Pure line selection, mass selection, pedigree selection, back cross breeding procedures. PRACTICALS: 1 Selefing, emasculation and crossing techniques 2 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing emasculation and crossing technique in Rose. 3 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing emasculation and crossing technique in Rose. 4 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing emasculation and crossing technique in Gaillardea. 5 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing emasculation and crossing technique in Gerbera. 6 Breeding, objectives, Floral biology, selfing emasculation and crossing technique in Marigold. 7 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing emasculation and crossing technique in Mango. 8 Breeding objective, Floral biology, selfing emasculation and crossing technique in Custard Apple. 9 Breeding objectives, Floral biology selfing emasculation and crossing technique in Banana. 10 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing emasculation and crossing technique in Papaya. 11 Working out phenotypic coefficient of variability, genotypic coefficient of variability, Heritability and generic advance. 12 Working out phenotypic coefficient of variability, genotypic coefficient of variability, Heritability and genetic advance. 13 Preparation and use of chemicals mutagens. 14 Preparation and use of physical mutagens. 15 Maintenance of breeding records. 16 Maintenance of breeding records. 84

95 3.8.1 Breeding Vegetable, Tuber and Spice crop 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Classification of plants, Botanical description, Floral biology, Emasculation and Pollination techniques in important Horticulture crops 2 Breeding objectives and importance of breeding self and cross pollinated crops 3 Breeding objectives and importance of breeding vegetative propagated crops 4 Plant genetic resources germplasm different types of plant genetic resources gene pool types of gene pools genetic erosion. Centre s of origin and diversity, Centre s of origin for different crops. 5 Domestication selection under domestication types of selection patterns of evoluation in crop plants 6 Activities in germplasm conservation collection conservation evaluation cataloguing multiplication and distribution utilization in crop improvement. 7 Germplasm conservation in situ and ex site-gene banks and gene sanctuaries cryopreservation. Organizations associated with germplasm. IBPGR, NBPGR and crop specific international institutions. 8 Polyploidy-Auto and Allo polyploidy-their applications and limitations in crop improvement. 9 Breeding for insect resistance types of insect resistance, nature and genetics, sources of resistance methods of breeding, screening techniques advantages and problems in breeding for insect resistance and achievements. 10 Breeding for disease resistance vertical and horizontal resistance mechanism of disease resistance, genetics and sources of R. methods of breeding and testing for disease R. problems in breeding for disease R and advantages. 11 Breeding for drought R drought R, genetics, sources of D R, breeding methods, difficulties in breeding. 12 Origin and distribution of species, wild relatives and forms of Tomato 13 Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of Tomato 14 Hybrids and varieties in Tomato 15 Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Brinjal 16 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Bhendi 85

96 17 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Capsicum 18 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Chilli 19 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Cucurbits (Cucumbers) 20 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Cucurbits (Gourds) 21 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Cucurbits (Melons). 22 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Cabbage 23 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Cauliflower 24 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Tuber crops Potato 25 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Tuber crops Potato 26 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Carrot 27 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Radish 28 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Spice crops Ginger 29 Origin and distribution of spices, wild relatives and forms. Breeding objectives and procedures / methods for development of hybrids / varieties in Turmeric 30 Genotype X Environment interaction 31 Breeding for Quality Improvement (general) 32 Breeding for Quality Improvement (horticultural crops) 86

97 PRACTICALS: 1 Selfing, emasculation and hybridization techniques. 2 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing, emasculation and crossing technique in Tomato 3 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing, emasculation and crossing technique in Brinjal 4 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing, emasculation and crossing technique in Bhendi 5 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing, emasculation and crossing technique in Chilli 6 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing, emasculation and crossing technique in Cucubits 7 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing, emasculation and crossing technique in Cucubits 8 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing, emasculation and crossing technique in Cucubits 9 Breeding objectives, Floral biology, selfing, emasculation and crossing technique in Potato 10 Methods for creation of variability in Turmeric 11 Methods for creation of variability in Ginger 12 Calculation of Heterosis, Heterobettiosis and Standard Heterosis 13 Calculation of inbreeding depression 14 Calculation of General coming ability, specific combing ability, variances and effects 15 Calculation of General coming ability, specific combing ability, variances and effects 16 Stability analysis 87

98 GPBR Principles of Plant Biotechnology 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Definitions of Plant Biotechnology, terminology associated with biotechnology, Plant tissue culture and plant genetic engineering, major concepts and importance. 2&3 Origin and history of plant tissue culture and plant genetic engineering. 4 Scope and importance of biotechnology in crop improvement International Organizations involved in biotechnology. 5 Techniques of Invitro cultures micropropagation different stages involved in clonal or micropropagation meristem cultures production of virus free plants advantages and problems associated with micropropagation application of plant tissue culture in crop improvement. Micropropagation research in India. 6 Applications and limitations of Ovule and Ovary culture. 7 Somaclonal variation basis of somaclonal variation Achievements gametoclonal variation 8 Somatic hybridization techniques of protoplast fusion, genetic modification of protoplasts products of somatic hybridization, hybrids selection and culture of somatic hybrids regeneration, problems and limitations of somatic hybridization Applications in crop improvement. 9 Genetic Engineering / recombinant DNA technology Risks of Genetic Engineering Enzymes involved in Genetic Engineering Types of restriction enzymes Restriction mapping. 10 Vectors for gene transfer important features of desirable vectors Plasmids bacterio phages cosmids phagemids. 11 Vectors gene transfer plant and animal viruses transposes yeast and bacterial artificial chromosomes expression vectors expression cassettes binary vectors shuttle vectors 12 Direct methods of gene transfer gene gun / particle bombardment electroporation micro injection - macro injection liposome mediated etc. 13 Transgenic plants applications in crop improvement and limitations. 14&15 Blotting techniques methods and applications of southern, northern and western blotting probes DNA finger printing. 16 Marker assisted selection and its application in crop improvement. 88

99 PRACTICALS: 1 Totipotency growth and differentiation in cultures Organogenesis embryogenesis, types of culture Callus and suspension cultures types of suspension cultures. 2 Nutritional requirements of invitro culture, media composition-types of media solid and liquid media Advantages and disadvantage. 3 Various sterilization techniques used in Plant Biotechnology wet heat-dry heat- U.V.Chemical filtration-advantages and disadvantages 4&5 Anther and Pollen culture steps involved in production of Haploid Plants factors affecting Androgenesis significances and uses of Haploids problems and achievements. Application of Haploids in crop improvement. 6 Embryo culture embryo rescue culture factors effecting embryo cultures applications and achievements test tube fertilization. 7 Endosperm culture uses and limitations. Factors affecting Invitro culture techniques Applications and achievements. 8 Somatic embryogenesis development of patterns synthetic seed production technology advantages, limitations and applications. 9 Isolation (mechanical and enzymatic), purification and culture of protoplasts regeneration of plants. Somatic hybridization techniques of protoplast fusion genetic modification of protoplasts products of somatic hybridization, hybrids selections and culture of somatic hybrids regeneration. Problems and limitations of somatic hybridization Applications in crop improvement. 10 Gene cloning steps involved in gene cloning components of gene cloning and their functions. 11 Genomic and cdna libraries detection of a gene in a library, colony hybridization 12 Methods of gene transfer Direct and Indirect Vectors of gene transfer structure and function of Ti and Ri plasmid. 13 T-DNA transfer process pre-requirements for production of transgenic plants advantages and limitations. 14&15 DNA based / molecular markers definition RFLP, AFLP, RAPD and SSRs importance and application. 16 Mapping QTLs mapping populations genotyping and phenotyping QTL analysis and identification of QTLs future prospects. 89

100 GPBR Seed production and Certification 2(1+1) in Horticultural crops THEORY: 1. Introduction to Seed production concept of seed technology seed quality definitions of seed technology objectives / goals of seed technology importance of seed production. 2. Seed policy-seed demand forecasting and planning for certified, foundation and breeder seed production 3. Deterioration of crop varieties Definition Manifestations of seed deterioration Factors affecting deterioration and their control 4. Seed quality definition characters of good quality seed maintenance of genetic purity during seed production 5. Different classes of seed production of nucleus, breeder seed, foundation and certified seed. 6. Maintenance and multiplication of pre-release and newly released variety in self & cross pollinated crops. 7. Foundation and certified seed production in Chilli, Bhendi and Brinjal (varieties and hybrids) 8. Seed certification, phases of certification General seed certification standards Procedure for Seed certification, field inspection and field counts etc. 9. Seed Act and Seed Act enforcement, Central Seed Committee, Central Seed Certification Board, State Seed Certification Agency, Central and Seed Testing Laboratories 10. Duties and powers of Seed Inspectors, Offences and penalties, Seed Control order 1983, Seed Act, 2000 and other issues related to seed quality regulation 11. Intellectual Property Rights, Patenting, WTO, Plant Breeders Rights Plant Variety Protection 12. & 13. Seed Drying Forced air Seed drying and principle Heated air drying Building requirements Types of air distribution systems for seed drying, selection of crop dryers and systems of heated air dying recommended temperature and depth of the seeds, management of seed drying. 14. Planning and layout of seed processing plant Establishment of seed processing plant. Seed processing air screen machine and its working principle, different upgrading equipment and their use. 90

101 15. Seed Treatment Importance and types of seed treatment, equipment used for seed treatment (Slurry and Mist O matic treater) 16. Seed packing and Seed storage Stages of seed storage, factors affecting seed longevity during storage and conditions required for good storage. Equipment and accessories used for seed packing and quality control in storage. PRACTICALS: 1. Location of important research stations and seed production farms 2. Seed sampling principles and procedures. 3. Purity analysis in different crops. 4. Purity analysis in different crops 5. Germination analysis in different crops 6. Germination analysis in different crops 7. Moisture estimation in different crops 8. Moisture estimation in different crops 9. Seed viability test 10. Seed vigour test 11. Grow out test varietal identification of different crops through morphological characters. 12. Filed inspection walking pattern and seed standards 13. Study of seed production plots hybrids seed production plots of vegetables crops 14. Study of seed production plots hybrids seed production plots of vegetables crops 15 Electrophoresis for identification of varieties 16. Planting ratios, isolation distance, rouging, etc., in seed production 91

102 DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY AND SOIL SCIENCE ASSC Fundamentals of Soil Science 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Introduction: Soil and soil components mineral matter, Organic matter, water and air, Definition of soil and various concepts of soil, branches of soil science 2 Rocks Classification of rocks based on mode of origin igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. Classification of rocks based on silica content. 3 Minerals Primary, secondary, essential, accessory, light and heavy minerals. Primary minerals quartz, feldspars, micas, pyroxenes, amphiboles and olivines. 4 Weathering Types of weathering, physical weathering of rocks agents of physical weathering and their role. Chemical weathering Solution, hydration, hydrolysis, carbonation, oxidation and reduction (Brief mention). Biological weathering role flora and fauna in weathering process. 5 Pedogenic processes Eluvition, illuviation, humification, calcification, laterization,podzolisation, melanisation, salinization and alkalization (brief menion). Soil profile Detailed description of a theoretical soil profile. 6 Soil physical properties soil texture Definition significance. Stoke s law Derivation. Assumptions and limitations. Various textural classes in soil. 7 Soil Structure classification based on type, class and grade of soil structure. Evaluation. Importance of soil structure and its management. Soil compaction importance. Soil crusting. 8 Density of soil Bulk density and particle density calculation of porosity. Soil water soil water potential components of water potential. 9 Soil moisture constants field capacity, wilting coefficient, hygroscopic water and saturation, available water. pf concept Methods for determination of soil moisture gravimetric method, Tensiometer and neutron moisture meter. 10 Movement of soil water- Darcy s law. Saturated, unsaturated flow. Infiltration factors influencing infiltration rate. Soil drainage and its importance. 11 Soil air Compositions of atmospheric air and soil air. Gaseous exchange. Influence of soil air on plant growth. 12 Soil temperature importance. Heat capacity and conductivity. Factors influencing soil temperature. Modification of soil thermal regimes. Soil color significance Munsell color notation measurement. 92

103 13 Soil colloids Definition. General properties shape, surface area, electrical charge adsorption, Flocculation, deflocculation, plasticity, cohesion, swelling, shrinkage. Tyndall effect and Brownian movement. Classification of colloids, sources of charge on soil colloids. 14 Ion exchange Cation and anion exchange capacities of soil. Base saturation. Factors affecting ion exchange capacity of soils. Importance of CEC of soils. 15 Soil reaction ph scale influence of soil ph on nutrient availability buffering capacity of soils. 16 Soil organic matter - various sources. Composition, compounds in plant residues, their decomposability. Humus-definition, Importance of soil organic matter and humus. Carbon: nitrogen (C:N) ratio of commonly available organic residues. Significance of C:N ratio in soil fertility. Role of micro organisms in decomposition of organic matter. PRACTICALS: 1. Methods of chemical analysis principles, techniques and calculations 2. Preparation of standard solutions (molar, normal, ppm and percentage) and standardization of sulphuric acid. 3. Collection of soil samples 4. Description of soil profile in the field. 5. Determination of mechanical composition of soil using Bouyoucos Hydrometer 6. Determination of soil bulk density particle density. 7. Determination of bulk moisture content by gravimetric method and by Tensiometer method. 8. Determination of soil colour using Munsell colour chart. 9. Determination of soil ph and electrical conductivity of soil class and grade of soil structure. Evaluation, importance of soil structure and its management. Soil compaction importance and soil crusting. 10. Preparation of soil water extract. 11. Determination of carbonates and bicarbonates in soil water extract. 12. Determination of chlorides in soil water extract. 13. Estimation of Ca and Mg in soil water extract. 14. Estimation of organic carbon content in soil. 15. Introduction to Flamophotometry and estimation of K and Na in soil water extract. 16. Introduction to Spectrophotometry estimation of sulphates in soil water extract. 93

104 ASSC Weed Management in Horticultural Crops 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Introduction, definition of weed, beneficial and harmful effects of weeds. 2 Classification of weeds-classification based on morphology, life cycle, habitat, origin, association, special features with examples. 3 Propagation of weeds sexual asexual vegetative reproduction rhizomes root stocks runners stolen suckers offsets tubers bulbs bulbils stems and roots etc. Dissemination (Dispersal) of weeds dispersal of weed seeds and fruits dispersal agents wind and water animal, man and manures farm implements and silage. Dispersal of vegetative propagules. 4 Weed Biology-characteristic features of weeds-weed ecology-persistence of weedsclimatic-edaphic (soil) and biotic factor-crop weed association with some important crops like rice, maize, wheat, jowar, pulses, groundnut, sugarcane, cotton and tobacco. 5 Crop-weed competition principles critical period of crop weed competition Allelopathy 6&7 Concepts of weed prevention control and eradication. Methods of weed control physical, mechanical, cultural, chemical and biological methods of weed control bio-herbicides integrated weed management. 8&9 Herbicides definition, advantages and limitations of herbicide usage in India classification of herbicides based on chemical nature, time and method of application and type of formulation. 10 Nomenclature of herbicides commonly available herbicides in India Adjuvants definition, their use in herbicide application (1) Surfactants; (2) Stabilizing Agents; (3) Solvents; (4) Humicants; (5) Stickers; (6) Activators; (7) Compatibility agents; (8) Drift control agents. 11&12 Introduction to selectivity of herbicides Fundamental principles of selectivity differential absorption of herbicides; differences in morphology and growth habits of plants differential translocation of herbicides differential rate of deactivation of herbicides by plants; metabolism, reverse metabolism and conjugation of herbicides in plants differential protoplasmic resistance multifactor selectivity of herbicides in plants Compatibility of herbicides with other agro chemicals. 13 Weed Management in vegetables Leafy vegetables: Palak, Amaranthus, Soral Menthi, Coriander, Curry leaf; Solanaceous: Tomato, brinjal, chillies. Cucurbitaceae Guards and melons Crusifers: Cabbage and cauliflower Peas and Beans: French bean, garden bean, cluster bean Tubers: Potato, yam, sweet potato Perennial vegetables: Little guard, pointed guard, drumstick. 94

105 14 Weed management in orchards: Mango, cashewnut, citrus, banana, guava, sapota, grape Weed management in plantation crops: Coconut, oil palm Weed management in spices: Ginger, turmeric & chillies 15 Weed management in nurseries, in Lawns, in flowering plants(rose, Jasmine and Chrysanthemum) 16 Weed management in green houses Problematic weeds nutsedge, Bermuda grass, Parthenium and their control. PRACTICALS: 1. Identification of weeds 2. Survey of weeds in crop fields and other habitats 3. Herbarium preparation of weeds 4. Estimation of weed flora and calculation of weed control efficiency and weed index. 5. Herbicide label information 6. Computation of herbicide doses 7. Study of herbicide application equipment 8. Calibration of herbicide application equipment 9. Application of herbicides by different methods for effective weed control 10. Nomenclature of herbicides and preparation of a list of commonly available herbicides 11. Study of phytotoxicity symptoms of herbicides in different crops 12. Biology and control of parasitic weeds 13. Economic of weed control practices 14. Visit to non cropped areas and orchards 15. Visit to problem areas and farmers field. 95

106 ASSC Soil Fertility, Soil Chemistry and Soil Taxonomy 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Introduction: Importance of soil chemistry and soil fertility in crop production. Concepts of soil fertility and soil productivity. Definitions and differences. Soil as a source of plant nutrients 2 Nutrient Elements: Arnon s criteria of essentiality Essential. Functional and Beneficial elements. Scientists responsible for the essentiality of individual nutrient elements. Classification of essential nutrients. Ionic forms of plant nutrients in soil. Beneficial elements. 3 Nitrogen: Occurrence, content and distribution. Factors influencing the content of nitrogen in soil. Forms of soil nitrogen. Nitrogen Cycle Transformations in soils Mineralization (Aminisation and Ammonification) Fate of released ammonia Factors affecting ammonium fixation. Nitrification factors affecting nitrification Fate of nitrate nitrogen Dentrification Nitrification inhibitors. Immobilization. 4 Nitrogen fixation: Different types Biological fixation of nitrogen Symbiotic and non symbiotic Nitrogen balance sheet Gains and loses Functions Deficiency symptoms Corrective measures Toxicity symptoms 5 Phosphorus: P cycle contents in soils forms of phosphorus in soil Inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds Phosphorus fixation Mechanisms of phosphate fixation. 6 Factors affecting phosphate fixation in soil Methods to reduce phosphate fixation. (Organic matter additions, placement of P fertilizers etc.) Quantity and intensity parameters Functions deficiency symptoms Corrective measures Toxicity symptoms 7 Potassium: content in soil Source forms of soil potassium Potassium fixation. Factors affecting potassium fixation- Quantity and intensity parameters Luxury consumption Functions and deficiency symptoms corrective measures. 8 Calcium sources and content forms of calcium in soil, factors affecting the availability of calcium in soil Functions Deficiency symptoms Corrective measures. 9 Magnesium Sources Content Forms of magnesium in soils. Factors affecting availability of magnesium. Functions Deficiency symptoms Corrective measures 10 Sulphur: S Cycle Occurrence Forms of Sulphur in soil. Sulphur transformation in soils Mineralization and immobilization. Sulphur Oxidation Factors affecting oxidation in soils. Sulphide injury Causes, symptoms and remedial measures Functions Deficiency symptoms and corrective measures 96

107 11 Micronutrient: Sources forms in soil solution Pools of macronutrients Predisposing factors for occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soil and plants. 12 Zinc : Contents Forms in soils- Critical limits in soils and plants, factors affecting availability of zinc Functions Deficiency symptoms corrective measures 13 Copper and Iron Content Forms in soils Critical limits in soils and plants. Factors affecting its availability Functions Deficiency symptoms Corrective measures. Toxicity symptoms 14 Manganese: Content Forms in soils Critical limits in soils and plants. Factors affecting its availability. Functions Deficiency symptoms. 15 Boron: Content forms in soil Critical limits in soils and plants. Factors affecting its availability Functions Deficiency symptoms Corrective measures 16 Molybdenum and chlorine Content Forms in soils Critical limits in soils and plants. Factors affecting their availability Functions Deficiency symptoms Corrective measures. Toxicity symptoms. 17 Soil fertility Evaluation: Approaches Nutrient deficiency symptoms. Soil testing Objectives of soil testing Chemical methods for estimating available nutrients 18 Plant analysis - Rapid tissue tests DRIS Indicator plants. Biological methods of soil fertility evaluation: Microbiological and pot culture methods. (Mentioning of methods names only) 19 Soil test based fertilizers recommendation: Critical nutrient concept (Cate and Nelson) Critical levels of nutrients in soils. Use of empirical equations for scheduling fertilizers P dosage to crops. 20 Problems Soils: Definition Classification Acid, Saline, Saline Sodic Sodic and Calcareous soils characteristics Formation and Nutrient availability in problem soils. 21 Reclamation of problematic soils Mechanical, Chemical and Biological methods. Lime requirement Different liming materials Organic amendments FYM, compost, pressmud, problems associated with over liming. Gypsum requirement Classification of crops based on their tolerance to salts. 22 Irrigation water: Quality of irrigation water Classification based on EC, SAR, RSC and Boron content. Indian standards for water quality. Use of saline waters in agriculture 23 Soil Survey Development Concepts Definition Steps Objectives Importance 24 Land capability classification Limitations Sub classes Units 97

108 25 Soil classification Early system of soil classification Soil taxonomy Advantages Salient features Nomenclature at different category 26 Diagnostic horizons Epipedons and Endpedons 27 Formative elements and keys to soil orders Salient features of soil orders 28 Aerial photography Types Uses. Interpretation Advantages and disadvantages 29 Remote Sensing Indian Space Programme Features of IRS series 30 Application of Remote Sensing Techniques in Horticulture 31 Soils of India Characteristics Equivalent taxonomy units 32 Soils of Andhra Pradesh Characteristics Equivalent taxonomy units PRACTICALS: 1 Determination of available nitrogen in soils by alkaline permanganate method 2 Determination of organic carbon content by Walkley and Black method 3 Determination of available phosphorus in soils by Olsen s method 4 Determination of available potassium in soils by NH4 OAc method and sulphur by palaskar method 5 Determination of DTPA extractable zinc in soil (optional) 6 Collection of irrigation water sample and determination of ph and EC in irrigation water. 7 Determination of carbonates and bicarbonates and chlorides in irrigation water by acid base neutralization 8 Determination of Ca and Ca + Mg in irrigation water by EDTA method 9 Determination of sodium and potassium in irrigation water 10 Quick tests and interpretation of soil test and irrigation water analysis data 11 Determination of lime requirement of acid soil 12 Determination of gypsum requirement of alkali soils 13 Collection and processing of plant samples for analysis 14 Determination of nitrogen in plant samples 15 Determination of phosphorus in plant samples 16 Determination of potassium in plant samples 98

109 ASSC Organic Farming in Horticultural Crops 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Organic farming Introduction - concept and definition major aims relevance in present context options in organic farming advantages and components of organic farming organic production requirements 2&3 Biological : intensive nutrient management definition Organic manures : Characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, classification bulky organic manures FYM, sheep and goat manure, poultry manure, night soil, compost, sewage and sludge, concentrated organic manures oil cakes, meal group of manures, guano 4 Compost Definition Principles of composting Methods of com posting: Indore method, Bangalore method, Coimbatore method, NADEP compost, composting of coir pith and pressmud 5 Vermi composting Definition advantages materials for vermicomposting procedure to prepare vermicompost Requirements for vermicomposting application of vermicompost 6 Green manures Characteristics of green manure crops crops suitable for green manuring Types and methods of green manuring advantages and disadvantages of green manuring 7 Biofertilizers Definition Types of biofertilizers Nitrogen fixers, phosphate solobilising micro organisms Mycorrhizal fungi Methods of application of biofertilizers Advantages and disadvantages with biofertilizers 8 Recycling of organic residues - Soil improvement though application of organic amendments 9 Integrated diseases and pest management Definition Pest management methods Physical methods: manipulation of temperature, moisture, light and air. Mechanical methods: Mechanical destruction (manual or mechanical), mechanical exclusion, light and pheromone traps 10 Cultural methods Field and plant sanitation, tillage operations, planting time, seed rate, spacing, crop rotation, trap cropping, growing of barrier crops, intercropping, bird perches, water and nutrient management 11 Biological methods Bio- pesticides advantages Predators, Parasitoids, Pathogens Bacterial insecticides, viral insecticides, fungal insecticides 12 Botanicals Pyrethrum, neem seed kernel extract neem seed powder, soluble neem formulations, oils, soaps, oil cakes 99

110 13&14 Weed management Preventive methods Physical/ Mechanical: Tillage, stale seed bed, hand weeding, mowing, flooding, mulching, burning, dredging and chaining, soil solarization, Cultural methods: Smother crops, cover crops, crop rotation, plant density, sowing, nutrient and water management Biological methods Criteria for a bioagent Kinds of bioagents insects, plant competitive plant s Allelopathy IWM 15 Quality consideration, certification, labeling and accreditation processors 16 Marketing, exports, International and national policies in promotion of organic farming PRACTICALS: 1 Organic nursery raising (vegetables and ornamentals) 2 Layout and sowing of vegetables by students under organic farming concept. 3 Recording germination percentage, gap filling and thinning operations in individual plots. 4 Vermicompost making. 5 Methods of composting crop residues and organic wastes. 6 Applications of bio-pesticeds in plots (Trichocard, BT, NPV). 7 Biofertilizers production techniques and its application. 8 Inter cultivation and other operations in vegetables. 9&10 Preparation of neem products and study of other botanicals for pest and disease control. 11 Recording yield attributes and yield. 12 Study of quality parameters of organic products. 13 Harvesting of vegetables in plots. 14 Visit to organic farms. 15 Grading and packing of fruits and vegetables in plots. 16 Post harvest management of vegetables. 100

111 ASSC Introduction to major field crops 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Classification and distribution of field crops, definitions and concept of multiple cropping, mixed cropping intercropping, relay and alley cropping, sustainable agriculture 2 Rice-introduction-origin-area and production-climate and soils-varieties and hybrids for AP classification of plant types rice nurseries-wet, dry, dapog and modified dapog, puddling rice seasons in AP-seeds and sowing-direct seeding and transplanting. 3 Systems of rice cultivation-upland, low land, SRI, aerobic rice-nutrient management (N, P, K, Zn, iron and bio fertilizers) steps for increasing fertilizer use efficiency in rice 4 Water management methods of irrigation submergence Vs flodding-weed management-crop rotations-harvesting, threshing and processing yield attributed and yield 5 Wheat-origin-area and production-wheat growing zones of India-climate and soilsvarieties-tillage-seeds and seeding-nutrient, water and weed management-crop rotations harvesting, threshing and processing yield attributed and yield 6 Maize: Origin-area and production-classification of maize-climate and soils varieties-tillage-seeds and seeding-nutrient, water and weed management-crop rotations-harvesting, threshing and processing-yield attributed and yield Sorghum: Origin-area and production-growing seasons in A.P.-climate and soils varieties-tillage-seeds and seeding-nutrient, water and weed management-crop rotations-midseason correction-harvesting, threshing and processing-yield attributed and yield-ratooning 7 Importance of pulses Chickpea and Pigeon pea: Origin-area and productionclimate and soils varieties for AP tillage-seeds and seeding-nutrient, water and weed management-crop rotations-harvesting and storage -yield attributed and yield 8 Black gram, Green gram and cow pea: Origin-area and production-climate and soils varieties-tillage-seeds and seeding-nutrient, water and weed managementcrop rotations-harvesting and storage -yield attributed and yield 9 Importance of oil seeds-soybean: Origin-area and production-climate and soils varieties tillage-seeds and seeding-nutrient, water and weed management-crop rotations-harvesting and storage -yield attributed and yield Groundnut: Origin-area and production-characters of Virginia and Spanish species of ground nut-climate and soils varieties tillage-seeds and seeding- 101

112 nutrient(gypsum application, importance of Ca and S nutrition), water and weed management-crop rotations-harvesting and storage -yield attributed and yield 10 Mustard and Gingelly: Origin-area and production-climate and soils varieties tillage-seeds and seeding-nutrient, water and weed management-crop rotationsharvesting and storage -yield attributed and yield 11 Sunflower and Safflower : Origin-area and production-climate and soils varieties tillage-seeds and seeding-nutrient, water and weed management-crop rotationsharvesting threshing and processing-yield attributed and yield 12 Cotton: Origin-area and production-types of cotton-climate and soils varieties for AP tillage-seeds and seeding-topping and boll shedding-nutrient, water and weed management-crop rotations-harvesting quality evaluation -yield attributed and yield 13 Sugarcane: Origin-area and production-climate and soils varieties tillage-seed material-methods of planting-blind hoeing-trash mulching -nutrient, water and weed management-crop rotations-wrapping and propping-harvesting ratoon crop management 14 Fodder crop-quality characteristics of an ideal forage-berseem, Lucerne and Stylosanthes-soils and seed bed preparation-varieties for AP-seed and seedingnutrient and water management-time and method of harvesting -yield on wet and dry weight basis 15 Paras grass, Napier grass and Anjan grass: soils and seed bed preparation varieties for AP - seed and seeding-nutrient, water management-time and method of harvesting -yield on wet and dry weight basis 16 Green manure crops Daincha, sunnhemp and pillipesara: seed rate and seeding nutrient management harvesting 102

113 PRACTICALS: 1 Allotment of individual field for land preparation and sowing of crop 2 Calculation of seed rate and fertilizer requirement 3 Thinning, weeding, gap filling and recording germination percentage 4 Identification of crops, crop seeds and fodder crops 5 Rhizobium inoculation and seed treatment 6 Preparation of cropping scheme to suit different farming systems 7 Visit to wetland farm. Observation on resources allocation, recycling of inputs and economics 8 Visit to dryland farm. Observation on resources allocation, recycling of inputs and economics 9 Visit to garden land farm. Observation on resources allocation, recycling of inputs and economics 10 Time and methods of fertilizer application 11 Study of Agronomic characters of pulses 12 Study of Agronomic character of cereals 13 Study of Agronomic characters of oilseeds and fodder crops 14 Harvesting of crops in individual fields 15 Participation in post harvest operations and recording yield 16 Visit to forage production farm to study the ongoing experiments 103

114 ASSC Manures, Fertilizers and Nutrient Management 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Introduction: Definition and differences of manures and fertilizers Classification of manures (Bulky and concentrated) and fertilizers (NPK complex & Micronutrients) with suitable examples Importance of manures in soil fertility management 2 Bulky organic manures: Preparation of FYM-Methods of collection & storage. Losses of nutrients from FYM during collection and storage. Way to minimize these losses. 3 Compost and Composting: Different methods of composting indicating the starters and raw materials. Details of methods of preparation of rural and urban composts. Mechanical compost plants vermicompost. 4 Biogas plant: Principles of operation and its advantages. Green manures Classification with examples. Advantages and limitations of green manuring and green leaf manure. 5 Definitions of penning, sewage, sullage, sludge and poudrette. Concentrated organic manures-blood meal, bone meal, horn meal, meat meal, fish meal, guano & oil cakes. (Castor & Neem) 6 Commercial fertilizers: Nitrogenous fertilizers-manufacturing of ammonia- Manufacturing process and properties of nitrogenenous fertilizers used in India- Ammonium sulphate 7 Manufacturing process and Important properties of CAN and Urea. Slow releasing N fertilizers 8 Phosphatic fertilizers: Rock phosphate use, occurrence, types and properties. Manufacturing processes and properties of super phosphate, triple super phosphate and basic slag. 9 Potassic fertilizers: Mineral sources, manufacturing processes and properties of potassic fertilizers KCI and K2SO4, Mode of action of N, P and K fertilizers in soils 10 Secondary and Micronutrients: Conditions leading to deficiencies, importance of use different sources of secondary and micronutrient and their contents. Mode of action of S fertilizers in soils 11 Compound and complex fertilizers Used in India MAP, DAP, UAP, APS, APP, Nitro phosphates and NPK complexes manufacturing process and properties. 12 Mixed or bulk blended fertilizers: Dry and wet processes of mixing advantages and disadvantages of mixed fertilizers over straight fertilizers. Physical and 104

115 chemical problems associated in their preparation, compatibility of fertilizers. 13 Granulation, unit value, grade and ratio of fertilizers, computation of fertilizer mixtures. Combined applications of fertilizers and agricultural chemicals precautions and compatibility. Bio-fertilizers Methods of preparation, use of biofertilizers in agriculture, horticulture and sericulture. 14 Fertilizer use Efficiency (FUE): Soil, Plant and fertilizer and management factors influencing FUE Measures to improve the use efficiency of N, P and K fertilizers FUE in relation to balanced fertilization and soil moisture supply. Direct and residual affects of fertilizers and manures. Foliar nutrition of crops Importance and limitations. 15 Integrated Nutrient Management (INM): For Agricultural and Horticultural Crops Need, components, nutrient gains, constraints and prospects of adopting INM. 16 Quality Control of Fertilizers: FCO 1957, its importance and regulations, Specification and standards for important chemical fertilizers-urea, SSP, MOP, DAP and Zinc sulphate PRACTICALS: 1 Sampling of organic manures and fertilizers for chemical analysis 2 Physical properties of manure and fertilizers 3 Quick tests for identification of important fertilizers 4 Detection of adulteration in fertilizers 5 Estimation of ammonical nitrogen in ammonical fertilizer (Ammonium sulphate) 6 Estimation of nitrate nitrogen and ammonical nitrogen (Ammonium nitrate) 7 Estimation of total nitrogen in urea 8 Estimation of total nitrogen in farm yard manure 9 Estimation of water soluble P2O5 in SSP 10 Estimation of potassium in MOP/SOP 11 Estimation of Zn in zinc sulphate 12 Determination of Ca in SSP or Lime 13 Determination of S in SSP or gypsum 14 Working out quantities and doses of fertilizers for application to the field 15 Visit to fertilizer testing laboratory 16 Visit to vermicompost unit 105

116 ASSC Introduction to Agricultural Meteorology and 3(2+1) Water Management in Horticultural crops THEORY: 1 Introduction definitions of meteorology, climatology, agricultural meteorology Scope and practical utility of agricultural meteorology 2 Composition and structure of atmosphere, Definitions of weather and climate, aspects involved in weather and climate 3 Atmospheric temperature Introduction, Temperature and Heat definitions, Isotherms, horizontal and vertical temperature variations in the atmosphere Cardinal temperatures air temperature and crop production and its importance on plant life 4 Low air temperature and plant injury; high air temperature and plant injury Soil temperature Factors affecting soil temperature 5 Solar radiation Definition, introduction of electro-magnetic spectrum and functions of light, solar constant, net radiation, black body radiation, emissivity, absorptivity, reflectivity, transmissivity and albedo 6 Physiological response of different bands of incident radiation; factors affecting the distribution of solar radiation within the plant canopy 7 Definition of Atmospheric pressure, cyclones and anticyclones Wind definition, effect of wind on crops Land and sea breezes Mountain and Valley winds. 8 Atmospheric Humidity and its expression; saturation; effects of humidity on crops. 9 Evaporation and transpiration, definitions Factors affecting rate of evaporation and transpiration 10 Monsoons Definition, origin of South West and North East monsoons and their occurrence their impact on farm operations 11 Rainfall Types of rainfall Clouds, classification of clouds and the characteristics of different forms of clouds 12 Drought definition types of drought effect of drought on crops management of drought 13 Precipitation and condensation definition, different forms of precipitations and condensations Artificial rain making 14 Weather disasters and management Rainfall, heat and cold waves, wind storms, hail storms, thunderstorms and dust storms, Tornadoes, defective isolation. 15 Weather forecasting Applications and utility Synoptic charts, reports and symbols 106

117 16 Remote sensing definition, introduction, application in Horticulture, Climate change: causes, effects of climate change, global warming 17 Importance of water definition functions of water in plants and effect of moisture stress on crop growth water resources in India Irrigation development in India and A.P. before and after independence. 18 Soil water relations Importance of soil, plant water relationship (SPAC) physical properties of soils influencing water relations texture structure and depth, particle density, bulk density and pore space in relation to moisture retention, movement and availability 19 Soil moisture constants: Field capacity, PWP, Hygroscopic coefficient, Moisture equivalents, saturation, available and unavailable soil moisture theories of water availability kinds of water in soil: Gravitation, Capillary and Hygroscopic water 20 Measurement of soil moisture: direct and indirect methods Gravimetric, volumetric, infrared, and spirit burning, Tensiometer and resistant blocks, pressure plate and pressure membrane apparatus relative merits and demerits. Movement of water and distribution of moisture in soil Infiltration, Percolation, permeability and seepage 21 Rooting characteristics, plant structure and root development, Effective root zone depth moisture extraction pattern 22 Evapo-transpiration (ET) evaporation, transpiration and factors influencing evapotranspiration measurement of ET through Lysimeters, Evaporimeters 23 Measurement of PET empirical methods Blaney Criddle, modified Penman method, Radiation method and pan evaporation methods Procedure, their merits and demerits 24 Crop coefficient (Kc) definition crop coefficient curve crop coefficients for different stages of horticultural crops critical stages of horticultural crop growths for irrigation 25 Water requirement, factors influencing water requirement and water requirement for important horticultural crops 26 Irrigation scheduling Approaches Soil (Feel and appearance, gravimetric, soil moisture tension) plant (leaf temperature leaf water potential, visual plant symptoms, stomatal resistance) and climatological approach PET method Lysimeters IW/CPE method and pan evaporation, Water budgeting (soil moisture balance method) 27 Methods of irrigation classification surface methods Flooding, check basin, basin, border, furrow, surge, cablegation sub-surface irrigation, merits and demerits of irrigation. Economic use of water irrigation efficiencies WUE, water conveyance, application and distribution efficiency 107

118 28 Drip irrigation components advantages and disadvantages installation and maintenance of drip system (clogging problems) types of drip irrigation methods 29 Sprinkler irrigation components advantages and disadvantages system layout 30 Fertigation methods merits and demerits 31 Water management in problem soils quality of water criteria and limits salinity hazards management practices 32 Water management in horticultural crops mango, citrus, grapes, coconut, guava, tomato, chillies, onion, turmeric, Brinjal, gourds, water melon and musk melon PRACTICALS: 1 Visit to meteorological observatory, calculation of time 2 Visit to IMD meteorological observatory layout plan of standard meteorological observatory 3 Recording of air and soil temperature 4 Measurement of radiation and components 5 Measurement of rainfall different types of rain gauges 6 Measurement of wind speed, direction and atmospheric humidity 7 Recording evaporation 8 Synoptic charts and weather reports, symbols 9 Determination of soil moisture content by gravimetric and volumetric method 10 Installation and working of Tensiometer 11 Estimation of soil moisture constants filed capacity by filed method 12 Estimation of PWP by filed method 13 Scheduling of irrigation suing IW/CPE method 14 Calculation of irrigation water needs 15 Layout of surface methods of irrigation 16 Layout and components of sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation clogging problems 108

119 ASSC Introductory Agroforestry 2(1+1) THEORY: 1. Introduction definition of forests and forestry branches of forestry history of forests in India and A.P. present status and role of forests in Indian farming systems. 2. Agroforestry Definition, Objectives and Potential Role of Trees in Agroforestry systems 3. Social Forestry need, objectives and Scope Difference between Agroforestry and Social and Farm Forestry. 4. Intercropping, cover cropping, wind breaks and shelter belts orientation, design and choice of species for wind breaks. 5. Classification of Agroforestry systems and practices agri-silviculture / agrihorticulture systems choice of species for timber, fuel wood, fodder and fruits. 6. Agri-horticultural systems for irrigated and dry lands, pre-bearing an dbearing orchards. 7. Tree-crop interactions in Agroforestry systems above and below ground interactions for light, water and nutrients. 8. Canopy managements of tree species copping, pollarding and lopping Alley cropping Application of tree prunings as mulch advantages time of application and release of nutrients. 9. Nutrient cycling in agroforestry systems. 10. Home gardens types practices in different countries role in economy Shifting cultivation Taungya system. 11. Silvi-pasture / hort-pastoral systems Establishment of legume and grass pastures 12. Planning for Agroforestry constaints Diagnosis and Design methodology 13. Evaluation of Agroforestry systems productivity, sustainability and adaptability 14. Multi-purpose tee species their management practices for economic cultivation Acacia catechu, A.nilotica, Dalbrgia sissoo, Quercus Spp. 15. Cultivation of teak, eucalypts and populous spp. 16. Cultivation of bamboo, tamarind and neem. 109

120 PRACTICALS: 1. Identification of multipurpose tree species and their seeds Collection of Herbaria 2. Nursery practices and raising of seedlings of species like Morus alba(mulberry), Aucia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo and Subabul. 3. Seed viability tests. 4. Seed treatment for removing dormancy. 5. Measurement of tree height and diameter. 6. Calculation of tree volume and canopy measurement. 7. Visit to Agroforestry fields. 8. Visit to study mango based cropping systems 9. Study of ber based cropping systems. 10. Study coconut based cropping system 11. Identification of Pasture specie and their seeds 12. Visit to social forestry nurseries 13. Visit to industrial plantations and shelter belts 14. Productivity evaluation of Agroforestry systems 15. Rapid measurement of farmers need for green manure green fodder, and fuel wood in selected villages. 16. Economics and marketing of products raised in Agroforestry systems. 110

121 DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, BIO-CHEMISTRY & MICRO BIOLOGY PBM Introductory Crop Physiology 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Introduction Definition of Crop Physiology Importance in Horticulture 2 Seed Physiology Seed structures Development of embryo, endosperm, Perisperm and seed coat Morphological, physiological and biochemical changes during seed development 3 Seed Physiology (continued) Physiological Maturity Morphological and Physiological Changes associated with physiological maturity in crops with examples Harvestable Maturity Seed viability and vigour Factors affecting seed viability and vigour 4 Seed Physiology (continued) Methods of testing seed viability and vigour Germination Utilization of seed reserves (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) during seed germination 5 Seed Physiology (continued) Morphological, physiological and Biochemical changes during seed germination Factors affecting seed germination 6 Water relations in plants Role of water in plant metabolism Water uptake (passive and active) and transport Water potential and its components. 7 Methods of measurement of water potential in plants 8 Water uptake (passive and active) and transport Ascent f sap Soil, plant, atmosphere continuum 9 Transpiration definition and importance, various modes of transpiration Factors affecting transpiration Root pressure Guttation Stem bleeding Stomata Occurrence and distribution Mechanism of opening and closing stomata. 10 Plant Nutrition Criteria of essentiality Classification based on uptake and biochemical function Mechanism of absorption of plant nutrients 11 Physiological roles of plant nutrients Deficiency and Toxicity symptoms of plant nutrients Amelioration 12 Photosynthesis Importance Chloroplast, structure and function Light reactions Z scheme of electron transport Cyclic, Non-cyclic, Pseudo-cyclic Photophosphorylation 13 Photosynthesis (continued) Dark reactions C3, C4 and CAM pathways Significance and Differences 111

122 14 Photorespiration and its significance Factors affecting Photosynthesis, light, CO2, temperature and water Methods of measurement of Photosynthesis 15 Respiration and its significance Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETS, Pentose Phosphate Pathway Inter relationship of various pathways in plnt metabolism 16 Seed Dormancy Definition Types of seed dormancy Advantages and disadvantages of seed dormancy Causes and remedial measures of seed dormancy with examples PRACTICALS: 1. Preparation of solutions 2. Seed imbibition 3. Optimum conditions for seed germination 4. Tests of seed viability and vigour 5. Measurement of root pressure of seedling 6. Measurement of water status in leaves, stem, roots 7. Measurement of transpiration by photometer method 8. Measurement of Stomatal frequency and index. 9. Measurement of Photosynthesis by Hill reaction 10. Measurement of absorption spectrum of chloroplastic pigments and fluorescence 11. Separation of chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls by chemical method 12. Leaf anatomy of C3 and C4 plants 13. Measurement of Respiration 14. Breaking dormancy by chemical method and by mechanical method 15. Study of seed germination in different fruit and vegetable crops 16. Important physiological disorders in different fruit and vegetable crops and their remedial measures through application of nutrients and others method. 112

123 PPBM Introductory Microbiology 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 History of Microbiology: Spontaneous generation theory, contributions of Antony vonleewenhoek. Fransesco Redi. Lazzero spalianzani. Franz Shultz. Schroder and von dush. Louis psteur. John Tyndal. Role of Microbes in Fermentation and Contributins of Cagnaird Latour. Theodor Schwann. F.Kutzing Louis Pasteur etc., 2 Germ Theory of disease and contribution of Hippocrates, louis psteur, Robert koch. Pure culture methods by joseph lister, Robert koch. Beijerinck. Winogradsky. Francois Appert. Schroder and von Dush. John Tyndall etc., Protection against infection and contributions of Edward Jenner. F. Loeffler, Behirng, Kitasasto, Louis Pasteur etc. 3 Development of Microbiology; Agricultural Microbiology, Industrial Microbiology, Medical Microbiology, Exo Microbiology, Geo. Microbiology, Pollution Microbiology, Aero Microbiology, Microbial Biotechnology 4 Microbial Groups and their distribution: Algae fungi protozoa and bacteria 5 The bright field microscope, simple staining and differential staining 6 Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells prokaryotic cell structure and function 7 Types of culture media, synthetic and non synthetic media, liquid and solid media, simple and enriched differential selective and minimal media 8 Nutritional groups of Bacteria, Phototrophs, Chemotrophs, Autotrophs and Heterotrophs, Parasites and Saprophytes. 9 Microbial growth, normal growth curve of bacteria yeast and mold growth, growth measurement 10 General properties of viruses and bacteriophages 11 Structure of T2 phage lytic and lysogenic cycles. Viroids prions 12 General principles of bacterial genetics variation, adaptation, mutation and recombination 13 Gene expression Replication, transcription, translation, genetic ode operon concept 14 Microbial association: Symbiosis, antibiosis, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and synergism 15 Microbial inoculants, biofertilizers microbial bio pesticides microbial agents for control of plant diseases. 16 Biodegradation, biogas production, composting of agricultural residues 113

124 PRACTICALS: 1. Introduction Safety measures in microbiology laboratory 2. Aseptic Techniques in culturing microbes 3. Observation of Microorganisms Algae 4. Observation of Fungi 5. Observation of Bacteria, Gram Staining 6. Methods of Sterilization of liquids, glassware and microbial cultures 7. Nutrient Agar Preparation 8. Methods of culturing liquid and solid microbial cultures 9. Purification of Bacterial Culture 10. Agar slopes and their use. 11. Streak Plate method of Isolation of Bacteria 12. Pour Plate method 13. Spread plate method 14. Turbidometric estimation of Microbial growth 15. Microbial Inoculants 114

125 PPBM Growth and Development of Horticultural Crops 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Definition of growth and development, distinguish between them, components of growth and development: Cell division, Cell Enlargement and Cell Differentiation. 2 Photosynthetic productivity; Leaf Area Index (LAI) & Optimum Leaf Index in Horticultural Crops; Canopy Development 3 Stages of Growth-Embryonic, Juvenile, Transitional, Maturity, Senescence; Growth Curves Sigmoid & Double Sigmoid with examples. Four phases of Growth: a) Initial Lag Phase b) Log Phase c) Decline Phase d) Senescent Phase. 4 Growth Analysis Growth Parameters Absolute Growth Rate (AGR) LAI, Specific Leaf Area (SLA), Specific Leaf Weight (SLW), Leaf Area Rates (LAR) Net Assimilation Rate (NAR), Relative Growth Rate (RGR), Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Harvest Index (HI). 5 Plant Bio-Regulators: Auxins History, Basic Functions of Auxins, Anti-Auxins and Auxin, Anti-Auxins and Auxin antagonists, Biosynthesis of Auxins, Role of Auxins in Propagation, Flowering, Fruit Setting, Fruit Thinning, Fruit Development, Fruit Drop and Fruit Ripening. 6 Gibberellins-History, Basic Functions of Gibberellins, Biosynthesis of Gibberellins, Role of Gibberellins in Propagation (Seed dormancy), Bud Dormancy, Increase in Plant Height, Flowering, Fruit Setting, Fruit/Berry Development, Fruit Drop and Fruit Ripening / Degreening and other roles. 7 Cytokinins-History & Basic Functions, Biosynthesis, Role of cytokinins in various plant parameters; Growth Inhibitors and Growth Retardants & their role. 8 Growth, inhibitors ABA History physiological roles of ABA Biosynthesis of ABA Mechanism of action of ABA Growth Retardants & their role other novel plant growth regulators (Brassinosteriods, jasmonoids, salicylic acid, poly amines etc.) and their roles. 9 Ethylene History & Basic Functions, Biosynthesis, Role of Ethylene in various plant parameters. 10 Flowering factors effecting flowering Developmental, Environmental, Growth Rate Flowering Physiology: Growth, Flower movements and pollenphysiology, out crossing, substance regulating flowering Gibberellins, Auxins, other chemical regulators Nature of flowering stimulus. 11 Photoperiodism and Flowering: Definition of photoperiodism. Classification of plants according to light requirements (photoperiod) short day plants (examples) long day plants (examples) nd day neutral plants (examples); Importance of Dark period; photoperiodic stimulus. 115

126 12 Vernalization: Definition, cold treatments and flowering, Examples for Vernalization in Horticulture, site of Vernaliztion, Mchanism-De-Vernalizatio, source and translocation of floral stimulus Florigen concept physiological concept or reality. Vernalization and photoperiodic response, substitution of GA to Vernalization, other factors modifying vernalization. 13 Pruning and Training: Physiological Basis of Training and Pruning, Training Factors for successful Training Height of Head-Number and Distribution of Scaffold Limbs Interior Limbs Trees of Different Shapes Lowering the Tops of the Trees Preventing the formation of Crotches. Pruning When to Prune Effect on Growth, Effect on Fruit Spur, Effect on Fruit Bud Formation, Effect on Yield-effect on size, color, quality of fruits; Physiological Aspects of Pruning Apical Dominance Photosynthesis Canopy Structure, Effective Leaf Area, Source Sink Relationship. 14 Abiotic stress and plant growth effect of water stress on plant growth and development effect of temperature and light stress on plant growth effect of ion and salt stress on plant growth and development. Senescence types, theories proposed explaining the occurrence of senescence, physiological and biochemical changes associated with senescence. 15 Bud Dormancy: What is Bud Dormancy, Factors responsible for Bud Dormancy, Photoperiodism and Bud Dormancy, Perception of Light Stimulus, Dormancy Inducing Hormones-Dormancy of Potato Tuber Buds, Growth inhibiting Substnces Compounds breaking Bud Dormancy Induction of Bud Dormancy, Removal of Bud Dormancy and Dormancy in various organs. 16 Fruit setting: Fading of flowers, factors responsible for fruit set, growth relation, parthenocrpy, limitations of fruit setting; fruit growth; fruit growth rates, mobilization fruit size (role of seeds, growth substances); Ripening: changes with ripening, respiratory climacteric, role of ethylene, climacteric fruits & non climacteric fruits. 116

127 PRACTICALS: 1. Preparation of herbarium for monocarpic, polycarpic, determinate and indeterminate growth types. 2. Estimation of photosynthetic potential of horticultural crops. 3. Estimate of leaf area of by various methods in different horticultural crops. 4. Estimate of different growth analysis parameters in horticultural crops. 5. Bioassay of plant hormones-auxins 6. Bioassay of plant hormones Gibberellins 7. Bioassay of plant hormones-cytokinins and other growth regulators. 8. Identification of synthetic plant hormones and growth retardants. 9. Preparation of hormonal solutions and application to different types of cuttings for inducing rooting. 10. Preparation of hormonal solutions and application to different fruits for promoting ripening. 11. Preparation of hormonal solutions and application to different fruits and vegetable crops to control flower and fruit drop. 12. Rapid tissue test 13. Study of various kinds of seed dormancy in different fruit and vegetable crops. 14. Effect of water stress (PEG 6000) on plant growth and development 15. Study of seed temperature and light on growth and development. 16. Effect of salinity stress on plant growth and development. 117

128 PBM Elementary Plant Biochemistry (2+1) THEORY: 1 Introduction and discoveries of biochemistry and importance of biochemistry 2 Plant cell and its organelles and their functions 3 Plant cell wall and its importance in industry 4 Carbohydrates: occurrences, classification and structures 5 Physical and chemical properties of carbohydrates, isomerism, optical activity, 6 Reducing property, reactions with acids and alkali, ozone formation 7 Lipids : classification, functions importance of fatty acids and triglycerides, essential fatty acids 8 Physical and chemical properties of fatty acids, like specification, hydrogenation, iodine number, and acid number. 9 Rancidity, phospholipids, types and importance 10 Plant pigments: Structure and function of chlorophyll and carotenoids, sterols 11 Basic structure, role of brassinosteroles in plants. 12 Proteins: amino acids structures and classification. 13 Essential amino acids, properties of amino acids, colour reactions, amphoteric nature, isomerism 14 Peptides oligopeptides, functions, cyclic and acyclic peptides malformin, gramicidine and glutathione, insulin 15 Properties U.V absorption, immunological properties. 16 Structure of proteins, primary secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Reactions of proteins 17 Properties U.V absorption, immunological properties, denaturation and solubility. 18 Purification techniques like salting out salting in, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography 19 Enzymes: Properties of enzymes, mode of enzyme activity 20 Classification of enzymes, measurement of enzyme activity 21 Co factors and coenzymes. Vitamins and minerals as co-enzymes / cofactors 22 Factors affecting 3enzyme action and enzyme inhibition 23 Immobilization of enzymes and industrial uses of enzymes. 118

129 24 Nucleic acids functions, structures of purines and pyrimidine bases, nucleotides, nucleosides 25 Structure of DNA, types of DNAs, 26 Types of RNAs, structures of RNAs, packing of DNA into chromosome. 27 Flow of genetic information, Replication 28 Transcription Post transcriptional changes, inhibitors of transcription, genetic code 29 Translation, post translational modifications, inhibitors 30 Metabolism: carbohydrates metabolism, glycolysis, and TCA cycle 31 Metabolism of lipids: oxidation of fatty acids and biosynthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerides 32 Electron transport chain and Bioenergetics of glucose and fatty acids PRACTICALS 1 Preparation of standard solutions and reagents 2 Carbohydrates Qualitative reactions 3 Estimation of starch 4 Estimation of reducing and non reducing sugars from fruits 5 Reactions of amino acids 6 Estimation of proteins by lowery method 7 Estimation of free fatty acids 8 Determination of iodine number of vegetable oils 9 Estimation of Ascorbic acid 10 Paper chromatography 11 Thin layer chromatography 12 Isolation of DNA from onions 13 Electrophoresis of pigments extracted from flowers 14 Extraction of oil from oil seeds 15 Enzyme induction 16 Enzyme inhibition, kinetics data processing 119

130 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH, STATISTICS, AND SOCIAL SCIENCE ESSS INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS 2(2+0) THEORY: 1 & 2 Economics Nature meaning, Definitions, subject matter of Economics Basic terms and concepts I economics 3 Divisions of economics, economic systems approaches to study economics goods, services classification of goods. 4 Consumption theory of consumer behaviour, laws of consumption 5 Utility Meaning, characteristics of utility forms of utility. 6 Wants-their characteristics and classification, utility and its measurement, cardinal and ordinal 7 Law of Diminishing marginal utility Assumptions of law, explanation, limitations of the law, importance 8 Law of equimarginal utility meaning assumptons, explanation of the law, practical importance, limitations, in difference curve and its properties. 9 Engel s law of family expenditure Consumer s surplus meaning Assumptions, explanation, difficulties in measuring consumer s surplus, importance. 10 Consumer equilibrium 11 Demand-meaning, definition, types of demand, income demand, price demand, cross demand. 12 Demand schedule, demand curve, law of demand contraction and extension, increase and decrease in demand 13 Elasticity of demand- meaning elastic and inelastic demand, kinds of elasticity of demand, perfectly elastic, perfectly inelastic, relatively elastic, unitary elastic demand. 14 Price elasticity, income elasticity and cross elasticity of demand, practical importance of elasticity of demand 15 Price determination and forecasting under various market structures 16 Supply meaning definition, law of supply, supply schedule, supply curve 17 Increase & decrease in supply, contraction and extension of supply, factors affecting supply. 120

131 18 Elasticity of supply, kinds of elasticity of supply perfectly elastic perfectly inelastic elastic, inelastic and unitary elasticity factors affecting elasticity of supply 19 & 20 Markets definition, functions of markets, essentials of market, classification of markets, conditions of perfect, markets, conditions of imperfect market. 21 Characteristics of perfect competitions and imperfect competition. 22 Characteristics of monopoly oligopoly, duopoly 23 Characteristics of oligopoly perfect and imperfect 24 Characteristics of imperfect competition markets 25 Factors of production land and its characteristics, labour division of labour 26&27 Theories of population Daltons formula 28 Capital and its characteristics classification and capital formation 29&30 Enterprises forms of business organization merits and demerits 31 Distribution Theory of rent, wage & profit 32 Interest pure interest, gross interest, net interest, liquidity preference theory, profit true profit, gross profit, net profit 121

132 ESSS STRUCTURAL GRAMMAR AND 2(1+1) SPOKEN ENGLISH THEORY: Structural Grammar 1 Introduction to parts of speech and identification of parts of speech in a sentence. 2 Structure of verb in English 3 Tense usage present tense, past tense and future tense 4 Active voice and passive voice Spoken English 5 Dyadic communication: Face to Face conversation & Telephonic conversation. 6 Interviews: types of interview questions, Physical makeup and manners, Educational qualifications experience etc. 7 Dictation and Instruction 8 Stress and Intonation Comprehension 9 & 10 Experiment and Experience 11&12 The year 2050 Reflections of a Futurist Writing skills 13 Letter writing: official and personal 14 Job Applications with RESUME 15 Report writing: Definition, Types of reports 16 Scientific and Technical report writing 122

133 PRACTICALS: Structural Grammar: 1. Change of voice in affirmative sentences, when a transitive verb has two objects, factitive verb is changed from active to passive choice, voice of verb in interrogative sentences - Exercises 2. Tenses usage: Present tense 3. Past tense and 4. Future tense-exercises on the uses of tenses 5. Structure of verb: five verb patterns a) Subject + verb + direct object (e.g.: 1. Rama likes coffee 2. She can drive a car) b) Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object (eg. Her mother told her a story) c) Subject + verb + direct object + Preposition + Prepositional object (e.g. They told the news to every body in the village) d) Subject + verb + (not) + to-infinitive, etc (eg. He has refused to help us) e) Subject + verb + noun or pronoun + present participle (eg. I found her working in the kitchen 2. She kept us waiting) 6. Vocabulary: Synonyms Exercises 7. Antonyms Exercises Spoken English: 8. Conversation practice (at the Doctor, at the Restaurant, at the Market yard) 9. Stress and Intonation Practice with Spoken English audio cassettes from CIEFL 10. Correct use of Prepositions, verbs followed by prepositions Exercises 11. Conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions and correlative conjunctions Exercises on correct use of conjunctions Presentation Skills: 12. Presentation of reports orally regulating speech-physical appearance body language posture eye contact voice audience preparation of visual aids one presentation by individual on the given topic related to Horticulture like fruit preservation techniques, developing new technologies in Horticulture, use of Biofertilizers etc. 13. Group discussions: group dynamics, purpose, and organization of group discussions in practical classes as well as in practical examination 14. Mock interviews: conducting mock interviews along with role plays as interviewer and interviewee for practice 15. Evaluation sheet and its importance 16. Feed back and Semester Final Practical examination 123

134 ESSC Elementary Statistics and Computer Application 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Introduction to Statistics, Definition, Advantages & Limitations 2 Frequency Distribution: Construction of Frequency Distribution Table and Frequency Curves 3 Measures of Central tendency Characteristics of a Satisfactory Average. 4 Measures of Central tendency Arithmetic Mean (A.M) : A.M. for Grouped and Ungrouped data, Merits and Demerits of A.M. 5 Measures of Central Tendency Median and Mode: Median and mode for Grouped and Ungrouped data, Merits and Demerits of Median and Mode 6 Measures of Dispersion Standard Deviation (S.D) and Coefficient of Variation (C.V.): S.D. and C.V. for Grouped and Ungrouped data 7 Theoretical Distributions Normal distribution and its properties 8 Introduction to Testing of Hypothesis- Null Hypothesis, Type 1 and Type 2 Errors, Level of Significance and Steps involved in Testing 9 SND (Z) test for One Sample and Two Samples (Equality of Means) 10 Students t-test for One Sample and Two Samples (Equality of Means) 11 Paired t-test 12 Chi square test for 2x2 Contingency Table and F- test 13 Correlation Definition, Scatter Diagram, Positive and Negative Correlations 14 Correlation Properties, Calculation of Coefficient of Correlation and its testing 15 Linear Regression Fitting of linear regression lines 16 Introduction to Experimental Designs Basic Principles of Experimental Designs and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and its assumptions 17 Completely Randomized Design Plan and Analysis 18 Randomized Block Design Plan and Analysis 19 Latin Square Design Plan and Analysis 20 Introduction to Computers Anatomy and Functions of Components 21 Computers Input and Output Devices and Personal Computers 22 Operating Systems Functions and Types, DOS and basis Commands 23 Introduction to WINDOWS Features, Desktop and its Elements 124

135 24 MSOFFICE: Components MS WORD, MSEXCEL, MSACCESS AND MSPOWERPOINT 25 MSWORD- Creation of Document and Features of Word- Processing 26 MSWORD Creation of Tables and Printing of a Document 27 MSEXCEL Concept of Electronic Spreadsheets, Features of MSEXCEL 28 MSEXCEL Features for Computing Inbuilt Statistical Functions, Use of Formula Bar 29 POWERPOINT Concept, Preparation and Presentation of Slides 30 POWERPOINT Setting of Slide Show 31 Introduction to Internet Basic Concepts 32 Introduction to WWW Basic concepts PRACTICALS: 1 Construction of Frequency Distribution Table and Frequency Curves 2 Computation of Arithmetic Mean, Median and Mode for grouped and un-grouped Data 3 Computation of Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation for grouped and un-grouped Data 4 Standard Normal Distribution(Z) test for one sample with Population Standard Deviation known and unknown 5 Standard Normal Distribution(Z) test for two samples(equality of Means) with Population Standard Deviation known and unknown 6 Students t test for one sample and two samples (Equality of Means) 7 Paired t- test for two samples(equality of Means) and F- test for two samples(equality of Variances) 8 Chi square test for 2 x 2 contingency table with Yates correction 9 Calculation of Coefficient of Correlation and its testing 10 Fitting of simple Linear Regression Equations Y on X and X on Y 11 Analysis of Completely Randomized Design 12 Analysis of Randomized Block Design 13 Analysis of Latin Square Design 14 MS Word - Creation of Document, Editing, Formatting and Saving 15 MS Excel Creation of Spreadsheets, Editing, Formatting and Saving 16 MS Excel Use of Inbuilt Statistical Functions and Formula Bar 17 MS Power Point - Creation and Presentation of Slides and Slide Show 125

136 ESSC Fundamentals of Extension Education 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Education Formal, Informal, Non-Formal 2 Extension Education origin of Extension, Meaning, Definition, Concept, Objectives, Scope, Functions and principles. 3 Teaching Learning process: Meaning of Teaching and Learning, Learning situation and Learning experience 4 Communication Meaning, Definition, Functions, and components. 5 Audio- Visual aids Meaning, Importance, classification and selection 6 a) Rural development Meaning, Definition, Genesis and objectives b) Sociology and Rural sociology, importance & Rural society in Extension Educations, Characteristics of Indian Rural Society. 7 Educational psychology Meaning importance, intelligence, personality, perception, emotions, frustration. 8 Transfer of Technology Programmes I) KVK II) TAR IVLP III) Board Based Extension Approach IV)ATIC 9 I) APMIP II) DWACRA III) ANTWA IV) DAATTC 10 Extension Reforms ATMA, SREP Motivating a farming community farm women and Rural youth. 11 Programme planning process Meaning, definition, Principles, nature, and scope, objectives and scope. 12 Evaluation Meaning, Importance, degrees and methods 13 Participatory Rural Appraisal- Meaning, Components, Principles, Approaches and different tools of PRA. 14 Leadership Meaning, Classification of leaders, Selection of leaders, Roles, Training of leaders. 15 Management and administration Meaning, Definitions, Principles and Functions. 16 Human Resource Development Meaning, Definition and Importance. 126

137 PRACTICALS : 1,2 & 3 Visit to the villages to study the structure, functions, linkages and programmes 4 Visit to Horticulture Department 5,6 & 7 Planting and preparation of posters, charts, Flash cards, OHP transparencies 8 & 9 Planning and preparation of News story, success story, leaflet and folder 10 & 11 Planning and preparation of a script for Radio and Television. 12 Identification of Local Leaders to study their role in extension work. 13 & 14 Practicing PRA techniques and preparation of village development plan. 15 & 16 Evaluation of some selected extension programmes 127

138 ESSC Horticultural Business Management (2+0) THEORY: 1. Farm Management-meaning, scope, definitions, objectives, its relationship with other sciences, farm management decisions 2 & 3 Economic principles applied to farm management law of diminishing returns, definitions, reasons for the operation of the law of diminishing returns in agriculture, horticulture, factor-product relationship, 3 stages of production function, economics of scale, returns to scale. 4 & 5 Principle of factor substitution-factor-factor relationship, Isoquant, Isocost, least cost combination, MRTS, Price ratio, profit rules, Ridge lines, Expansion path. 6 & 7 Principle of product substitution-product-product relationship-iso product curve, Isorevenue line, determination of optimum combination, MRS, price ratio, profit rules. 8 Principle of equi-marginal returns-allocation of resources, opportunity cost principle, minimum loss principle. 9 Principle of comparative advantage-absolute advantage, relative advantage, decision making using the principle. 10 Time comparison principle-time value of money, compounding, discounting. Decision making under risk and uncertainty 11 & 12 Theory of costs-cost concepts, fixed cost, variable costs, total costs, Average variable cost, average fixed cost, average cost, marginal cost, total revenue, average revenue, marginal revenue, break even analysis. 13 Cost of cultivation (cost A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 & C2) Income measures- farm business income, family labour income, net income and farm investment income. 14 & 15 Types of farming-specialized, diversified, mixed, dry farming, types of farm business organization-peasant, co-operative, capitalistic, state, collective farming. 16 Farm planning-characteristics and limitations, budgeting-partial, complete, steps in farm planning and budgeting 17 Farm records-benefits, limitations, various farm records maintained on the farm 18 Management-introduction, concept, scope and nature of management, various functions of management. 19&20 Operations Management-overview, functions, interrelationship with 5 P s of management, scheduling of operations, plant and plant layout, inspection & quality management. 128

139 21 & 22 Materials management-overview, objectiives, scope, concept, need for inventory and its control. 23 & 24 Marketing management-definition, functions, components of marketing mix (4 P s), product, price, promotion, place, product life cycle. 25 Personnel Management-concept & role, basic functions of HR managers (selection, retention, incentives, training & development, evaluation etc.,) 26 Financial Management-Financial statement, brief introduction to final accounts (Trading account,profit and loss account and balance sheet) 27 Financial analysis/ratio analysis-brief introduction to liquidity, leverage activity and profitability ratios. 28 Capital budgeting-meaning, evaluation of capital budgeting proposals, traditional methods (payback period, accounting rate of return), discounted cash flow methods (NPV, IRR, CB ratio or profitability index) 29&30 Project Management-meaning, scope, steps in project preparation and management, various evaluation measures. 31&32 WTO-GATT-origin, history, Agreement on Agriculture (AOA)-market access, export subsidies, domestic support, TRIPS, SPS & TBT, anti dumping, Impact of WTO on Indian Agriculture / Horticulture sector 129

140 ESSC Communication Skills and 2(1+1) Entrepreneurship development THEORY: 1. Communication skills Listening, note taking, writing skills, presentation skills oral impromptu and public speaking: reading and comprehension 2. Entrepreneurship; concept, entrepreneurial and managerial characteristics, functions of entrepreneur and types of entrepreneurs 3. Horti-Enterpreneurship concept, nature and importance for sustainable livelihoods 4. Motivation and entrepreneurship development 5. Managing an enterprise; importance of planning, budgeting, monitoring, evaluation and follow up. 6. Managing competition 7. Entrepreneurship development programmes 8. Generation, incubation and commercialization of ideas and innovations 9. Govt. schemes and incentives for promotion of entrepreneurship & Govt. policy on small and medium enterprises. SMEs/ SSIs 10. Export, import policies relevant to horticulture sector 11. Venture capital, contract farming and joint ventures, public private partnerships 12. Overview of Horti input industries, characteristics of Indian horticultural processing and export industry 13. Social responsibility of Business, Morals ethics in enterprise management, SWOT analysis 14. Project meaning, importance, components and preparation PRACTICALS: 1. Field visit to successful Enterprise study of Characteristics of successful; entrepreneurs case study 2. Communication skills listening, writing and presentation skills oral impromptu and public speaking; reading and comprehension and presentations by students. 3. Development of small horti business proposals and presentations 4. Visit to public private (small, medium & big) Horticultural Enterprises both small and big, visit to pack houses for grading, processing and packing 5. Visit to Horticlins and Hort-business centers (public & private) 6. SWOT analysis of selected enterprise 130

141 DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURAL, ENGINEERING & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE HEES ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2(1+1) THEORY: 1 Environment: Introduction, definition and importance. Environmental segments. 2 Natural resources: Definition of Renewable and non renewable resources. Water, land, food and energy resources 3 Forest resources types and functions. Causes and consequences of deforestation, carbon trading. 4 Ecosystem: Definition, concept, structure and functions of an ecosystem. Food chain Producers, consumers, detritivores and decomposers. 5 Bio-diversity: Definition, types of biodiversity. Threats to biodiversity. Conservation of biodiversity in situ and ex situ strategies. Hot spots of biodiversity. Biodiversity Board and Act. 6 Environmental pollution: Point and non-point sources. Sources, effects and control of air and noise pollution. 7 Sources, effects and control of soil pollution with reference to horticultural crops. Biomagnifications 8 Sources, effects and control of water pollution, Eutrophication 9 Sources, effects and control of food pollution with reference to horticultural crops. 10 Causes of environmental degradation with reference to socio economic factors 11 Sources and effects of solid waste, hazardous wastes, horticultural and industrial wastes and their management. 12 Climate change: Global warming causes signs and impacts; Smog; Ozone layer depletion; Acid rain and its effects 13 The environmental protection Act The Air (Prevention and control of pollution) Act. The water (Prevention and control of pollution) Act. 14 Forest conservation ct. The wildlife protection Act. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment 15 International conferences, conventions and summits major achievements in relation to environment. Institutions and people in environment. 131

142 PRACTICALS: 1. Collection, processing and storage of waste water samples 2. determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in waste water sample. 3. estimation of dissolved oxygen and BOD in waste water sample. 4. Determination of total dissolved solids (TDS) in waste water samples. 5 & 6 Analysis of temporary and total hardness of water sample by titration 7, 8 & 9 Analysis of waste water / sludge for heavy metals 10. Determination of sound level by using sound level meter 11. Estimation of respirable and non-respirable dust in the air by using dust sampler 12. Assessment of chlorophyll content of effected horticultural crops 13. Visit to an ecosystem 14. Visit to recycling units of horticultural wastes/ processing industry 15. Visit to social service Organization / Environmental education centre/ in situ or exsitu conservation centre. 16. Visit to a local polluted site Observation and remedial measures. 132

143 HEES Farm power and Machinery 3(2+1) THEORY: 1 Farm power Sources of farm power, merits and demerits of different forms of power 2 &3 Farm mechanization Benefits, Constraints, Scope, Limitation etc. 4 IC Engines Classification, components and their functions. 5 Internal combustion engine working principle of I.C engine, four stroke cycle engine two stoke cycle engine. 6 Comparison of diesel engine with spark ignition engine, comparison of four stoke and two stoke engine. 7,8 & 9 Terminology IHP, FHP, BHP, DBHP, compression ratio, stoke bore ratio, piston displacement, mechanical efficiency and numerical problems. 10 Fuel supply system Functions of fuel filters, air cleaners and their types, governors types and purpose, fuel injection pump and fuel injector. 11 Ignition system Battery ignition system, functions of spark plug, distributor, ignition coil and condenser, storage battery and its maintenance. 12 Cooling system Purpose of cooling, air and water cooling open jacket method, forced circulation method. Functions of radiator and thermostat valve. 13 Lubrication system Purpose of lubrication, types of lubricants, lubrication systems splash system, forced feed system, combination of splash and forced feed system. Functions of oil filters. 14 Power transmission system Functions of cultch, gearbox, differential unit and final drive. 15 & 16 Classification of tractors, estimating the cost of tractor power, slection of tractor and its daily maintenance. 17 &18,19 Electric motors types, construction and performance comparison. Disc plough: Functions, constructional details, operation, adjustments and maintenance. Terminology. 20 & 21M.B. Plough: Functions, constructional details, operation, adjustments and maintenance. Plough accessories, Terminology. Numerical problems on M. B plough, Disc plough, cultivator etc. 22 Harrows Types, Functions of Disc harrows. Cultivator rigid tyned, spring tyned. Puddlers, cage wheels, rotovator. 23 Intercultural implements: hoes and weeder. 133

144 24 Tractor mounted equipment for land development and soil conservation functions of bund former, Ridger, and leveling blade. 25 & 26 Sowing equipment: Seed cum fertilizer drill types, Functions metering mechanism, functional components, calibration and numerical problems. potato planter and seedling transplanter. 27&28 Harvesting equipment Sickles, Potato diggers, Fruit pluckers, tapioca puller and hoists. 29 Grafting, pruning and training tools and equipment 30,31&32 Plant protection equipment Types of sprayers knapsack sprayer, hand compression hand compression sprayer. Foot sprayer and power sprayer, care and maintenance of sprayers Dusters. PRACTICAL: 1 Study of I.C. engines (2 stroke and 4 stroke) 2 Study of tractor drawn primary tillage implements. 3 Study of tractor drawn secondary tillage implements. 4 Study of seed cum fertilizer drills. 5 Study of potato planter. 6 & 7 Study of operation and maintenance of tractor and power tiller. 8 to 10 Learning of tractor and power tiller. 11 & 12 Study of sprayers Dismantling and assembling, maintenance of sprayers Knap sack hand operated and power sprayer. Hand compression sprayer, Foot sprayer, Thaiwan sprayer and Tractor mounted sprayer. 13 Visit to NPPTI/ Service centre. 14 Study of harvesting equipment Potato diggers, Fruit plucks, tapioca puller and hoists. 15 Visit to Implements manufacturing unit. 16 Visit to Tractor service centre. 134

145 EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PROGRAMME ELP-401 Nursery Production and Management 15(5+10) THEORY: 1-2 Project preparation Aim of the project, objective etc., 3-4 Nursery Registration and Act Importance of Nursery registration, procedures for Nursery Registration and Nursery Registration Act 5 Different types of nurseries fruit nursery, vegetable nursery and flower nursery 6 Certification of bud wood and mother block 7-9 Nursery establishment pre requisites, factors affecting nursery, establishment of a commercial nursery Parts of a nursery Different types of plant propagation structures and equipments-greenhouse, hotbeds, cold frames, mist chambers, net houses, lath houses etc., Media for propagation Characteristics of an ideal medium, criteria for selection of a medium. Characteristics of a commonly used media 15 Different types of nursery beds their advantages and disadvantages Seed propagation of vegetables, flowers and root stocks in fruits Propagation by specialized plant parts (bulbs, corms, rhizomes, runners etc.,) Nursery management Seed sowing, transplanting, nutrients, insect-pest and diseases management in nursery Propagation by cuttings-hard wood stem cuttings, soft wood stem cuttings, semihard wood cuttings, herbaceous cuttings, leaf cuttings. Leaf bud cuttings and root cuttings (with suitable examples for fruits and flowers) Factors affecting rooting of cuttings Propagation by layering different types of layering (Ground and air layering) Propagation by graftingdifferent types of grafting (inarching, veneer grafting, wedge, whip) Mother plant selection and characteristics of a good root stock 34 Rootstocks for different fruit trees 35 Establishment of progeny block Identification of mother plants and maintenance of bud wood bank Graft incompatibility studies rectification of graft incompatibility 40 Different types of manures and fertilizers used in nursery 135

146 41 Different types of manures and fertilizers used in nursery Techniques and environment management for large scale production (Shade nets) Study of different types of budding methods Micro-propagation techniques their advantages and disadvantages 51 Hardening of seedlings Packing of nursery plants for transport different types of packing materials used Testing of nursery soil and water of salts, ph, EC etc., 57 Use of plant growth regulators in nurseries 58 Use of chemicals in plant propagation Role of plastics in plant propagation Irrigation management Drip and Sprinkler irrigation Disease and pest management in nurseries Visit to local commercial fruit nurseries Working out economics 136

147 PRACTICALS: 1. Orientation and preparation of inventory 2. Establishing mother plant block of fruit and ornamental plants 3. Preparation of growth regulators for propagation and treatment hormonal powders, solutions and paste preparation 4 Seed propagation and raising of root stocks through seeds collection of seeds and their processing, treatment of seeds: scarification and stratification and testing of seed viability 5 Seed Propagation Preparation of raised beds and sowing, seed sowing in portrays and preparation of media and potting mixtures 6 Visit to specialized structures used in commercial propagation viz., poly house, mist house, shade house, poly tunnel etc., 7 Preparation of different types of cutting Hardwood cuttings, Semi hardwood and soft wood cuttings and Leaf cuttings leaf bud, leaf blade, leaf margin and leaf vein cutting 8 Propagation of plants using specialized structures Tubers-tuberous roots-bulb, sucker, rhizomes and Dormancy breaking techniques in bulbs, tubers and corms. 9 Methods of layering in ornamental and fruit crops Girding, GR application and tying etc., 10 Selection of scion for grafting and pre-curing and preparation of root stocks for grafting 11 Practicing grafting methods approach, veneer, wedge, saddle, side, whip, whip and tongue 12 Practicing methods of budding T, inverted T, patch and slit 13 Preparation of grafts / budded plants / layers of horticultural crops and maintenance. Preparation of media for micro propagation, preparation of explants and inoculation, preparation of aseptic cultures for propagation of fruit, rooting of plantlets and hardening 14 Visit to commercial nurseries and tissue culture labs preparation of project proposal for establishing a commercial nursery Report writing 137

148 ELP-401 THEORY: Nursery Production and Management Supporting Dept. Entomology 1 Management of pests in nurseries of Solanaceous crops insect pests and nematodes, cultural, mechanical and chemical control soil treatment and seed treatment 2 Management of pests in nurseries in cruciferous crops cultural and chemical treat 3 & 4 Insect pests on fruit crop nurseries like mango, coconut, guava etc cashew nut and their management 5 Management of insect pests attacking ornamental crop nurseries PRACTICALS: 1. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of Mango nursery and their management 2. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of Citrus nursery and their management 3. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of Grape / Guava nursery and their management 4. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of Custard apple, Sapota nursery and their management 5. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of Coconut / Oil palm nursery and their management 6. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli, Crucifers nursery and their management 7. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of Onion, Turmeric nursery and their management 8. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of Rose and their management 9. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of Chrysanthemum, Jasmine nursery and their management 10. Identification of insects and damage symptoms of important pests of important pests of Marigold, Crossandra other cut flowers nursery and their management 138

149 ELP-401 THEORY: Nursery Production and Management Supporting Dept. Pathology 1 & 2 Nursery diseases of fruit crops and their control 3 & 4 Nursery diseases of vegetable crops and their control 5 Nursery diseases of ornamental crops and their control PRACTICALS: 1. Methods of sterilization of nursery beds and other material used in nursery production 2. Major chemicals used for control of plant pathogens, their formulations and preparation of spray solutions. 3. Various methods of seed/plant propagation material treatments to control plant pathogens. 4. Diagnose the important nursery diseases of Mango and their control 5. Diagnose the important nursery diseases of Citrus and their control 6. Diagnose the important nursery diseases of Grape, Guava, Custard apple, Sapota and their control 7. Diagnose the important nursery diseases of Banana, cocnut, oilpalm and their control 8. Diagnose the important nursery diseases of Tomato, Brinjal, chilli, crucifers, other vegetable crops and their control 9. Diagnose the important nursery diseases of Rose, Chrysanthemum, Jasmine and their control 10. Diagnose the important nursery diseases of Marigold, Crossandra other cut flowers and their control 139

150 ELP-401 THEORY: Nursery Production and Management Supporting Dept. Economics 1 Preparation of a project on a commercial vegetable nursery production and management 2 Preparation of a project on a commercial flower nursery production and management 3 Preparation of a project on a commercial fruit nursery production and management 4 Study of various costs and returns and working out of economics of a commercial vegetables and flowers nursery production and management 5 Study of various costs and returns and working out of economics of a commercial fruit nursery production and management PRACTICALS: 1. Visit to a commercial Tomato nursery farm collection of data on costs and returns of production and management and working out the economics. 2. Visit to a commercial chilles nursery farm collection of data on costs and returns of production and management and working out the economics. 3. Visit to a commercial Brinjal nursery farm collection of data on costs and returns of production and management and working out the economics. 4. Visit to a commercial Rose nursery farm collection of data on costs and returns of production and management and working out the economics. 5. Visit to a commercial Lilly nursery farm collection of data on costs and returns of production and management and working out the economics. 6. Visit to a commercial Jasmine and Crossandra nursery farm collection of data on costs and returns of production and management and working out the economics. 7. Visit to a commercial Mango nursery farm collection of data on costs and returns of production and management and working out the economics. 8. Visit to a commercial Guava nursery farm collection of data on costs and returns of production and management and working out the economics. 9. Visit to a commercial Sapota nursery farm collection of data on costs and returns of production and management and working out the economics. 140

151 ELP-402 Protected Cultivation of 15(5+10) High Value Horticultural Crops THEORY: 1-2 Importance of protected cultivation of different horticultural crops. Benefits and limitations of polyhouse cultivation Area under poly house cultivation in India and Andhra Pradesh 3-6 Study of media Media components Organic, soilless media. Synthetic media and their chracteristics Preparation of different media mextures for polyhouse cultivated Horticultural crops 7-8 Study of solarization Fumigation of different media chemicals used and methods of fumigation of media 9-10 Preparation of beds Techniques Dimensions for bed preparation for different horticultural crops Erection of supports. Netting arrangements for crops like carnation. Fixing of supporting wires / nets for training of capsicum, tomato and cucumber Method of raising seedlings / plant material, study of different giffy bags propagation methods Study of production techniques of polyhouse grown crops like carnation, roses, gerbera, chrysanthemum, orchids, anthurium and gladiolus Study of polyhouse grown vegetables like tomato, capsicum and cucumber Study of special horticultural practices like pinching, deshooting Deleafing, disbudding Bending etc. in polyhouse grown crops Study of fertigation / nutrigaiton / Types of soluble fertilizers and their composition. Preparation of stock solutions. Methods of fertigation Physiological disorders of polyhouse grown flowers and vegetables Harvesting Techniques Methods and stage of harvesting depending on purpose method of handling and storage techniques of polyhouse grown crops Study of pre-cooling Grading Study of packing material Packing techniques Cold chain techniques Study of standard techniques and preparation of standard worksheets for cultivation of Carnation Chrysanthemum Roses Gerbera Anthurium Orchids Gladiolus Capsicum Tomato and Cucumber 141

152 PRACTICALS: 1-5 Study of different media organic soilless synthetic media. Preparation of different media mixtures for cultivation of Roses Caranation, Chrysanthemum Gerbera, Anthurium and Orchids Study of solarixzation fumigation of polyhouses methods of fumigation Preparation of beds fro growing cut flower crops and vegetables in polyhouses Fixing of supports trellies, arrangement of net supports study of different types of nets Materials used for preparation of nets Preparation of seed beds poly trays for raising nursery seedlings of capsicum, cucumber and tomato Study of jiffy bags propagation techniques of Roses, Gerbera, Carnation, Orchid Anthuriums and Chrysanthemum Study of corms and carmels. Dormancy breaking techniques of Gladiolus Study of climate management techniques practices to manipulate the climate in polyhouses Addition of manures of fertilizers planting techniques of cut flower crops and vegetables Practice of special horticultural techniques like pinching disbudding deshooting deleafing in cut flowers and vegetables Training and pruning techniques in cut flower crops and vegetables Study of fertigation techniques Identification of different soluble fertilizers and their composition Preparation of stock solutions. Practice fertigation in polyhouse grown crops Visit to commercial polyhouses around colleges Study of pollination techniques Different methods of pollination practice pollination in capsicum and tomato Study of harvesting techniques for different purposes in cut flowers and vegetables Study of grading precooling holding solutions for enhancement of vase life Study of different types of packaging materials, storage methods visit to cold storages and commercial markets 142

153 ELP-402 Protected Cultivation of High Value Horticultural Crops Supporting Dept: Entomology THEORY: 1-3 Study of different pests of polyhouse grown flower and vegetable crops like Carnation Roses, Gerbera, Anthurium, Orchids, Galdiolus and Chrysanthemum Tomato, Capsicum and Cucumber 4-5 Study of IPM preparation of insecticide solution and their calculation PRACTICALS: 1 Importance of IPM in Horticultural crops 2 Study on tools of Integrated Pest Management 3 Different types of chemicals (pesticides) and their classification 4 Study on different types Sprayers and Dusters 5 Calculation of insecticide and their compatible studies 6 Preparation of Neem Seed Kernal extracts management of Termites, Nematodes (NSKE) in Horticultural crops, Importance Aflotoxin and its management 7&8 Identification of pests, symptoms and nature of damage of pests attacking on following crops. Tomato and Capsicum, Cucumber 9&10 Ornamental crops Roses, Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, Orchids, Anthurium and Gladiolus Management of pests in ornamental crops 143

154 ELP-402 Protected Cultivation of High Value Horticultural Crops Supporting Dept: Plant Pathology THEORY: 1 Diseases of Roses & Chrysanthemum 2 Diseases of Carnation & Gerbera, Gladiolus 3 Diseases of Anthurium & Orchids 4 Diseases of Tomato & Capsicum 5 Diseases of Cucumber PRACTICALS: 1 Methods of soil sterilization for protected cultivation 2 Difficult methods of seed / planting material treatments 3 Diagnosis & management of diseases of Roses & Chrysanthemum 4 Diagnosis & management of diseases of Carnation, Gerbera & Gladiolus 5 Filed visit to commercial cultivation units 6 Diagnosis & management of Anthurium & Orchids 7 Diagnosis & management of diseases of Tomato 8 Field visit to commercial cultivation units 9 Diagnosis & management of diseases of Capsicum 10 Diagnosis & management of diseases of Cucumber 144

155 ELP-402 THEORY: Protected Cultivation of High Value Horticultural Crops Supporting Dept: Economics 1-2 Study of Non-recurring Recurring costs for cultivation of Horticultural crops in polyhouses 3-5 Working of benefit cost ratio for Carnation Gerbera Roses. Anthurium, Orchids, Gladiolus, Chrysanthemum Tomato, Capsicum and Cucumber 145

156 ELP-403 Floriculture and Landscape Gardening 15(5+10) THEORY: 1-2 Importance of floriculture and landscape (Loose and cut flowers) its significance, area and production of flower crops 3-4 Study on land selection criteria for flower crops 5-6 Preparation of layout plan, soil and water analysis for raising flower crops 7-9 Selection of seed material, viability tests, nursery techniques. Precaution for successful raising of nursery Study of production techniques for rose, classification, different rootstocks and their description Importance, advantages and disadvantages of training and pruning rose in the open field Study of harvesting stages, post harvest management (Field heat, pulsing, holding solutions), grading and package of roses Study on importance of chrysanthemums, use as loose and cut flowers, production technology, including the nutrition and role of PGR s Propagation techniques of chrysanthemum. Selection and preparation of chrysanthemum cuttings for nursery raising and methods of raising nursery Preparation of layout plan and planting of chrysanthemum. Identification and description of spray and standard chrysanthemums Photoperiodic flower regulation of chrysanthemum. Technique of harvesting spray and standard chrysanthemums. Post hrvest management, grading, packing techniques and marketing of chrysanthemum flowers Production techniques for marigold (Tagetes erecta, Tagetes petula) Nursery raising, importance of pinching and other horticultural practices for marigold. Role of PGR s in marigold production Production techniques for china aster, nutrition, horticultural practices, stage of harvest and post harvest techniques for china aster Study of bulbs and corm material for tuberose and gladiolus production Methods for breaking dormancy for gladiolus corms and cormels. Study of mother and finger bulbs in tuberose. Study of single and double flower varieties of tuberose Production technology of gladiolus. Study of different gladiolus varieties, spike harvesting techniques, extending the vaselife of spikes. Grading and packing of spikes 146

157 40-41 Production techniques for tuberose, nutrition management. Planting techniques of bulbs and bulbils 42 Study of export standards for different flower crops Planning and designing and site analysis for landscape Styles of gardening Study of different ornamentals (Annuals, shrubs, climbers and trees etc) for landscape Lawn making, different lawn grasses, methods of lawn making and lawn management 50 Study of foliage and filler plant material PRACTICALS: 1-2 Land selection, layout plans for flower crops 2-3 Soil and water analysis test for raising flower crops 3-4 Nursery preparation and management for flower crops including poly trays, plug trays etc. 4-5 Identification of different root stocks for rose 5-7 Practice of different propagation techniques for rose 8-9 Practice of different pruning methods for rose Horticultural practices for standard rose production in open field Practice on stage of harvest of roses for different purposes Practicals on Grading and Packaging techniques, and post harvest management of rose flowers using different floral preservatives Practice on different propagation techniques of chrysanthemum (division, suckers, cuttings etc) Identification of stage of chrysanthemum nursery for planting Field planting of chrysanthemum and experiential learning of production technology (nutrition, irrigation, weeding etc) Identification of different types of chrysanthemum Identification of different cultivars of chrysanthemum Practice on different horticultural practices for chrysanthemum flower regulation by use of plant growth regulators Seed germination test for marigold (African and French marigold) 147

158 29-31 Nursery raising technique for African and French marigold. Stage of planting nursery and nursery transplantation of marigold in plots Practical experience on impact of pinching marigold plants Field site experience on production of marigold Identification of different flower crops seed material Identification of corm and cormels of gladiolus Impact of growth regulators on dormancy breaking of gladiolus Identification of corm and cormels of different gladiolus varieties Identification of tuberose bulbs and selection of suitable bulbs for production of flowers Field experience for identification of single and double tuberose flowers Nursery production of china aster Planting of china aster seedlings. Application of manures and fertilizers to china aster Field observation for days taken for flower initiation and interval of china aster flowering Visit to different flower growing areas Study of harvesting techniques for different field grown flowers Grading and Packing techniques for different field grown flowers Identification of different floral preservatives. Preparation of stock solution for floral preservatives. Holding solution for extending shelf life of loose and cut flowers Site analysis for landscape gardening Planning and designing for landscape Identification of different flowering and foliage shrubs for landscape Identification of different foliage and flowering climbers for arches and pergolas Identification of ornamentals for topiary and practice of topiary work Identification of annuals flowering seed. Techniques of annual nursery raising in beds, plug trays and jiffy bags Different perennial trees for avenues and high ways Identification of different lawn grass species Practical training on different methods of lawn making (sprigs, plugs etc) 98 Rolling and mowing of lawn, clippings removal Visit to different private and public parks 148

159 ELP-402 Protected Cultivation of High Value Horticultural Crops Supporting Dept: Engineering THEORY: 1-3 Study of different types of Polyhouses based on shape, size, style and cladding material. Components of naturally ventilated and fan and pad system of polyhouses and their study. 4 Development of Irrigation, Sprinkler and Fogging system Types of their benefits and limitations. 5 Maintenance and Management of different Lighting Systems of Polyhouses PRACTICALS: 1-3 Design of fan and pad system of cooling convection tube cooling using NAGMA standards 4-6 Practical on fertigation equipment 7-9 Study of drip equipment design calculation of pump capacity, their maintenance 10 Computer control system for automation of irrigation 149

160 ELP-403 THEORY: Floriculture and Landscape Gardening Supporting Dept: Entomology 1-3 Insect pests of flower crops and their management 4 Insect pests of annuals and their management 5 Insect pests of lawns, ornamentals and perennials and their management PRACTICALS: 1-2 Identification of insect pests of Rose and their damage symptoms 3-4 Identification of insect pests of Chrysanthemum and their damage symptoms 5-6 Identification of insect pests of marigold and aster and their damage symptoms 7 Identification of insect and damage symptoms of important pests of Tuberose, Gladiolus 8-9 Identification of insect pests of ornamental and damage symptoms 10 Identification of insect pests of lawn and damage symptoms 150

161 ELP-403 THEORY: Floriculture and Landscape Gardening Supporting Dept: Engineering 1-2 Land surveying leveling instruments dumpy level, total station level, simple earth work calculations. 3-5 Land grading and filed layout criteria for land leveling layout of fields and irrigation, drainage systems survey and stalking land leveling design method, (plane method) equipment used for land grading. PRACTICALS: 1 Measurement of distance methods pacing chain survey etc. chain surveying equipment chain tap, ranging rods cross staff, optical square etc. 2 Triangulation survey chain tap, ranging rods cross staff, optical square etc. 3 Plotting calculation of area survey 4 Study of leveling equipment 5 Leveling terminology 6 Leveling methods profile leveling simple leveling differential leveling 7-9 Methods of land grading 10 Land grading equipment 151

162 ELP-403 THEORY: Floriculture and Landscape Gardening Supporting Dept: Economics 1 Marketing of flowers different channels for different important flowers 2 Price spread of important flowers market cost market margins supply chain management 3 Storage facilities available for different flowers for better supply chain management. 4 Cost of production for different flowers 5 Preparation of project report for different flowers crops PRACTICALS: 1 Study of different supply chains for different flowers 2 Study of loose flowers potential in Andhra Pradesh 3 Study of flower gardens management 4-5 Visit to local flower market 6 To workout cost of commercial flowers 7 To workout IRR 8 To workout BC Ratio 9 To workout Net worth Analysis 10 Post harvest package practices 152

163 ELP-404 Post harvest technology and value addition of 15(5+10) Horticultural crops THEORY: 1 Importance of experiential learning in the field of post harvest technology and value addition of horticultural crops viz., fruits, vegetables, flowers, medicinal, spices and plantation crops. 2 Quality evaluation of Hort produce for fresh market definition of quality perception of quality components of quality obtaining a product of quality quality standards methods of determining quality standardization and inspection total quality assurance in horticultural produce. 3 Principles and steps involved in post harvest handling of horticultural produce washing pre-cooling viz., hydro cooling, vacuum cooling, forced air cooling and contact icing sorting & grading benefits of grading types of grading colour grading and grading for size methods of grading hand grading, machine sizingsizing by weight, diameter etc. 4 Grading of fruits: mango, sweet orange, acid lime, mandarin, papaya, pineapple, grapes, banana, guava etc; grading of vegetables: tomato, okra, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumber, onion, Brinjal, potato etc. grading of cut flower rose, carnation, gerbera, gladiolus. 5-6 Grading of medicinal plants, spice, aromatic crops and plantation crops 7-8 Post harvest treatments: curing, degreening, qualing, use of growth regulators, hot water dip, vapour heat treatment, fungicidal treatment, waxing, irradiation, in package treatment. Hastening ripening: ethylene and ethylene releasing compounds, smoke, alcohol, fatty acid. Delayed ripening: use of growth regulators viz., 2, 4-D, 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-TP, GA & BA Packaging purpose, method of packaging packaging materials different groups of packaging materials for fresh fruits and vegetables: corrugated fibre board, sacks, wooden containers, use of plastics, baskets, pre-packaging, materials for pre-packaging, paper and paper board container, modified atmospheric packaging (MAP), wrapping for processed fruit and vegetable products tin containers, aluminium cans, collapsible tubes, glass containers, plastic containers, laminate, coextruded films, retortable pouch, bulk packaging, septic packaging: for dried or dehydrated products: for accelerated freeze dried (AFD) foods: frozen products: ventilation of packages: labeling: modularization of containers: unit loads: types of mechanical damage etc., 153

164 12-13 Special packaging system modified atmospheric packaging system a. oxygen scavenging system b. moisture absorbing and controlling system c. Co2 generating system absorbents d. Ethanol generators e. Ethylene absorbents f. Edible coatings g. Bio packaging Vacuum packaging, use of shrink films grape guard packing treatment: a. slow release type b. quick release type 14, 15 Different packing materials for fresh fruit, vegetables, flowers, medicinal plants, spices, plantation crops, specific packaging for export of mango, banana, citrus, grape etc., vegetables tomato okra, fresh beans, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, chilli, onion, Brinjal etc., rose, gladiolus, carnation, gerbera, tuberose etc Packaging for medicinal plants, spices, plantation crops Cushioning materials mode of action purpose of use characteristics various kinds of cushioning material airbags, bubble films, rubberized fibre cushioning, plastic foam cushioning materials, polystyrene (PS), polyurethane (PU), air cellular cushioning, foam in place, polyethylene foam, loose fill packing, korrvu packaging, tissue paper, buffered tissue, acid free tissue, paper waste, paddy straw, banana leaf etc Methods of storage storage in pits, barns, cellars, clamp storage on site storage (in site), hypobaric storage, evaporative cool storage (low cost storage) improved storage methods: refrigerated storage, silicon membrance technology, controlled atmospheric storage protocols of cold chain techniques for fresh produce. 22 Transportation damage / bruising in transport compact and impact injuries cool chain transportation mode of transport road (Truck) railway wagon sea/water way (ship or barges) air (air craft) Integrated post harvest management in important horticultural crops like mango, banana, citrus, grape, Sapota, papaya, pomegranate, tomato, chilli, okra, gourds, rose, gladiolus, carnation, chrysanthemum, tuberose, gerbera etc Irradiation food irradiation types of radiation applications of radiation changes in food exposed to radiation mechanism of food irradiation procedure of food irradiation post irradiation handling of food detection of irradiated food units 154

165 of irradiation packaging material for irradiated food practical applications of food irradiation in crops viz., - potato, onion, cocoa beans, dates, mangoes & spices etc. beneficial aspects of food irradiation radappertization of fruits, vegetables and their products Drying and dehydration of horticultural produce importance, principles, factors affecting drying changes in properties of food material effecting drying drying methods and equipment tubes of driers and drying technique drying processes of different horticultural produce rehydration of dried fruits and vegetables products. Concentration methods of concentration of different horticultural produce intermediate moisture foods (IMF) effect of concentration and drying on over all quality of different products nutritional status of dried and concentrated horticultural produce. Processing technique for fruit pulp preparation fresh fruit pulp, frozen fruit pulp, pulp preserved by heat treatment, pulp preserved by sulphur dioxide, pulp preparation from dried fruits. Modern processing techniques for jam making jelly making-theories of gel formation steps involved in preparation and processing of jellies. 32 Canning considerations for setting up of a cannery containers lacquered cans, acid resistant lacquer, sulphur resistant lacquer manufacture of cans can sizes canning techniques for fruits and vegetables Fruit juices and juice beverages types RTS, fruits juice blends, fruit juice concentrate Processing techniques. Fruit juice powder, fruit squashes, fruit appetizer, fruit juice cordial, syrups/sharbat, carbonated beverages, vegetable juice / beverages packing material and methods. Processing techniques for preserve, candies, crystallized fruits and vegetables, bar & toffee Packing of the finished product. 35 Steeping preservation of fruits and vegetables Uses Precautions for preparation Processing technology of fruit based alcoholic beverages wine and its types composition and nutritive value biochemical characteristics healthful properties of wine factors affecting quality of wine microbiology of alcoholic fermentation importance of yeast in wine making importance of bacteria in alcoholic beverages the biochemistry of fermentation general methods and processing technique of wine of fermentation general methods and processing technique of wine production sparkling wine, sherry, port, fortified wine; vermouth and brandy different types of distillation. 155

166 38-39 Lactic acid fermented beverages lactic acid bacteria and fermented foods lactic acid fermentation and preservation antimicrobial substances produced by lactic acid fermentation, quality assurance and significance of lactic fermented beverages processing technology of lactic fermented beverages production Vinegar composition and production uses of vinegar, vinegar in food processing types and composition of vinegar nutritional, therapeutic and quality significance, microbiology and biochemistry of vinegar production, general methods of vinegar production quick and modern processes unit operations for the preparation of vinegar from different horticultural produce Fermentative utilization of waste from food processing industry food processing wastes available in India characteristics of food industry wastes standards for waste water disposal set up by environmental protection agency preparation of fermented edible products viz., single cell proteins, animal feed, apple, mango, citrus pomace etc., potato and sweet potato peels; food additives viz., microbial flavours and gums, vitamins, organic compounds, biogas production Chutney and sauces classification effect on nutritive value and vitamin stability in processed products processing technique for chutneys and sauces Types of pickles preservation principles biochemical changes during lactic acid fermentation horticultural produce undergoing lactic acid fermentation factors affecting bacterial growth, ingredients with anti microbial properties containers used for pickling methods and recipes of different pickles pickles prepared in brine and vinegar lactic acid fermented pickles viz., sauerkraut, kimchi, dill pickles, olive pickles; pickles in oil; keeping quality and nutritive value of fermented vegetables safety of fermented vegetables Honey processing and product development properties processing and storage of honey honey with fruits, vegetables and other horticultural produce honey drinks and beverages honey based common products. Nutritionally enriched fruit and vegetable products importance of nutrients preservation of nutrients in food products types of nutritionally enriched products technology for preparation of nutritionally enriched fruit juice beverage, fortified fruit bar / leather; dehydrated nutritionally supplemented fruit / vegetable product, canned product, extruded product, dessert fermented product 50 Minimal processing of Horticultural produce Methods & techniques 156

167 PRACTICALS: 1-2 Harvest systems and handling during harvest of horticultural produce for fresh market and processing 3-4 Perception of quality obtaining total quality in horticultural produce 5-6 Methods of quality evaluation of fresh horticultural produce 7-10 Visit to different fruit and vegetable gardens meant for processing Visit to different fruit and vegetable gardens meant for fresh market Visit to a packing house preparation of the horticultural produce for the fresh market Visit to different storage systems storage of fresh produce Transportation of fresh horticultural produce Visit to vegetables and fruit markets to study the causes of post harvest losses Visit to fresh fruit and vegetables packing house to study the post harvest practices followed for export purpose Study of FPO licensing procedure for processing units, specification for processed products, food grades, standards, laws and regulations followed by processing units HACCP systems for fruits & vegetables cultivation food safety & quality, HACCP principles, preparing for a HACCP study, hazard analysis, identifying critical point (CCPS) and good manufacturing practices (GHPS), verification, record keeping and review Methods of quality evaluation of processed horticultural produce, keeping quality, nutritional quality and biochemical changes etc Visit to different quality control laboratories working under different factories of fresh and processed horticultural produce 38 Study on packing practices Production planning Quality assurance raw materials, processing, packing and storage, testing ingredients and products etc. 43 Applying advanced instrumental methods mealiness in fruit sensory evaluation and customer expectations use of advanced methods for detection 44 Selection of site for establishment of commercial processing unit 45 Auxillary raw materials used in fruits & vegetables processing Improving the nutritional quality of processed fruit and vegetables: the behavior of nutrients minerals, antioxidants vitamins, lycopene and other carotene, during processing. 157

168 48-49 Visit to a dehydration unit to observe the chain of operations performed in preparation of dehydrated product Visit to a distillery unit to study the operational procedure followed for preparation of fermented products from various horticultural produce Visit to an essential oil extraction unit from different aromatic, spice and plantation crops Visit to coffee and rubber processing unit Visit to medicinal plants processing unit extract of alkaloids etc., Study on maintenance of quality control, evaluation and assurance of processed products in various processing units 60 Visit to APEDA, Hyderabad Processing for drying/dehydrated horticultural produce Processing for juice, squash, nectar, cordial syrup/sherbath and other beverages from different horticultural produce Dehydration of horticultural produce: methods of drying sun drying, osmotic dehydration, freeze drying etc., types of dryers; tunnel dryer, belt dryer, vacuum dryer, drum dryer, spray in heated air etc. for preparation of flakes, chips, powders concentration etc Processing for canning of horticultural produce Technologies, equipment and buildings for medium scale processing and storage / packing of shredded sauerkraut Preparation of jam, jellies, marmalade, preserve, candy, glazed and crystallized fruits and vegetables Preparation of fermented beverages, vinegar etc., Preparation of toffee, bar, chavanprash etc. 89 Preparation of fruit based alcoholic beverages wine, vermouth, brandy, fortified wine etc., 90 Preparation of lactic acid fermented beverages 91 Processing technique for chutneys and sauces 92,93 Minimal processing of fresh fruit & vegetables quality changes in minimally processed fruits & vegetables raw material: various steps involved in processing Food processing factory wastes and their utilization Visit to food irradiation unit irradiation procedures for horticultural produce Preparation of bottled fruits, fruit leathers and fruit cheese puree, papain, pectin, spirits. 158

169 ELP-404 THEORY: Post harvest technology and value addition of Horticultural crops Supporting Dept: Entomology 1 Storage insect pests of fruits, vegetables and ornamental crops 2 Storage insect pests of spice crops, medicinal and aromatic crops 3 Stored product insect pests of dried fruits and processed foods 4-5 Post harvest insect disinfection treatments physical treatments high & low temperature, controlled atmosphere, ionizing radiation, radio frequency microwave dielectric heating & chemical treaments. PRACTICALS: 1 Low temperature treatments for post harvest insect control 2 High temperature treatments for post harvest insect control 3 Controlled atmosphere (low oxygen & high Co2) for post harvest insect control 4 Controlled atmosphere vacuum or low pressure for post harvest insect control 5 Ionizing radiation (r-rays high energy electrons and x-rays) treatments for post harvest insect control 6 Radio frequency treatments for post harvest insect control 7 Microwave radiation treatments for post harvest insect control 8 Dielectric heating treatments for post harvest insect control 9 Post harvest insect disinfection treatments for cut flowers 10 Chemical treatments for post harvest insect control 159

170 ELP-404 THEORY: Post harvest technology and value addition of Horticultural crops Supporting Dept: Engineering 1 Fruits and vegetables cleaning Machinery for cleaning of fruits and vegetables, care and maintenance 2 Grading Methods of grading, equipment for grading of fruits and vegetables, care and maintenance 3 Size reduction Equipment for size reduction of fruits and vegetables, care and maintenance 4 Evaporation Principles, types of evaporators for fruits and vegetable juice 5 Refrigeration and cold storage Storage condition at different levels of processing of fruits and vegetables PRACTICALS: Identification of tools and equipment required for processing, canning, bottling and dehydration of fruits and vegetables Study of equipment for preparation of different fruit products on commercial lines jams and jellies Care and maintenance of equipment used in marketing of fresh produce, processing of horticultural crops Visit to fruit and vegetable processing industries Visit to flower, plantation, medicinal and aromatic crop processing units 160

171 ELP-404 THEORY: Post harvest technology and value addition of Horticultural crops Supporting Dept: Pathology 1 Identification & management of major post harvest pathogens in flowers 2 Identification & management of post harvest diseases of mango, citrus, banana 3 Identification & management of post harvest diseases of grapes, guava, Sapota, apple etc. 4 Biological control of post harvest diseases by various treatments 5 Post harvest treatments to fruits & vegetable to reduce microbial spoilage 6 General methods of cleaning & sterilization of post harvest processing equipment 7 Identification & management of post harvest diseases of mushrooms 8 Identification of microbial flora of processed products 9 Visit to markets to asses post harvest losses due to pathogens PRACTICALS: 1 Post harvest diseases of fruits & vegetables 2 Post harvest diseases of flowers, spices, medicinal & aromatic crops 3 Post harvest treatments in various crops affecting post harvest deterioration by pathogens 4 Post harvest treatments in various crops to prevent post harvest losses due to pathogens 5 Microbial spoilage of processed products 161

172 ELP-404 THEORY: Post harvest technology and value addition of Horticultural crops Supporting Dept: Economics 1 Exports and imports of fresh and processed horticultural products Indian scenario policy initiatives for encouraging exports 2 Detailed discussion on New APMC act opportunities and challenges direct marketing initiatives retail marketing street vendors business related to Horticulture commodities 3 Detailed procedure and licensing arrangements certification for export and import 4 Project evaluation projects, horticulture projects project cycle, identification, formulation, appraisal, implementation evaluation 5 Importance of monitoring and evaluation technique feasibility preparation of reports (report writing). PRACTICALS: 1 Visit to marketing committee (regulated) 2 Visit to fruit / vegetable markets (study of maintenance of records and transactions) 3 Visit to flower market (wholesale market) study of records auctioning and price fixation 4 Visit to reliance fresh / heritance fresh and study of procurement, arrangements, value addition, single day turn over in terms of money and quantity of sale etc. 5 Case study on street vendors 6 Visit to exporting firm 7 Visit to quality control lab 8 Visit to APEDA exposure visit 9 Visit to Department of Horticulture to know the schemes implemented by government to promote Horticulture exports 10 Practical on project evaluation techniques, discounted and undiscounted measures selection of projects based on feasibility 162

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