1 Equine B.M.P. s By Kelly Riley Wayne Soil & Water Conservation District 428 W. Liberty St. Wooster, Oh Holmes SWCD August 7, 2006
2 What is the Wayne SWCD? The Wayne County Soil & Water Conservation District is a political subdivision of the State of Ohio, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Soil and Water. Each one of Ohio s 88 counties has a local district office. The Wayne SWCD was established by local election of the populace in Wayne county leads the state in the # of all cattle, # of milk cows, milk sold, # of farms and in the production of hay.
3 Why Horse Owners? There are 9.2 million horses in the USA Over 70% of horse owners live in communities of 50,000 or less. Ohio ranks 6th in the nation in economic impact of the horse industry. *** Holmes Co. ranks 1 st, & Wayne Co. ranks 2 nd in the # of horses and ponies in Ohio. Information obtained from American Horse Council, 2002 Census of Agriculture, and the Ohio Farm Bureau ***Sources tend to vary on rank.
4 BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE What is a B.M.P.? Basically, there s always seems to be a better way to do something. When it comes to the environment, there are several ways you can have your operation or farm run, and we try to give you those healthier options. They may not be the cheapest, but they are the best it s up to you how you use what you learn.
5 Addressing Facility Resource Concerns Soil Water quality/quantity Air Plants and animals
6 Good Facility Management Reduce environmental impact of your operation Develop and enhance neighbor relations Maintain and improve livestock health Maintain profitability/value Have future sustainability
7 NOT a BMP
8 All Weather Paddock Yes, a BMP!
9 NOT a BMP
10 Covered Composting Bin, Yes a BMP!
11 TWO TOPICS PASTURE MANAGEMENT MANURE MANAGEMENT
13 Perception = Reality Animal waste from livestock farms is perceived to be one of the top 10 sources of water pollution. Complaints regarding pollution (waste) from livestock farms is the 3rd most popular complaint filed with local soil & water conservation district (SWCD) offices.
14 Why are Horse Owners Important to Protecting Water Quality? Horse farm activities may contribute pollutants to rivers and streams. Proper management techniques ensure your farm is friendly to: Your horses Rivers and streams Your pocketbook
15 Agricultural Pollution Waters of the state: Rivers, Streams, Creeks Road Ditches Waterways Watercourses Springs Wells Wetlands Groundwater
16 What are Current Water Quality Issues? Point Source Pollution: Enters water through pipe or specific location Nonpoint Source Pollution: Enters water as result of runoff from activities on the land Enters water as a result of physical alterations of stream habitat
17 Excess Nutrients Nutrients provide energy or building materials for living organisms Primary nutrients associated with manure: Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium Runoff carries these nutrients into creeks and streams
21 Why be concerned about managing manure & mud? Equine is the fastest growing segment of Ohio s livestock sector Most equine operations have small, intensively used acreage Most equine operations have a high potential for runoff
22 What can be done? What are some BMP s for pastures? Keep safety & health of horse in mind! Establish vegetative cover and keep it protected. Generally, 2 acres of good pasture are needed to support one horse. Horses can damage young plant growth, so you need to rotate the pastures, or keep horses out of the pasture during wet conditions.
23 BMP for pasture Keep animals out of streams. Hooves can erode soil into the streams, and manure isn t healthy for the stream & it s not good for the animals be be drinking manure water! Consider a stream crossing Establish buffer zones around your barns, pastures, wash areas & manure piles. Grassed vegetative strips are great!
24 Considerations When Planning Pastures Objectives Turn-out/exercise lot Grazing Supplementation Most of Ration
25 Turn-Out/Exercise Lot Fresh air and sunshine A little exercise Short periods of time No or little grazing expected Mud management needed Control soil erosion and water runoff
27 Soil Resources: Erosion From Heavy Use Areas Paddocks Access Lanes Important: Locate facilities to have a permanent grass buffer next to all drainageways.
28 All Weather Paddock
29 Filter Strip Filter strips are strips of grass, trees, or shrubs that filter or clean runoff and remove contaminants before they reach water bodies or water sources, such as wells. Filter strips trap soil and nutrients. The vegetative strip moves production operations farther from a stream. Vegetation protects water quality.
30 Well managed pastures can provide most of the feed requirements for horses.
31 Grazing Management Hours grazing a day Mares 17 hours a day Cattle 8 hours a day
32 Pasture Needs Mare with foal 1.75 to 2.0 acres Yearlings and 1.5 to 2.0 acres Mature Horses Weanlings 0.5 to 1.0 acre
33 Pasture Management Soil Test Lime Fertilize - drag if needed Weed Control - mowing Seed
34 Pasture Management Avoid over and under grazing Use rotational grazing Develop 5 to 7 grazing paddocks Rotate and rest paddocks to help keep grasses and legumes growing
36 Pasture Management The goal is to grow and use green leaves for feed, leaving the plants in a condition to re-grow rapidly during an adequate rest period.
38 Rotational pastures & paddocks Managing Surface Water Managing Surface Water Diversion and Waterways Gutters and Downspouts Gutters and Downspouts Diversion and Waterways Grassed Buffers Grassed Buffers Surface Inlets and Tile Surface Inlets and Tile
39 Got Manure? If you have a horse, then you got manure.
40 Lots of Poop! An average 1,000 lb. horse produces about 50 lbs. of manure a day. In addition, a horse produces 6-10 gallons of urine which when soaked up by bedding, can double or triple the amount of waste. 1 horse produces 8-9 tons of manure waste in a year! This is about 25 cubic yards (YOU know how fast that pile builds!)
41 How do you manage your manure? Basically, there are 5 options:
42 1. Let it Lie Mostly for large pastures
43 2. Haul it Away or Give it Away You may have to pay for disposal, or you can try to give it away (to farmers or neighbors)
44 3. Spread it fresh
45 4. Stockpile Can be spread later, or disposed of later. Waste Storage Structure
46 Improper Stockpiling of Manure
47 Don t let this happen to you! This pile got out of control.
48 5. Compost It!
49 Manure & Nutrient Management Manure Treatment -- to compost or not to compost
50 What??? COMPOST Composting is a method of speeding up the natural process of decomposing manure. With a little work & effort, composting can reduces the odor of manure & can decrease the volume by up to 50%! It also kills parasite eggs & larva & weeds. Composting requires a recipe of key ingredients
51 Ingredients for successful composting: AIR MOISTURE TEMPERATURE PILE & PARTICLE SIZE NUTRIENTS
52 AIR Microorganisms break down the manure. They require air & water. They need OXYGEN! Turn the pile by hand, or by machine. Insert air into pile w/ PVC pipes, or by using larger sized materials- a mix.
53 MOISTURE Just enough water about 50% - like a damp spounge is needed for the microorganisms. Depending on the weather, you may need to cover the pile, or leave it. You may need to water it!
54 TEMPERATURE Bring on the heat a hot pile decays much faster. Greater heat is necessary to kill weed seed and parasites. Ideal temperature are 130* to 150* F. If there is proper moisture- fire or ignition shouldn t be an issue.
55 Particle Size & Pile Size The smaller the particle, the faster it will decay! Smaller sizes may compact so turn it! The pile should be at least 4ft X 4ft X 4ft. this is needed to cause heat (usually not an issue.)
56 NUTRIENTS Microbes use carbon, nitrogen & other nutirents to grow. The Carbon to Nitrogen ratio (C:N) determines the speed of decomposition. Ideally, it should be 30:1 Wood Shaving are high in carbon. Look into adding nitrogen rich products to help the process or you can just wait! Check w/ sources for more info
57 BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE What is a B.M.P.? Basically, there s always seems to be a better way to do something. When it comes to the environment, there are several ways you can have your operation or farm run, and we try to give you those healthier options. They may not be the cheapest, but they are the best it s up to you how you use what you learn.
58 FEED-BACK THANK-YOU FOR COMING! Call if you would like more information! Kelly Riley, Education Specialist Wayne SWCD
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