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1 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Department of Agricutura Research Indian Counci of and Education Agricutura Research Ministry of Agricuture New Dehi Government of India

2 Indian Counci of Agricutura Research President Vice-President Shri Ajit Singh Agricuture Minister Shri Hukamdeo Narayan Yadav Minister of State (A) Director-Genera Dr Panjab Singh (Up to ) Secretary Department of Agricutura Research and Education Shri Mohan Kanda ( to ) Secretary Ministry of Agricuture Dr Mangaa Rai (Since ) Secretary Department of Agricutura Research and Education Secretary Smt Shashi Misra Additiona Secretary Department of Agricutura Research and Education Financia Adviser Shri P Sinha (Up to ) Additiona Secretary and FA Department of Agricutura Research and Education Shri Gautam Basu (Since ) Additiona Secretary and FA Department of Agricutura Research and Education

3 Foreword The year was marked by one of the severest and the most wide-spread droughts in the country in the ast hundred years. In this crucia period, it was at once an obigation and opportunity for the Indian Counci of Agricutura Research to be of service to the nation by contributing its scientific and technoogica input for the preparation of eco-region specific contingency pans. Some vauabe essons were aso earnt in this context. For one thing the drought brought home to us very emphaticay the need for efficient water use and its in-situ or ex-situ conservation. It aso highighted the criticaity of research on optimizing the mieage obtainabe from every unit of water and thus produce more from ess water. The need for having sufficient avaiabiity of forage and fodder was simiary highighted. As a coroary to the essons earnt during the drought, research in technoogy for growing crops under water stress conditions has been given greater importance particuary in wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, bajra, puses and minor miets. Besides this, new hybrids have been deveoped in rice, maize, sorghum and bajra. The emphasis on increasing the production of oiseeds and puses continues in government poicy, and research is paying specia attention to deveopment of hybrid varieties particuary in rapeseed mustard. Integrated pest and disease management has been given high emphasis, and a number of new technoogies have been deveoped in this area during the year for effective contro of pest and diseases. Bio-contro method is one of the components of this approach. Research in the area of cotton has resuted in the deveopment of ready-to-use kits to differentiate Btcotton from non-transgenics. Among the ICAR s research projects in the frontier area of structura genomics is the project on high-quaity sequencing of rice genomics taken up in coaboration with the Internationa Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP). The first phase of this project has been competed. To provide a viabe base for the deveopment of ivestock research in anima sciences, the ICAR has paid specia attention to the conservation of genetic resources, on priority particuary to those resources that need to be conserved before some of the threatened breeds become extinct. Accordingy, a DNA repository for Indian ivestock and poutry breeds has been estabished. Since economic osses due to ivestock diseases are generay seen to be enormous in scae, efforts are being made to reduce them through better diagnostic vaccines and drugs, incuding indigenous drugs. Livestock diseasebased eco-pathozones have been estabished to study the epidemioogy of anima diseases. Due to persistent efforts, India has been now decared free from rinderpest. A C-ELISA kit for rinderpest detection has been deveoped. Compete feed bocks usefu in anima feeding have been deveoped for use during fodder scarcity, in order to insuate the ivestock against the effect of drought. Programmes on vaue addition for mik, meat, egg and fibre have aso been strengthened. The Horticuture Revoution that has spread with uniform intensity throughout the country is expected to change grey areas into green. Hybrid technoogy in vegetabes ike tomato, brinja, chii, cucumber, bitter-gourd, botte-gourd and okra is making a visibe dent in acceerating the productivity of vegetabe crops. Production technoogy of a new kind of mushroom has been deveoped. In addition, technoogy for the production and utiization of medicina pants is getting popuarity in the country. Attempts are being made to popuarize under-utiized horticutura crops ike aona, garcinia, passion-

4 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT fruit, tamarind, jamun, bae, fig, custard-appe and date-pam which have particuar reevance for the drought prone or arid areas of the country. INFOCROP-POTATO mode to simuate potato deveopment, growth and yied both under potentia and suboptimum water conditions has been deveoped. In foricuture, in view of the potentia of orchid a ow-priced orchid-micropropagation method has been deveoped. In the fishery sector, attempts have been made to diversify freshwater acquacuture by incuding in our programmes catfish species with promising potentia. In pursuance of the strategy to strengthen prevention of disease through heath management practices in preference to disease treatment, immunostimuant technoogy for brackishwater acquacuture has been deveoped to prevent disease in shrimps. The Centra Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, has deveoped a new chemica formuation cifeostress to reduce externa stress and resutant mortaity of fish seed during transportation. A diagnostic kit for the detection of the White Spot Disease has been reeased and commerciaized. Fibregass canoes have been devised and commerciaized by the Centra Institute for Fisheries Technoogy, Kochi. New initiatives have been taken in respect of organic farming impact and adaptation to cimate change. A comprehensive soi-map of India on 1 : 1 miion scae has been deveoped. Cost-effective bioengineering measures of soi and water conservation have been devised. Appropriate approaches for managing saine soi and coasta ecosystems using their precise estimates have been obtained with the hep of GIS technoogy. On the basis of data obtained from agro-meteoroogica stations a over the country, a mode has been deveoped for advance estimation of nationa foodgrains productivity. During the year, the ICAR has made significant efforts towards providing the required fiip to conservation technoogies, in coaboration with the Consutative Group on Internationa Agricutura Research (CGIAR) system and aso under the Nationa Agricutura Technoogy Project (NATP). Resources conservation tiage and speciay zero tiage has been extended to 0.3 miion hectares during the year. This has ed to a net saving of Rs 600 miion annua benefit to the farming community. For the first time, scientists are working cosey with the farming community in five Agro ecosystems across the country and have organized over 10,000 on-farm trias. Indigenous knowedge is aso being documented under the NATP, and vaidated to protect indigenous inteectua right. As a new initiative, training programmes have been organized for the technoogica empowerment of women. Over 55,000 accessions have been coected and documented in pant, anima and fish bio-diversity. During this year some specia initiatives have been taken for the spread of technoogy in the North- East region by experimenting with participatory approaches. Specia emphasis has been provided on horticuture and anima sciences. To provide effective support to the North-East in a concerted thrust, a specia recruitment drive was undertaken for the NE, and 50 scientists have been posted there during the year. It is a matter of satisfaction to see the effective dovetaiing between nationa priorities in the Agricuture Sector and ICAR s programmes, particuary in the current concerns regarding conservation, optimization of resources, commerciaization of technoogy and biotechnoogy. The initiatives taken during this year wi doubtess bear fruit in the future. (AJIT SINGH) President ICAR Society

5 FOREWORD Contents Foreword iii 1. Overview Saient Achievements Crop Improvement and Management Improvement and Management of Horticutura Crops Natura Resource Management Livestock and Poutry Improvement and Management Fish Production and Processing Agricutura Engineering and Technoogy Agricutura Human Resource Deveopment Socia Sciences and Poicies Technoogy Assessment, Refinement and Transfer Women in Agricuture Research for Triba and Hi Regions Nationa Agricutura Technoogy Project Organization and Management Partnership and Linkages Agricutura Scientists Recruitment Board Pubications and Information Appendices (A) DARE I. The Government of India (Aocation of Business) Rues II. Tota Number of Posts and Names of Important Functionaries III. Financia Requirement (Grant No.3) (B) ICAR 1. Indian Counci of Agricutura Research Society Governing Body Standing Finance Committee Senior Officers at the Headquarters of the ICAR ICAR Institutes and their Directors Nationa Bureaux and their Directors Project Directorates and their Directors Nationa Research Centres and their Directors A-India Co-ordinated Research Projects Agricutura Universities and their Vice-Chanceors Tota Number of Empoyees in the ICAR and its Research Institutes and Number of Schedued Castes, Schedued Tribes and Other Backward Casses 12. Awards Subject Index Acronyms


7 1 OVERVIEW Overview Agricuture in our country provides iveihood to about 70% of the popuation, empoys about 65% of the work-force, and contributes about 24% to nationa Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and neary 16% to export earnings. The main issues which our agricutura research has to now address reate to production, profitabiity, efficiency and sustainabiity whie protecting the natura resource base. We have to be adequatey prepared to successfuy meet the chaenges and requirements of gobaization, inteectua property rights, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, post-harvest technoogies to ensure safe storage and transport of farm produce, processing, vaueaddition, agri-export, market inteigence and reated issues. Need-based reorientation of agricutura research and education is thus our foremost priority. As conservation and optima use of pant genetic resources is a key requirement for aiming at high production on a sustainabe basis, 15,243 accessions of crops and their wid reatives were coected during the year. Tweve exporation missions were speciay mounted to coect pant genetic resources from Sardar Sarovar Catchment area to capture genetic resources which may disappear as the deveopment programmes in catchment are proceed. Besides, 27,847 sampes of crops from 39 countries (incuding 79 of transgenic crops) were introduced. During the year, the Nationa Seed Genebank has been enriched with 27,245 accessions. It processed 138,364 crop sampes incuding 91 transgenics for quarantine cearance, and issued 31 phytosanitary certificates for germpasm export. DNA fingerprinting of crop varieties in cereas, miets, puses, oiseeds, citrus and banana and neem is graduay moving forward to strengthen variety information database. Under Crop Improvement and Management, 21 varieties and one hybrid in rice, five varieties in wheat, one variety in barey, six hybrids/varieties in maize, three hybrids and one variety in pear miet, and one variety each of fingermiet and itte miet have been reeased for commercia cutivation in food crops for various agroecoogies. Aso, nine varieties of wheat and one variety of barey have been identified for reease. In oiseed crops, four varieties of groundnut, five of Indian mustard, four of soybean, three each of sesame and inseed, and one each of niger and karan rai, and three hybrids of sunfower and one of castor (first hybrid for semiarid region of Rajasthan) have been reeased/identified for cutivation. Two varieties each of chickpea, pigeonpea and mungbean, and one of enti have been identified in puse crops for commercia cutivation. In commercia crops, one intra-hirsutum and one intraarboreum hybrid of cotton has been identified for reease. Two new species of Corchorus have been recorded in jute crop. In tobacco, one Natu variety has been reeased; and one variety each in fue-cured virginia, Natu and Burey tobacco has been identified for cutivation in Andhra Pradesh. Other achievements incude: identification in rice of three new cytopasmic mae-sterie (CMS) ines having desirabe p65\1\( \ )

8 2 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT quaity traits and introgression of bacteria bight resistance genes through marker-aided seection into BPT 5204 and Triguna rice; deveopment of a new wheat pant type (DL ); identification of maize genotypes resistant to different biotic stresses; adding of 450 indigenous and 3 exotic germpasm of forage crops; identification of resistance donors in Indian mustard for white rust and Aternaria bight; deveopment of non-spiny hybrid NARI-H 1 with toerance to Aternaria and Cercospora eaf spot diseases and Fusarium wit in saffower; deveopment of three ready-to-use kits to differentiate Bt-cottons from nontransgenics; production of intersectiona hybrids of Nicotiana repanda N. tabacum from hormone-aided direct hybridization; standardization of mass rearing of anthocorid Baptostethus paescens on Corcyra cephaonica; successfu rearing of Chrysopera carnea arvae on artificia diet; and accompishment of breeding of bank myna in artificia nest-boxes instaed in open-wes of agricutura habitats for the first time. In the area of Improvement and Management of Horticutura crops, a mango hybrid Ambika, suitabe for internationa market, has been reeased. A technique for embryo rescue, and a technoogy for uniform ripening of mango have been deveoped. In banana, a natura tetrapoid (ABBB) has been reported for the first time. Processing technoogies of banana fruit and fower for picke, and banana four-based products ike heath-drink, baby-food and biscuits have been standardized. A software METWIN2 has been found suitabe for forecasting downy midew in grapes. Production technoogy of saffron cutivation has been standardized. A technoogy package has been deveoped for mechanized sorting, waxing, washing and packing of fruits in corrugated boxes, which incudes aspects of degreening and storage to improve their shef-ife. Saient achievements in vegetabe crops are: reease of one variety each in botte-gourd and bitter-gourd; deveopment of five bitter-gourd popuations with very high proportion of pistiate fowers; and identification of femae sex-associated RAPD marker in pointed gourd to screen gender of pants at the seeding stage. In potato, 77 new accessions from the Internationa Potato Centre, Lima, and 12 indigenous sampes from Kashmir and Meghaaya have been added to germpasm, and 18 transgenics from Kufri Badshah and 20 from other four cutivars of potato have been deveoped for fied trias. A computerized management too for identification and management of major potato pests and diseases has been deveoped. In tropica tuber crops, 30 tonnes of panting materia was distributed among farmers. A tota of 204 wid mushroom specimens have been coected. A new species of Lysurus as L. himaayanesis sp. nov. has been reported from Himacha Pradesh, which is a new record in the word. Most-prized medicina mushroom Reishi or Ling Zhi (Ganoderoma ucidum) coud be successfuy grown for the first time in the country and indigenous technoogy to organicay produce Red Reishi has been deveoped. In foricuture, two varieties of gadious have been reeased. A ow-priced method of orchid micro-propagation has been deveoped, using isabgo as a geing agent and poypropyene bags as cuture vesses. In pantation crops, 34 coections of coconut have been made. Fertigation has been found to reduce fertiizer requirement up to 50% NPK in arecanut pam. A cam type, peda-operated, cashewnut sheer has been deveoped to overcome drudgery experienced in presenty used handcum-peda-operated sheer. In cashewnut 102,212 grafts p65\2\( \ )

9 3 OVERVIEW were produced and distributed to different governments, NGOs and farmers. In spices, 234 accessions have been added for germpasm conservation. A RAPD-based moecuar marker technique has been deveoped in back pepper for identification of true hybrids. In the area of Natura Resource Management, important achievements incude: preparation of soi map of India on 1 : 1 miion scae for and-use panning for sustainabe agricutura production; and pubication of soi resource atases of Bhopa, Guna, Betu and Ratam districts. Soierosion maps for seven states were generated for formuating soi-conservation and management measures. Cost-effective bio-engineering measures coud be deveoped integrating structura contro measures with appropriate vegetation of Erianthus munja, Ipomoea carnea and/or giant napier. Integrated nutrient management for reaizing sustainabiity was given priority. The significant findings incuded: addition of ime and farmyard manure (FYM) for sustainabe management of acid sois; and standardization of assessing methods for surviva of inocuated microbes (Azospirium and Azotobacter), using stabe genetic markers. Impementation of natura resource management project in the command area of RP Channe-V of Sone Cana System in Bihar and Gandak Command of eastern Uttar Pradesh demonstrated significant reduction in the cost of fied preparation, weeding and abour requirement and resuted in higher yied and net income of peope. Adoption of aternate raised-and-sunken bed system and consequent enhancement in the productivity owing to in-situ conservation of rainwater in rice fieds was quite encouraging. Soi sainity research in coasta ecosystem ed to precise assessment of soi sainity using GIS technique in arge areas in an irrigation command, thus providing the right approach for managing such sois. Significant reduction in soi sainity and choride content in 0 30 cm soi depth was recorded owing to eaching through sub-surface drainage. For rehabiitation of cacareous sois, Tamarix articuata, Acacia niotica, Prosopis juifora, Eucayptus tereticornis, Acacia tortiis, Cassia siamea and Feronia imonia have been found promising for pantation with furrow panting method in arid and semi-arid regions. Savadora persica proved the idea species for soi and water management in saine back sois. Shift in rainfa pattern in the adjoining districts of Anantapur and Bijapur of Karnataka necessitated the need for recommendation of new cropping strategy. Rice varieties, viz. Karzat 4, Indryani, Panve 2, Pagarh 1 and Pagarh 2, being shade-toerant, have been found suitabe for regions experiencing excessive couds during the rainy season. An equation deveoped based on weather parameters coud predict occurrence of powdery midew two weeks in advance in ber. A simpe mode has aso been deveoped for advance estimation of nationa foodgrains productivity. Efficient cropping systems for different agro-ecozones have been identified. Superiority of direct-seeded rice to transpanted one has been proved. A new technique for rapid decomposition of rice straw under rice wheat system was deveoped. Farming systems research indicated higher net returns by integration of rice brinja cropping system with mushroom and poutry, and possibe incorporation of fruit wastes (nutmeg rind, parts of jackfruit and breadfruit) in ivestock feeds, which are rich sources of fat and fibres p65\3\( \ )

10 4 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Cona propagation techniques were standardized for white sik cotton tree (Ceiba pentandra) using cuttings, grafting and air ayering. Vegetative propagation showed maximum (40%) success through veneer grafting in August month and 20% through chip-budding in chironjee (Buchanania anzan). August was found as the best month for aona grafting with 85% success. Under Livestock and Poutry Improvement and Management, Kankrej, Ponwar, Gangatiri and Kherigarh catte breeds; and Jaauni, Kheri, Mandya, Hassan and Mecheri sheep breeds were surveyed in their home tract for characterization and conservation of genetic resources. Insuin-ike growth factor binding protein-3 gene was studied in catte. The dwarf and naked neck birds were found superior in antibody titres to their crosses. Moecuar characterization of Indian ivestock and poutry breeds is being done at different centres. The DNA repository was estabished for some of the Indian ivestock and poutry breeds. Twin ambing coud be improved to 52% in Garoe Mapura strain. The adut cip in Magra sheep was kg. Rabbits weaned at 28 days of age showed highest daiy weight gain. Strain cross of poutry deveoped by the CARI produced eggs, being higher than prominent commercia strains. Feed requirement in ayer birds was reduced by 174 g to produce a dozen eggs. Synthetic broiers attained 1,101 g at five weeks of age and Caribro- Dhanraj weighed 1,595 g at seven weeks of age. Poutry germpasm deveoped for rura poutry coud adapt we in free-range scavenging situation. Upsurge in heteroogous strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been observed as the isoates recovered were antigenicay different from the vaccine strain. Indigenousy deveoped C-ELISA kit for rinderpest was vaidated by the Internationa Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. Infectious bovine rhinotrachitis (IBR) continues to be the major herd probem, as the virus excretes through semen. Thus, compete genome sequence of IBR virus and vaccine strain was deveoped. Poymorphic chain reaction (PCR) for ampification of RNA gene of Theieria annuata was standardized. A repository of Pasteurea mutocida isoates has been estabished. Vaccine against Samonea abortusequi was prepared using Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) and gave encouraging resuts. Zero eve has been achieved in equine infectious anaemia (EIA) and rinderpest (RP) infection in India. The PCR tests were standardized for babesiosis in equine and trypanosomiasis in came. Feedbase-2001, a data base, provides information on feed resources and feed baance sheet, which woud be a very important requirement for poicy-makers, panners and researchers. Prediction of bypass protein vaue of feeds is possibe now. Barey proved a better energy ration for ruminants than other costy ingredients. Suppementation of area-specific mineras to cows improved their fertiity. Costy poutry ration coud be made ow priced by using foxtai miet in pace of 57% maize in broier starter ration and 67% in finisher ration. Use of propionic acid, neem eaf and neem seed-cake in feed effectivey prevented moud infestation of poutry. Compete feed formuation technoogy is now avaiabe for commerciaization. Buffao embryos were deveoped in-vitro using compex media. Use of this media resuted in more bastocysts per ceaved embryo. Introduction of rams after a gap of four months brought the ewes to estrous within 15 days. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, a hormone aso used in embryo transfer technoogy in animas other than equines, coud be isoated, purified and characterized for the first time in India p65\4\( \ )

11 5 OVERVIEW Under the Jai Vigyan Project on Househod and Nutritiona Security for Triba, Backward and Hiy Areas, migratory sheep, integrated piggery and backyard poutry were studied. The backyard poutry system provided nutritiona security in one of the remotest viages near the China border. Low-cost processed cheese has been prepared. A technoogy was deveoped for fruit dahi preparation. Dahi was aso prepared from came mik. Dehydrated instant chicken soup mix using spent hen, and egg crepe, a convenience egg-rich item, were deveoped. Food-borne pathogens testing methods were deveoped to verify quaity of products. Incusion of red chii in chicken meat products improved its storage stabiity. Equine and came hairs coud be bended to deveop naturay cooured furnishing fabrics. In Fish Production and Processing, under the inand sector, a compete inventory and mapping of arge waterbodies of more than 10 hectares in West Benga were done through digita image-processing technique using sateite data. The management guideines based on biogenic production potentia were formuated for four reservoirs of southern Rajasthan. Under cuture fisheries, the medium carp, Puntius gonionotus was incorporated in cuture system to diversify freshwater aquacuture. Maturity coud be advanced in Indian major carps on suppementing semi-baanced diet with ysine and methionine. In north and north-eastern states, more than 100 species of ornamenta fishes were identified. Captive breeding of Carassius auratus, Puntius conchonius and Coisa fasciata was standardized. In god fish, four variants in body coouration and cauda fin formation coud be recorded. Under codwater fisheries, the water quaity of gacier and spring fed streams of Garhwa Himaayas was found quite congenia for sustaining fish and benthic food-chain, and potentia sites for conservation of mahseer and snow trout coud be ocated in these streams. Significant variation was observed in size and fecundity of mahseer stocks in riverine and acustrine zones of Uttarancha. Under brackishwater aquacuture, an immuno-stimuant technique was deveoped to tacke shrimp disease probems and reverse transcriptase poymerase chain reaction technique was standardized for detection of yeow head virus disease in farmed shrimp. In maricuture, broodstock deveopment, breeding and arva rearing of damsefish Chrysiptera unimacuata and grouper, Epinepheus maabricus have been achieved in captivity. Deveopment of production technoogy of readyto-consume fried musse in fexibe retortabe pouch with shef-ife of more than one year at room temperature, and standardization of production technoogy of battered and breaded bas from sma squids as raw materia, which otherwise was not suitabe for export, are the highights of fish harvest and processing technoogy. In fish genetic resources, poymorphic micro-sateite oci from nine prioritized species were identified. Sperms of wid accessions of Horabagrus, Labeo, Cata and Cirrhinus species were cryo-preserved, and six species of Labeo were geneticay characterized. Besides, CIFELOSTRESS formuation to reduce stress and resutant mortaity of fish seed during transportation and a diagnostic PCR kit for dreaded white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) have been deveoped. In Agricutura Engineering and Technoogy, foowing impements have been deveoped: rotavator attachment for sef-propeed reaper, power-tier operated wetand eveer, tractor-mounted turmeric digger, tractor-mounted hydrauicay-operated hoist (for harvesting mango, guava, p65\5\( \ )

12 6 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT sapota and coconut etc.) and tractor-operated straw chopper-cum-spreader (to sove the probem of rice-straw management). A 4-row manuay operated rice-seeder has been refined and was found to be 70.8% abour, 87.11% energy and 83.67% cost-effective in seeding of sprouted rice compared to mechanized transpanting of seedings. Prototype feasibiity testing of tractor-mounted rotavator, puverizing roer attachment and zero-ti dri, ANGRAU hydrotier, anima-drawn pudder (for NEH region), ightweight power-weeder for intercuture and sef-propeed vertica conveyor-reaper was carried out, and has shown promising resuts. In post-harvest engineering and technoogy, okara, a by-product of soymik has been used for preparing highfibre nutritious soy-cereas based snacks, and a technoogy has aso been standardized for jaggery-chocoate production. Compete or partia substitution of conventiona wet chemica process by the deveopment of pasma treatment in preparation of grey-cotton fabric for dyeing; and 25% reduction in poution oad and 30% saving in energy with the new biochemica scouring technique, when couped with the existing hand-processing unit, are the highights in cotton technoogy. Work under jute technoogy ed to the deveopment of a nove method for simutaneous akai treatment and beaching of jute. Major finding in ac technoogy is the deveopment of sustainabe technoogy for quaity brood and stickac production on ber. In energy in agricuture, major deveopments are: a famiysize, soid state anaerobic digester for agro-residues; biogas pant of 6 m 3 capacity (foating dome-type, suitabe for high water-tabe regions), groundnut she-based Open Core Down Draft Gasifier, and simpe eectronic temperature controer for use on natura convection soar dryer. Under irrigation and drainage, an underground irrigation grid system has been designed and instaed at the CIAE Farm, Bhopa. A portabe automatic muti-outet irrigation system was designed to appy water to furrows. Surface drains at m spacing were found sufficient to remove excess run-off water from soybean fieds in Vertisos. Under Agricutura Human Resource Deveopment, financia support was given to the State Agricutura Universities (SAUs) for deveopment of under-graduate (UG) and post-graduate (PG) programmes to expand, deveop and improve quaity, reevance and utiity in agricutura education and training, and for instructiona farm deveopment; computerization and internet faciities were given under the capacity deveopment programme of the ICAR. In order to ensure quaity of agricutura education and manpower deveopment, the foowing initiatives were undertaken: accreditation of 16 SAUs and 3 deemed-tobe universities (DUs), competion of revision of PG curricua and syabi, pubication of accreditation-reated information, provision of admission to foreign nationas in the ICAR DUs and SAUs, organization of 82 Summer/Winter Schoos and Short Courses, conducting examination to provide opportunity to meritorious students for seeking education in an institution of their choice, preparation of perspective pan to strengthen agricutura education and human resource deveopment, and awarding 201 senior research feowships, 470 junior research feowships and 230 nationa taent schoarships. Under Socia Sciences and Poicies, progress of watershed programmes aunched in rainfed areas to improve conditions of rura poor was studied. With watershed management, water run-off rate was reduced by 34%, and groundwater recharge increased by 64% p65\6\( \ )

13 7 OVERVIEW Investment in agricuture must grow at 7.91% per annum to reaize the target growth in agricuture. A study under the Nationa Centre for Agricutura Economics and Poicy (NCAP) Outreach Programme reveaed that diversification in agricuture is necessary to improve farmers conditions in the western Uttar Pradesh. A method has been deveoped for the estimation of crop yied at the bock eve. Area of potato and ginger and their yieds were estimated in north-eastern states. A methodoogy has been deveoped for forecasting fish production from ponds. The Agricutura Technoogy Information Centres (ATICs) of the ICAR institutes/saus are providing Singe Window deivery system for technoogy products, diagnostic technoogy services and information avaiabe in the institutes to the farmers. Under Technoogy Assessment, Refinement and Transfer, the Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) organized 18,461 training courses benefiting 0.43 miion farmers and farm women, 3,237 vocationa and ski-oriented training courses benefiting 66,000 rura youths and 1,643 training programmes benefiting 41,000 in-service personne in various aspects of agricuture. The eight Trainers Training Centres (TTCs) organized 188 training courses benefiting 2,893 participants, and two more TTCs in areas of vegetabes and citrus have been sanctioned. In a joint project of the Divisions of Crop Science and Agricutura Extension on muti-ocation trias across various crop ecoogies in different parts of the country, superior yieding varieties of wheat and pigeonpea have been identified. In the area of Women in Agricuture, major findings of the A-India Co-ordinated Research Project on Home Science incude: identification of 36 new sources of natura dyes, enhancement in work efficiency with improved toos, and deveopment of nine technoogy kits consisting of mutimedia resource materias for knowedge empowerment of extension workers. The Nationa Research Centre for Women in Agricuture (NRCWA) organized 30 training programmes benefiting 887 farm women. In addition, KVKs have imparted training to 1.10 akh farm women in different speciaised activities. Under Research for Triba and Hi Regions, saient achievements of the Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Amora, are: the reease of VL Gehun 804 of wheat and Vivek Matar 8 of pea for northern hi zone, and VL Madira 181 of barnyard miet for Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Tami Nadu; identification of Vivek Sanku Makka 11 maize composite and VLT 9531 tomato for reease in Uttarancha; two short-duration bastresistant rice strains and a exotic capsicum ine VHC 12 for reease in Uttarancha his; deveopment of ow-cost, poy-tunne technoogy for 1-month advance production of capsicum and tomato during winter; and reduction in bast score and stem-borer incidence in organicay fertiized basmati rice pots compared to chemicay fertiized ones. The studies conducted at the ICAR Research Compex for NEH, Umiam, resuted in the reease of four varieties of rice, coection of 1,645 germpasm, reease of Megha Turmeric 1 variety of turmeric, preparation of citrusrejuvenation package and production of tissue-cutured disease-free materia for farming community, reduction in HCN content of bamboo eaves for feeding ivestock, deveopment of DNA-based rapid diagnosis techniques for samonea and costridia diseases, reveation of watershed-based technoogies to reduce soi oss, perfection of technoogy for processing of soybean into soya mik, paneer and biscuits, and training of farmers of p65\7\( \ )

14 8 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT NEH region for using and manufacturing modified agricutura impements. The Centra Agricutura Research Institute, Port Bair, recommended staggered panting at 1-month intervas for round-the-year avaiabiity of tuberose fowers; deveoped brinja somacones and herba antimicrobia, antiinfammatory and anti-histaminic formuation, mouth wash and vagina contraceptive; produced on a arge-scae, Quicken, a fertie intergeneric hybrid of quai; standardized for the first-time common cown (Amphiprion percua) cuturing in India; and achieved successfu arva rearing of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and production of juvenies. In the organization and management (O&M) programme of Nationa Agricutura Technoogy Project, the O&M Task Force has made severa sub-committees on various aspects of reforms. In institutionaizing research priority setting, monitoring and evauation (PME) in the Nationa Agricutura Research System (NARS), 25 PME ces (13 in SAUs and 12 in ICAR) have been estabished. Two web-based networks, one among agricutura economists and the other among agricutura statisticians, have been made operationa for information exchange and creating a primary-source dynamic database of economic and socia information on the Indian farming situation. In production system research, significant findings incude: deveopment of natura dye production technoogy from saffower petas which provides farmers additiona income (60 70%), a package of practices maintaining afatoxin eve in groundnut required by importers and identification of sweet sorghum genotypes for acoho production under rainfed agro-ecosystem; deveopment of improved technoogy package for boro rice cutivation and fabrication of a prototype for cotton stick and bur remover to reduce farmers drudgery under irrigated agro-ecosystem; popuarization of Oryctes rhinoceros contro by virus, standardization of technoogy for broodstock deveopment and feed, and deveopment of a vaccine for the contro of duck pasteuroosis under coasta agro-ecosystem. Deveopment of 28 hybrids of different crops with improved quaity, high yied and disease resistance; production of cabbage, tomato and chickpea using IPM and without pesticida sprays; first time report of eight new species of fish; and deveopment of a technoogy for packing ready-to-eat fish preparations are the major achievements under the mission mode research. Under team of exceence (TOE) mode, deveoped a user-friendy crop-modeing framework Info Crop ; identified rust-resistance genes in wheat; deveoped an eco-friendy and vaue-addition method for use of saughterhouse byproducts for protein recovery (suitabe for feeding pets and ivestock), and the Immuno-O-Check kit for the detection of passive transfer faiure in buffao caves. In competitive grants programme, 443 projects have been sanctioned. Significant resuts incude: production of vira cdna to deveop transgenic papaya resistant to ring spot virus; identification of microsateite moecuar marker (RM 258) to be inked with fertiity-restorer genes for use in basmati rice breeding; presence of nematicida property in effuents of cassava-based starch factory against rootknot nematode; standardization of arge-scae production protocos for medicina pants, viz. Chorophytum and Rauvofia; deveopment of technoogy for production of fish cakes and sausages; and standardization of protoco for isoation and purification of immuno-protective antigens. In technoogy assessment and refinement through institution-viage inkage programme (IVLP) accompishments are: 50% increase in number of kids on crossing desi goats with improved buck (Beeta); increase p65\8\( \ )

15 9 OVERVIEW in net returns of Rs 15,992 when eephant-foot-yam intercropped with banana, and from Rs 18,000 to Rs 37,440 on introducing cata, rohu and mrigaa in 20 : 70 : 10 ratio; increase in mik yied of itres/ anima/day on icking of mutinutrient bock by catte and buffaoes; fruit yied increase of 150% on adoption of integrated pant nutrient system (IPNS) in orange orchards; and significant impact of interventions ike bee-keeping and button mushroom cutivation on andess viagers. Under innovations in technoogy dissemination, teephone hepines have been instaed in eight ATICs. The ICAR has taken a number of initiatives under Organization and Management to improve working environment and to make research need based, effective, efficient and reevant. For the first time, a Screening Committee was constituted for finaization of Annua Recruitment Pan of the ICAR system. The recommendations of the Sub-committee on Administrative Matters of the O&M Task Force were sent to a Subject-Matter Divisions of the Counci to process them for operationaization/impementation. The constitution of eight Task Forces was recommended by the Standing Poicy Panning Committee of the Governing Body under Chairmanship of Dr M S Swaminathan. During the year, 24 institutes/centres were notified in the Gazette of the Government of India under rue 10 (4) of the Officia Language Rue The Budget Estimates (BE) and Revised Estimates (RE) of DARE and ICAR (Pan and Non-Pan) for were Rs 14,045.5 miion and Rs 1,325 miion, respectivey; and BE for (Pan and Non-Pan) is Rs 14,980.5 miion. This year, 27 scientists and their 46 associates from ICAR institutes; and 18 scientists/teachers and their 13 associates from SAUs; received awards under different categories. Of the tota awardees, 15% were the women scientists. The DARE and ICAR have been operating Partnership and Linkages at the nationa and internationa eve through the Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs)/Work Pans/ Training Courses/Exchange Visits, etc. Two agreements and a protoco were signed between ICAR/DARE and Iran, Namibia and Bugaria. Under internationa inkages, five projects have been approved. Under protoco activities, foreign deegations visited India and Indian deegations visited foreign countries. Other achievements incude organization of a Pan Poicy Diaogue on Forward Thinking Poicies for Groundwater Management Energy Resources and Economic Approaches between ICAR and Internationa Water Management Institute, Coombo; and a meeting of Counseors-in-charge of Agricuture in Embassies/High Commissions/Honorary Consuates Genera/ Honorary Consuates to inform them about training faciities avaiabe within the NARS. The Directorate of Information and Pubications of Agricuture (DIPA) brought out 50 pubications incuding Handbook of Anima Husbandry in Engish and 11 in Hindi besides reguar research monthy journas/magazines, viz. The Indian Journa of Agricutura Sciences, The Indian Journa of Anima Sciences, Indian Farming, and Kheti, and quartery semi-technica magazines/newsetters, viz. Indian Horticuture, Pha-Phoo, Krishi Chayanika, ICAR Reporter, ICAR News and ARIS News. Specia issues/accent numbers of periodicas were aso brought out on the occasions/themes of Word Food Day, Internationa Agronomy Congress, ICAR Foundation Day, Foricuture and Environment. Of ate, the DIPA has made inroads into e-pubishing in a big way and has reeased p65\9\( \ )

16 10 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT four CDs, viz. on-going research projects of ICAR institutes, e-book on Handbook of Horticuture, photographic materia of the ICAR, and ICAR Vision The DIPA earned about Rs 4 miion (up to January 2003) through sae of its pubications and advertisements, and participated in various exhibitions and dispayed its pubications. The Agricutura Research Information Centre deveoped the Nationa Agricutura Database (as a part of the ICAR-CABI Work Pan under NATP Programme), a database on 82 AICRPs, and upgraded Webpage of DIPA. About 14,000 readers visited the ICAR Library and consuted 20,000 pubications. Pubicity and Pubic Reations Unit issued materias of current importance to various newspapers, agricutura and current affairs magazines and eectronic media; and achievements of the Counci in agricutura research, extension and education were covered adequatey at nationa and regiona eves. The video fims prepared on the Counci s activities and achievements and important issues of immediate concern to farmers were distributed to various ICAR institutes, KVKs and Extension Directorates of SAUs for wider dissemination of information. A NICNET-based Pubic Information and Faciitation Centre was estabished to bring greater transparency through better access to information. (MANGALA RAI) Secretary (DARE) & DG, ICAR p65\10\( \ )

17 Saient Achievements


19 2. Saient Achievements Crop Improvement and Management PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES Germpasm Exporation and Coection A tota of 236 exporations have resuted in the coection of 15,243 accessions of different crops and their wid reatives. Important were 12 exporations undertaken in the Sardar Sarovar Catchment area; as a specia mission to capture and rescue most of the existing pant genetic resources. In a, 27,847 sampes of crops from 39 countries (incuding 79 sampes of transgenic crops) and 59,745 of different internationa trias from the IRRI, Phiippines; CIMMYT, Mexico, Nepa and Thaiand and ICARDA, Syria, were introduced. A tota of 3,961 sampes were exported to 23 countries. Besides, 1,055 exporations were undertaken, and 64,520 accessions comprising crop andraces, oca cutivars, trait-specific materias, crops wid reatives, ess-known species and wid economic pants were coected. Inand suppy of germpasm comprised 6,990 sampes of diverse crops. Undertook tweve exporations to capture and rescue the existing pant genetic resources at the Sardar Sarovar Catchment area. In the Nationa Seed Genebank, the tota has reached to 231,539 accessions. Issued 31 phytosanitary certificates for the export materia. ARIS ce has computerized information on 4.5 akh exotic and 2.5 akh indigenous coections. Submitted to Genbank, 2 Mb of rice chromosome 11 data after sequencing. Germpasm Conservation In the Nationa Seed Genebank, 27,245 accessions of the orthodox seed species have been added, making the tota to 231,539 in the year. These incude cereas (5,861), miets and forages (12,733), pseudo-cereas (540), grain-egumes (2,002), oiseeds (3,976), fibre crops (480), vegetabes (385), fruits (41), medicina and aromatic pants (418), narcotics (141), spices and condiments (488), genetic stocks (37) and dupicate safety sampes (143). Two hundred and tweve reeased varieties and 32 parenta ines were received and were added to the ong-term conservation. In the cryobank, 733 accessions were cryopreserved as seeds, embryos, embryonic axes, making the tota to 4,609 accessions. In-vitro cutures of 78 accessions in the in-vitro Genebank have resuted in 1,254 accessions in tota. Accessions conserved in ong-term storage are 66, 292 and in medium storage are 36, 834. SUCCESS STORY KIWI IN HIMACHAL PRADESH Regiona Station of the NBPGR at Shima has been the pioneer in introduction, mutipication and eary initiatives for commercia cutivation of Kiwi (Actinidia chinensis) in India, especiay in Himacha Seed variabiity in Carthamus oxyacantha, from parts of Haryana and Rajasthan Kiwi fruit Actinidia chinensis in bearing at the NBPGR Regiona Station, Shima Pradesh. It organizes Kiwi Days in February and March to impart training to farmers on various aspects of Kiwi cutivation. Ti date, more than 10,000 rooted pants have been distributed aover India, and about 500 farmers have adopted Kiwi for commercia cutivation.

20 14 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT PROMISING ACCESSIONS IDENTIFIED OF DIFFERENT CROPS Pant and characteristics Accessions Mucuna prurita seeds variabiity, assembed at the NBPGR Regiona Station, Jodhpur Crop GERMPLASM REGISTERED No. of genotypes Paddy 13 Pigeonpea 6 Groundnut 4 Coffee 7 Cotton 40 Misceaneous 22 High number of seeds/siiqua in Brassica compestiris variety IC yeow sarson High number of seeds/pod in cowpea EC in urdbean IPU Eary maturity in Brassica juncea IC in cowpea IC in pea IC Brassica for high oi percentage IC (53.08%), IC (52.29%), IC (51.49%), IC (50.73%), IC (49.52%) for ow erucic acid Hyoa 401 (0%), EC (1.0%), EC (3.6%), EC (3.7%), EC (4.58%) Wanut for oi content GP/ANT 129 (79.4%), GP/ANT 127 (78.6%), GP/ANT 133 (78.0%) for protein content EC (25.7%), GP/ANT 92 (24.2%) Pant Quarantine A tota of 138,364 sampes of crops incuding 91 transgenics were processed for quarantine cearance; comprising 132,271 under import and 6,093 under export. Some important interceptions, not yet reported from India, incude pathogens (Peronospora manschurica, downy midew in Gycine max from the USA) and insects (Bruchophagus gibbus in Medicago sativa from the USA; Bruchus ervi in Lens cuinaris from Syria; Sitophius granarius in Triticum aestivum from the USA). Of the export sampes, 248 sampes found infested/infected were savaged before reease. Thirty-one phytosanitary certificates were issued for the materia under export. ELISA testing of 30 sampes, out of 91 (sunfower, Parthenium and other weeds), showed positive resuts against tobacco streak virus (TSV). TSV was aso found positive in 70 advanced breeding ines of groundnut deveoped by the ICRISAT. Fruit variabiity in citrus species, coected from the centra Himaayan Region Fruit variabiity in ess-known vegetabe of Himaayan Region, chow-chow (Sechium edue) Ziziphus species fruit variabiity, maintained at the NBPGR Station, Jodhpur

21 15 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT DNA Fingerprinting Cereas and miets. A tota of 76 non-aromatic rice varieties were fingerprinted using Ampified Fragment Length Poymorphism (AFLP) markers. Sequence Tagged Microsateite (STMS) and AFLP markers were used for fingerprinting 137 wheat varieties. Sorghum cutivars (38) were profied using 6 fuorescenty abeed STMS primer pairs. Puses. Pigeonpea (31) and chickpea (36) varieties were fingerprinted using RAPD, AFLP and STMS markers; in chickpea AFLP and STMS markers were highy efficient. Oiseeds. Brassica accessions (42) beonging to B. juncea, B. carinata, B. campestris, B. nigra, B. napus and Eruca sativa were fingerprinted using AFLPbased DNA markers. Seventy-eight reeased cutivars of soybean were fingerprinted with 12 most informative primers. Saffower cutivars (14) were fingerprinted using 15 AFLP primer pairs. AFLP anaysis of 72 Indian soybean cutivars indicated presence of moderatey high genetic diversity; much of the diversity appeared to be due to 12 varieties. Fibre crops. For AFLP anaysis of 65 dipoid cotton cutivars, 6 primer pairs were used. Most cutivars coud be distinguished from one another using these primers. Citrus and banana. DNA fingerprinting of citrus using 15 AFLP primer-pair combinations indicated that the rough emon types, the oranges and the pummeos coud be differentiated using moecuar markers. Moecuar diversity anaysis of over 34 banana accessions of 6 cutivars, coected from different banana-growing regions, has indicated the presence of considerabe intra-cutivar variation. Neem. DNA fingerprints of 8 exotic and 69 indigenous neem were obtained with AFLP markers. Exotic ines were grouped into a separate custer; indicating that Indian neem genepoo is different from exotic. Pant Biotechnoogy Ti date, physica map region of the ong arm of the chromosome 11 of rice between position 57.3 cm and 84.3 cm has been deveoped by the Nationa Research Centre for Pant Biotechnoogy, and more than 2 Mb data have been submitted to the Genbank after sequencing. Protease inhibitor and ectin genes and promoter sequences have been isoated from the indigenous egumes. These genes are being mobiized in different crops for deveoping transgenic pants with resistance to insect pests. Using genetic transformation systems, more than 100 Bt-transgenic rice ines from 3 eite indica rice cutivars, IR 64, Pusa Basmati 1 and Karna Loca, have been generated using a codon optimized, synthetic and truncated Bt-gene, cryiac. A nove Bt-vip gene was coned and sequenced from Bt Serovar towarthi. The deduced amino acid sequence has reveaed that vegetative insecticida protein (VIP) encoded by the nove gene (vipto) differs from the VIP3a with respect to 23 amino acids. The gene was coned in a pant transformation vector, and transgenic tobacco pants were deveoped by Agrobacterium transformation. Insect bioassays using IN-VITRO CRYOPRESERVATION OF DIOSCOREA Dioscorea detoidea and D. foribunda are the important sources of diosgenin, an akaoid used in steroida drugs. Successfu protocos for shoot-tips cryopreservation of these with subsequent high frequency of pant regeneration have been deveoped. Periodica testing of these from cryostorage has reveaed that they can be maintained with unatered regeneration frequency up to 12 and 18 months, respectivey. And the regenerated pants, after cryopreservation, were found with unatered capacity for diosgenin production. Standardized transformation protoco of mungbean for transfer of cowpeaprotease inhibitor gene. The restorer gene of CMS (Moricandia arvensis) Brassica juncea found to restore fertiity in CMS Dipotaxis cathoica as we. This is the first instance where one restorer gene worked for 2 different systems. ONE RESTORER GENE FOR 2 CMS SYSTEMS (BRASSICA AND DIPLOTAXIS) A dominant fertiity restorer gene from Dipotaxis cathoica into Brassica juncea was introgressed that conferred mae fertiity to CMS B. juncea ine, carrying D. cathoica cytopasm. This restorer was very efficient in conferring mae fertiity but in some cases restorer fowers acked petas. A restorer that can bring about mae fertiity restoration without atering norma fower phenotype has been identified. The restorer gene of CMS (Moricandia arvensis) B. juncea has been found to restore fertiity in CMS D. cathoica as we. The restored pants produced norma fowers. This is the first instance where one restorer gene works for two different systems. Internationa rice genome sequencing consortium shares different chromosomes of rice. (Country fag shown on each rice chromosome represents its share of sequencing)

22 16 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT first instar arvae of Spodoptera itura (tobacco caterpiar) have reveaed significant in panta insecticida activity of VIP. Biochemica and physioogica anayses of the second generation of osmotin potato pants in greenhouse under controed water suppy have been done. In the ast crop season, third generation tubers (T3) from the previous year were sown in 65 pots (singe tuber per pot) in the greenhouse to coect maximum number of tubers for subsequent fied tria. A pants were screened by PCR for transgene expression and were found positive. The PCR ampified products have been further visuaized and confirmed by the hybridization with digoxygenin abeed nptii primers in the Southern bots. A transformation protoco of Vigna radiata (mungbean) cv Pusa Visha and Pusa 9072 for transfer of cowpea protease inhibitor gene has been standardized. Crop Improvement FOOD CROPS RICE In rice, 21 varieties and one hybrid have been reeased. Rice varieties reeased Variety Days to 50% Grain Ecosystem Yied range Reaction to Recommended and fowering type (tonnes/ha) pests/diseases characteristics Centra Reeases Anjai SB Rainfed upands R GM 1,3 Bihar, Assam, Orissa KRH 2 95 MS Irrigated areas MR Bast, BS Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tripura, Tami Nadu, Maharashtra, Haryana, Uttarancha, Rajasthan State Reeases Rashmi 76 LS Rainfed shaow ands R GM 1, SB, Bast Madhya Pradesh, for rainfed ecosystem Harsha LB Rainfed upands MR Bast Keraa, for direct-seeded upands SKL LS Rainfed shaow ands R GM, SB; Maharashtra, for owands MR Bast ADT (R) MS Irrigated areas R GM 1; Tami Nadu, for both direct MR SB,BPH sown and transpanted rices BR MB Irrigated areas MR Bast Karnataka Mugad Sugandha LS Irrigated areas MR Bast, LF, SB Karnataka; aromatic rice, aso good for parboiing Sharavathi MB Rainfed shaow ands MR Bast Karnataka, for norma owands, and aso temperate hi zone of Karnataka TRY (R) LS Coasta saine Tami Nadu, for saine and akaine areas Panve LB Coasta saine MR Bast, SB, BPH Maharashtra, for coasta saine sois Kohsaar SB Irrigated his MR Bast Jammu and Kashmir for Irrigated, high eevation areas of Kashmir (continued )

23 17 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT IR A, DRR 2A and CRMS 31A are new CMS ines of rice possessing desirabe quaity traits. Through marker-aided seection, bacteria eaf bight resistance genes xa 5, xa 13, xa 21 are being introgressed into BPT 5204 and Triguna rice. Rice hybrids PHB 71 and KRH 2 found promising in nitrogen-use efficiency. Anjai rice. It is a Centra Reease for rainfed upands; recommended for Bihar, Assam, and Orissa. Its yied ranges from 3.5 to 4.5 tonnes/ha Rice varieties reeased (continued) Variety Days to 50% Grain Ecosystem Yied range Reaction to Recommended and fowering type (tonnes/ha) pests/diseases characteristics Jagtiaa Sannau MS Irrigated areas R GM1 Andhra Pradesh, for both kharif and rabi Jagtia Mahsuri MS Irrigated areas MR BLB, BPH, Andhra Pradesh for North Bast, GM (3, 4) Teengana Varau LS Rainfed upand MR GM (1,3,5) Andhra Pradesh, for irrigated kharif, rabi and Edagaru Sumati LS Irrigated areas 5.3 MR Bast, GM Andhra Pradesh; aromatic, good eongation on cooking Bapata Sannau 135 MS Rainfed shaow ands 5.6 R BLB Andhra Pradesh, N-responsive, can withstand submergence up to 10 days, suitabe for singe crop wetands, for kharif Santhi LS Irrigated areas 5.0 R Bast, MR Andhra Pradesh, for both WBPH, BS kharif and rabi; with good and ShR cooking quaity Apurva 105 MS Irrigated areas 7.0 R Bast Andhra Pradesh, for both kharif and rabi Nandya Sannau 105 LS Irrigated area 6.5 MR BPH, LF Andhra Pradesh, suitabe for both pantings; good cooking quaity, comparabe to Samba Mahsuri Thoakari 125 MS Rainfed shaow MR BPH, BLB Andhra Pradesh; three weeks owands dormancy Godavari 120 MS Rainfed shaow owands MR BLB, BPH Andhra Pradesh, one week dormancy R Resistant, MR Moderatey resistant, BLB Bacteria bight, BPH Brown panthopper, BS Brown spot, GM Ga midge, LF Leaf foder, NBL Neck bast, SB Stem borer, ShB Sheath bight, ShR Sheath rot, RTV Rice tungro virus, WBPH White backed panthopper; SB Short bod, MS Medium sender, LS Long sender, LB Long bod, MB Medium bod.

24 18 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT SUCCESS STORY HYBRID RICE ENHANCES PRODUCTION AND PROFITABILITY Five of the reeased hybrids KRH 2, PHB 71, Sahyadri, PA 6201 and NDRH 2 are high-yieding and are widey adapted. These are now being cutivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana and Goa on akh hectares. Impact assessment studies carried out have indicated yied advantage of 1.0 to 1.5 tonnes/ha by cutivation of hybrids over popuar check varieties, grown by farmers. And the monetary profit is in the range of Rs 4,000 6,000 per hectare. Hybrid rice is aso becoming popuar in ow to medium productivity areas of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. PROMISING ENTRIES OF RICE Panthoppers KAU 1661, KAU Different biotypes JGL 1738, JGL 1799, of ga midge JGL 1851, JGL 2671, JGL 3828, JGL 3932, JGL 4147, INRC nos 202, 1997, 5073, 913, 1531, 1590 Potentia and HPR 2054, INRC nos sporadic pests 541, 1590, 2489, ike gundhi bug Mutipe pest JGL 246 resistant cuture FIELD TESTING OF TRANSGENIC RICES FOR RESISTANCE Fied testing of transgenic IR 72, transformed with cry1ab gene against yeow stem borer under artificia infestation, has showed significanty ower damage at vegetative stage during kharif 2001 as compared to transformed but nonexpressive IR 72 and susceptibe check IR 62. But during rabi, these differences were not seen. Greenhouse testing of transgenic IR 72 ines transformed with xa21 gene against BLB under artificia infestation using oca (Assam) isoate of Xoo has showed significanty ower damage (score 3) as compared to the check TN 1. Hybrid Rice Technoogy In advanced variety trias, EXPH 208 (E), PAC (ME), XR 593 (ME) and PRH 122 (ME) have showed a yied advantage ranging from 12 to 24% over the highest yieding check varieties. IR 68888A, DRR 2A and CRMS 31A are the new rice CMS ines possessing desirabe quaity traits. Two cytopasmic mae sterie ines, Pusa 3A and Pusa 5A, in WA genetic background, have been registered. With the integrated nutrient management during dry season in the hybrid rice, grain yied of PHB 71 was maximum (7.92 tonnes/ha) with 135 kg N/ha as urea + FYM at 7 tonnes/ha. Urea at 71 kg N/ha + FYM at 7 tonnes/ha + Azoa duacropping was at a par with urea aone at 135 kg N/ha, which suggests that 50% of the fertiizer-n for hybrid rice can be substituted by organic manure and biofertiizer Azoa. Biotechnoogy Through marker-aided seection, bacteria eaf bight resistance genes xa5, xa13 and xa21 are being introgressed into rice BPT 5204 and Triguna. The pants are currenty at the BC 4 F 1 stage for SS1113 BPT 5204 and at BC 3 F 1 for SS1113 Triguna. Crop Production Rice hybrids PHB 71 and KRH 2 were found better than varieties in nitrogenuse efficiency (NUE) indices, ike agronomic efficiency, physioogica efficiency and nitrogen harvest index. Hybrids were found to maintain higher panice water potentia and aso mean reative water content of primary spikeets, and the osmotic potentia in spikeets decreased during grain-fiing compared to varieties. These differences may be reated to differences in grain-fiing percentage. Continued physioogica studies confirmed reativey poor grain-fiing in bottom haf of the hybrid panices, owering mean fied grain percentage. This is due to intense apica dominance in grain-fiing in hybrids. Kharif yied response to P at 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha (direct effect) was equivaent to residua effect of 90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha appied to rabi rice or 30 kg P 2 O 5 /ha each appied to both the crops. Crop Protection New combination insecticides, Acephate 45% + Cypermethrin 5% (Upacy), Chorpyriphos 50% + Cypermethrin 5% (Nuree), Imidacoprid 50 g + COST-EFFECTIVE INSTRUMENTS FROM CRRI Manua rice transpanter. This costs Rs 5,000 and saves 80% in abour cost and 74% in cost of transpanting. And the output of the machine is ha/hr CRRI manua rice transpanter. This costs Rs 5,000 and saves 80% in abour cost and 74% in cost of transpanting, and the output of the machine is ha/hr. Six-row drum seeder. Its cost of operation is 90% esser than manua transpanting i.e., Rs 250/ha as compared to Rs 3,750/ha in manua transpanting. The output of the machine is ha/hr. CRRI cono cum star weeder. It can be operated in paddy fied with row spacing of more than 20 cm. The output of the machine is ha/hr, and the cost of operation is Rs 650/ha, as compared to Rs 3,100/ha of manua weeding.

25 19 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Betacyfuthrin 50 g/itre (Confidor Utra) and Betacyfuthrin 12.5 g + Chorpyriphos 250 g/itre (Budock Star) were on a par with the check insecticide Monocrotophos. Pyroquion (Fongorene 50 WP) at 1.2g/itre was the most effective fungicide in the irrigated ecosystem in checking the bast infection and improving the grain yied. Crop Improvement Wheat and barey varieties reeased WHEAT AND BARLEY Six wheat and barey varieties have been reeased by the Centra Variety Reease Committee for commercia cutivation. Nine varieties of wheat and one of barey have been identified for reease. Production conditions and area of recommendation Reeased 5 wheat and 1 barey and identified for reease 9 varieties of wheat and 1 of barey. Deveoped a new wheat-pant type, DL , combining high grain weight, grain number per spike and tiers/ pant. Deayed N appication at fag eaf and at fowering to wheat with addition of S enhanced its grain yied and protein content. Reeased DWR 28, 2-row mat barey variety, for timey sown irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, Dehi, Rajasthan, western Uttar Pradesh, Uttarancha tarai region, Jammu and Kashmir and parts of Himacha Pradesh. Wheat VL 804 HW 2045 GW 322 HD 2781 HUW 510 Barey DWR (2-row mat barey) Timey sown rainfed as we as irrigated hiy areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himacha Pradesh, Uttarancha, Sikkim, West Benga and north-eastern states Late sown irrigated areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, pains of West Benga and Assam and pains of north-eastern states Timey sown irrigated areas of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kota and Udaipur divisions of Rajasthan, Jhansi division of western Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and pains of Tami Nadu Timey sown rainfed areas of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa and pains of Tami Nadu Late sown irrigated areas of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa and pains of Tami Nadu Timey sown irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, Dehi, Rajasthan, (excepting Kota and Udaipur divisions), western Uttar Pradesh (excepting Jhansi division), Uttarancha tarai region, Jammu and Kashmir (Jammu and Kathua districts ony) and parts of Himacha Pradesh (Paonta Vaey and Una district) Maintenance of Biodiversity of Wheat and Barey Thirty-five new accessions of wheat have been added to the germpasm assemby from the hi tracts of Himacha Pradesh and Karnataka. A tota of 880 accessions have been characterized for their DUS features based on the UPOV guideines for documentation. One genetic stock DL of wheat for ong spike with high number of seeds and thousand-grain weight has been registered. Hybrid Wheat Wheat hybrids HM and HM have exhibited consistenty high standard heterosis for over two year; with superiority for quaity parameters, protein (%), hectoitre weight, sedimentation vaue (m), extraction rate (%), oaf voume (m) and bread quaity (max score 10). A new pant type of wheat, DL , combining 3 yied components, high grain weight, grain number per spike and tiers per pant, aong with dark-green thick and broad eaves, thick stem and higher biomass, has been deveoped. DL harvested the highest grain protein per m 2, indicating its high nitrogen HD 2781 wheat has been reeased for timey sown rainfed areas of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa and pains of Tami Nadu DIVERSIFICATION OF RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM Equivaent wheat yied and economics were cacuated to determine the most usefu and profitabe crop sequences. Highest equivaent wheat yied (12.62 tonnes/ha) and gross returns were recorded in maize (FIRB) - vegetabe pea (FIRB) - wheat (FIRB) sequence and the owest equivaent wheat yied (9.81tonnes/ ha) and gross returns were recorded in soybean (FIRB) - wheat (FIRB) sequence. Maximum cutivation cost was incurred in maize (FIRB) - vegetabe pea (FIRB) - wheat (FIRB) and the minimum in pigeonpea (FIRB) - wheat (FIRB) sequence. Growing pigeonpea (FIRB) - wheat (FIRB) gave highest net returns, foowed by maize (FIRB) - vegetabe pea (FIRB) - wheat (FIRB) sequence.

26 20 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Wheat and barey varieties identified Production conditions and area of recommendation HS 420 wheat has been identified for reease for ate-sown rainfed hiy areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himacha Pradesh, Uttarancha, Sikkim, West Benga and north-eastern states HS 375 wheat. This variety has been identified for summer sowing of wheat in snow-bound rainfed hiy areas of Kashmir, Himacha Pradesh and Uttarancha Wheat VL 829 Eary sown rainfed hiy areas Jammu and Kashmir, Himacha Pradesh, Uttarancha, Sikkim, West Benga and north-eastern states HS 420 Late sown rainfed hiy areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himacha Pradesh Uttarancha, Sikkim, West Benga and north-eastern states HS 375 Summer sowing of wheat in snow-bound rainfed hiy areas of Kashmir, Himacha Pradesh and Uttarancha PBW 498 Late sown irrigated pain areas of Jammu and Kathua districts, Paonta Vaey and Una district of Himacha Pradesh, tarai areas of Uttarancha, Punjab, Haryana, Dehi, Rajasthan (excepting Kota and Udaipur divisions), and western Uttar Pradesh, excuding Jhansi division DBW 14 and Late sown irrigated areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, NW 2036 pains of West Benga and Assam, and pain areas of north-eastern states MP 4010 Late sown irrigated areas of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kota and Udaipur divisions of Rajasthan and Jhansi division of Uttar Pradesh HI 1500 Timey sown rainfed areas of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kota and Udaipur divisions of Rajasthan and Jhansi division of Uttar Pradesh Lok 45 Late sown irrigated areas Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and pains of Tami Nadu Barey BHS 352 (Huskess- Timey sown rainfed hiy areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himacha naked barey) Pradesh, Uttarancha, Sikkim, West Benga and north-eastern states efficiency, foowed by check, irrespective of the fertiity eves. The superiority of this has further been proved with the activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase. The physioogica trait for transocation of stem reserves in wheat genotypes for grain deveopment has been found promising one, as it has perceptibe association with grain yied under ate-sown conditions. Crop Production BHS 352. It is an huskess naked barey variety, identified for reease for timey-sown rainfed hiy areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himacha Pradesh, Uttarancha, Sikkim, West Benga and northeastern states Various tiage options have been evauated in a farmers participatory approach. The data indicate that FIRB system of panting on the raised bed was not an energy saver but reduced seed rate to haf. Aso, the fertiizer dosage and pacement improved substantiay and irrigation water used for growing wheat coud be reduced substantiay. Rotary tiage and zero tiage reduced cost of and preparation, and saved between Rs 2,000 and 2,500/ha, compared to FIRB and conventiona system. The highest net returns recorded were in rotary tiage compared to conventiona broadcast sowing of wheat, foowed by zero tiage. The highest benefit: cost ratio was recorded in rotary tiage (3.37), foowed by zero tiage (3.11); because of ower cost of production and higher productivity. The minimum benefit: cost ratio was recorded in the conventiona broadcast sowing of wheat (2.53). The net income aso foowed the same trend. The specific energy required was owest in rotary tiage (1.88 MJ/kg), and for zero tiage, it was 2.05 MJ/kg, because of higher yieds. Minimum Phaaris minor popuation in wheat was recorded under zero tiage

27 21 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT TILLAGE OPERATIONS AND TERMITE AND POWDERY MILDEW DAMAGES ON WHEAT Infuence of tiage practices on powdery midew incidence in wheat The incidence/damage due to termites and powdery midew was more under FIRBS, and the attack of foiar aphids and pink stem borer was much ess under this. In zero tiage, termite damage and powdery midew damage was the east, whereas due to pink stem borer was the highest. The pink stem borer generay remains at a ow eve in wheat, but need is fet to keep a vigi on this important pest under zero-tiage system. Infuence of tiage practices on termite damage in wheat and the maximum was under the conventiona tiage system. Zero tiage seems to be a cost-effective and sustainabe weed-management system. Deayed N appication, 1/3rd or 1/4th at fag eaf or at fowering stage aong with the addition of suphur at 25 kg/ha has been found to enhance grain yied and increase protein content of wheat by 7 10%. Cotton LH 900, foowed by wheat PBW 343/PBW 373 was the best option for avoiding deay in wheat-sowing in cotton-wheat system, and it produced highest wheat equivaent yied among the 4 cotton varieties tested. Use of defoiant in the 1st week of November heped in uniform opening and picking of bos, and eafitter faen had added to organic carbon ( tonnes/ha) and nutrients into the soi. Intercropping of egumes for green manure in cotton-crop coud add kg nitrogen/ha. Crop Protection Around 17,500 sampes were anayzed for Karna bunt (KB) and over 5,000 for back point, and over 2,200 for grain discoouration were coected from a-over the country. From Gujarat, Karna Bunt has not been detected since the ast one decade. In Haryana, the south-west region had very ow incidence, with Fatehabad district yieding no infected sampes, and sampes from Sirsa, Hisar and Bhiwani showed very ow incidence. WHEAT GENOTYPES WITH MULTIPLE RESISTANCE Resistant to stem, eaf and stripe rusts + KB + PM : VL 803, TL 2908 (T), TL 2910 (T), HI PM + FS : VL 802 Resistant to eaf and stripe rusts + KB + PM + FS : HD 4676 (D), PDW 275 (D), DWR 2018 (D) + KB+ FS : NIDW 70 (D), COLOTANA, RAJ 6516 (D) Resistant to KB + PM : MACS 2884, PBW 383, TL 2861 (T), HW 3018 Resistant to brown wheat mite : C 306, HI 1500, Sujata, VL 829, WH 896, GW 322, HPW 155, Sonaika, VL 832, HD 2780, HD 2781, HD 4672, MACS 1967, VL 818, VL 738 and HS 365 Resistant to root aphid and brown wheat mite +shoot fy+ three rusts+oose smut : LRG 101 +oose smut : LRG 106 +oose smut+kb+fs : LRG 103 +oose smut+three rusts : LRG 102 (KB=Karna bunt; FS=Fag smut; PM=Powdery midew) SOFTWARES FOR KARNAL BUNT DETECTION DEVELOPED GEOKB and KBRISK softwares have been deveoped which can indicate whether the wheat areas ie in the high, ow or no risk zones for KB. This is the first PRA on KB in the country. PATHOTYPES OF RUSTS IDENTIFIED ON WHEAT A new pathotype of Puccinia striiformis has been identified from PBW 343 eaves infected with yeow rust. This pathotype has been named as 78S84. This is the second pathotype of yeow rust, which is viruent on Yr 9. Though the new pathotype has rendered PBW 343 susceptibe, but it is ess viruent than pathotype 46S119, to which PBW 343 and PBW 373 are resistant. Apart from the new pathotype (78S84), 10 pathotypes of yeow rust have been observed. The pathotype 46S119 (viruent on Yr 9) has showed an increase in its proportion. Twenty pathotypes of brown rust from India and 5 from Nepa have been identified. Pathotype fora of the Himacha Pradesh was the most diverse one and yieded 15 pathotypes. In Centra and Peninsuar zones, stem rust spectrum showed occurrence of 4 pathotypes during the crop season and 5 during off-season at Weington.

28 22 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Moecuar profiing carried out of 15 hybrids of maize, incuding 10 reeased singe-cross maize hybrids. Identified resistant genotypes of maize for maydis eaf bight, Turcicum eaf bight and sorghum downy midew. Crop Improvement MAIZE Two maize composites and hybrids have been reeased at the centra eve and 4 at the state eve. Simpe sequence repeat profiing in maize reveaed high eve of poymorphism (432 SSR aees), eading to effective discrimination of its various inbred ines. The average number of detected SSR aees per ocus was Reconfirmation of aee designations aided in pacing a high degree of confidence in dataset generated using SSRs. The study aso reveaed a arge number of rare SSR aees (imited to 3 out of 69 inbreds), of which 89 aees were found in Indian maize inbreds, and ony 20 were found in the CIMMYT ines. In maize, an eary composite Narmada Moti of white semi-fint type has been reeased and notified for kharif. It is promising for Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Dehi, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Keraa, Tami Nadu, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh Maize composites/hybrids reeased and notified Variety Yied Maturity Season Grain type Area of adaptation tonnes/ha Centra Reeases Composite Narmada Moti 4.0 Eary Kharif White semi-fint Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Dehi, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Keraa, Tami Nadu, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh Priya sweet corn 2.22 Medium Kharif and rabi Yeow dent, sweet Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tami Nadu and Karnataka State Reeases DHM Fu season Kharif Yeow semi-fint Karnataka bod grain Gujarat Makka Eary Rabi White fint Gujarat NAC Eary Kharif Semi-dent Karnataka Jawahar Makka (kharif) Medium Kharif and rabi Fint to semi-dent Madhya Pradesh (rabi)

29 23 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Moecuar profiing of 15 hybrids incuding 10 singe-cross maize hybrids reeased was carried out. The SSR profies showed distinct genetic nature of Amora hybrids (Vivek Hybrid 4 and Vivek Hybrid 5) from the rest. Simiary, Parkash, a singecross hybrid, deveoped by the PAU, Ludhiana, was found distinct from others. Crop Production For hybrid seed production, nitrogen at 180 kg/ha and pant spacing of 60 cm 20 cm were found the best. In maize-soybean intercropping, appication of Aachor at 2 kg/ha proved most effective in controing weeds. This herbicide was very effective for baby-corn production. FYM at 10 tonnes/ha with NPK resuted in significant yied increases of maize at Kangra, Bajaura and Amora. Crop Protection A set of 145, set A B RILs (recombinant inbred ines), aong with their parenta ines (Ki3 and CML, 139) were anayzed for detection of quantitative trait oci (QTL) for downy midew (DM) resistance. The study has indicated a major QTL DHM 2 maize is a state reease for Karnataka for kharif. It yieds 5.4 tonnes of yeow semi-fint bod grains per hectare MAIZE GENOTYPES RESISTANT TO BIOTIC STRESSES Maydis eaf bight F 7001, AH 918, AH 915, FH 3097, PRO 340, FH 3138, JH 068-2, KH 5991 Turcicum eaf bight R 9601, X 520, F 7001, AH 387, PRO.340, X 3342 Sorghum downy midew PMZ 128, PRO 340, FH 3138, SSFX 9199, KH 5991 Browny stripe downy midew CMH 7, SEEDTECH 2331, AH 916, AH 387, F 7001, AH 187, AH 915, AH 918, FH 3113, SSFX 9195, JK 0682, KH 5991, JH 3795, JH 3725, KH 081, JKMH Post-fowering stak rot JH 3795, JKMH on chromosome 6, which appears stabe across diverse environments, besides the specific QTLs controing resistance to sorghum downy midew and Rajasthan downy midew. Crop Improvement SORGHUM Reeased CSV 17 sorghum (suitabe for moisture stress) with increased grain-moud resistance than check SPV 96. Sorghum cutivars deveoped with CS 3541 in their parentage contributed to high degree of resistance in R ines (C 43, RS 29, MR 836). CSV 17 (SPV 1489) is a new eary-maturing variety (90 95 days) with 30.7% higher yied (2,709 kg/ha), and has increased resistance to grain mouds than check SPV 96. This variety wi be suitabe for moisture-stress areas in Rajasthan and esewhere. A dua-purpose hybrid, SPH 1148, deveoped at the Nationa Research Centre on Sorghum, has recorded superior grain and fodder yieds in mutiocation trias ( ). The hybrid is based on the new MS ine MS 463 A{SPV 463 (IS 2947 IS 232 CO 22) 2219 B} and R ine NR 486 {CS 3541 PAB 34 (IS 23521)}. This yieds 4.15 tonnes of grains/ha and 11.2 tonnes of fodder/ha, which is a record 17.3% and 9.8% and 6% and 14.3% increase over checks CSH 18 and CSH 16 for grain and fodder yieds. Pyramiding genes for grain hardness in sorghum to attain moderate eves of grain hardness and incorporating genes for ight gume coour coud increase eves of grain-moud resistance in white-grain background. Crop Protection The stabe sources of resistances identified are IS 18557, IS 18676, IS 18677, PJ SPH 1148 sorghum hybrid is based on the new MS ine MS 463 and R ine NR 486. It is a duapurpose hybrid and has recorded superior grain and fodder yieds in mutiocation trias

30 24 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT K (Y) and Y 75. It was found that cutivars deveoped with CS 3541 in their parentage contributed to high degree of resistance in R ines (C 43, RS 29, MR 836). PEARL MILLET Crop Improvement Three hybrids and one open-poinated variety have been reeased. GHB 558 pear miet kharif hybrid. It is a ate-maturing, downy-midew resistant, high stover yieding hybrid; yieds 2.83 tonnes/ha across the country Pear miet summer hybrid GHB 526, yieding 4 tonnes/ha, is a ate-maturing, high stover giving hybrid Pear miet hybrids/varieties reeased Reeased CZP 9802 pear miet, an open-poinated variety. Hybrids/ Area of Mean Saient features varieties recommendation grain yied (tonnes/ha) Kharif Hybrids GHB 558 Across the country 2.83 Late maturity (80 82 days), downy-midew resistant and high stover yied HHB 146 Haryana, Rajasthan, 2.88 Medium maturity (78 80 days), Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, downy-midew resistant Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Dehi Summer Hybrids GHB 526 Gujarat, Maharashtra, 4.00 Late maturity and high stover Tami Nadu and parts yied of Rajasthan Variety CZP 9802 Rajasthan, Gujarat 1.30 Medium eary maturity and Haryana (75 78 days), suitabe for scanty rainfa regions

31 25 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Crop Production and Crop Protection Newy deveoped hybrid HHB 146 has been found most responsive to a eves of nitrogen. This recorded higher yied of 12.4% at 30 kg, 16.3% at 60 kg and of 15.2% at 90 kg over the best check hybrid. Hybrids MH 1040, MH 1066 and a variety MP 403 have been identified for combined resistance to downy midew and smut diseases. And MH 1003 has showed promise against shootfy, pyria and grey weevi insects. SMALL MILLETS Crop Improvement Fingermiet L5, a ong-duration variety, maturing in days, with a high eve of fied toerance to bast, has been reeased for cutivation in Karnataka. Litte miet OLM 20, an eary-maturing variety of days duration, suitabe for doube cropping, has been reeased for cutivation in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Foxtai miet accession GS 1953, a unique, dwarf pant-type with erect eaves and desirabe morphoogica frame, controed by singe recessive genes, has been registered with the NBPGR. Crop Production and Crop Protection Intercropping fingermiet and pigeonpea in 4:1 or 8:2 ratio is profitabe in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tami Nadu, Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Bihar. This enhanced farming income as we as suppy of grain-egumes. Soaf (0.2%) was effective against fingermiet bast, and in preventing yied osses to the tune of 15-20% due to diseases. In the Nationa Screening Nursery, kodomiet GPLM 920 and GPLM 1029, found resistant to head smut, can be donors for resistance. VALUE-ADDITION OF FINGERMILLET Fingermiet and pigeonpea intercropping at 8: 2 ratio not ony augmented farm income but aso increased suppy of egumes Whoe ragi after decortication Fingermiet is mainy used in the form of four. A unique process for decorticating whoe-grain after party separating outer brown-cooured bran-ayer has been deveoped. This has opened up nove ways of using whoe-grain in preparing conventiona and specia foods for diabetic and obese popuation.

32 26 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Grain-amaranth Suvarna intercropped in ong-duration pigeonpea CO 6 resuted in higher and-equivaent ratio, gross returns and benefit: cost ratio. In Jatropha, coser spacing (1 m 1 m) recorded higher seed yied at ower fertiizer doses, and 2 m 1 m spacing at higher doses. Crop Improvement UNDERUTILIZED CROPS IC of grain-amaranth, Sanga B 1 of buckwheat, PRR 9402 and LRB 122 of ricebean, H 656 of Job s tear and Loca check of faba-bean are found to be the highest seed yieders. In observation row trias, entries H 2216 (0.46 tonne/ha) of peria, SMLAB 1 (1.48 tonnes/ha) of adzuki-bean and PRC (1.33 tonnes/ ha) of chenopodium have showed promise. Protein content of grain-amaranth ranged from 11.4 to 13.8% (SKNA 20), and the oi content was observed high in RMA 2 (12.8%), RGA (12.2%) and RGA (12.14%). Entry AG 114 of grain-amarnath was observed rich in oeic acid (34.3%) and Rasna 2 in inoeic acid (29.4%). Among fifteen genotypes of kaingada, protein content ranged from 27.5 to 31.8% (SKNK 158), and oi content from 30.6 to 36.4% (SKNK 16). In faba-bean, protein content in mature seeds ranged from 22.3 to 26.2% (BSH 42) and vicine-convicine content ranged from 0.76% (HB 193) to 1.3%. Crop Production Intercropping grain-amaranth (Suvarna) in ong-duration pigeonpea (CO 6) resuted in higher and-equivaent ratio (1.26), gross returns (Rs 27,542/ha) and benefit : cost ratio (1.52). Appication of Aachor at 1.5 kg a.i./ha resuted in highest grain yied and east production of weed biomass in both common and tartary buckwheats. In Jatropha, coser spacing (1 m 1 m) recorded higher seed yied at ower doses of fertiizer, and wider spacing (2 m 1 m) in the highest seed yied at high doses of fertiizer. Berseem HB I reeased for Haryana. Added 450 indigenous and 3 exotic germpasms to forage crops. Azospirium inocuation to sorghum increased green fodder yied to 19.3% and dry matter yied to 27.1%. In sivopasture system, trees contributed to 48% in dry matter yied in arge hodings, foowed by 37% in sma and 35% in medium hodings. In hortipastora system, pasture production was higher with aona, foowed by ber and bae. ANIMAL FEED-BLOCK MAKING MACHINE DEVELOPED This machine is capabe of making bocks with a kinds of straws and grasses. Its overa dimensions are 3.40 m 2.70 m 1.81 m, and its output capacity is bocks per hour. The buk density of the common roughage based feed-bocks prepared from this machine can be increased to 6 10 times. Due to higher buk density of bocks, these require much ess storage space as we as ower handing and transportation cost. Crop Improvement FORAGE CROPS A new variety of berseem HB I has been reeased for Haryana. Tota of 450 new indigenous and 3 exotic germpasms of different forage crops have been added to the coection. Crop Production In oats, suphur in soi at 60 kg/ha and recommended NPK (90 : 60 : 30 kg/ha) enhanced maximum forage yied to 50.6%, compared to contro (14.87 tonnes/ha). Butachor at 2.0 kg a.i./ha (pre-emergence) to berseem produced higher forage yied (31.0%) than contro (49.1 tonnes/ha) and aso controed Cichorium intybus and other weeds, Chenopodium, Anagais and Asphodeus, effectivey. In coconut pantation, recommended NPK(150 : 50 : 50 kg/ha) + Gyricidia eaves at 5 tonnes/ha to Congosigna grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) have been beneficia; increased forage yied (39.21 tonnes/ha) over 100% recommended dose of NPK + FYM at 5 tonnes/ha. Paddy-cowpea (F) - oats (F) sequence has provided significanty higher (49%) net monetary returns (Rs 3,876.0/ha/yr) over paddy-sorghum (F) - oats (F). With curtaied doses of recommended fertiizers (75%) + FYM at 5 tonnes/ha to both the sequences higher rice equivaent yied (3.87 tonnes/ha) was obtained than fu recommended doses of fertiizer (NPK 60 : 30 : 20 kg/ha for paddy, 60 : 30 : 0 kg/ ha for sorghum forage, 20 : 40 : 0 kg/ha for cowpea forage and 40 : 20 : 20 kg/ha for oats). To oats in saine sodic sois, 75% recommended dose of nitrogen + 25% nitrogen through FYM + 40 kg ZnSO 4 /ha enhanced forage yied to 19.3% over fu dose of NPK (90 : 50: 40 kg/ha); when the yied was 27.4 tonnes/ha.

33 27 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT In coconut pantation, fodder cowpea provided 55% higher net monetary returns over fodder pigeonpea (Rs 8,873/ha/yr). Nitrogen 50% through vermicompost and the rest through fertiizer, reaized maximum net monetary returns (Rs17,832.50/ ha/yr). The inocuation of Azospirium to sorghum increased green fodder and dry matter yied to the magnitude of 19.3 and 27.1%; with Azotobacter inocuation, it was 6.7% and 5.6%. In maize, increases to the tune of 10 and 20% for green fodder and dry matter yied were recorded with Azotobacter inocuation. Maize and cowpea in the row ratio of 2 : 2 in Centra Zone, 1 : 1 and 1 : 4 in the North-east Zone, maize soe and maize + cowpea (4 : 1) in South Zone and soe maize in North-west Zone recorded higher forage yieds. Maximum fodder production from Congosigna grass coud be achieved with FYM at 7.5 tonnes/ha and 50% NPK (75 kg N + 25 kg P 2 O kg K 2 O/ha), accompanied with the irrigation at 30 mm CPE. KNO 3 spray at 4 kg/ha has been found beneficia for obtaining higher seed and forage yieds from signa grass in coconut pantation in the southern zone. In a ong-term soi-fertiity management experiment (5 years), maximum berseem equivaent yied (144.8 tonnes of green/ha) was recorded in guinea-grass + cowpea berseem sequence. Organic source of manuring continued to be superior over inorganic source, in terms of yied, organic-carbon and avaiabe N, P and K status of the soi. Avaiabe S depeted by 45% and 35% in no manure and inorganic sources, respectivey. Urea and FYM in 1 : 1 ratio produced maximum biomass yied (35.4 tonnes of green/ha and 8.67 tonnes of dry/ha) of sorghum + cowpea. It was at a par with 100% FYM, 25% urea + 75% FYM and 25% urea + 50% FYM + biofertiizers. The voatiization osses of ammonia coud be significanty reduced by combined use of 25% urea N + 50% FYM-N + biofertiizers. The eve of organic carbon, avaiabe N and K and microbia biomass carbon improved maximum with 100% FYM manuring. Sivopasture in sma hodings provided highest production (7.31 tonnes of dry matter yied (DMY/ha), foowed by arge hodings (5.68 tonnes DMY/ha) and medium hodings (4.72 tonnes DMY/ha). Trees contributed maximum (48%) in arge hodings, foowed by sma (37%) and medium hodings (35%). Hortipastora system suppied highest dry matter of 5.29 tonnes/ha and, pure pasture provided 4.62 tonnes/ha. Medium basin (1.0 m) was most effective for boosting growth of ber, bae. And aona preferred arge basin size (1.5 m) for peak growth. The pasture production was higher in aona (3.11 tonnes/ha), foowed by ber (2.63 tonnes/ha) and bae (2.35 tonnes/ha). Naphthaene acetic acid (NAA at 25, 50 and 100 ppm), diamonium phosphate (2, 4 and 6 kg/ha)a and muriate of potash (2, 4 and 6 kg/ha) appied to foiage at vegetative stage of Dichanthium annuatum improved pant stand and photosynthate assimiation. The combined response of these chemicas resuted in 50% higher seed yied over contro ( kg/ha). Crop Protection SPA , DM 94016B and 94006B of sorghum have been found resistant to esion nematode (Pratyenchus zeae) under artificia inocuation. In cowpea, IL 14 and Hy 60 were resistant to Meoidogyne incognita and M. javanica. Neemcake at 1 tonne/ha + seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum and neem-cake + seed treatment with Thiram (0.25%) + Bavistin (0.2%) gave more than 60% contro of root and stem rot diseases. In ucerne, soi treatment with Carbofuran 3G at 1 g/ m-row aong with seed treatment with Carbendazim at 1g/kg and spray with neemseed kerne extract at 3%, 15 days after each cut provided maximum fodder yied (38.19 tonnes/ha), but economicay, seed treatment with Carbendazim at 1 g/kg has been found most viabe (benefit : cost ratio is 53 : 43). SUCCESS STORY COMPLETE FEED-BLOCKS FOR CATTLE FEEDING The wheat bhusa (40%) was mixed with berseem hay (20%), moasses (20%) and concentrate mix (19%), which incuded inseed-cake and ground barey at a ratio of 1 : 1, and minera and vitamins (1%), to produce a compete feed-bock (CFB). The inseed-cake was soaked overnight in water. Moasses was heated in an open pan up to a temperature of 70 C to iquidize it and then mixed it with remaining ingredients. These ingredients were thoroughy mixed manuay. The added moisture was adjusted at 20%, to have a proper binding of the materia. The mixture was then processed in the IGFRI densifying machine hopper to get desired bocks. The compete feed-bocks of 31 cm 31 cm 50 cm were made, weighing 20 kg each, which can be easiy handed by a singe person. The machine had an output capacity of about 500 kg/hr with an average density of prepared baes as 400 kg/m 3. A tota of five abourers were required for the operation. The prepared bocks had 88.31% organic matter, 9.72% crude protein, 44.02% NDF, 31.11% ADF, 12.91% HC, 3.27% ignin and 11.69% ash. On-farm feeding trias of CFB were conducted in the nearby viages of Jhansi to assess the acceptabiity of the product. In 2 groups of buffaoes, one was fed with CFB and the second with the traditiona materia (wheat bhusa ad ib. and 2 kg concentrate). In addition, 5 kg green berseem was aso fed to each anima. After one month of feeding CFB, 7 days' digestibiity tria was aso conducted. Feeding trias indicated that average dry matter (DM) intake/anima and average DM intake/100-kg body weight were simiar in the group fed with CFB and the one with the traditiona feeding system. The DM digestibiity and average mik yied were, however, 9.15% and 19% higher in the group fed with CFB. Average mik fat content (8.3%) was simiar in both groups.

34 28 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Identified for reease groundnut AK 159, Dh 86, JSP 28 and TG 41. Pod yied reduction in groundnut was found more with intercropping with pigeonpea and castor than pear miet. Crop Improvement OILSEEDS GROUNDNUT Four new varieties of groundnut have been identified for reease. AK 159. An eary-maturing (107 days) Spanish-bunch groundnut type, having high oi content (52%) and toerance to thrips, has been identified for northern Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The pod and kerne yieds reaized were 1.79 and 1.18 tonnes/ ha respectivey, which were 27 and 33% higher over the check variety TAG 24. Dh 86. It is a stabe variety having high pod and kerne yieds and toerance to thrips. It has been identified for summer cutivation in Gujarat, southern Rajasthan and western Maharashtra and for rabi/summer cutivation in West Benga, Jharkhand and Assam. JSP 28. It is a medium-duration, spreading genotype, having high oi content (52%). It has been identified for Rajasthan, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana for kharif. It showed 16 and 28% higher pod and kerne yieds over the check M 335. TG 41. It is a arge-seeded (65g/100 kernes), eary- ( days) and uniformmaturing (sound mature kerne = 90%), erect genotype, having desirabe confectionery quaities ike high oeic/inoeic acid ratio (3 : 2) and high protein content (25%). It has been identified for a-india reease. Crop Production Compatibiity of groundnut (Virginia 11, Spanish 20) with pear miet, pigeonpea and castor indicated that its pod yied reduction was more with pigeonpea/castor (43 53%) than with pear miet (32%). GG 20, B 95 and M 335 groundnut among Virginia types and J 11, VRI 3 and ICGS 44 among Spanish showed esser reduction in pod yied. Out of the 4 in-situ moisture-conservation techniques, inter-row water harvesting (IRWH), broad-bed furrow (BBF), fat-bed sub soiing (FBSS) and fat-bed for rainfed groundnut, IRWH resuted in the maximum pod yied (1.79 tonnes/ha) aong with the highest water-use efficiency (WUE) of 5.65 kg/ha/mm. In groundnut + pigeonpea and groundnut + castor systems, yied and water-use efficiency of groundnut with pigeonpea were higher than castor, owing to better ight interception in the former intercropping. Maximum water-use efficiency with added evapotranspiration was 5.45 and 3.35 kg/ha/mm in pigeonpea soe and intercrop pigeonpea at 70% waterdeficit repenishment of fied capacity. In castor, irrigation at 85% water-deficit repenishment of fied capacity gave maximum WUE of 4.74 in soe castor and 3.12 in groundnut + castor. It was cosey foowed by irrigating at 70% water-deficit repenishment, giving WUE of 4.71 for soe castor and 3.11 for intercrop castor. Thus, irrigation at 70% water-deficit repenishment in groundnut + pigeonpea or groundnut+castor system woud resut in higher WUE and woud aso irrigate additiona 0.40 hectare with the same amount of irrigation water. Crop Protection The biotic stresses in groundnut were managed more effectivey with the IPM package of seed treatment with Carbendazim + trap crops (pear miet, castor, around the fied, and soybean and pigeonpea as intercrop) + insecticide mixture (neem oi 2% + Phosphamidon 0.02% or Endosufan 0.04%) + pheromone trap (for Heicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera itura and Aproaerema modicea) + 2% neemeaf extract spray (40 days after sowing), Mancozeb 0.25% + Carbendazim 0.05% (55 DAS), cuture fitrate of P.isandicum (70 DAS), weedicide Fuchorain 1.5 kg a.i./ha + one intercuturing (35 DAE) + one hand weeding (30 DAE). Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride at 4g/kg seed, soi appication of T. viride at 62.5 kg/ha or castor-cake at 500 kg/ha and intercropping of pear miet (3 : 1) have been most effective in controing major funga diseases of groundnut.

35 29 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Crop Improvement RAPESEED-MUSTARD Six varieties of rapeseed-mustard have been reeased. Rapeseed-mustard varieties reeased Crop/variety Seed yied Maturity Oi content Area of adoption (tonnes/ha) (days) (%) Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) RB Rainfed, Zone II (Haryana, Punjab, parts of Rajasthan and Dehi) RH Irrigated, Zone III (Uttar Pradesh, Uttarancha, Madhya Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan) RH Late sown, Zone III RK Irrigated, Zone III Mahon 8 (Shivaik) Late sown Zone II Karan rai (Brassica carinata) IGC Irrigated and rainfed areas of the country Tweve experimenta mustard hybrids have been produced. Of the 300 hybrids evauated, promising heterotic combinations, based on the standard heterosis for seed yied over the best check, are HB 9912 HB 9924 (80.7%) and PCR 15 HB 9925 (42.3%). Crop Production In mungbean-mustard sequence, appication of 75% of the recommended dose of fertiizers aong with 10 tonnes of farmyard manure/ha was remunerative in north Gujarat. For the semi-arid eastern pains zone of Rajasthan, especiay for the sois deficient in suphur, boron and zinc nutrients, appication of recommended dose of fertiizers aong with 10 tonnes FYM/ha, 40 kg suphur/ha, 25 kg zinc suphate/ha and 1 kg boron/ha, was found remunerative. Crop Protection Seed yied osses due to Aternaria bight, white rust and Scerotinia rot can be reduced substantiay if sowing of mustard is done in the third week of October and seeds are treated with Apron 35 SD (6 g/kg). Ridomi MZ 72 WP (0.25%) may be sprayed immediatey after the appearance of the white rust, foowed by two sprays of Mancozeb (0.2%) at fortnighty intervas. The genotypes Bio YSR, Bio , PWR 9541, EC , EC and JMMWR showed consistent resistance to white rust, and PAB 9511, EC , EC and EC showed toerance for Aternaria bight. These can be used as resistant donors in varieta improvement. Crop Improvement SOYBEAN Four new varieties of soybean have been identified and reeased for cutivation. Promising heterotic combinations reported in mustard for yied are HB 9912 HB 9924 and PCR 15 HB Resistant donors identified in mustard for white rust and Aternaria bight toerance.

36 30 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Identified soybean JS 93-05, MAUS 61-2, MAUS 71 and RAUS 5 for different agrocimates. At Ludhiana, soybean accessions PLSO 84 and UPSM 534 were found resistant to yeow mosaic virus. JS It is an eary-maturing variety with a duration of days and yied potentia of tonnes/ha. The variety is recommended for Centra Zone, comprising Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Bundekhand region of Uttar Pradesh. It is a semi-determinate variety with vioet fowers, anceoate eaves and 4-seeded pods. MAUS This variety is aso suitabe for Centra Zone, matures in days, and has a yied potentia of tonnes/ha. The variety is semi-determinate with vioet fowers, gabrous eaves, yeow seeds and ight-brown hium, and has moderate resistance to rust. MAUS 71. This variety is suitabe for North-eastern Zone, comprising Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, West Benga, Assam, Arunacha Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaand, Meghaaya and Mizoram. It matures in days and has a yied potentia of tonne/ha, and is semi-determinate with vioet fowers, yeow seeds and back hium. RAUS 5. This variety is aso suitabe for North-eastern Zone. It matures in days with a yied potentia of tonnes/ha. The pants are determinate with tawny pubescence, vioet fowers and yeow seeds. Two accessions PLSO 84 and UPSM 534 have been identified for resistance against yeow mosaic virus at Ludhiana. Crop Production The system efficiency of soybean-wheat was found higher than soybean-chickpea. Appication of crop residue at 5 tonnes/ha + FYM at 5 tonnes/ha + Zn at 5 kg/ha aong with the recommended eve of fertiizers in the soybean-wheat cropping system gave highest soybean equivaent yied. A seed-coverer with V notch on a square pate of suitabe size has been deveoped for soybean. This device heps in covering eft-over (15 20%) seeds, and has been found to support good germination and appropriate pant density. To mitigate drought effects and conserve adequate soi moisture, a key ineseeding machine has been deveoped and farm vaidated at the NRCS. The machine faciitates panting of 5 rows at the recommended panting distance and simutaneousy opens one row each on either side (fresh depth is about 20 cm which turns out to about 15 cm after setting) for faciitating remova of excess water and/ or percoation of water in soi. This costs approximatey Rs 12,000. Crop Protection CROSS MECHANISM FOR STRAIGHT SOWING OF SOYBEAN To ensure straight sowing in rows of soybean and to faciitate fawess intercuture/harvesting operations subsequenty in the standing crop using tractor-drawn impements, a cross mechanism has been deveoped at the Nationa Research Centre on Soybean. This cross mechanism practicay eiminates atera movement of impements and can be convenienty fitted on the ower inks of the tractor. This device can be manufactured by the oca artisans at a meagre cost of Rs 80 ony. Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana caused 30 40% mortaity of green semiooper arvae Chrysodeixis acuta on soybean. Chitin inhibitors Difubenzuron and Lufenuron effectivey controed a major epidopteran defoiating arvae, with mortaity ranging from 40 to 97.5% in the aboratory conditions. Bacius thuringiensis based microbia insecticide (Dipe at 1 itre/ha) aone or in tank-mix combination with Monocrotophos 36 SL (at 0.8 itre/ha) gave significant contro on defoiators and stem-fy (Meanogromyza sojae), with yied advantage of about 30% over contro. PK 472 has been identified as a variety possessing high degree of resistance to powdery midew. Crop Improvement SUNFLOWER Three new hybrids of sunfower have been reeased for cutivation. Line PS 1089 derived from Heianthus argophyus cutivated cutivar and two ines (PS 2011, PS 2032) derived from H. petioaris cutivar crosses have been found immune to rust disease. A number of entries of sunfower Bio 82023, Krishidhan 34, JKSF 1014, PRO 001,

37 31 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Sunfower hybrids reeased Hybrid Yied Reaction to pests/ Recommended (tonnes/ha) diseases states KBSH Resistant to major diseases A India and insect pests of sunfower PSFH Punjab HSFH Haryana Identified number of sunfower entries toerant to downy midew. TWCH 23298, MLSFH 89, Ajit 511, VSFH 80, NJSFH 1136, SH 357, Krishidhan 9953, Mahabeej 2001, TWC 23248, PAC 39001, MLSFH 84, MLSFH 82 and PSH 21 have been found toerant to downy midew. Crop Production In Vidarbha region (Maharashtra) in soybean + sunfower intercropping system (2 : 1), appication of 100% recommended dose of fertiizers (RDF) to soybean and 50% RDF to sunfower as basa and 50% N as top dressing is recommended to get highest yied and monetary returns. Crop residue incorporation of sunfower in sorghum significanty increased grain yied of sorghum even with 50% RDF to the system. Phosphorus soubiizing bacteria provided up to 50% P requirement for sorghum, succeeding 100% RDF-grown sunfower. Crop Protection The poen and thrips coected from the infected fower heads of sunfower were reported ELISA positive to sunfower necrosis virus antisera. Thrips coud easiy carry poen-grains on their body. This indicates thrips as vector of sunfower necrosis disease. Seed treatment with GAUCHO (Imidacoprid) at 5g/kg seed, foowed by foiar spray of Confidor 200 SL at 0.05% at 15 and 30 DAS interva were effective in checking necrosis disease. A number of entries PAC 1091, DRSF 109, LSH 8, LSF 1, DRSF 110, PAC 31007, ZSH 9903, PWCH 23248, SH 416, PAC 39004, SH 323, PGS 362 and 243 have been found resistant to eaf hoppers. Crop Improvement SAFFLOWER A new non-spiny hybrid of saffower NARI-NH 1 (PH 6) has been deveoped at the Nimbkar Agricutura Research Institute, Phatan. It is suitabe for a saffowergrowing regions of the country. The average yied of this hybrid is 1.93 tonnes/ha. It is toerant to Aternaria and Cercospora eaf-spot diseases and Fusarium wit, besides showing toerance to aphids. Saffower severa germpasm accessions GMU nos. 2912, 2962, 2976 and 2720 have showed moderate resistance to eaf spot disease. And germpasm accessions GMU Nos. 2297, 2450, 2720, 2764, 2894 and 2914 have been found resistant to wit. Saffower genotypes SSF and PH 4 have exhibited resistant reaction to Aternaria eaf spot. A number of promising genotypes such as SSF 637, NH 13, SSF 413-2, JSI 112, JSI 5-1-7, PBNS 43 and PBNS 119 have showed toerance to aphid infestation. NSKE 5%, NSK powder 3% and neem-cake 5% are found effective and economica for aphids' management. Crop Production In soybean-saffower crop sequence at Indore and Parbhani, recommended 100% Deveoped a non-spiny saffower hybrid NARI-NH 1, toerant to Aternaria and Cercospora eaf-spot diseases and Fusarium wit. At Indore and Parbhani, soybeansaffower crop sequence with 100% N and P to both recorded highest yieds. In rainfed areas at Annigeri, Azotobacter treatment to saffower seeds reduced N-fertiizer needs of the crop to 50%.

38 32 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Reeased RHC 1 castor for Rajasthan; the first hybrid reease for arid region. Trichoderma viride strain B 16 proved effective in controing Fusarium wit of castor aone as we as in the presence of nematodes. N and P to both recorded highest yieds. Chickpea - saffower system gave highest yieds at Soapur with 100% N + 50% P + phosphorus soubiizing bacteria to chickpea and 100% N and P to saffower. Azotobactor seed treatment at Annigeri effectivey substituted 50% of the recommended nitrogen needs of saffower in rainfed areas. Crop Improvement CASTOR RHC 1, a new hybrid, a derivative of VP 1 TMV 5-1, deveoped at the Agricutura Research Station, Mandor, has been reeased for Rajasthan. It is the first hybrid reease for arid region, and has been reported to out-yied the other castor genotypes of the arid region. Crop Production At Sardar Krushinagar, appication of 20 kg S/ha or 15 kg ZnSO 4 /ha gave higher seed and oi yied of castor. Irrigating castor at 0.8 IW : CPE ratio resuted in increase in seed yied of primary and secondary order spikes. Crop Protection Nirmaa sesame. It is a white-seeded mutant of B 67 variety, and is characterized by eary maturity, of 86 days, toerance to phyody and wit, and resistance to bacteria eaf spot and powdery midew Castor accession RG 2722 has showed resistance to wit and root rot. In artificia screening, RG 2661, 297, 941 and 1649 accessions were confirmed to be wit resistant. The nematophagous Trichoderma viride (B 16) has been found effective for controing Fusarium wit aone as we as in the presence of nematodes. The shaker-cuture method of mass mutipication of T. viride (B 16) woud enhance the shef-ife of B 16 up to 8 months. Tac is effective carrier of T. viride formuation. At Paem, prophyactic Carbendazim at 1g/itre or remova of affected spikes and appication of 20 : 20 kg N : K/ha showed promise in managing Botrytis grey rot. Crop Improvement SESAME Three new varieties have been identified for reease in sesame. AKT 101 sesame is a bod, whiteseeded variety for cutivation in rabi/ summer in Maharashtra Nirmaa (OS-Se 164). It is a whiteseeded mutant of B 67 variety, identified for reease in coasta areas of West Benga, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tami Nadu. Nirmaa is characterized by eary maturity, of 86 days, toerance to phyody, wit and resistance to bacteria eaf spot and powdery midew. Its average yied is tonne/ha. AKT 101. It is a bod, white-seeded variety, deveoped from a cross between N and 12-19, and has been reeased for cutivation during rabi/summer season in Maharashtra. Average yied of AKT 101 is 0.8 tonne/ha. It matures in 87 days, contains 50% oi in its seeds and is moderatey resistant to phyody, Macrophomina sterm/root rot and bacteria bight. MT 75. It is a white-seeded seection from JLT 26 RT 12, identified for reease in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan,

39 33 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. MT 75 matures in 88 days and gives average yied of tonne/ha. It is resistant to phyody, eaf cur and powdery midew and is moderatey resistant to Phytophthora bight and Macrophomina stem/root-rot. Strains OS-Se 2 and Sekhar have showed promise at the advanced stage of testing at the nationa eve for kharif and JCS 388 and JCS 390 for rabi/summer season. Crop Production The maximum seed yieds coud be obtained with 50% N through urea + 50% N through FYM + phosphorus soubiizing bacteria (PSB) + 50% P + K at Amrei; 50% N through urea + 50% N through FYM + PSB + P + K at Kayankuam; 50% N through urea + 50% N through thumba-cake + P + K at Mandore; 100% N through urea + PSB + 50% P + K at Mauranipur. Sesame + urdbean (2 : 2) in Madhya Pradesh, sesame + groundnut and sesame + mungbean (2 : 2) in Rajasthan and sesame + cotton (3 : 1) in Gujarat and sesame + soybean (3 : 3) in Maharashtra are found remunerative sesame-based intercropping systems; and increase in yied was from 28 to 75%. Crop Protection OS-Se 2 and OS-Se 24 are found resistant to Macrophomina stem/root rot and phyody, and Sekhar is resistant to phyody ony. Entry OS-Se 253 has been observed to be free from eaf cur. Endosufan at 1.5 itre/ha at 30 and 45 DAS was effective against Antigastra and Dasyneura pests. Resistant variety+ seed treatment with Carbendazim 50 WP (0.1%) + Thiram (0.2%) or Carbendazim 50 WP (0.2%) aone or Trichoderma viride (0.4%) +two sprays of Azadirachitin (0.03%) or Mancozeb (0.25%) + Endosufan (0.07%) at and days after sowing + intercropping with mungbean/pigeonpea/ urdbean minimized incidence of Antigastra and Dasyneura and Macrophomina stem/root rot, Aternaria eaf-spot and Cercospora eaf-spot. NIGER Sesame + urdbean (2 : 2) in Madhya Pradesh, sesame + groundnut and sesame + mungbean (2 : 2) in Rajasthan and sesame + cotton (3 : 1) in Gujarat proved remunerative cropping systems. A high-yieding, eary-maturing niger JC 1 has been reeased for niger-growing areas of Madhya Pradesh. JNS 14 and JNS 13 have showed promise in the advanced varieta tria. Over 0.79 tonne breeder seed of 7 varieties has been produced against the DAC indent of 0.24 tonne. Fertiizers at 40 kgn/ha + 40 kg P/ha gave maximum seed yied when phosphorus was suppied haf as DAP/SSP + haf as rock-phosphate, enriched with FYM. Suphur at 20 kg/ha with recommended dose of fertiizers gave maximum yied. Niger + Frenchbean (4 : 2) with 20-cm row spacing at Semiiguda, niger + castor (2 : 2) at Chhindwara and niger+ricebean (2 : 4) at Igatpuri were most remunerative intercropping systems. In niger, component technoogy such as adoption of improved variety ( %), improved variety+biofertiizer (41 137%), recommended dose of fertiizers ( %), intercropping (37%), sowing method (47.3%) and time of sowing ( %) enhanced productivity on the farmers fieds. Crop Improvement LINSEED Four varieties have been identified/reeased for cutivation. Out of 200 germpasm screened at hot spots, ES 1465, ES 1496, ES 1329, ES , FRW 6, GLC 1-1, GS 15, GS 53, GS 85, GS 157, GS 158, GS 234, GS 252, GS 270, GS 208 have showed resistance to powdery midew and GS 148, GS 165 and GS 202 against rust diseases. In niger, component technoogy enhanced its productivity in farmers fieds. Linseed ines A 95b, EC 1392, EC 1424, GS 234 and JRF 5 proved promising against bud-fy. In rainfed areas of Sagar, in inseed + saffower (4 : 2), 100% RDF to main crop and 50% to intercrop recorded highest inseed equivaent yied.

40 34 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT RLU 6 identified (eft) and RL 914 reeased (right) inseed. The former is erect, white-fowered and is resistant to rust and bud-fy. Its oi content is 40.48%. The atter is aso erect but is bue-fowered. It shows resistance to wit and rust. Its oi content is 41% Linseed varieties reeased Variety Reeased/ Average Days to Area of Saient identified seed yied maturity adoption features (tonnes/ha) KL 210 Identified Haryana, Punjab, Erect, purpish-bue fowers, Himacha Pradesh yeow seeds, resistant to and rust and free from wit, and Jammu and moderatey resistant to Kashmir Aternaria bight. Its oi content is 40% SLS 27 Identified Rajasthan, Erect, white fowers, Bundekhand ight brown seeds, (Uttar Pradesh), moderatey resistant Madhya Pradesh, to a diseases and Maharashtra, pests. Oi content is Chhattisgarh, 41.43% Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka RLU 6 Identified Seed Madhya Pradesh, Erect, white fowers, Fibre Rajasthan and shinning brown seeds, Bundekhand resistant to rust and (Uttar Pradesh) bud-fy and moderatey resistant to powdery midew and Aternaria bight. Oi content is 40.48% RL 914 Reeased Rajasthan Erect, bue fowers, brown (State reease) seeds, resistant to wit and rust and moderatey resistant to powdery midew, Aternaria bight and inseed bud-fy. Oi content is 41%

41 35 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Crop Production At Powerkheda, sowing doube-purpose inseed during ast week of October, using 45 kg of seeds/ha was observed the best practice to harvest higher seed yied. At Mauranipur, doube-purpose inseed sowing with 25% higher seed rate (56 57 kg/ha) during first week of November was adjudged as the best treatment for good net monetary returns. At Nagpur, broadcasting inseed at 40 kg of seed/ha at dough stage of paddy proved a superior practice for the crop sequence. In inseed + saffower (4 : 2) intercropping, fertiizer at 100% RDF to main crop and 50% to intercrop recorded highest inseed equivaent yied at Sagar in rainfed situations. In inseed + wheat (4 : 2) intercropping system, fertiizer at 100% RDF to both the crops and in inseed + mustard, fertiizer at 100% RDF to main crop and 50% to intercrop proved optimum in Himacha Pradesh. Noticed an extra-eary genotype of chickpea; amenabe for panting up to December end. Kabui chickpea BG 1003 intercropped with mustard Vardan in 6 : 2 ratio found most productive and remunerative system with benefit: cost ratio of 4 : 1. Chickpea promising donors identified for resistance to Fusarium wit. Trichoderma viride at 4 g + vitavax at 1 g/kg chickpea seeds controed Fusarium wit and root-rot. Crop Protection Linseed intercropped with chickpea (3 : 1) at recommended fertiizer and irrigation schedues, bird perches at pegs/ha and need-based Imidacoprid 200 SL (100 m/ha) at Kanpur, Dimethoate 30 EC (0.03%) at Raipur and Oxydemeton methy 25 EC (0.02%) at Faizabad provided maximum seed yied with higher net monetary returns as we as benefit: cost ratio. Linseed ines A 95 b, EC 1392, EC 1424, GS 234 and JRF 5 proved promising against bud-fy. Crop Improvement PULSES CHICKPEA JKG is a semi-spreading kabui chickpea variety from a three-way cross (ICCV 2 Surutato) ICC 7344, and has been identified for Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, southern Rajasthan and Bundekhand area of JKG kabui chickpea possesses moderate resistance against coar rot and Fusarium wit. Its average seed yied is 1.7 tonnes/ha (inset : its seeds)

42 36 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT A simpe regeneration and genetic transformation system has been perfected for deveoping transgenics in chickpea. The system invoves mutipe shoot induction from apica shoot meristem, foowed by transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, carrying pasmids with different seectabe markers. Chickpea genotypes K 85, BG 256, K 850 and C 235 have been transformed, carrying various pasmids having Cry 1Ab (Bt gene), with ppt and kanamycin resistance marker genes. A simpe system of micro-grafting has aso been deveoped to estabish transformed shoots. TRANSGENICS IN CHICKPEA Mutipe shoot induction from embryonic chickpea axis after transformation with a marker gene Uttar Pradesh. Besides being eary-maturing, this variety possesses moderate resistance against coar rot and Fusarium wit. Its average seed yied is about 1.7 tonnes/ha. And Phue G 9531, a bod-seeded (35g/100 seeds) kabui seection, from the cross (ICCC 32 ICCL 8004) (ICCC 49 FLIP 82-8C) ICCV 3), has been identified for Orissa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tami Nadu. It is an earymaturing (90 days), Fusarium-wit resistant variety with an average yied of 1.8 tonnes/ha. Five eite ines, IPC 98-12, IPC 97-67, IPC 98-53, IPC 97-7 (desi) and IPCK (kabui), have showed promise in the advanced trias, and IPC has been found an extra-eary genotype, amenabe for panting up to December end. Crop Production In rainfed areas, two sprays of 2% urea or DAP one at fower initiation and 10 days thereafter proved effective in increasing grain yied of chickpea significanty. For bod-seeded kabui chickpea in sois having ess IPC chickpea exhibits stabe resistance to Fusarium wit (Race 2) than 15 kg avaiabe P/ha, 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha proved beneficia. Kabui chickpea BG 1003 intercropped with mustard Vardan in 6 : 2 row ratio was most productive (2.09 tonnes chickpea equivaent/ha) and remunerative system, with benefit : cost ratio of 4 : 1. Chickpea after rice responded to higher 30 : 60 : 30 kg NPK/ha and deep poughing. In rainfed areas, grain yied showed significant correation with tota biomass, number of pods and branches. Branch number was one of the principa components determining yied variation. Crop Protection IPC 99-13, IPC and IPCK 96-3 have been identified as promising donors for resistant to Fusarium wit. PBG 34, PBG 127, IPC 95-2, IPC 97-1 and IPC exhibited stabe resistance to race 2 (Kanpur) of Fusarium wit.

43 37 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Three variants of Rhizoctonia bataticoa causing dry-root rot have been identified. Trichoderma viride (4 g) + vitavax (1 g) effectiveness per kg of seed in controing Fusarium wit and root rot has been confirmed. Chickpea intercropping with mustard or inseed or coriander combined with aternate spray of NSKE (5%) NPV (250 LE) or Endosufan was highy effective in managing Heicoverpa armigera. Crop Improvement PIGEONPEA Two varieties of pigeonpea have been identified. IPA 04 pigeonpea with mutipe resistance to Fusarium udum, Aternaria bight, Meoidogyne incognita and Heterodera cajani, and IPA with resistance to F. udum and steriity mosaic have been identified. Pigeonpea T 21, Bahar and UPAS 120 transformed, carrying various pasmids, having number of gene constructs, incuding Cry 1Ab. Pigeonpea GT 288A and 67A confirmed as stabe cytopasmic mae sterie ines; identified a few fertiity restorers aso for GT 288 A. On auvia sois, 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha to pigeonpea + sorghum system yieded highest seed yieds. Pigeonpea varieties identified Variety Adoption Yied Duration Other saient features region (tonnes/ha) (days) Pusa 992 Punjab, Haryana, Medium bod seeds, 6 days western earier than UPAS 120 Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan MA 6 Eastern Uttar Resistant to pod-fy and Pradesh, Bihar, pod-borer Assam, West Benga, and north-eastern states Pigeonpea genotypes T 21, Bahar and UPAS 120 have been transformed carrying various pasmids having number of gene constructs, incuding Cry 1Ab (Bt gene). GT 288A and 67A have been confirmed as stabe cytopasmic mae steriiy (CMS) ines. A few fertiity restorers have aso been identified for GT 288A. Crop Production Short-duration pigeonpea with wheat adds to 30 kg N/ha in the soi. In northeastern pains comprising eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Benga and Assam, where excess moisture/water stagnation often causes mortaity of pants during eary stage, ridge panting of pigeonpea proved superior to fat-seed beds. This aso minimized incidence of Phytophthora stem bight. A positive response was observed in the crop when 15 kg ZnSO 4 was appied per hectare across the ocations; making it a component of recommended fertiizer schedue in pigeonpea. Seed treatment with sodium moybdate at 4 g/kg seeds was promising in high P sois. FYM at 5 tonnes/ha significanty increased pigeonpea seed yied by 210 kg/ha, besides positive residua effect on the succeeding wheat. At 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha, in pigeonpea + sorghum system on auvia sois, seed yied of both the crops was highest. Crop Protection BSMR 842 and BSMR 736 have showed resistance to wit and steriity mosaic across the ocations and IPA 38, KPL 43, KPL 44, BSMR 52, BSMR 23, BSMR 889 and BSMR 539 have promised resistance against wit and steriity mosaic at Kanpur. Pusa , H 82-1 and MAL 19 are found toerant to pod-borer and ICPL performed better against Maruca vitrata. MAL 13 identified, possesses resistance against Meoidogyne incognita and Heterodera cajani. MA 6 pigeonpea yieds 2.28 tonnes/ha and is resistant to pod-fy and pod-borer

44 38 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Wide crosses between mugbean and urdbean resuted in IPM and IPM 02-1 ines that combined eary maturity with determinate growth and bod seeds. Identified promising donors of urdbean for photo-insensitivity. In mungbean, Rhizobium strain CRM 6 proved most effective, foowed by PMR Intercropping of pigeonpea with sorghum reduces wit incidence and nematode popuation Pigeonpea intercropped with sorghum and seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum reduced Fusarium udum as we as parasitic nematodes significanty. Orymyrus and Bracon spp. are found potentia arva/pupa parasites of pod-fy. Pigeonpea + sesame reduced pant parasitic nematodes and pigeonpea + urdbean cropping system increased them. Seed treatment with Caotropis atex at 1% proved effective against root-knot nematode. Crop Improvement MUNGBEAN AND URDBEAN OUM 11-5 mungbean has resistance to mungbean yeow mosaic virus (MYMV) and toerance to Cercospora and powdery midew. It has been identified for Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Tami Nadu (kharif). Another mungbean HUM 12 possesses toerance to mungbean yeow mosaic virus and has been identified for eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Benga and Assam (summer season). NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY IN PULSE-GROWING SOILS Soi sampes representing afisos (Raipur, Hyderabad, Bangaore and Ranchi), inceptisos (Dehi, Kanpur, Faizabad and Varanasi) and vertisos (Sehore and Gubarga) were coected and were anaysed for various fertiity parameters. Distribution and avaiabiity of nutrients. A 10 soi profies were ow in organic-carbon content and in avaiabe N. Excepting Bangaore, rest of the profies were medium in avaiabe P. Auvia sois (inceptisos) were ow in avaiabe K and back sois (vertisos) were found reativey high in avaiabe K status. Avaiabe S status of puse-growing sois was ow. A profies, excepting Varanasi, were deficient in avaiabe Zn. Avaiabe Fe was sufficient in a profies, excepting Dehi, and Cu and Mn were sufficient in a profies. Distribution of suphur fractions. S ranged from 240 to 376 mg/kg for tota S, from 191 to 362 mg/kg for organic S, from 12.9 to 59.0 mg/ kg for adsorbed S, from 3.47 to 9.22 mg/kg for avaiabe S. Larger organic and tota suphur was observed in vertisos, foowed by inceptisos and afisos, and adsorbed S was higher in afisos. Organic suphur constituted 81 95% in the tota S. Distribution of forms of potassium. Vertisos showed higher water-soube K and 0.01 M CaC 2 extractabe K as compared to inceptisos and afisos. Among 10 profies, Sehore and Gubarga sois showed avaiabe K (NH 4 OAC-K) in higher range; Dehi, Raipur, Hyderabad and Bangaore were medium; and Kanpur, Faizabad, Varanasi and Ranchi were ow in avaiabe K. In reserve K (HNO 3 K), afisos at Hyderabad, Ranchi and Bangaore profies showed ess than 400 mg/kg and rest of the profies showed above 600 mg/kg.

45 39 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Wide crosses between mungbean and urdbean have resuted in promising ines IPM and IPM 02-1, which combine eary maturity with determinate growth habit and bod seeds. Some of the promising donors of urdbean for photo-insensitivity are NDU 94-10, IPU 96-1, PDU 103, UH 82-51, STY 2593, Se 2, DUS 29, PLU 704, No and UH Crop Production Nitrogen at 20 kg/ha as basa and 10 kg/ha as foiar spray proved beneficia in ate sown (August) mungbean with higher yied at high pant density (4 5 akh/ha). Mungbean PDM , TM 99-37, HUM 15 and PDM 139 are found resistant to MYMV disease. Urdbean DPU has been confirmed as having stabe resistance to MYMV. Mungbean ines Pusa 105, Pusa 9871 and UPM 78-1 are identified as resistant to root-knot nematode. Rhizobium strain CRM 6 proved as most effective, foowed by PMR 2001 in mungbean. And in urdbean, PUR 34 and PUR 16 performed better. LENTIL AND FIELDPEA A new enti variety NDL 94, a pedigree seection from DLG 105 PL 406, has been identified for eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Benga and Orissa. It has sma seeds with an average yied of 1.52 tonnes/ha. The variety possesses resistance to rust. Seed rate of 75 kg/ha resuted in higher grain yied of bod-seeded varieties in northern states. In utera cutivation, 2 hr of seed soaking in 2% KH 2 PO 4 was effective with 9% higher yied. In fiedpea, 2 sprays of Mancozeb (0.25%) were effective in controing rust and 2 sprays of wettabe suphur (0.3%) in controing powdery midew. Fiedpea HUP 15, HUD 16, KSP 22, KPMR 144-1, KPMR 557, DPFPD 8, DPFPD 62 and JP 181 have showed toerance to rust in Uttar Pradesh. Crop Improvement ARID LEGUMES Cowpea GC 9714 has yieded 10.50% (1 tonne/ha) higher over the better check GC 3 (0.79 tonne/ha) in the mutiocation tria. It fowers in 47 days and takes 72 days to mature. Mothbean CZM 45 has yieded 32.2% (0.59 tonne/ha) higher over the corresponding check CAZRI Moth 1 (0.45 tonne/ha) in the a-india co-ordinated trias. This fowers in 40 days and yieds 26.13% crude protein. In guar genotypes HGS 365, GG 1 and HGS 880, maximum gaactomannan gum (31.2%) and endosperm (38.45%) contents, and means viscosity profie (3726 Cp), respectivey, were observed. Crop Production At Hisar and Bawa, 0.5% ZnSO 4 spray at 25 and 45days after sowing (DAS) gave 69% yied (1.7 tonnes/ha) increment in guar yied over contro (1.05 tonnes/ha). Spray of 0.5% ZnSO % FeSO 4 on cowpea at 45 DAS proved quite effective at Pattambi, wherein grain yied increased by about 44.9% over contro (0.42 tonne/ha). Crop Protection Guar entry HGS 870 was found resistant (ess than 10% infection) to bacteria eaf bight (BLB), and GAUG 12 and HGS 885 showed ess than 3% infection against Aternaria eaf bight. Seven cowpea entries TC 101, TC 102, TCM 77-4, DCP 3, DCP 4, V 649 and HC are found free free from YMV. Fiedpea genotypes HUP 15, HUD 16, KSP 22 showed toerance to rust in Uttar Pradesh. Mothbean CZM 45 yieded 32.2% higher over CAZRI Moth 1, the check.

46 40 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Identified cotton intra-hirsutum hybrid NCHH 207 for irrigated areas of South Zone and intra-arboreum ADCH 1 for rainfed areas of Centra Zone. Ridge-and-furrow on fat-bed increased seed-cotton yied by about 0.4 tonne, broad-bed and sunken-bed by 0.5 and raised-and-sunken bed by 0.65 tonne over contro. The CICR has deveoped 3 ready-touse kits to differentiate Bt-cottons from non-transgenics. SUCCESS STORY IPM FOR COTTON IN CHINNAPUTHUR (TAMIL NADU) By adopting IPM/IRM farmers of the Chinnaputhur viage were abe to manage efficienty resistant pest popuation of Heicoverpa armigera, and reduced pesticide appication by 50%. The boworm damage was brought down to 10%. The farmers of the project viage obtained a mean seed-cotton yied of tonnes/ha, against 1.50 tonnes/ha in the contro viage. The farmers gained additiona returns of Rs 12,000/ha compared to farmers from the contro viage. Crop Improvement COMMERCIAL CROPS COTTON Intra-hirsutum cotton hybrid NCHH 207 for irrigated areas of South Zone and intra- arboreum hybrid ADCH 1 for rainfed areas of Centra Zone have been identified for reease. Genotypes of upand cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) GJHV 370, LH 1948, PH 348, NH 545 and H 1252 for irrigated areas and LH 1948, NH 545, Khd.122, CNH 155 and KH 11 for rainfed areas have showed promise. LH 1948 and NH 545 are found suitabe for rainfed and irrigated areas. Genotypes identified for sat toerance are LRK 516, PKV 081, Khandwa 3, Badnawar (G. hirsutum) and G. 27 (G. arboreum). Toerant genotypes are found to have higher osmotic potentia, K/Na ratio and have high proine accumuation, up to 10 EC. In zona trias in South Zone, G. hirsutum genotypes GJHV 337 (1.56 tonnes/ ha) and CCH-In (1.7 tonnes/ha) showed significant superiority over zona check LRA In the intra-hirsutum hybrids, conventiona hybrid PSCH 504 (1.72 tonnes/ha) and mae-steriity-based hybrid PSCH 809 (1.54 tonnes/ha) showed superiority over NHH 44 (zona check). Crop Production Reduced tiage heps in improving soi-organic carbon and so the crop productivity in cotton. Cotton-crop suffers mosty due to ow moisture, and sometimes due to excess moisture. Ridge-and-furrow on fat-bed increased seed-cotton yied by about 0.4 tonne, broad-bed and sunken-bed by about 0.5 tonne and raised- and- sunken bed by about 0.65 tonne over contro. Irrigation at 1 evapotranspiration (ET) through drip resuted in highest wateruse efficiency of 16.1 kg seed-cotton/ha/cm water with a saving of 31.1% water compared with food irrigation. NPK at 75% in 6 spits and irrigation at 1 ET through drip resuted in the highest water- and fertiizer-use efficiency. Cotton on raised bed and mugbean on furrows

47 41 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT READY-TO-USE KITS TO DIFFERENTIATE BT-COTTONS AND COTTONS (a) (b) (c) Bt cotton-testing kits. (a) Transgenic cotton LRA 5166; (b) Bt-express; (c) Cry 1 AC Bt-Quant; (d) Bt-detect Cotton hybrids MECH 12, MECH 162 and MECh 184 have incorporated Cry I Ac as the toxin-producing gene. It has become important to differentiate Bt-cottons from non-transgenics to monitor gene introgression, to detect spurious materia and aso to maintain seed quaity. The CICR, Nagpur, has deveoped 3 ready-to-use kits to cater to the needs of the farmers, researchers and administrators. Cry 1 Ac Bt express. This is a dip-stick format and can be used by even a ayman for instantaneous detection of Bt toxin in either seeds or in pant tissues. It takes 10 minutes for the test. This test can be used in the fied and does not require any additiona faciities. The kit is rapid, reiabe and ready-to-use. The Cry 1 Ac Bt-quant. It is an ELISA kit, which faciitates precise quantification of Cry 1 Ab or Cry 1 Ac, expressed in transgenic pants. The kit is simpe, cost-effective and very reiabe. Each ELISA pate can be used for 96 sampes. It takes 4 hours for competion of one set of ELISA assay. The Cry 1 Ac Bt-detect. This is a dot-bot assay and enabes user to detect Bt toxin presence in seeds or in pant tissues. Each kit can be used for 100 sampes. The kit is fairy simpe and can be used by persons with minimum technica capabiities and with a itte training. It takes 2 3 hours for competion of one set of test assay. (d)

48 42 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Sugarcane seections 93-A-21 and COLk 9216 showed promise for panting after wheat harvest. Cane maturants Dinitrocifro (8 kg/ha) and Triacontano (5 itres/ha) through irrigation water in the first fortnight of September improved sugarcane juice attributes. Stain B of sugarcane mosaic virus reduced cane yied significanty in Co Pant 90223, CoS 767 and CoLK Suphur at 60 kg/ha improved seed-cotton yied by 28.9% at Khandwa and 18.2% at Nanded. Crop Protection Thiamethoxam 35 F.S and Poncho 600 F.S as seed dressers effectivey controed sucking pests of cotton up to 45 days. In Sriganganagar, effectiveness remained up to 60 days. Cotton-seed treated with Imidacoprid (Gaucho) 70 WS at 5 g/kg seed protected pants from eary attack of cotton eaf cur virus disease through whitefy. Tac-powder formuations of Pseudomonas fuorescens (Pf 1 and CHAO strains) as seed treatment at 10 g/kg seed, foowed by foiar spray at 0.2%, have been effective in managing bacteria bight, Aternaria eaf spot and grey midew at Dharwad. Crop Improvement SUGARCANE From the Nationa Hybridization Garden (Coimbatore), kg of hybrid fuff of sugarcane was obtained, and has been suppied to different co-ordinating centres for raising seedings and seection of cones suitabe for different agrocimatic zones. Out of 38 cones evauated, eary genotypes CoSi 88033, CoSi 91012, CoC 97061, 91 V 83, CoS and CoLk 9411 and midate Co 92020, Co 94019, Co 95012, CoS and CoLk 9606 have possessed potentia for high sugar yied per hectare. Sugarcane CoLk (eary-maturing) and CoLk 9710 (mid-ate maturing), have been accepted for Zona Varieta Tria of the North-west Zone. Sugarcane seections viz., 93-A-21 and CoLk 9216 have been found promising for panting after wheat harvest. Crop Production Sugarcane panting in overapping cropping system with wheat and berseem in February gave significanty higher cane equivaent yied of 89.8 and tonnes/ha SUGARCANE MECHANIZATION An improved mode of tractor-operated mutipurpose sugarcane farming equipment has been deveoped. It is used for sugarcane panting, intercutura operations, earthing-up, pudding, seed-driing and and preparation. Basicay the equipment is a three-row sugarcane cutter-panter. Any tractor (35-hp or more) can be used to operate it. It has foowing improved features: (i) the operator need not hod the cane whie panting; (ii) power transmission system has been drasticay simpified; (iii) it needs minimum head and; (iv) furrowers (not ridgers) open the furrows; (v) curved bades cut the cane by shear action; (vi) canes are cut at 65 for smooth cutting; (vii) ength of the setts remains uniform, (viii) sett pacement pattern remains same, irrespective of the tractor and the gear in operation, and (ix) best weight distribution. A sub-operations of cane panting are performed simutaneousy, without any oss of setts and soi moisture. An area of one hectare can be panted in hr with the hep of six persons, incuding tractor-driver. This equipment is abe to meter optimum seed rate of cane. Mutipurpose equipment panting sugarcane

49 43 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT over cane panting after harvest of wheat and berseem (81.1 and tonnes/ha). Urdbean-toria-sugarcane-ratoon-wheat and rice-berseem-sugarcane-ratoon-wheat systems have reveaed that incusion of berseem in crop sequence has ameiorative effect on the soi physica properties, eading to higher cane yied (73.7 tonnes/ha) and water-use (0.84 tonnes/ha/cm). To characterize indigenous Acetobacter diazotrophicus isoates, 16s r-rna probe was used. IS 100, 107, 111, 112, 113, 120 and 121 were confirmed positive, and were designated as A. diazotrophicus. Isoate IS 100 has been found the best. These isoates can be expoited as biofertiizers in fieds. Cane maturants Dinitrocifro (8 kg/ha) and Triacontano (5 itre/ha) through irrigation water in the first fortnight of September improved sugarcane juice quaity attributes. Spraying freshy harvested canes with 10 ppm Dithiocarbamate + 1% sodium metasiicate and mixing 10 ppm of Benzakonium choride in the primary juice, suppressed acid invertase, dextran-sucrase activity and dextran formation per se. Identified an induced mutant of Corchorus capsuaris (var. JRC 212) for understanding ignification process of secondary phoem fibre ces of jute. Jute phoem ignin-dificient mutant dph, showed potentia for utiization to geneticay engineer ow ignin, fine and soft quaity jute. Crop Protection Non-conventiona pant-based insecticides neem (10,000 ppm at 0.3%) and annona 20 EC (0.2 and 0.1%) were effective against back-bug and whitefy. Insecticides, Acephate (0.05%) and Karate (0.03%) showed highest toxicity against back-bug, foowed by Endosufan (0.05%), Poytrin (0.03%) and Carina (0.05%). Strain B of sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) significanty reduced cane yied by 13.6, 10.7 and 11.2% of CoPant 90223, CoS 767 and CoLK Crop Improvement JUTE AND ALLIED FIBRES For understanding the ignification process of secondary phoem fibre ces of jute, an induced (50 kr) mutant of Corchorus capsuaris (var. JRC 212) has been TWO NEW SPECIES OF CORCHORUS FOUND IN INDIA Wid jute Corchorus pseudo-oitorius Ony 8 species of jute (Corchorus) were reported from India. In January 2002, in the southern parts of Keraa and Tami Nadu, one more species Corchorus pseudo-oitorius was found distributed in the Tirunevei district (Tami Nadu). This has been growing as weed in the sugarcane fied and in the raised boundary wa of the paddy fied. This species showed remarkabe toerance to diseases and pests compared to other wid jute species. Another species, Corchorus depressus has been reported from western provinces of India, and has showed toerance to drought. This species was coected for the first time from Jaisamer and other districts of Corchorus depressus, wid jute Rajasthan. With the incorporation of droughttoerant genes in the cutivated species, ike C. oitorius, jute cutivation may be more remunerative.

50 44 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT identified and characterized for histoogica, biochemica and chemica traits. A cear distinction is visibe in wa thickening of secondary phoem fibre ces in the mutant compared to norma pant. The extracted fibre strands from the mutant run amost parae and do not show typica meshy nature of jute fibres. The ignin content of the mature fibre of the mutant was ony 8 9% as compared to 17 21% in JRC 212. This phoem ignin-deficient mutant, designated as dph, has a potentia for utiization to geneticay engineer ow ignin, fine and soft quaity jute. Crop Production At Bahraich, Nagaon and Aduthurai, substitution of 25% NPK either through compost or green manure enhanced jute fibre productivity significanty. Compost prepared from Sesbania rostrata proved most promising at Nagaon and green manuring with dhaincha at Bahraich and Aduthurai showed best performance. Crop Protection Beauveria bassiana, a biogent. This fungus has been isoated from the mesta-fea beete Nisotra orbicuata and has proved active for controing insect-pests of jute and mesta The bioagent, Beauveria bassiana (Bas.) Vui., an entomogenous fungus, has been isoated from mesta-fea beete Nisotra orbicuata (Mots.), and has proved active microbe for controing insect pests of jute and mesta. Some other bioagents isoated either from diseased insects or from soi are Metarrhizium anisopiae, Giocadium sp. and Paeciomyces iacinus. The mass cuture of the fungus is possibe on the natura, semi-synthetic and synthetic media. Metaboites were extracted from Beauveria bassiana using ethy acetate as sovent in the aboratory. These proved toxic when sprayed on the insect arvae. This fungus has got the antagonistic effect on the jute stem-rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseoina, and on Fusarium spp. B. bassiana spores coud remain viabe for 240 days, and after 8 months, no coony was recorded, as viabiity was ost. TOBACCO Crop Improvement A Natu tobacco variety Pyruvithanam has been reeased by the SVRC, Orissa, for cutivation in pikka-tobacco growing areas of Orissa. This variety has yied potentia of 1,250 kg/ha. And a chewing tobacco variety Lichchavi has been reeased for cutivation in the north Bihar. Tobacco varieties recommended for identification Variety Yied potentia Recommended for identification (kg/ha) Produced intersectiona hybrids of Nicotiana repanda N. tabacum from hormona-aided direct hybridization. Heicoverpa armigera damage to FCV tobacco was more when high N was appied, but K reduced its incidence and damage. Hemadri 2,500 FCV tobacco for traditiona back sois in rainfed areas of Andhra Pradesh Bhairavi (NG 73) 2,600 Natu tobacco for rainfed areas of Andhra Pradesh BSRB 2 (Sweta) 2,000 Burey tobacco for ight sois of Agency area in Andhra Pradesh under monsoonic conditions Advanced breeding ines Cy 135, Cy 136, Cy 137 and Cy 139 performed we in buk observation trias, yieding 2,250 to 2,450 kg of cured eaf/ha; an increase of 24 to 36% (1,240 to 1,590 kg/ha), and 37 to 53% increase in bright eaf over the check in the northern back sois. Intersectiona hybrids of cross Nicotiana repanda N. tabacum have been

51 45 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Burey tobacco variety Sweta has been recommended for identification for ight sois of Andhra Pradesh in monsoonic conditions. It has a yied potentia of 2,000 kg/ha produced from hormona-aided direct hybridization. The hybrid is very important because ovue-parent is reported to be resistant to eeven diseases and two insect pests of tobacco. Crop Production Nitrogen at 120 kg/ha to Banket A1 variety of burey tobacco of ight soi in organic (FYM) and inorganic forms in 25 : 75 ratio recorded 18.4% more eaf yied to norma practice. This variety recorded maximum cured eaf yied of 2,062 kg at 120 kg N/ha aong with 10 tonnes FYM. High-grade phosphate rock of Jhamarkotra mines (Rajasthan) with 34% tota P 2 O 5 and 74 micron size (PR 34/74) was found promising for FCV tobacco on neutra sois, ow in avaiabe P. PR (34/74) at 80 kg P 2 O 5 /ha in combination with FYM at 3.5 tonnes/ha or PR at 90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha aong with green manuring can be profitaby used for the southern ight-soi crop, repacing SSP and diammonium phosphate. Cowhage, Aswagandha or Coeus, medicina pants, are promising aternatives to FCV tobacco, and they may be considered for sois unsuitabe for quaity tobacco production. At Bihar, maximum tota cured eaf and first-grade eaf yieds of chewing tobacco have been recorded when 50% of N as ammonium suphate and 50% as castor-cake were appied. FCV tobacco variety Hemadri has been recommended for identification for traditiona back sois in rainfed areas of Andhra Pradesh. It has showed a yied potentia of 2,500 kg/ha Crop Protection Three aey crops, jowar, maize and bajra, grown as border to tobacco, were significanty superior to when they were grown as strips in reducing stem-borer, tobacco caterpiar, tobacco budworm, tobacco eaf-cur vector and tobacco aphid in tobacco. Budworm Heicoverpa armigera damage to FCV tobacco was more when high N was appied, but K appication reduced the incidence and damage. Tracer 48 SC, Avaunt 14.5 SC, Cascade 10 DC, Rampage 10 SC at 100 g a.i./ha and Larvin 75 WP at 750 g a.i./ha are found effective against tobacco budworm. Entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae tac-based formuation was found effective at IJ/m 2, in succession with NPV at PIBs/ha to contain seeding damage caused by Spodoptera itura (15.33 seedings). EPN aone

52 46 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Hybrid seed production was economica of castor and sorghum at Hyderabad and of sunfower at Bangaore. Suitabe seed treatments deveoped for enhancing storabiity of wheat, maize, sorghum and bajra. Identification manuas are being prepared to hep quaity seed production and DUS testing. Recommended packaging of soybean seeds in jute canvas bags with inside ining of bubbed-poyster, for their safe transport. Cotton-seed ots with 55% germination coud be upgraded to standard germination by the use of specific gravity separation. was effective at IJ/m 2 with seedings damaged totaing to 22/m 2 compared to contro ( seedings). Five accessions MD 40, 872, 201, Coker 129 and Speight G 41 have been graded as resistant to TMV; 9, Coker 129, 297, 371, MD 10, 872, NC 73, 2326, DB 10 and Va 310 resistant to back shank and 5, MD 609, NC 2326, HV 92 2, 92 4 and VR 2 showed resistance to root-knot nematode (RKI <1). In FCV tobacco nursery, bordeaux mixture at 0.5% up to 35 DAS, foowed by 2 foiar sprays with Propiconazoe (Tit 25% EC) at 0.05% have been recommended for controing eaf and stem infection phases of anthracnose. SEED PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY BREEDER SEED PRODUCTION During , a tota of 3, tonnes of breeder seed have been produced; major quantities beonged to oiseeds (1, tonnes) and cereas (1, tonnes), foowed by puses ( tonnes), forages (45.82 tonnes) and fibres (19.16 tonnes). Besides, additiona breeder seed was aso produced against indent of stateeve varieties. GROWING-ON TEST OF SEEDS TO ASSESS TRANSMISSION OF VIRUSES Based on the growing-on test of seeds coected from diverse sources, the seed transmission of viruses was 1 16% and 2 27% of back-eye cowpea mosaic potyvirus in cowpea and urdbean; 2 6% and 3 33% of urdbean eaf crinke disease in mungbean and urdbean; % and 4 67% of bean common mosaic potyvirus in mungbean and urdbean; 0.5 5% of pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus in pea and 2 52% of soybean mosaic potyvirus in soybean. Seed Technoogy Diagnostic characterization. A massive programme on variety characterization major fied crops has been taken up for morphoogica characters, chemica tests and eectrophoretic banding pattern. The work is being harmonized with the Nationa Test Guideines for DUS. Economics of hybrid seed production. In cotton, the cost:benefit ratio is economica in Hyderabad (1 : 2.22), Dharwad (1 : 1.95) and Akoa (1 : 1.8) for hybrid seed production. Hyderabad is aso beneficia for castor and sorghum, and Bangaore is idea for sunfower hybrid seed production. Seed coating. Seed coating using natura or synthetic adhesive (starch grue or carboxy methy ceuose), natura fier, (Arappu eaf powder/neem kerne powder/ SEED TREATMENTS FOR ENHANCING STORABILITY Crop Treatment Moisture Period Container content (%) (months) Wheat Vitavax + Thiram (1 : 1) 8 18 Poy-ined gunny bags Maize Thiram 8 12 Poy-ined gunny bags Sorghum Thiram+Carbendazim (1 : 1) 9 18 Poy-ined gunny bags Bajra Thiram 8 18 Poy-ined gunny bags vermicompost) and Thiram 0.3% or ZnSO 4 (0.3 g/kg) has shown enhancement in fied emergence and crop growth in soybean; the storabiity was satisfactoriy up to 3 months. PLANT PROTECTION BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Biosystematic Studies on Indian Predatory Coccineidae Five apparenty new species beonging to Protopotina Miyatake, Microserangium Miyatake, Synonychimorpha Miyatake, Ghanius Ahmad and Ortaia Musant have been recorded from different parts of India.

53 47 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Rearing/Cuturing Techniques and Studies on Natura Enemies Mass mutipying method for Eriborus argenteopiosus has been evauated; wherein a parasitoid-host ratio of 1 : 5 was found optimum. Parasitism ranged 18 45% on cotton and 9 40% on chickpea. Mass rearing of the anthocorid Baptostethus paescens (from maize ecosystem) has been standardized on Corcyra cephaonica using bean pods as oviposition substrate. A singe nymph coud feed on a mean number of 87 eggs, an adut mae on 373 eggs and an adut femae on 408 eggs. Cage studies for interaction between Campoetis chorideae and E. argenteopiosus reveaed that C. chorideae provided higher percentage of parasitism aone than when there was interference by E. argenteopiosus. Irrespective of the parasitization sequence, C. chorideae appeared superior to E. argenteopiosus E. argenteopiosus performance was adversey affected in C. chorideae presence. Behavioura Studies on Natura Enemies L-tryptophan (0.66%)-treated pants attracted higher oviposition by Chrysopera carnea in fieds and in aboratory. Corcyra scae extracts fortified with tricosane and pentacosane at 0.1% and 0.2% and sprayed on egg cards of Corcyra cephaonica increased parasitization by Trichogramma chionis in the fieds. Highest parasitization of Heicoverpa armigera eggs by T. chionis was recorded on cotton G-Cot 10 (48.88%), foowed by CPD 428 (39.99%). Artificia Diets for Host Insects and Natura Enemies Chrysopera carnea arvae coud be successfuy reared on artificia diet for 15 generations with a mean adut emergence of 85.7%; simiar to when reared on Corcyra cephaonica eggs (86%). The diet coud be stored for 200 days in a refrigerator at 5 C without any deeterious effect on rearing. Toddy pam-eaf powder-based diet has been found promising for rearing Opisina arenosea, providing high percentage of pupation and femae-adut emergence. Improved Strains of Natura Enemies Attempts to deveop a heat-toerant strain of Trichogramma chionis have succeeded after 55 generations of constant rearing at 36 ± 1.5 C, with adaptation to parasitism of 90% and surviva > 4 days. Teenomus remus after 30 generations of constant rearing at 34 C gave 72.2% parasitization with ongevity of 7.8 days. Endogram strain of T. chionis has now been made toerant to 0.09% Endosufan, 0.05% Monocrotophos and 0.002% Fenvaerate. A strain of T. chionis with high host-searching abiity has been seected after 30 generations of seective rearing; it has good host searching abiity with % parasitization. Entomopathogenic Nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. indica, Steinernema carpocapsae and S. bicornutum isoates were effective against Spodoptera itura, Agrotis ipsion, Phthorimaea opercauea, Putea xyostea and Opisina arenosea. Progeny production was maximum in Gaeria meonea with H. bacteriophora, recording highest yied. Among Steinernema isoates, S. bicornutum gave maximum yied. Wouts medium was found suitabe for mass production in soid medium. Tac- based formuations of S. carpocapsae and H. indica have showed effectiveness in tobacco nurseries against S. itura. Bioogica Contro of Pant-Parasitic Nematodes Two strains of Paeciomyces iacinus, and one each of Verticiium chamydosporium and Pasteuria penetrans have been isoated and found effective against root-knot nematode Meoidogyne incognita and reniform nematode Mass rearing of anthocorid Baptostethus paescens on Corcyra cephaonica standardized. Recorded highest parasitization of Heicoverpa armigera eggs by Trichogramma chionis on cotton G-Cot 10, foowed by CPD 428. Successfuy reared Chrysopera carnea arvae on the artificia diet, which coud be stored for 200 days in refrigerator at 5 C without any deeterious effects on rearing. Seected a strain of Trichogramma chionis with high host-searching abiity. Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopiae sporuated maximum on pongamia and castor oi-cakes. Tac-based formuations of Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis indica proved effective against Spodoptera itura in tobacco nurseries. In sugarcane at Coimbatore, Trichogramma chionis showed higher parasitization on shoot-borer eggs, foowed by internode borer and on Corcyra cephaonica eggs. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC VIRUSES AND FUNGI ISOLATED Nuceopoyhedrosis viruses from coconut skipper Gangara thyrsis, paddy eaf roer Cnaphaocrocis medinais, coconut backheaded caterpiar Opisina arenosea and motted emigrant white butterfy Catopsiia pyranthae, a granuosis virus from castor semiooper Achaea janata and a poxvirus from maize stem borer Chio parteus have been isoated. SMAY medium incorporated with choramphenico (50 ppm) and rose benga (100 ppm) coud be used for isoation of Nomuraea rieyi from fiedinfected arvae of Heicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera itura. Severa isoates of N. rieyi against H. armigera and S. itura showed 100% mortaity of 3rd instar arvae when a spore suspension of conidia/m was used. Maximum sporuation of Beauveria bassiana, Metarrhizium anisopiae and Verticeium ecanii was observed with pongamia and castor oi-cakes. A tac-based formuation of V. ecanii has been deveoped.

54 48 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT SUCCESSFUL IPM MODULE FOR COTTON Location-specific IPM for eco-friendy and sustainabe cotton production has been evauated at 15 ocations (viages) in north, centra and south cotton-growing zones, covering an area of 600 ha approximatey. The proven IPM technoogies being transferred to farmers incude cotton eaf-cur resistant varieties/ hybrids, use of cover/trap crops and of critica eco-friendy inputs such as reease of Trichogramma chionis, HaNPV and neem-seed-kerne powder extract. The pesticide oad in irrigated cotton-crop reduced to 8 10 sprays in Punjab and Haryana compared to sprays in the non-ipm farmers' fieds, and in rainfed cotton pesticide appication was restricted to 3 sprays in IPM pots compared to 6 8 sprays in non-ipm pots. Rotyenchuus reniformis on cowpea and chickpea. P. iacinus and V. chamydosporium integration with air-dried FYM/oi-cake, foowed by ight irrigation favoured funga estabishment and parasitization on egg masses of M. incognita. Paeciomyces iacinus reduced root-knot nematode popuation in chrysanthemum at 4 6 kg/acre aong with neem-cake at kg, and enhanced fower yied by 18 24%. Bioogica Suppression of Crop Pests Commercia crops. In Punjab, Trichogramma chionis 8 reeases in sugarcane at 10 days interva during Apri-June at 50,000/ha reduced eary shoot borer by 51.7% and T. japonicum 4 reeases, coinciding with avaiabiity of egg masses of top borer, at 50,000/ha during May Juy, reduced top borer by 50.7%. At Coimbatore, Trichogramma chionis showed higher parasitization on shoot borer eggs, foowed by internode borer and C. cephaonica eggs. The BIPM modue with Chrysopera carnea and Trichogramma chionis reeases and NPV sprays has been effective in suppressing sucking pests and boworm compex of cotton in Pune, Hyderabad, Ludhiana and Anand. Puse crops. In Andhra Pradesh, sequentia appication of HaNPV-NSKE- HaNPV-NSKE in pigeonpea, starting from fower initiation stage at 10 days interva, reduced damage by Heicoverpa armigera, pod wasp and pod-fy. Bt-HaNPV-Bt- HaNPV sequentia appication resuted in decrease in H. armigera arva popuation and pod damage in pigeonpea in Gujarat. Cerea crops. Reeases of egg parasitoids Trichogramma japonicum and T.chionis, each at 100,000 aduts/ha/reease/week, 3 times have been found effective in reducing rice eaf foder and stem borer infestations during kharif and rabi, and recorded maximum yieds in Maharashtra, Assam and Punjab. Horticutura and pantation crops. In Soan, Chrysopera carnea arvae for management of wooy appe aphids coud be reeased safey after 10 days of treatment with Maathion (0.05%), 15 days with Endosufan (0.05%) and 30 days with Profenophos (0.05%). Five sprays of HaNPV at POBs/ha at weeky interva, and 5 weeky reeases of Trichogramma pretiosum at 50,000 aduts/ha/reease + 3 sprays of HaNPV at POBs/ha, when the first spray started 5 days after first reease of parasitoid were most effective against tomato fruit borer in Maharashtra. In Punjab, reeases of T. pretiosum (5 reeases at weeky interva at 50,000/ha) + 3 sprays of HaNPV ( POBs/ha) + 3 sprays of Endosufan (at 2.5 1itres/ha, at 15 days interva) proved most effective for managing fruit borer on tomato. In Bangaore, diamondback moth on cabbage coud be managed either through reease of T. bactrae at 50,000 aduts/ha/reease, 5 times at weeky interva, commencing 25 days after panting or spraying Defin WG at 1 kg/ha 5 times at 10 days interva, starting from initiation of fowering. IPM VALIDATION IN PIGEONPEA During , an area of 53 acres in IPM and 35 acres in Non-IPM were taken for pigeonpea vaidation. Interventions in IPM were: 5 pheromone traps, 2 sprays of NSKE, 1 spray of HaNPV and in Non-IPM: 3 sprays of Endosufan, Monocrotophos, Ashotop (Acephate), Lanate/Dunate, Chorpyriphos, Rogor and Cypermethrin, aong with three times shaking of pants was done in IPM and once in non-ipm. The yied was 1.52 tonnes/ha in IPM and 0.92 tonne/ha in non-ipm. Honey Bee Poination HONEY BEE RESEARCH In itchi, bees were predominant (75 95%) among the insects visiting the inforescence. And among bees, Apis meifera dominated (46%), foowed by wid bees Apis dorsata (36.8%) and Apis forea (17.2%). Litte bees Trigona iridipennis were found as occasiona visitor. Peak activity of bees was observed in the forenoon. Litte bees, Itaian bees and rock bees had spent on an average 4.0, 2.9 and 2.6 seconds/fower. Fruit-setting in covered branch was 26.5/branch and in uncovered it was 64.4/branch. Bee visits were bees/min./panice in orchards where 45 bee-coonies were paced and were owest (4.26 bee/min/panice) in orchards without bee-coonies (contro). Maximum fruit-set (2.1%) and fruit weight (22.35 g) were recorded where

55 49 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT 45 bee-coonies were paced and owest (0.38%) fruit-set and fruit weight (16.85 g) were recorded in contro. Overcrowding of bees had no adverse effect on fruit-set in itchi. Bee Diseases and Enemies In Keraa, incidence of Thai Sac Brood Virus disease was noticed with varying intensities in different districts. Percentage infestation was more in Thiruvananthapuram (20.80) and east in Kannur. In Punjab, incidence of European Fou Brood on Apis meifera ranged between 0 and 0.97% in summer, 0 and 9.52% in spring, 0 and 4.0% in winter, 0 and 13.63% in autumn and 0 and 19.23% in monsoon. Incidence of sac brood during different seasons in the state ranged between 0 and 6.81%. Besides, negigibe incidence of chak brood was aso noticed. Varroa jacobsoni infected Apis meifera coonies in Keraa. To contro this mite, 60% formic acid proved effective. Bee Management and Hive Products A. meifera coonies estabishment in the Eastern Ghat highand zone of Orissa has been achieved, and attempts are in progress to spread bees in the triba bets of southern Orissa aso. Kar-Jenter method and Doitte method, using pastic (PVC) queen ce cups and bee-wax queen ce cups, and the effect of position of top and bottom bars of the queen-rearing frames were compared with respect to acceptance of 24-hr arvae grafted for mass-queen rearing. Position of the bar of queen-rearing frame did not affect arva grafting. Maximum arva acceptance of 58.33% was obtained with arva grafting in PVC wax ces. In A. meifera, brood-rearing activity (2,611.7 cm 2 ) and poen stores (383.5 cm 2 ) were high in ferocious coonies compared to moderate and mid bee-coonies. During dearth period (monsoon) at Pant Nagar, brood deveopment pattern in 6- frame coony was as good as in 10-frame coony, if timey feeding was given. Among variabe quantities of nectar and poen substitutes, 1,000 g sugar syrup with 5 g sattu woud be optimum for proper deveopment of coony to be fed during dearth period at Pusa, Bihar. Poen trapping at 25% coud be safey made without any adverse affect on the coony, but it was adversey affected when trapping was 50% and above. In Apis meifera, brood-rearing activity and poen stores were higher in ferocious bee-coonies than moderate and mid coonies. Arecanut white-grub coud be effectivey managed by Chorpyriphos 10G or Phorate 10G or Carbofuran 10G. Hisar Latit, a tomato variety showing resistance against root-knot nematode, when transpanted in soarized fied reduced root-knot index. In Keraa, crow-pheasant (Centropus sinensis) proved potentia biocontro agent against stem-borer of cardamom. Accompished for the first time breeding of bank myna in artificia nestboxes at open-wes of agricutura habitats. Pacement of poison bait in wheat-crop fieds RODENT MANAGEMENT Use of parasites. Infector of Trypanosoma ivansi, a highy pathogenic protozoan, INTEGRATED RODENT MANAGEMENT Two crown baitings with Bromadioone cakes in coconut, one in January and the other after 30 days, have been recommended for managing rodents in coconut (success rate 82.5%). A coar of GI sheet when put on mango stems yieds fairy good success in protecting fruits from squirre s damage. Two appications of Bromadioone (wax bock) at 10 g/burrow (i) at fowering and (ii) at pod maturity stage gave significant rodent contro in groundnut. Reguar trappings, fumigation, weeding and burrow baiting with Bromadioone (0.005%) may be integrated for management of pestrodents in tomato in Himacha Pradesh.

56 50 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT JOJOBA SEED-CAKE REPELS TATERA INDICA Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seed-cake powder possessed repeent/deterrent effect on Tatera indica. Laboratory trias indicated that Indian gerbis avoided jojoba seed-cakes at 50, 75 and 100% concentrations in baits, and under no choice died of hunger. At 10 15%, gerbis recorded some consumption of treated baits (as forced feeding) but ost % body weight within a week of exposure. T. indica showed amost negigibe intake of treated bait when exposed in the presence of pain baits (choice test). The consumption of treated bait was g/100 g body weight, which was significanty ower than that of pain bait ( g/100 body weight). proved etha to Bandicota bengaensis and Rattus rattus. The parasite showed two peaks of parasitaemia, and no test rodent survived after second peak. Infected rodents showed weakness, suggishness, depression and posterior paraysis. Laboratory evauation of rodenticides. Coumatetray (Racumin paste), a new, mutipe dose anticoaguant rodenticide, yieded 70 and 90% mortaity of test rodents when exposed for 8 and 10 days. The formuatioin was ess paatabe. The etha feeding period (LFP 50 ) and etha feeding dose (LFD 50 ) of anticoaguant was 5.5 days and 2.41 g/100 g body weight. In no-choice test, freshy prepared bajra-based bait of Difethiaone, resuted in cent percent mortaity of Tatera indica (gerbi) and Funambuus pennanti (squirres) in one-day exposure. However, in choice tests, one-day exposure yieded 80% mortaity in gerbis and 50% in squirres. The death period ranged between 6 and 11 days for T. indica and 4 and 9 days for F. pennanti. On increasing exposure period to 2 days, the mortaity rate of squirres increased to 80% but in T. indica 2 days exposure showed no change in mortaity rate, however, the duration of mortaity was brought down to 4 8 days. AGRICULTURAL ACAROLOGY Mite infestation in rice. Mite infestation on popuar hi rice, Jaya, Mandya Vijaya, Rasi, IR 30864, Mukthi, Teahamsa, and a hybrid KRH 2 ranged from 12% (Teahamsa) to 60% (KRH 2). Simiar damage was observed in Kothamadi, Eru, Unn, Navasari and Mohanpura areas in Gujarat. Screening of avaiabe rice ines to spidermite (Oigonychus oryzae) during September October in Coimbatore showed IR 64616H, IR H, PSBRC 2, IR 69612H, IR R free from mite damage and entries IR 71625H, IR CP-138-C highy susceptibe. Mite infestation on chii. In Gujarat, yeow mite Poyphagotarsonemus atus, a serious pest of chii crop, showed 2 distinct peaks in ast week of October and beginning of December, with no activity of any predators. Leaf curing in 38% pants inficted 28% green chiies yied oss. Jwaa, RHRC Erect, ACG 77 and ACS 92-2 were fairy toerant with minimum eaf curing (4-9 mites/15 eaves), and varieties G 4 and PBS 86-1 (with 39 mites/15 eaves) were susceptibe. In Kayani, hybrid chii Line was reativey toerant and varieties Jhuan, Buet and Suryamukhi were highy susceptibe. PESTICIDE RESIDUES NEWER MOLECULES OF ACARICIDES In Coimbatore, newer moecues of acaricides ike fenpyroximate, bifenthrin, diafenthiuron and buprofezin offered better protection (76 93% reduction) against rose spidermites. These and fenazaquin were abe to contro chii mite up to 92% in 15 days period and thus better fruit yieds of chii were obtained in Bangaore, Kayani (aso on commercia jute), Navasari and Coimbatore. These acaricides are aso found effective against spidermites on brinja and okra, and resuted in 80% reduction in mite popuation in 9 12 days in Ludhiana. Out of 796 sampes of different vegetabes, 61% were contaminated with DDT, HCH, Endosufan, Chorpyriphos, and out of which 12% exceeded their maximum residua imit (MRL) vaues. In fruits, out of 378 sampes, 48% were contaminated with different pesticides but none of them contained residues above MRL vaue. About 40% of 92 sampes of spices from the market were contaminated. Residues of DDT, HCH, Endosufan and Chorpyriphos were detected in 264 vegetarian and 243 non-vegetarian human diet sampes, 11% vegetarian and 15% non-vegetarian sampes exceeded their MRL vaues. Out of 468 bovine-mik sampes, 65% sampes were contaminated with HCH and DDT; out of which 15% were above MRL vaue. In 98 anima feed and fodder sampes, 52% were contaminated with HCH, DDT, Dicofo, Maathion and Endosufan. Besides 59% groundwater and 65% surface water sampes were found containing DDT and HCH. Out of 67 rain-water sampes, 20% were contaminated with HCH, DDT, Endosufan and Chorpyriphos. And out of 82 honey sampes anaysed, residues of HCH, Endosufan, DDT, Chorthaoni and Cypermethrin were detected in 51% sampes. Out of 47 sampes of processed food, 29% sampes were contaminated with HCH, Maathion, Chorpyriphos, Cypermethrin and DDT.

57 51 CROP IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Groundnut WHITE-GRUB MANAGEMENT Among the new seed dressers for groundnut protection from white-grubs, Imidacoprid 200 SL (0.6 g a.i./kg seed) and Chorpyriphos+Cypermethrin (5 g a.i./kg seed) have been found as effective as the presenty recommended Chorpyriphos for the ast 3 years. Fiproni 5 FS (100 g a.i./ha) tested for the first time has aso showed promise. On 3 years data, B : C ratio of Imidacoprid was and of Chorpyriphos + Cypermethrin was as compared to about of Chorpyriphos and Quinaphos. Imidacoprid 200 SL at 60 g a.i./ha and Fiproni 5 FS at 150 g a.i./ha were found better than existing Chorpyriphos 20 EC (at 800 g a.i./ha) and were at a par with Quinaphos 20 AF (at 800 g a.i./ha), when appied 21 days after mass emergence of beetes in the standing crop of groundnut. On 3 years data, highest B : C ratio of was with Imidacoprid 200 SL, as compared to 9.8 by Chorpyriphos and 9.06 by Quinaphos. Arecanut Arecanut white-grub Leucophois epidophora, with a two-year ife-cyce and overapping generations, can be effectivey managed by each of Chorpyriphos 10G or Phorate 10G or Carbofuran 10G or Chorpyriphos 10G (25 g/pam) and Chorpyriphos 20 EC at 6 m/pam. NEMATODE MANAGEMENT Rice. White-tip disease intensity, caused by white-tip nematode (Apheenchoides besseyi), reduced significanty by soaking paddy seeds in Carbosufan (0.1%) for 6 hours, foowed by foiar spray of Carbosufan (0.2%) at 40 DAT. Puses. In pigeonpea, when Pseudomonas fuorescens was combined with Trichoderma viride at 2.5 kg/ha for managing pigeonpea-cyst nematode wit compex, the nematode popuation reduced and yied of the crop increased up to 43.8%. Root-knot nematode (Meoidogyne incognita) management in chickpea with Carbosufan 25 EC at 0.1% a.i. ed to an increase of 23% in yied over contro with a cost: benefit ratio of 1 : 3. Vegetabes. Hisar Lait, a tomato-variety resistant against root-knot nematode when transpanted in soarized fied showed reduced root-knot index. Sweet-potato Sree Bhadra when intercropped with brinja or okra reduced root-knot nematode popuation and generated cost : benefit ratio of 1 : Nursery treatment with Carbofuran 3G at 0.3 g/m 2 and seeding root-dip treatment with Carbosufan 25 EC at 0.05% for 6 hours for brinja and seed treatment with Carbosufan 25 ST at 3% w/w for bittergourd significanty reduced various nematodes. Fibre crops. In cotton, seed treatment with Pseudomonas fuorescens at 20g/kg seed and soi appication at 10 g/pot proved best in controing reniform nematode (Rotyenchuus reniformis). Neem-cake at 1,000 kg/ha and soi drench with Mancozeb 80% WP at 0.4% against Meoidogyne incognita and Macrophomina phaseoina compex reduced effectivey pant mortaity, ga index, nematode popuation and spore oad and increased fibre yied. Fruit crops. Meoidogyne incognita Race 1 popuation was reduced in banana treated with Pasteuria penetrans and Trichoderma viride. Appication of Pseudomonas fuorescens at 10 g/pit at panting and 45 DAT was found to reduce M. incognita popuation and increased banana yied. Paring of banana rhizomes before panting + neem-cake at 1 kg/pant + Carbofuran 3G at 16.6 g/pant effectivey minimized Radophous simiis, Heicotyenchus muticinctus and Meoidogyne incognita compex.

58 52 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Bank myna feeds on 1,061 g of insects, which equas to 3,810 insects during nesting period of a brood Diet composition of catte egret nestings in Andhra Pradesh AGRICULTURAL ORNITHOLOGY Sprouting groundnut is being damaged by roseringed parakeet at the roosting site Screen crop, a potentia device for saving grains from birds damage The BBR + at 10 m/itre of water concentration and refective ribbon showed higher yied in sorghum in kharif (845.7 kg/ha) and rabi (1,013 kg/ha). Simiary wrapping and ribbon on maize-crop during kharif showed higher yied (1,369 kg/ha) in treated pot compared to contro (1, kg/ha). In kharif, spray of BBR + at 10 m/itre of water concentration reduced avian damage in fied in Punjab. In BBR + sprayed fied, mean damage estimation was 0.08 ± 0.87 as compared to contro vaue of 7.50 ± BBR + at 5 m/itre of water concentration was effective in controing bird damage during grain-fiing stage of rice at Keraa. At Andhra Pradesh on sorghum BBR + at 10 m/itre of water concentration showed significant yied increase (1,005 kg/ha) compared to contro (833 kg/ha); with 17.1% reduction in damage among treatments. Reproductive success of rose-ringed parakeet in different areas of Andhra Pradesh varied between 48% (Scarce Rainfa Zone) and 63% (Southern Teengana Zone). The dietary preference and diet composition of catte egret in different heronries of Andhra Pradesh showed high preference to insects (75%), foowed by noninsect matter (25%). This indicates, catte egret as an important potentia depredatory bird in agricutura ecosystem. In Keraa, crow-pheasant or couca (Centropus sinensis) has been found a potentia biocontro agent against stem-borer of cardamom. Accompished for the first time breeding of bank myna an important depredatory bird of Orthopteran and Lepidopteran pests, in artificia nest-boxes instaed in open wes of agricutura habitats.

59 53 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS Improvement and Management of Horticutura Crops FRUIT CROPS MANGO A tota of 633 accessions were maintained in the Nationa Repository of Mango Germpasm at Centra Institute for Subtropica Horticuture, Lucknow. Of them, 252 were cataogued as per the IPGRI descriptors. A high-yieding, reguar-bearing mango hybrid Ambika having medium-sized fruits with yeow and firm fesh, suited to internationa market, has been reeased. Mango Pusa Arunima and Pusa Surya having medium-sized fruits with a sef-ife of days at room temperature have been recommended for commercia cutivation. Embryo-rescue technique has been deveoped successfuy for the first time in the word. The hybrids of intervarieta cross Aphonso Keraa Dwarf have been deveoped successfuy using excised hybrid embryo cuture couped with ex-vitro shoot-tip grafting. Varieta evauation reveaed that superior cones of Dashehari cone 51 and cone 32 at Sangareddy; Bangaora and Maika at Sabour; Asaugia Devband, Langra Rampur and Zafrani Goa at Pantnagar, and Bangaora and Dashehari Chottee at Rewa were promising. Among reeased mango hybrids Neeeshan produced maximum yied at Sangareddy, and Maika at Sabour and Rewa. Among different methods of propagation, maximum fruit yied ( kg/tree) was recorded in veneer grafted trees. Rootstock Kaapaddy gave maximum yied with Bombai scion. Appication of 250 gn/tree/year resuted in best tree growth, canopy deveopment and fruit quaity with maximum fruit yied (170 kg/tree) in Totapuri. In panting system-cum high-density, doube hedge-row system of panting produced higher yied than square system. The experiment on rejuvenation of over crowded orchard, maximum number of fruits and yied per tree were recorded in the contro (thinning of branches and centre opening without pacobutrazo appication), whereas at other centres, pacobutrazo appied either as a foiar or soi appication gave higher yied than the contro. Spraying of extract of Nette eaf + cow urine was found to reduce about 75% mango hopper popuation up to 7 days after spraying under fied conditions. Three sprays of monocrotophos (0.05%) starting from panice emergence to subsequent 15 days interva resuted in reducing the hopper popuation at Vengura, Sabour, Mohanpur and Paria. Cowdung paste was found very effective in controing gummosis and die back diseases in mango compared to appication of biodynamic tree paste or copper oxychoride. Laboratory studies have shown presence of anti-pathogenic microorganisms in cowdung. For pre-harvest treatments of mango by tricycozoe (Beam 0.1%) foowed by Prochoraz (0.1%) and for post-harvest treatment by Prochoraz (0.1%) aone was found most effective to contro anthracnose. A promising mango hybrid Ambika Ambika, a mango hybrid, has been reeased. An embryo-rescue technique in mango has been deveoped. BANANA Three new species, M. rosacea, M. aurantiaca and Ensete gaucum, have been identified. The occurrence of a natura (ABBB) tetrapoid, a potentia gene source

60 54 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Three new Musa species have been identified. DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN BANANA Dipping paired suckers in monocrotophos (0.75%) before panting foowed by drenching with Bordeaux mixture (1%) twice at fortnighty intervas gave effective contro to Rhizome rot at Kannara. Dipping the suckers in chorpyriphos (0.5%) foowed by two sprays of chorpyriphos (0.5) was effective in controing pseudostem weevi. for biotic stresses, has been reported for the first time. A singe pant seection of Pisang Awak with a yied potentia of 15 20% more yied than oca, having fied resistance to nematodes and Sigatoka eaf spot diseases has been identified. This is a dua purpose variety with exceent dessert and cooking quaity. Banana God Finger was highy resistant to Sigatoka eaf spot. A promising tripoid hybrid, H 212 (ABB) (Karpooravai Pisang Liin) was found superior to Ney Poovan (AB) in yied, quaity and toerance to nematodes. Appication of distiery sudge 2.5 kg + 1 kg vermicompost + 1 kg neem cake kg poutry manure per pant showed maximum growth in Rasthai and Karpooravai. It has significanty suppressed the popuation of root-esion nematode, root-knot nematode and spira nematode besides checking the Sigatoka eaf spot disease. Appication of gypsum (2 kg/pant) + FYM (15 kg/pant) + 120% K is recommended for optimum yied of banana in saine sodic soi. Additiona profit of Rs 34,250/ha in Poovan banana may be taken by appication of 15 kg rice husk ash or 15 kg poutry manure per pant, thereby saving 20% inorganic fertiizers. Appication of N and K 2 O in 4 7 spit doses recorded highest bunch weight and yied/ha in banana. Pant spacing of 1.2 m 1.2 m 2 m for Rasthai was found idea to get highest yied. Appication of 300 : 90 : 300 g, N : P 2 O 5 : K 2 O/pant/year for Gandevi seection recorded highest bunch weight (27.66 kg) and yied (85.35 tonnes/ha). Appication of 200 and 150 g N/pant/year in vegetative and reproductive phase respectivey was found idea for Rasthai. Intercropping cowpea was found effective to contro weeds in Paayankodan banana under Kannara conditions. Fertigation of 25 itres/day with 200 : 30 : 300 g/pant/year N : P : K recorded higher yied in first ratoon crop. Foiar appication of CCC (1000 ppm) 4 and 6 months after panting in Robusta recorded higher bunch weight (24.1 kg) and number of fingers (1,245) under Coimbatore conditions. Sucker treatment by Monocrotophos (14 m/itre) foowed by soi appication of Carbofuran (60 g) 4 and 7 months after panting protected the pants from corm weevi infestation. Swabbing of Chorpyrifos (0.06%) over pseudostem 5 months after panting provides effective contro of banana stem weevi infestation. Entomopathogenic nematode was effective in kiing the stem weevi grub. Endophytic fungi, Fusarium spp., is recommended as an effective biocontro agent for controing nematodes. Prophyactic spraying of 0.1% Carbendazim or 0.1% Propiconazoe on pedunce immediatey after shoot emergence and covering it with dried banana eaves to avoid exposure to sun competey contros the occurrence of pedunce rot of banana. Appication of Trichoderma g/pant 4 times (at the time of panting and 3, 5 and 6 months after panting) controed Fusarium wit in banana. Trichoderma spp. coud be mutipied on mass scae in the dried banana eaves within 4 days. CITRUS Under the cona seection programme, 20 pants of Nagpur mandarin, 2 cones of acid ime from Aurangabad and 2 cones of sweet orange Mosambi from Jana were seected. Citrus rootstock hybrids, CRH 12, CRH 57 and CH 47, were resistant to Phytophthora and citrus nematodes and CRH 57 and CRH 12 were toerant to drought. In acid ime, hybrid Rasraj was toerant to bacteria canker disease. Sweet orange, Seection 2 and Seection 4, at Rahuri, Nadimpae at Tirupati, Nagpur mandarin and Kagzi ime oca at Akoa and nucear mosambi at Rahuri were promising. At Tinsukia, rootstock Vokamariana was superior for Khasi mandarin. Pant spacing at 6 m 3 m (555 pants/ha) was found idea for higher yied of Nagpur mandarin in 13 years od trees at Akoa and 12 years od trees of acid ime at Rahuri. Appication of gyphosphata (2 kg/ha) foowed by Gramaxone (1.8 itre/ ha) recorded higher weed contro efficiency of 66.7% under Periyakuam conditions. Appication of copper oxychoride (0.3%) or carbendazim (0.1%) in combination with 2, 4-D (10 ppm) or NAA (30 ppm) was effective in retaining 70 75% fruits in Kinnow at Ludhiana.

61 55 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS Efforts were initiated to work out various causa factors responsibe for better orchard efficiency. Mycorrhizae were observed to be highy effective in ow fertiity and coarse-textured sois. Mycorrhiza trees had better pant growth, and uptake of nutrients. Inocuation of soi with mycorrhiza aso heped in reguating the water reations and carbohydrate metaboism of citrus trees. Phosphorus nutrition of mycorrhized citrus trees improved using rockphosphate as a source of P than any other source. Technique has been standardized of in-vitro shoot tip grafting in Nagpur mandarins to eiminate virus and virus ike diseases. Technique of doube grafting was aso standardized for transfer of in vitro STG pants. For integrated management of insect pests and diseases, a mass-mutipication technique of poyphagous predator of citrus backfy and other soft-bodied insect pests has been standardized and successfuy tested in the fied. Spraying of monocrotophos (0.05%) or fenvaerate (0.01%) or neem oi (1%) or acephate (0.05%) or ethion (0.1%) or chorpyriphos (0.1%) effectivey controed back fy, eaf miner, meaybug, eaf foder and emon butterfy in citrus. Soi drenching and spraying of metaaxya (0.2%) foowed by Bordeaux pasting was effective in checking the spread of Phytophthora root rot in Kinnow mandarins. Dry root rot in sweet orange was effectivey controed with two appications of hexaconazoe (0.4%) and carbendazim (0.2%) at monthy interva. Pruning foowed by spraying of streptocycine (100 ppm) and 4 sprays of copper oxychoride (0.3%) at monthy intervas recommended for the contro of canker in acid ime. Gummosis and fruit rot in sweet orange was effectivey controed by phosety (0.2%). Management of Nagpur mandarin decine in centra India has been taken seriousy. More invincibe response of various treatments on growth and yied performance of treated decining orchard became visiby apparent and pants started ooking heathier and productive to preceding years. The management of causa factors to citrus decine appeared to be purey site-specific. INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT Integrated management of nutrients and water through fertigation has shown consistenty good response to yied and quaity. Rootstocks showed a significant infuence on eaf nutrient composition of scion and various fruit quaity indices ike fruit weight, firmness, pee thickness, juice content, acidity, tota soube soids and their ratio. Optimum stress at MPa was observed to be critica from the point of veiw of induction of fowering in Nagpur mandarins.growth retardants such as CCC (doube spray at 2000 ppm) and pacobutrazo (18 g/pant) were found highy efficient in induction of hasta bahar (September boom) in acid ime. Back poyethyene (100 µ) was extremey effective in reducing evaporation oss and weed growth which in turn imparted a favourabe response to growth of pants. GUAVA Micropropagation through shoot bud cuture has been standardized and September October being the best responsive period. Guava Aahabad Safeda at Sabour, Aahabad Surkha at Udaipur and Surkhee, Anakapai, Chakaiya, Mahmoodnagar and G 27 at Rewa were promising. Chittidar produced maximum fruit yied ( kg/pant) which was superior to most of the cutivars. In panting system-cum high-density tria, maximum yied was recorded in doube-hedge row system as compared to minimum in square system at Sabour, Rewa and Udaipur. Simiary, maximum winter season yied may be obtained through pruning of top three-fourths current shoots in guava Sardar. Maximum yied of kg/pant was achieved in a pant spacing of 3 m 6 m (3 years) after panting. Contro of guava wit was achieved with biocontro agents, viz. Aspergius niger, Trichoderma sp. and Peniciium citrinum. Aspergius niger was found more aggressive pathogen and its spread was very fast. Appication of Aspergius niger enriched 0.01% and incubated for 10 days were appied in pits before panting was found to save newy-panted pants.its appication (FYM enriched with A. 10 kg/pant in estabished pantation before rain during Juy is recommended to contro the disease as a reguar practice. GRAPE Seventeen new accessions were added to grape germpasm making to a tota 363 accessions incuding indigenous as we as exotic cutivars. A 17-3, a white seedess accession, was found promising. Use of rootstock for sustainabe grape production under adverse situation has been initiated. The decine in yied due to the probems associated with soi and water sainity, chorides in irrigation water and excess eves of sodium and free ime in soi and drought in and around Maharashtra state aerted the situation. Micropropagation through shoot bud cuture in guava has been standardized. Seventeen new grape accessions have been added to germpasm. METWIN 2 SOFTWARE Software, METWIN 2, was found to be good gadget for forecasting downy midew in grape. Four sprays of fungicides coud be saved in the season as compared to tota 18 fungicida sprays given in the contro bock. The software was found to be usefu in disease management to decide an appropriate spray time.

62 56 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT ROOTSTOCK IN GRAPES The rootstock Bangaore Bue performed better for Thompson Seedess scion, producing highest number of bunches and yied/vine (8.5 kg). For Arkavati sainity and drought toerant rootstock Dogridge produced highest number of bunches (95) and yied/vine (12.5 kg/vine), whereas in Arka Kanchan, Thompson Seedess when used as a rootstock improved the bunch number (142) and yied (24 kg). None of the rootstocks used appreciaby atered the quaity of berries. On comparing productivity of Thompson Seedess and Arkavati on Bower and other training systems, Thompson Seedess produced highest yied (18 kg/vine) on Tatura system foowed by Bower system (11 kg/vine). Rootstocks can be used under the conditions of saine soi, akai sois, drought, poor nutrient uptake and improving quaity and quantity of produce. In India, most commony used rootstock in grape is popuary known as Dogridge. Based on different sources of this rootstock, i.e. one from University of Caifornia, Davis, and the second type from coection at IIHR, Bangaore, these two types of Dogridge rootstocks were named as American Dogridge (Dogridge A) and Bangaore Dogridge (Dogridge B) respectivey. The variation has been noticed with regard to morphoogica characters and performance of this rootstock. At Pune, variation in performance of Tas-A-Ganesh grafted on two types of rootstock reveaed that Dogridge B rootstock imparted more vigour to Tas-A-Ganesh in terms of tota shoot ength, pruning weight and eaf size as compared to Dogridge A. As a resut, new vineyards are being estabished on rootstocks and there is a great demand for the genuine rootstock materia. A rootstock nursery has been deveoped for a argescae mutipication of rootstocks with an annua capacity of producing one akh rooted pants of Dogridge B in poybags to suppy to growers. The fertiizer appication coud be reduced to 40% of the recommended dose without affecting yied and quaity by appication of NPK through fertigation. Water stress at bud differentiation and berry setting and at shattering stage did not have adverse effect on yied and quaity. Water-use efficiency coud be increased up to 53% by newer water scheduing technique. At Bangaore, fertigation trias with Anab-e-Shahi and Thompson Seedess grapes showed that fertigation with 75% of the recommended dose of fertiizer recorded higher bunch number and yied which was at par with 100% of the recommended dose of fertiizer. The GA appication in ph range of increased berry diameter and crispness as compared to its appication at ph 7.5. Bio-formuations ike biopower and bioforce when appied to partiay substitute bio-reguators, improved significanty vine traits ike shoot ength, yied/vine and berry characters, whereas another bio-formuation Combine affected ony berry characteristics. Spraying of anti-stress, a poy carbon acryic formuation, before or after spraying of fungicides significanty reduced the disease incidence and sporuation of the pathogens, increasing the efficacy of fungicide. Yied in Botryodipodia infected vines coud be improved by treatment with fungicides or Trichoderma. Cent per cent recovery was obtained by treating Botryodipodia infected cuttings with hot water at 60 C for 45 minutes. Thompson Seedess cone 2A, which was introduced from the USA in 2000, was found free from Botryodipodia infection, whie H5, introduced as an improved cone of Thompson Seedess, had few infected canes. Thirty-one accessions of sapota have been maintained at IIHR, Bangaore. Forty-two accessions of itchi were maintained at NRC for Litchi. PAPAYA At IIHR, Bangaore, Pusa Nanha and Pusa Dwarf were found to be dwarf. The hybrid, Surya, was found to be superior in quaity having smaer cavity, dark pink in coour and higher TSS content compared to its parents. Papaya Coorg Honey Dew and Pink Fesh Sweet were promising with regard to yied as we as quaity. At Coimbatore, 4 gynodioecious accessions recorded higher fruit yied with better fruit quaities. Appication of 10 itres of water per day with 6 g each N and K 2 O per week through fertigation and soi appication of 45 g P 2 O 5 /pant in bimonthy interva improved growth, yied and quaity characters of CO2 papaya. Appication of neem oi (1.0%) and dimethoate (1.5%) in combination increased fruit yied and recorded ow incidence of PRSC. SAPOTA At IIHR, Bangaore, 31 accessions of sapota are being maintained. Sapota PKM 1 having resistance to various insect pests and diseases was superior in growth and yied at Periyakuam. An open-poinated seeding seection having 92 g fruits with a few (2 3) seeds has been reeased as PKM 4 from Periyakuam. Under AICRP on Tropica Fruits a tota of 20 varieties at Gandevi, 20 at Arabhavi,

63 57 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS 27 at Kovvur and 14 at Periyakuam were maintained and evauated. The variety PKM 1 was found superior in terms of growth and yied. Among 31 hybrids evauated at Periyakuam, hybrid progenies of Guthi Badami was found promising. Panting density of 312 pants/ha (8 m 4 m spacing) recorded higher yied for PKM 1. Appication of 600 g N, 200 g K 2 O/pant/year in PKM 1 under Periyakuam conditions was found idea. It was aso observed that at Gandevi, appication of 25 kg FYM, 400 g N, 60 g P 2 O 5 and 300 g K 2 O/pant/year recorded higher yied of Kaipatti sapota. Appication of 150 : 40 : 150 g N : P 2 O 5 : K 2 O 5 /pant/year with 25 kg FYM or 200 : 40 : 150 g N : P 2 O 5 : K 2 O/pant/year with 5 kg vermicompost recoded higher yieds of Kaipatti under Arabhavi conditions. LITCHI Forty-two accessions of itchi coected from Bihar, West Bengaa and Jharkhand are maintained in the fied gene bank at NRC for Litchi, Muzaffarpur. Under AICRP on Subtropica Fruits a tota of 48 germpasm accessions and 13 superior seedings were maintained at different centres, viz. 13 each germpasm accessions and superior seedings at BCKV, Mohanpur; 21 at GBPUA&T, Pantnagar and 15 at RAU, Pusa incuding hybrid Sabour Madhu (Purbi Bedana). In evauation of germpasm at BCKV, Mohanpur, maximum fruit weight in seection SG-JAL-6, minimum seed weight in SG-JAL-10 and maximum TSS and minimum acidity in seection SG- JAL-2 were recorded. Simiary, Rose Scented recorded maximum fruit weight at Pantnagar. IDEAL CULTIVATION SYSTEM In panting system, maximum yied per pot was recorded in doube-hedge row system. In training, modified eader system of training was best for getting maximum yied at Sabour and Pantnagar. JACKFRUIT At Mohanpur, 8 superior genotypes of jackfruit have been identified whie at Kannara 156 trees were characterized for growth and yied as per the IPGRI descriptors. Wide variation was observed for a the characters. Among them, 5 each were identified for tabe and cuinary purposes and 2 for chips making. Softwood grafting tried at Kannara reveaed that rootstocks of 6 months od were idea for good graft success. Survey studies for the incidence of pests and diseases indicated that there was an incidence of eaf-eating caterpiar, spittebug, eaf foder, bark-eating caterpiar and grey weevi in jackfruit-growing regions. Major diseases of jackfruit were Rhizopus fruit rot and eaf spot. TEMPERATE FRUITS In wanut, seections AAS/AHP/BP/DS-2 and LG 5 having smooth she texture, ight she coour and nut weight and g respectivey; seections AAS/ AHP/BP-GG-7 and BBW-8 having and 58.38% kerne recovery and kerne weight of 6.87 and 8.63 g respectivey were identified for cutivation. The atter seections have extra ight kernes and potentia to fetch better foreign exchange in the internationa market with better returns to the growers. In vegetative propagation, 63% success has been achieved by bench grafting under ordinary doube-waed poyhouse. Pre-soaking and use of GA 3 + thiourea in wanut increased germination rate from 55 to 83.3%. In amond, two ate-booming seections which can escape eary spring frost and having medium-arge-sized nuts with soft-she were identified. In apricot, a sweetest seection Suka having average fruit weight 22 g, ength 36.1 mm and diameter at suture and cheek 36.4 and 32.1 mm respectivey and average pup and stone weight 11.5 and 1.5 g respectivey has been identified from Ladakh. Three genotypes of saffron CITH-B-54, S 21 and B-64 having average stigma ength 36.70, and mm with exceent quaity (Newa grade) were seected. The production technoogy of saffron cutivation has been standardized. LG 5 is a new wanut seection New saffron genotype

64 58 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT ARID ZONE FRUITS At Centra Institute for Arid Horticuture, Bikaner, 322 genotypes of ber, 22 each of boradi and aona, 152 of pomegranate, 105 of cactus pear, 47 of date pam, 32 each of ker and gonda, 4 of phasa, 5 varieties of Kinnow mandarin, 558 of kachari, 192 of mateera (watermeon), 90 of snapmeon, 132 of chii and 64 of muskmeon were maintained. Besides, from the exporation in the parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, 18 promising genetypes of ber were identified. For rapid mutipication of propagues in aona, patch budding during mid-juy on 6 months od rootstocks raised in poybags and in asoda, budding during mid- September gave 90.6 and 95.5% success respectivey. The water-stress studies in mateera reveas that reduction in number of irrigation has no effect on dry-mater contents as we as photosynthetic rate. For arid ecosystem, datepam Haawy was identified as best variety in respect of photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency and carboxyation efficiency. The effect of vermicompost, inorganic fertiizer and FYM in pomegranate reveaed that maximum pant height and spread were observed under vermicompost and inorganic fertiizer in a 1 : 1 ratio. The maximum photosynthetic rate and wateruse efficiency were recorded in vermicompost and sheep manure with best water retention in soi. In pomegranate, best pant growth and yied were achieved with 0.75 CPE irrigation aong with 75% recommended dose of nitrogen through drip. In pomegranate hybrid, Ruby, higher mutipication rate has been achieved by manipuating the growth medium. Methodoogy for saving hardening space has aso been standardized. Panting materia of ber, aona, pomegranate and Indian aoe were raised for distribution to farmers. Seed production of mateera, kachari, snapmeon and saad kakdi were undertaken. About 300 kg foundation seed was produced. VEGETABLE CROPS Botte gourd DVBG 1 Bitter gourd DVBTG 1 Botte gourd, DVBG 1 and bitter gourd DVBTG 1 have been reeased for cutivation in Uttar Pradesh. Okra, IIVR 11, a ta variety has been deveoped. Besides, 8 openpoinated and 8 hybrids have been identified under AICRP for reease. These incude PMR 57/88 K in chii, NDBG 104 in botte gourd, CM 20 and PCUC 28 in cucumber, NDVP 250 (resistant to powdery midew) in mid-season pea, DMDR 2 in muskmeon, VRO 4 (resistant to YVMV) in okra and CHES 309 (resistant to BW) in brinja. Hybrid BH 1 in brinja (round), DTH 8 and CHTH 1 in tomato (determinate), ARTH 128 in tomato (indeterminate), Sungro in chii, Lario in capsicum, MHY 5 in muskmeon and DVR 4 in okra were identified for reease. Femae sex associated RAPD marker in pointed gourd has been identified. The marker coud be used in breeding programme to screen the gender of pants at seeding stage. Five bitter gourd popuations with very high proportion of pistiate fowers (>90%) have been deveoped from gynoecious ines. Deveopment of such popuations wi be usefu in hybrid seed production. Raising of hybrid seedings of tomato, viz. Apoorva in potting pugs at Kanpur, ARTH 3 in poybags at Coimbatore and Avinash 2 in poybags at Varanansi has been recommended. Panting of tomato hybrid ARTH 4 at 80 cm 45 cm aong with staking and pinching of side branches at 30 cm from ground gave highest yied (372.4 q/ha) and maximum C : B ratio (1 : 2.8) at Sabour. However, the same hybrid at the above spacing and without pinching gave highest yied (470.8 q/ha) and C : B ratio of 1 : 2.9 at Ambajogai. Hybrid Avinash 2 at 50 cm 30 cm spacing aong with staking and maintaining singe shoot per pant gave 1,227.0 q/ha yied under ow-cost poyhouse at Pantnagar. Appication of 20 tonnes FYM + haf recommended dose of NPK (150 : 80 : 100 kg/ha) in tomato hybrid Avinash 2 gave maximum yied (773.0 q/ha) and C : B ratio (1 : 4.0), at Varanasi. At Faizabad, maximum yied ( q/ha) and C : B

65 59 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS ratio (1 : 3.45) of tomato Narendra Tamato 2 was recorded with green manuring + recommended dose of NPK (60 : 30 : 30 kg/ha) when seedings were transpanted at 60 cm 45 cm. The highest yied ( q/ha) and C : B ratio (1 : 2.35) were obtained with the appication of 20 tonnes/ha + recommended dose of NPK (150 : 60 : 60 kg/ha) in tomato S 7 at Sabour. Highest dry yied of 16.4 q/ha of chii G 2 was obtained under fertiizer dose of 240 kg N + 60 kg P 2 O kg K 2 O at Hybderabad. Appication of 75% of recommended N dose (150 kg/ha) + Azospirium as seed treatment, seeding dip and soi incorporation at Varanasi gave maximum yied of green chii LCA 235 ( q/ha) aong with maximum C : B ratio (1 : 1.77) foowed by appication of 50% recommended dose of N + Azospirium. Appication of Azotobactor as seed treatment, seeding dip and soi appication of 75% recommended dose of N (140 kg/ha) in cabbage Pride of India gave maximum yied (379.0 q/ha) and C : B ratio (1 : 3.4) at Pantnagar. Simiar resuts were aso obtained at Hyderabad. Maximum seed yied of okra Hisar Unnat was obtained by sowing on 15 June at 60 cm 30 cm spacing at Hisar. Arka Anamika produced maximum seed when sown on 15 May at 45 cm 45 cm spacing at Veanikara. It is recommended that for higher recovery of good quaity seeds in tomato the seeds of first 3 pickings shoud be extracted. Appication of 20 ppm NAA aong with apica pinching at 60 cm 45 cm spacing is recommended for obtaining maximum seed yied in be pepper Caifornia Wonder. The resuts of 3 years trias at Varanasi, Rahuri, Sabour and Hyderabad showed that cipping of infested shoots at weeky intervas foowed by spraying of Cypermethrin 50 g a.i./ha at 15 days interva was effective in the management of brinja shoot- and fruit-borer. Five sprays of Lambda % or NSKE 4% starting from fower initiation at 15 days interva were recommended for the management of shoot-and fruit-borer in brinja at Rahuri. Panting one row of marigod after every 16 rows of tomato and 2 sprays of Endosufan (0.07%) 28 and 35 days after panting were recommended for the management of tomato fruit-borer under Hyderabad conditions. For the management of cabbage pests, sowing of mustard after 25 rows of cabbage at panting times and spraying on mustard crop with 0.1% (2 sprays) at weeky intervas and NSKE 4% were recommended under Rahuri conditions. TUBER CROPS POTATO The germpasm was enriched by adding 77 new accessions from CIP, Lima, and 12 indigenous sampes from interiors of Kashmir and Meghaaya. JEX/A-680-6, an Andigena parenta ine, was registered with NBPGR, New Dehi, as an eite germpasm. Red-skinned, high-yieding hybrid, MS/ , having fied resistance to ate bight was proposed for reease for cutivation in the pains of Bihar, West Benga and Orissa. The hybrid yieds tonnes/ha, neary 2% more dry-matter yied than Kufri Laima and Kufri Sindhuri in the northern pains. Heat toerant, whiteskinned hybrid, HT/92-621, was identified performing very we in warmer parts of the country. Besides higher yieds, this hybrid produces high dry-matter recovery right from 75 days onwards and produces exceent chips and French fries. The hybrid is under pre-reease trias. A new hybrid TPS popuation, 92-PT-27, was recommended for reease in the pains of India particuary for the warmer pateau areas where good quaity potatoes cannot be produced for use as heathy seed. Besides higher yieds over the existing popuation, TPS-C-3 and HPS-1/13, new TPS popuation has an added advantage of its parents fowering under short-day conditions of the pains. The use of sateite WiFS data was found satisfactory to estimate the potato Muskmeon DMDR 2 TRANSGENICS OF POTATO Eighteen transgenics of Kufri Badshah encoding fused cry1 AB + cry1b gene and 20 transgenics from 4 cutivars with AmA1 gene providing better resistance to insects/ pests and nutritiona quaities respectivey, were deveoped. The osmotin gene from wid potato species, Soanum chacoense, was coned and a part of the gene was aso sequenced. Red-skinned potato hybrid MS/

66 60 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT The potato germpasm has been enriched by 77 new accessions. MS/ , a new potato hybrid is ikey to be reeased. About 18 transgenics of potato varieties have been deveoped A computerized Management Too for management of potato pests and diseases has been deveoped. acreage in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and West Benga using remote sensing and GIS. WiFS was found unsuitabe in Bihar where it coud not capture a arge tract of potato area, which was being cutivated in sma fieds. An INFOCROP- POTATO mode was deveoped foowing extensive sensitivity anaysis and vaidation, which coud satisfactoriy simuate potato deveopment, growth and yied both under potentia (no stress of N and water) and sub-optimum (N and water) conditions. A computerized management too for identification and management of major potato pests and diseases was aso deveoped. Varieties of potato, wheat and rice identified and recommended for cutivation in rice potato wheat system at Jaandhar (Punjab), Hisar (Haryana), Modipuram (western Uttar Pradesh), Faizabad (Eastern Uttar Pradesh) and Patna (Bihar) are as foows: Varieties of potato, wheat and rice suitabe for rice potato wheat system Location/region Potato Wheat Rice Jaandhar (Punjab) Kufri Pukhraj PB 373 PR 106 Hisar (Haryana) Kufri Ashoka PB 373 Gobind Modipuram (Western Uttar Pradesh) Kufri Pukhraj PBW 226 Saket Faizabad (Eastern Uttar Pradesh) Kufri Ashoka Maviya 234 Narendra 97 Patna (Bihar) Kufri Ashoka PBW 226 Proagro 6107 POTATO BREEDERS SEED The CPRI, Shima, suppied a tota of 17,746.1 q and 14,28.20 q breeders seed from the pains and his, respectivey. Neary 50,000 disease-free micro-tubers of 11 Indian varieties and 2 parenta ines were produced in vitro at Shima and suppied to regiona stations at Jaandhar, Gwaior, Patna and Modipuram for net house mutipication. The emergence of micro-tubers was found to be between 25.4 and 54.1% depending upon the size of micro-tubers and variety and resuted in production of neary 64,065 mini-tubers. Studies on economizing the use of fertiizer in succeeding crops in different crop sequences has reveaed the appication of recommended doses of NPK fertiizers both to potato and bajra foowed by 50% in sesame to be effective in potato groundnut sesame sequence at Deesa in north Gujarat. In potato onion groundnut and potato wheat cowpea cropping systems at Jaandhar, in-situ incorporation of each crop residue to succeeding crops was found economizing on NPK by 50%. In potato onion groundnut system, both potato and onion need to be fertiized with optimum NPK whie groundnut with haf the required dose of NPK. In potato wheat cowpea system, potato needs to be fertiized with optimum NPK whie the succeeding crops of wheat required fu N and cowpea ony haf of NPK. Potato + garic intercropping was found effective in reducing cutworm damage by 40% at Shima in the initia stages of crop growth and resuted in higher average yied (31 q/ha). Eectron microscopic studies estabished the association of a gemini virus with potato apica eaf cur in the North-western pains of India. It is for the first time that a Gemini virus was detected in potato from India causing eaf cur disease in potato crop. TROPICAL TUBER CROPS About 173 new accessions of various tubers have been added to germpasm Four tripoid cassava hybrids have been identified. Sree Arun and Sree Varun, new sweet potato varieties, have been reeased. About 30 tonnes of panting materia of tuber crops was distributed to farmers. A tota of 173 new accessions have been added to the germpasm of various tuber crops at different centres of AICRP on Tuber Crops. At present, a tota of 4,213 accessions are being maintained at various centres. Coimbatore centre maintains the argest number of cassava germpasm (410). In cassava, breeding ine, MNGA 1, received from CIAT found to be resistant to CMD for the past 8 years. It gives an average tuber yied of 29 tonnes/ha with good cooking quaity and very ow cyanogens. Four superior tripoid hybrids of cassava were identified from advanced yied trias. Since tripoids cassava have higher starch yied, they were panted in the premises of a starch factory at Saem, Tami Nadu, for ocation-specific testing. Two sweet potato genotypes, RS-III-3 and CIP , have been reeased as Sree Arun and Sree Varun respectivey. Both the varieties are spreading types with fusiform short/spherica tubers, maturing in days,

67 61 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS with tuber yied of tonnes/ha. Sweet potato Sree Bhadra has now been under cutivation in an area of around 10,000 ha in a span of 5 years in north Bihar. Occurrence of natura poypoidy among the seedings of D. aata (sexua poypoidy) is reported for the first time. Two hexapoids (2n=60) were obtained from the seedings of crosses between tetrapoids (2n=40). Four superior accessions of D. aata were seected from advanced yied trias. Five high-yieding hybrids of taro, identified from advanced yied trias, were aid out in on-farm trias in 4 ocations. They recorded significanty higher tuber yied than Sree Reshmi and are aso toerant to taro eaf bight. Five high-yieding hybrids of eephant-foot yam were identified. Three hybrids gave a tuber yied of above 40 tonnes/ha, during 3 consecutive years. The NPK fertiizer dose of 75 : 37.5 : 75 kg/ha is sufficient for cassava in continuousy fertiized utisos. Indigenous rockphosphate can be used as an aternate source of phosphorus in pace of superphosphate. 1 g/pant enabed recovery from deficiency symptoms and heped an increase in yied. Appication of wood ash to 3 tonnes/ha is beneficia to reduce the cyanogenic gucosides as we as to increase the starch content in cassava. Cassava genotypes, CE 111, CE 534 and CE 273, gave higher extractabe starch ( g/pant) under drought conditions. On-farm trias on arrowroot showed that panting at a spacing of 30 cm 15 cm on raised beds, muching with ocay avaiabe pant materia and appication of 50 : 25 : 75 kg/ha increased the yied by 40% over the existing farmers practice. Growing of intercrops such as maize, sorghum and red gram either by norma panting or paired row panting of Dioscorea increased the yied of Dioscorea significanty compared to its soe crop. Among intercrops, maize was best both under norma as we as paired-row system. Technique for production of antiserum of Indian Cassava Virus (ICMV) was refined with sucrose density gradient method and diaysis techniques. The method yieded higher titre vaues of purified preparations and high virus concentrations. Nuceic acid spot hybridization resuts showed strong signas with susceptibe varieties, whie meristem derived pants had no signas. Repicative forms of ICMV DNA isoated and repicase gene (1.1 kb) was ampified and coned in pgem-t vector and confirmed by sequencing. The pathogen causing tuber rot in cassava was identified on Phytophthora pamivora. The incidence ranged from 20 to 38% causing crop osses up to 47.4%. Two biotypes of whitefy, cassava biotype and sweet potato biotype, were identified. Both had distincty different eectrophoretic patterns of esterase isozymes. Cassava biotype ony transmitted ICMV. A rapid screening method using ce-wa gucan eicitors isoated from Phytophthora coocasiae was deveoped for in-vitro screening of taro genotypes for eaf bight. Use of disease-free seed tubers and 2 sprayings with Mancozeb (0.2%) and Monocrotophos (0.05%) 30 and 60 days after panting effectivey controed mosaic, coar rot and eaf bight diseases of Amorphophaus. Eectroantennogram response of Araecerus fascicuatus (cassava chips borer) to whoe body washes and certain HPLC fractions showed the evidence of aggregation pheromone. Extract of seeds, eaves and rinds of cassava and seeds of yam bean, in organic sovents were highy toxic to many storage and fieds pests. The mortaity of Sitophius oryzae was 100% when exposed to cassava tuber rind extract at 50% concentration. High mortaity was aso noticed due to the fumigant action of cassava seed extract on storage pests. Extract prepared in organic sovents further diuted with water was highy effective to contro fied pests such as Spiarctia obique, Aphis craccivora etc. Yam bean seed extract (3%) caused high mortaity of S. oryzae, Triboium castaneum, Araecerus fascicuatus and Lasioderma serricorne. Instaation and functiona evauation of piot pant for the manufacture of iquid adhesive from cassava starch has been carried out. The pant has a capacity of 100 itres and appications of the product incude carton seaing, aminated/corrugated board making, botte and container seaing etc. The gum produced has good fow characteristics and is ready to use. A drum type feed granuator operated manuay or by motor was deveoped with a capacity of 20 kg/hr for making granuated feed Sweet potato variety Sree Arun QUALITY PLANTING MATERIAL More than 30 tonnes of panting materia of eephant-foot yam (Gajendra), taro, greater yam and sweet potato was suppied to State Departments, NGOs, farmers and private agencies of Karnataka, Rajasthan, Tami Nadu, Pondicherry, West Benga, Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. Sree Varun sweet potato is high-yieding

68 62 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Leaf bight resistant taro Muktakeshi for poutry/catte. Marked variations in the major biochemica constituents were found in Coocasia under water-stress condition. Significant increases in the eves of free amino acids, free proine and soube proteins were observed in water-stressed Coocasia eaves. Studies on the anthocyanin content of young purpe cooured eaves of sweet potato at different stages of growth showed that its content and coour intensity of extracts were maximum 20 days after panting. The stabiity of sweet potato eaf anthocyanins in a mode beverage was fairy good, with a pigment retention of 90% in the sampes stored at 4 C for 20 days. Surveys conducted on demand assessment of cassava indicated that tapioca starch finds appications in a wide range of industries namey textie, corrugation box industries, paper conversion industry, iquid gums for domestic sector, paper industry etc. besides food industry especiay the sago production industries. The IVLP was impemented with 616 farm famiies covering 6 production systems. The technoogy assessment and refinement showed that Uma, a paddy variety, was suited to both the seasons of kharif and rabi. This variety is getting popuarity in the adopted viages. The other technoogica interventions namey improved paddy sicke, amaranthus as intercrop in banana, Sree Priya a white yam variety in banana pantations, vermicompost as organic manure in banana, tissue-cutured banana, ginger as intercrop in coconut, etc. have been accepted by the farmers. MUSHROOM About 204 wid mushroom specimens were coected. A most-prized medicina mushroom, Red Reishi, was produced organicay. An indigenous technoogy for producing medicina mushroom has aso been standardized. Button mushroom grown in an environmentcontroed room A tota of 204 wid mushroom specimens were coected from hiy areas of Himacha Pradesh in rainy season. A new species of Lysurus (Gasteromycete) was reported from Himacha Pradesh, namey Lysurus himaayansis sp., which is a new record in the word. In the continued experiment on ong-term preservation, 11 test fungi were preserved (as myceia discs and myceium grown on wheat grain) in cryovias containing gycero as cryoprotectant. These were stored in iquid nitrogen at 196 C foowing the principe of sow cooing and rapid thawing. Forty-two Agaricus bisporus germpasm ines comprising commercia strains, wid coections from India and exotic strains were characterized for myceia growth and coony type on different media. More than 800 SSIs were characterized for coony morphoogy and growth rate. The SSIs showing sow myceia growth were screened for future hybrid deveopmenta programme. About 18 SSIs of P. sajor-caju and 36 hybrids were deveoped by pairing SSIs in a possibe combinations. Amongst hybrids deveoped, PSCH 19, was found to be the fastest growing and fruited in 12 days time ony. Improved method of compost preparation using indoor bunker was standardized. The compost was prepared in 13 days, with improved output and reduced shrinkage of base materias. An average of 17.3 kg of mushroom from 100 kg compost in 6 weeks of cropping was harvested under environment-controed conditions. Effect of different temperature regimes on pinhead initiation in A. bisporus showed higher number of pinhead initiation at 14±2 C. For fruit body deveopment, it was observed that raising the room temperature by 4 5 C in the treatment at 14±2 C hastened the growth of pinheads to mature fruit bodies. Deveopment of fruit bodies studied in Agaricus bitorquis strain NCB-13, produced 58.83% of medium-sized fruit bodies of 3-5 cm pieus diameter. Different agro-byproducts/industria byproducts were evauated as casing materias in cutivation of A.bisporus. Biozyme (a biofertiizer) appication as a 0.2 m/kg dry substrate in 1 and 2 spray schedues gave significanty higher mushroom yied in P. fabeatus. Three biofertiizers namey, Azotobacter, Azospirium and 0.5 and 0.75% of wet weight of substrate were appied at the time of spawning and spawned with P. sapidus. Azospirium at both the concentrations and Azotobacter at 0.5% gave significanty higher mushroom yieds over untreated contro. Vovariea strain, OVV 01, obtained from Orissa Agricutura University, showed highest eve of enzyme production on wheat straw substrate, whie OE 29 and OVV 03 on paddy straw, and strain OVV 01 and OVV 03 on wid grass. Laccase

69 63 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS MEDICINAL MUSHROOM PRODUCTION SUCCESS STORY The NRC for Mushroom, Soan, has made a breakthrough by successfuy growing the medicina mushroom caed Reishi or Ling Zhi (Ganoderma ucidum). Most-prized Red Reishi was produced organicay to the desired maturity eve and yied obtained was equa to the internationa standards. The Reishi mushroom costs about 1 biion doar internationa and Rs 100 crores current domestic market. The technoogy is being scaed up at piot pant eve and concurrenty various exotic as we as oca coections of mushrooms are being evauated for yied and pharmacoogica properties. Ony a few countries have the technoogy of Reishi production. China contros 60% of the word trade of 5,000 tonnes/annum. Medicina products of Ganoderma ucidum are very popuar in the American and European countries and foreign companies have started trading the products in Indian market aso.with an eye on the export market as we as import substitution, the NRC for Mushroom, Soan, has come out with a totay indigenous technoogy to produce Red Reishi competey organicay as demanded by the pharma industry. Vigorousy-growing Red Reishi mushroom activity was quite significant in these two strains foowed by OE 55 (V.dipasia) on paddy straw substrate. Paddy straw mushroom coud be stored under ambient condition (22 28 C) for 3 4 months and up to 6 months under ower temperature conditions (15 20 C). Simiary, mushroom spawn can aso be stored for about 45 days under ambient temperature conditions. Most important medicina mushroom, Reishi or Ling Zhi (Ganoderma ucidum), was successfuy grown for the first time in the country. The Red Reishi, a Korean strain, was cutivated on wheat bran suppemented sawdust (organicay) and 20% bioogica efficiency obtained which is equa to the internationa eve of yied obtained. Survey of different mushroom farms reveaed widespread incidence of wet bubbe in Dharmpur and adjoining areas of Soan District. However, in Chambaghat area, severe incidence of sciarid fies was observed in 2 farms. Germination studies reveaed that ony 3 months od chamydospores of Mycogones perniciosa germinated in gucose and sucrose soutions. In sucrose soution germination began 24 and 96 hr after incubation at 25 C, and 15 and 12% germination was recorded at ph 6.0 and 7.0 respectivey. Germination of conidia occurred in a the media and at both the temperatures and ph eves. Maximum (96%) germination occurred in young mushroom extract. Conidia germination of Cadobotryum dendroides in different media showed 100% germination in mushroom extract foowed by compost extract after 8 hr. In-vitro studies on difubenzuron against A. bisporus and mushrooms sciarid showed that 0.3% difubenzuron caused 11.11% inhibition of A. bisporus. However, in a the treatments arvae faied to mout. Different concentrations of Neemjeevan were tested against sciarid arvae by dipping method. At 60, 90 and 120 ppm concentration, 100% mortaity of arvae was recorded. The NRC for Mushroom, Soan, organized 6 training programmes, and one each of Kisan Goshti and Kisan Mea. FLORICULTURE ROSE Maximum pant height, number of fowers and stem ength of cut fowers were obtained with the appication of 400 : 200 : 200 ppm. 0.05% was effective in controing powdery midew foowed by 0.05% at Pune. 0.1% controed back spot at Ludhiana. Vase-ife of rose cut stems was enhanced by pusing treatment with a soution of sucrose (2%) + auminium suphate (300 ppm) at Ludhiana. Maximum vase-ife was recorded in 1.5% sucrose ppm citric acid soution at Pune.

70 64 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Phue Prerana and Phue Neerekha, new gadious varieties, have been reeased. GLADIOLUS Gadious, Phue Prerana and Phue Neerekha, have been reeased by MPKV, Pune. The NBRI, Lucknow, has deveoped mini chrysanthemum varieties, viz. NBRI Litte Daring, NBRI Kusum, NBRI Indiana and NBRI Mini Jessie through conventiona breeding. Benomy 0.2% + Captan 0.3% was effective against Fusarium wit and Fusarium corm rot in storage at Pune. Dithane M 45 (0.2%), Kavach (0.2%) and Rovra (0.2%) were found effective in controing Botrytis bight aong with improvement in corme yied. At Pune, sucrose (4%) + auminium suphate (300 ppm) + sodium hypochorite (25 ppm) increased vase-ife of cut spikes. Hoding soution containing 8-HQC (250 ppm) and sucrose (1.0%) was effective in opening of fower buds, increasing vase-ife, foret size and ongevity of fowers of Eurovision and White Prosperity at Lucknow. Packaging with poythene seeves for 24 hr was best for foret opening, foret size and vase-ife. CHRYSANTHEMUM Six sprays of chorothoni 0.2% or Mancozeb 0.02% at 15 days interva starting the first spray immediatey at the disease appearance was found effective in controing eaf bight disease, increasing fower yied and monetary returns. Appication of Dithane M 45 (0.2%) at 15 days interva has been recommended for the contro of eaf spot at Ludhiana. At Pune, chorothoni (0.2%) proved most effective in controing eaf bight disease. Wrapping with butter paper was better than other materias in spray chrysanthemums at Lucknow. ORCHID A cheap method of micropropagation of orchids has been deveoped using isabgo as geing agent and poypropyene bags as cuture vesses at Barapani. Work has been initiated on the performance and cost : benefit ratio of ow-cost poytunnes for providing suitabe growing conditions to orchids. Crosses have been attempted to deveop superior hybrids of cymbidium. Potting mixture with equa proportion of eaf-moud, FYM and sawdust has been found suitabe for deveopment of new shoots. ANTHURIUM Anthurium pants grown under 80% shade eve with cosed sides produced highest number of eaves and good quaity of fowers with highest spike, spathe and spadix ength. Spray of 5% or BA 250 ppm produced highest number of fowers, ongest fower staks and spathe at Yarcaud. Leaf-moud and cocopeat proved best as a growing media. Appication of 0.2% + GA 100 ppm in White Queen showed heathy pant growth and eary fower initiation. TUBEROSE Carbendazin 0.1% + Captan 0.24% was effective in controing stem rot. At Lucknow, Iprodine 0.25% was effective against eaf bight foowed by Benomy 1.0% + Mancozeb 0.2%. GERBERA The Trichoderma viridae was effective in controing foot rot disease. Benomy 0.1% + Mancozeb 0.2% was effective against eaf spot and Diafancanazoe 0.05% against powdery midew at Pune. At Barapani, cutivar Aesmera showed maximum

71 65 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS vase-ife of 13 days in the soution, containing 20 ppm A g NO 3 + 4% sucrose. Maximum vase-ife of gerbera fowers was recorded in 25 ppm A g NO 3 soution at Yercaud. PLANTATION CROPS COCONUT Thirty-four coections of coconut from Goa, Maharashtra, Assam, Sri Lanka and Bangadesh were made. Fingerprints of 181 pams of coconut using RAPD indicated the phyogenetic reationship among 58 indigenous and exotic accessions. Intercropping coconut with maize, sorghum, banana, red gram and betevine were found to be technicay feasibe at Lakshadweep and in the North-eastern regions with vegetabes and ornamenta pants. Fertigation studies in coconut in red sandy oam soi indicated that the yied was at par in the treatments consisting of 50 and 100% of NPK fertiizers suppied through drip irrigation system. To assess the aeopathic potentia of coconut root and eaf eachates on germination and growth of cowpea seeds (a test crop for dicotyedons), the eaf eachate from younger WCT coconut pam stimuated cowpea seeding growth at 1 : 10 concentration. In coconutbased mixed farming unit at Kasaragod an annua net return of Rs 73,140/ha was obtained. Management practices adopted in root (wit) affected gardens increased the productivity of coconut with a net return of Rs 45,410/ha. Experiments on soi and water conservation at Kidu indicated that on 28% soppy and, growing of vegetabes and grass coud reduce the soi oss up to 0.1 tonne/ha/day as compared to one tonne/ha/day in a pot without any soi conservation measures. A fuzzy neura network system with independent variabes as temperature, reative humidity, sunshine, soi-moisture deficit and aternate bearing was deveoped to predict coconut yied. This mode coud simuate the impact of different factors ike cimate and irrigation management on coconut yied. Highest compost recovery of 86.5% was achieved when coir pith and coffee husk were mixed in a 1 : 3 ratio. Biofertiizers, Azoarcus, Arthobacter and Azospriium were found to be effective bacteria inocuants for production of vigorous and heathy seedings. The eaf rot affected coconut pams which received Bacius coaguans cuture in the eaf axi showed significant improvement. The newy emerging spinde eaves were competey free from disease in most of the treated pams. Drought toerant pams had higher net photosynthetic rates, instantaneous water-use efficiency, apart from having more number of eaves in crown, number of bunches and nuts/bunch compared to other pams. The protocos for AFLP, DAF and microsateite of coconut DNA for tagging resistance for root (wit) disease were standardized. ARECANUT AND COCOA Tweve distinct accessions of arecanut were added to the germpasm poo making the tota strength to 140. Nine cocoa exotic accessions coected were added to the germpasm at Vitta. In young arecanut pams a saving of 50% NPK fertiizers was reaized through fertigation. In high-density mutispecies cropping systems, 7 tonnes of organic matter coud be recyced within the system. OIL PALM A mini hand-pressed oi extraction machine has been designed and fabricated for extracting the oi at the aboratory scae. Three isoates of Ganoderma ucidium were coected from basa stem rot disease-affected coconut pams from Coimbatore, Thambikottai and Vepankuam in Tami nadu. A the three isoates produced white myceia and brown spores in PDA media but spores turned backish at ater stage in Vepankuam isoate. Oi pam and coconut stem as we as root tissues were inocuated to The Bioinformatics centre has compied coconut iterature on biotechnoogy in fu text form in CD-ROM. The Snow Ba Tender Nut machine was modified for easy operation, owcost and easy for transportation. Coconut chips coud be stored in vacuum packaging in auminium foi aminated with LDPE for more than 6 months. Two CD-ROM on coconut descriptors and IPM of coconut pests were reeased. Thirty-four coections of coconut were made. A mini, hand-pressed oi detraction machine for oi pam has been designed. The Nationa Cashew Gene Bank (NCGB) has been enriched by germpasm coections. High-Density Panting of Cashew, a buetin on package of practices has been pubished for cashew growers.

72 66 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT record the biomass reduction. Genetic diversity of these isoates was estimated through DNA fingerprinting by RAPD and AFLP. Custer anaysis of RAPD data showed that Coimbatore isoate is simiar to that of Vepankuam. A new pest, sug caterpiar (Thosea andamanica), was recorded in a 6-year-od oi pam pantation in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. The caterpiars appeared with bue spots on dorsa side of body. The arva stages of the pest feed on oder eaves caused heavy defoiation. CASHEW CASHEW NUT SHELLER A cam type, peda-operated, cashew nut sheer has been deveoped to overcome the drudgery experienced in presenty used hand-cum-pedaoperated sheer. Forecasting modes have been worked out for India as we for different cashew-growing states in the country. A tota of 102,212 grafts were produced and distributed to different governments, NGOs and farmers by NRCC, Puttur. Cashew grown in high-density panting District-wise coection maps for 125 cashew accessions conserved in Nationa Cashew Gene Bank (NCGB) and 8 in RCGBs at AICRP on Cashew Centres were prepared. A technica buetin entited, Status of Cashew Germpasm Coection in India was pubished. Tota number of cashew accessions conserved in NCGB is raised to 473 and 1,188 in regiona cashew gene bank (RCGB). The correation anaysis of fowering and fruiting characters vis-a-vis yied/tree over the ast 4 years showed that fruiting intensity and nut yied/m 2 of canopy are most important yied characters and hence these characters can be used for evauating breeding materia for improvement of nut yied/tree. The performance of S 15/14 (1/3 Ceyon sef) and H 24/4 (BLA A 18/4) were found better for cumuative yied and annua yied respectivey. BLA and V 4 had higher carbohydrate content, and BPP 5 and V 1 had more sugar and fibre content. Auxiary shoot bud proiferation (1-12 buds/expant) was induced on MS medium containing thidiazuron from shoot expants of matured tree origin. Micrografting was successfu even with microscions of ess than 5 cm ength. A ow-frequency somatic embryogenesis was observed on caus from nuceus induced on medium containing 2, 4-D and kinetin. Suspension cuture from embryogenic cai resuted in high frequency regeneration of somatic embryos. Isozyme extraction from eaves was standardized. Staining prototco for 6 isozymes were worked out. Recycabe biomass from cashew garden after mixing with cowdung surry coud be converted into vermicompost rich in N, P, K and micronutrients by earthworm Eudrius sp. within 3 months. Sesbania grown as green manure crop in one-year-od cashew orchard contributed maximum green biomass which is equa to 48 kg N, 7.2 kg P 2 O 5 and 9.8 kg K 2 O/ha. Under high-density tria, at 4 m 4 m spacing gave 1.3 tonnes/ha yied at CRS, Bapata. V 4 gave SUCCESS STORY REMUNERATIVE CASHEW PRODUCTION In cashew, a net profit of Rs 77,054, 73,735, 70,050 and 58,790/ha was obtained in high-density panting, accommodating 625, 500, 400 and 384 trees/ha respectivey, for the initia 12 years, compared to Rs 31,278/ha in norma panting density (156 trees/ha). The biomass of dried branches in high-density panting was 10 times more than widey spaced trees. Weed biomass coected from high-density panting was significanty esser than ow-density panting. Tota biomass per hectare-basis was higher in high-density panting compared to ow-density panting. Organic-matter content avaiabe in soi up to 1 m depth and soi moisture eve at the top 0 30 cm were higher in high-density panting. Heavy deposit of cashew eaves under highdensity panting system when incorporated in soi wi be a good source of nutrients for better pant growth and yied. Thus a package of practices for high-density panting has been deveoped for farmers, and a technica buetin, High-Density Panting of Cashew, has been pubished. To popuarize this technoogy, farmers participatory research-cum-demonstration pots were aid out at farmers fieds. So far 11 such pots were aid out under highdensity panting system with a spacing of 6 m 4 m and 5 m 5 m. High-yieding varieties, viz. Ua 4, Vengure 4, NDR 2-1, Goa 11/6 and H 3/4 were distributed for this purpose. The pots are being monitored reguary. At present the pots are under second and third years of maintenance.

73 67 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS an yied of 1.6 tonnes/ha at a spacing of 5 m 5 m with 75% thinning at RFRS, Vengura. Unmated maes and virgin femaes of CSRB showed higher response to extracts and voaties coected from cashew bark, frass and exuded gum. Evauation of efficacy of new insecticides against TMB showed that Cartap hydrochoride (0.075%) was effective and comparabe with carbary (0.1%). It was found that cashew kerne baby bits coated with sugar and different favours coud be stored without any quaity deterioration up to 8 months. Cashew appe pomace coud be bended with cereas and puses up to 10% without affecting quaity in terms of in-vitro digestibiity of protein and starch. SPICES About 153 accessions of Piper spp., 26 of Eettaria spp., 21 of Zingiber spp., 19 of Garcinia spp., 9 of Myristica spp., 2 of Cinnamomum spp., 1 of Syzygium sp. and 3 of Vania spp., were added to germpasm conservatories. A database of back pepper germpasm was brought out in a CD. RAPD profies were deveoped in 13 species of Piper, 4 of Zingiber and 12 cutivars and 6 species of Curcuma. A RAPD based moecuar marker technique was deveoped in back pepper for identification of true hybrids. The Acc. 239 was identified as a promising ine in back pepper. In cardamom, high-yieding (Acc. 8-4 D 11 and Acc D 11) and drought toerant (CL 668, P 6, D 237, 2-2 D 11) accessions were identified. V 3 S 1-8 in ginger and PTS 59 and PTS 55 in turmeric were identified as promising ines. These are in an advanced stage of reease. Ginger V 1 E 8-2 and turmeric PTS 43, TCP 1 and TCP 2 were proposed for reease. Turmeric Aeppey and BDJR 1260 were seected for high curcumin content and yied. The exotic ine of coriander, EC , was identified as the best for eaf type. The highest voatie oi content (4.4%) in cumin EC was recorded. Acc of pepper was found to be promising with 8.0% oi, 19.0% oeoresin and 3.7% piperine. Ginger, Acc. 197, was promising with 2.5% oi, 7.0% oeoresin and 2.8% fibre. Nutmeg, Acc. A9/18, had maximum oi in nut (16.5%) and mace (26.1%). Acc. 828 of pepper was toerant. M. maabarica was found to be superior in evauation as rootstock for grafting nutmeg to overcome drought. The promising back pepper ines, Co.1041, OPKM, HP 780, HP 1411 and HP 813, continued to maintain their superiority in yieding 2 3 kg fresh berries/vine during the fourth year of panting. The eite cassia ine, D 1, yieded highest with a mean fresh bark yied of g/pant. Foiar appication of Zn (0.25%) twice resuted in high rhizome yied in ginger compared to soi appication. Appication of neem cake increased avaiabiity of N significanty and highest avaiabe N was recorded in beds appied with haf the dose of N as urea aong with neem 2 tonnes/ha. A fertiizer schedue of 100 : 100 : 175 kg NPK/ha was recommended aong with organic and inorganic manure in cardamom. Appication of micronutrients increased the yied in coriander and fenne. Banching of mace in 75 C hot water for 2 minutes before drying, gave 23% more coour and its stabiity, than hot air-dried mace. Biochemica characterization of P. capsici from back pepper using isozyme anaysis reveaed the existence of two subpopuations in the species. Thirty-one promising hybrids (based on preiminary screening) were further tested for their reaction to P. capsici and 6 hybrids (HP 293, HP 400, HP 674, HP 1372, HP 1375 and HP 1389) showed a toerant reaction. Trias with Phytophthora resistant rootstocks of Piper coubrinum at farmers fieds indicated that there was no deterioration in growth of grafts up to 5 years after grafting and an average yied of 11 kg (green berries) per standard was obtained from these grafts. A simpe screening technique for resistance directy inocuating the bacteria wit pathogen, R. soanacearum, in tissue-cutured ginger somacones was deveoped. Six accessions each of ginger and turmeric were screened for their reaction to Meoidogyne incognita and 2 turmeric accessions (Acc. 1 and Acc. 8) gave a resistant reaction. Evauation Promising variabiity in Garcinia species PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER Evauation of Pant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) obtained from Sient Vaey (Keraa) indicated that strain, IISR 331, coud increase the growth of back pepper cuttings by 228% and showed 82.7% inhibition of P. capsici invitro. A RFLP-PCR technique was standardized for identifying strains of R. soanacearum causing bacteria wit of crop pants.

74 68 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT HP 1411 is a promising back pepper hybrid of 11 promising antagonistic fungi and 1 bacteria isoate (Pasteuria penetrans) in back pepper, turmeric and ginger fieds for suppression of M. incognita indicated that a of them caused significant suppression of nematodes. Verticiium chamydosporium, Fusarium sp. and Scopuariopsis sp. aso significanty increased the yied of back pepper and ginger besides controing nematodes. Evauation of extracts of various pants indicated that methano and hexane extracts of Annona squamosa seeds were the most promising resuting in compete deterrence of feeding activity of pou beete at 1% concentration. The management of root meaybug Panococcus sp. on back pepper at Wynad (Keraa) indicated that drenching of affected vines with chorpyriphos (0.075%) was effective. A ow-cost technoogy for mass mutipication of Trichoderma sp. for fied appication was deveoped. Rhizome rot of ginger under storage coud be managed by storing seed rhizomes of ginger in sand ayered pits mixed with Dithane M 45 and Bavistin. Coriander, RCr 441, RCr 435, RCr 436, UD 446 and UD 684, were resistant to root-knot nematode. Sowing cumin on 10 November was idea to minimize wit incidence and to obtain a high yied. Guj. Cum.3, Acc. 1136, Acc and Acc were moderatey resistant to Fusarium wit. Surveys conducted in traders godowns at Caicut and Kochi indicated that Lasioderma serricorne, Rhizopertha dominica, Triboium castaneum, Araecerus fascicuatus and Tenebroides mauritanicus were major species of insects associated with stored dry rhizomes of ginger and turmeric. For betevine, a package of practices has been deveoped for getting higher yied. BETELVINE Vasani Kapoori at Bapata, Shirpurkata at Sangi and Dinduga at Sirugamani yieded highest eaf compared to oca checks. Yied increase was in the tune of 54.0, 30.8, and 45.0% respectivey at Bapata, Sangi and Sirugamani centres. About 100% repenishment of pan evaporation rate through drip irrigation produced highest eaf yied (25.55 akh/ha) at Jabapur. However at Sangi centre, 125% evaporation repenishment produced highest yied (42.32 akh/ha) with a water saving of 34.26%. At Jabapur centre, 1.5 akh pants/ha popuation was found to be the best with increased eaf yied (15.80 akh/ha). At Bhubaneswar, 2.00 akh pants/ha gave highest eaf yied. At Pusa center, 1.50 akh pants/ha yieded maximum number of eaves (37.51 akh/ha). Disease incidence increased with increase in popuation. Under open system of cutivation, 1.0 akh pants/ha produced maximum eaf yied at Bapata (57.17 akh/ha), 50,000 at Sangi (71.11 akh/ha) and 75,000 at Sirugamani (41.83 akh/ha). At Kayani, Azotobacter 5 kg kg P 2 O kg K 2 O treatment produced highest eaf yied (41.56 akh/ha). At Sirugamani, Azospirium 5 kg kg P 2 O kg K 2 O + Azotobacter treatment was the second highest yieder (70.22 akh/ha) after recommended fertiizer dose. In integrated crop management, integration of foowing treatments such as best pant popuation/ha, 200 kg N kg P 2 O kg K 2 O, watering 100% repenishment of PER and appication of Bordeaux mixture (4 drenches + 8 sprays) produced highest eaf yied at Bapata, Kayani, Jabapur and Bhubaneswar centres. Four appications of Trichoderma spp. was found to increase higher eaf yied. It was found statisticay at par with Bordeaux mixture (4D + 8S) treatment in increasing eaf yied and in reducing the disease incidence at a the centres except Sangi where 4 appications of Trichoderma at quartery interva produced highest eaf yied (54.18 akh/ha). Appication of oi cakes + carbofuran + 3 inocuations of Phytophthora iacinus inocuated oi cakes showed best contro of root-knot nematode and increased eaf yied compared to other treatments at Jorhat, Jabapur and Pusa centres. Incidence of tobacco caterpiar was observed at Bapata from October to December with a maximum eaf damage of 15.8% during the first fortnight of November. On Sesbania, higher incidence of eaf-eating caterpiars was recorded with a maximum pant damage of 31.4% during the first fortnight of September, resuting in tota death of newy-panted seed vine cuttings. Lady bird beetes (Verania vincta) was observed to be the most common predator in betevine crop ecosystem foowed by spiders. The beetes are found to feed on the eary instar arvae of tobacco caterpiar and eggs of mites. At Kayani, Homopteran fy compex

75 69 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS white fy (Diaeurodes paida) and back fy (Aeurocanthus rugosa) was most dominating one. At Sangi, back fy and scae insect mites and betevine fy were most dominating insects. At Jorhat and Pusa, 60 g of inocuum was found to be best in producing highest spore concentration and coony-forming units when 10 kg MOC was inocuated and incubated for 60 days. At Kayani, oat or barey used as substrate for the production of mass cuture of T.harzianum, were best and 40 g of unit inocuum of both the ow-cost cereas coud be used and can be distributed to farmers for mass cuturing in oi cake. At Sirugamani, spraying of NSKE (5%) or neem oi (2%) after initia drenching with the same had significant effect in reducing the pest popuation, drenching NSKE (5%) or neem oi 2% foowed by spraying suppressed the stem-borer on Sesbania. MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS Aswagandha WS (8.0q/ha), WS (7.3 q/ha) and WS (7.3 q/ ha) produced higher root yied at Indore. At Udaipur, WS gave highest root yied (8.03 q/ha). Significanty higher root yied (8.58 q/ha) and best weed contro were recorded in Trifurain at 4 itres/ha + one intercuture at 50 DAS at Indore. At Mandsaur, gyphosate 1.0 kg/ha + hand-weeding (HW) at 45 DAS was effective. The treatment gyphosate (1.0 kg/ha) + 1 HW at 45 DAS and Isoproturon (0.5 kg/ ha) + 1 HW at 45 DAS proved highy effective. At Udaipur, Isoproturon (0.75 kg/ ha) + 1 HW at 45 DAS was found the best method of weed contro. In vetiver (Vetiveria zezanioides), IC showed highest root yied,whereas highest oi yied was recorded in IC (4.8 itres/ha). In emongrass (Cymbopogon fexuosus), NLG 48 was found the best in terms of herbage yied, oi content and oi yied/ha at Faizabad. Whereas at Hisar, H1 7 showed highest herb yied; HL 11 highest oi content and HL 2 highest citra percentage. At Indore, CBI 3 and MCB 412 were found promising in safed musi. At Mandsaur, MCB 405 (for fresh root yied and steroid content) and MCB 409 (dry roots/pant) were found promising. MCB 405 was aso found superior at Udaipur for fresh root yied. At Akoa, significanty highest root yied was recorded due to appication of 5 tonnes/ha vermicompost in 30 cm 10 cm spacing. At Udaipur, increasing pant density from 1.66 to 3.33 akh/ha significanty increased root yied. A new eaf spot disease was noticed. The causa fungus was identified as Macrophomina phaseoina (Tassi) Goid (IMI number ). In satavari (Asparagus racemosus), highest dry feshy root yied/pant was recorded in HAR 8 at Hisar. In isabgo (Pantago ovata), DM 1 was found highy resistant at Anand. Entry J.I. 80 gave highest yied with 23.67% over the existing variety. About 25 and 50 kg N/ha and 2 irrigation eves (25 and 75 days) were found to be best for isabgo at Hisar. At Udaipur, deay in sowing from 10 November during and from 20 November during resuted in significant decrease of various yied attributes, seed and husk yied of isabgo. At Mandasur, J.A 16, MOP 278 and MOP 541 were high atex yieders. At Udaipur, Chetak Aphim proved its superiority over other varieties. Maximum yied of atex, seed and husk were aso recorded in sowing done on 30 October. Morphine content graduay increased in petas coected on first day (0.46%), second day (0.55%), third day (0.64%) and fourth day (0.82%) of opening probaby due to increased mobiity of morphine due to certain metaboic activities. But it decreased in petas coected on the day of faing from the fower either fourth day or fifth day of opening (0.62%). In ong pepper (Piper ongum), the effect of organic and inorganic source combinations showed that treatments significanty affected dry spike yied in Viswam and Anand types. Significant difference was noticed between treatments on rhizome yied in Kachoam (Kaempferia gaanga) with the appication of organic and inorganic source combinations. At Soan, appication of NPK at 90 : 60 : 60 kg/ha and harvesting 270 and 60 days after OIL-YIELDING PLANTS The Gycyrrhizic acid content in iquorice increased with increasing age at Hisar. Its maximum content was recorded after 2 years of pant growth. In Japanese mint, 2 years data reveaed that Gomti and Himaayan were the best varieties yieding the maximum oi yied at Hisar. Detametharin (1.0 m/itre) was found to be effective in controing Heicoverpa armigera and Pusia orichacea pest and increased the yied at Soan. Safed musi CBI 3 and MCB 412 were promising. Isabgo DM 1 was highy resistant to diseases.

76 70 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT was found optimum for getting higher herb yied, oi content and oi yied in Meissa (Meissa officinais). At Soan, 15 tonnes FYM + 40 kg N + 30 kg P 2 O kg Azotobactor was found to be optimum combination of fertiizers for getting maximum fowering shoot yied, oi content and oi yied in Savia. Appication of 75 kg N and 50 kg P 2 O 5 was found beneficia for maximum seed yied of Kastur Bhendi (Muskdana). The uptake of NPK was aso found to be maximum with 75 kg N and 50 kg P 2 O 5. At Anand, Botryodipodia theobromae (fungus) and Pseudomonas sp. (bacteria) were found pathogenic to gugga pant. At Soan, Endosufan (1.5 m/itre) was found to be effective in reducing the popuation of bugs and increasing fower yied, foowed by maathion and detamethrin (1.0 m/itre) in Matricaria. The white-seeded accessions of Mucuna species performed better as compared to Mucuna pruriens (back-seeded) accessions, in terms of L-DOPA yied/pant (39.73 g/pant) in IC (white-seeded) and 4.69 g/pant in Punba coection (back-seeded). However, L-DOPA content was maximum in Srahan coection (back-seeded) with 7.3% as compared to 5.76% in IC (white-seeded accessions). The seeds produced as a resut of controed sefing between fowers on the same pant in Goriosa superba, had maximum 100-seed weight (2.66 g), cochicine content (0.8%) and maximum seed germination rate (46.25%). In Vaeriana (Vaeriana jatamansi), maximum contents of tota vaepotriates (3.56%) and maximum essentia oi content (4.33%) in roots were observed in Dahousie and Kaatop popuation respectivey. Vatrate is the major constituent of vaepotriates and in essentia oi, patchoui acoho is major constituent. Vaepotriates undergo decomposition during storage, which can be minimized if unground rootstocks are stored in compete shade. Essentia oi is ocaized in a the tissues of rhizomes and roots, whereas vaepotriates are ocaized in cortex of both rhizomes, roots and rhizome pitch. POST-HARVEST MANAGEMENT POST-HARVEST MANAGEMENT IN POTATO The modified improved heap structures deveoped at CPRI campus Modipuram resuted in reducing storage osses in Kufri Bahar ( %) and in Kufri Jyoti ( %) compared to unimproved heaps. Lowest accumuation of sugars was observed in Kufri Chipsona 2 with storage at 10 C and treatment with CIPC even after 4 months of storage. Accumuation of reducing sugars was aso high in tubers stored under CO 2 environment resuting in dark cooured chips. Fastest dormancy break was observed in tubers stored at 15% CO 2 concentration (24 days) foowed by 20% (47 days) compared to the contro (7 days). Best resuts were obtained in suppressing sprout growth when tubers were treated with carvone. The technoogy for uniform ripening of mango fruits has been deveoped which invoves harvesting of mango fruits at optimum maturity and within 5 hours after harvesting fruits are immersed in hot water at 52 ±1ºC for 5 minutes. The fruits are to be aowed to surface dry before packaging and storage. This method resuts in uniform ripening, good quaity fruits with reduced spoiage. Studies on Controed Atmosphere (CA) storage showed that mature green Banganapai mangoes coud be stored for 5 weeks in unripe condition at 8ºC without any chiing injury symptoms under 5% O 2 and 3% CO 2 gas composition. The CA stored fruits ripen normay in one week with good surface coour, acceptabe taste and favour when shifted to ambient condition. Three pre-harvest sprays of 2% dehydrated cacium choride (CaC 2 ) and 0.1% Bavistin at 10 days interva were effective to extend the shef-ife of fruits harvested with 8 10 mm staks of mango Chausa and Maika. Modified atmosphere storage in 400-gauge seaed poybags at 13.5 C extended the storage ife up to days in Karpooravai and 29 days in Poovan bananas. Hot-water treatment at 46 C for 30 minutes couped with storage in seaed poybags of 150-gauge aong with ethyene scrubber increased the storage ife of Rasthai banana up to 39 days. The technoogies of banana fruits and fowers for picke, banana four based products ike heath drink, baby food and banana biscuits have been standardized. Technoogy pertaining to mechanized sorting, waxing, washing and packing in corrugated boxes in addition to degreening and storage to improve shef-ife of fruits has been deveoped. A ow-cost evaporative coo chamber on a farm scae has aso been deveoped. Storage of Nagpur mandarins at sub-optimum temperature showed that intermittent warming produced better coour deveopment and fruits stored at 3 4 C (one week) + 20 C (one week) recorded highest coour index after 60 days. Physioogica weight oss was significanty higher in acid

77 71 IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS ime fruits packed without vented poyethyene iner as compared to fruits packed with poyethyene iner without affecting the juice content irrespective of wax treatments and TSS increased with extension of storage period. In post-harvest management, SO 2 injury to grapes stored at C, coud be reduced by one or two pre-harvest spraying with Trichoderma harzianum isoate 5R, given 20 or 20 ± 3 days intervas and packing them with 2.3 g Na 2 S 2 O 5 in a 5 kg box. Pre-harvest spraying of Trichoderma has reduced the percentage of rotten berries, faen berries and funga growth on pedice and retained freshness of grapes on 9th day in shef after storage at C. Preharvest intervas for methomy, carbendazim and mancozeb were found to be 13, 50 and 48 days respectivey for recommended dose spraying and 18, 60 and 60 days for doube dose spraying. The Trichoderma harzianum was aso found to have superior effect in degrading the residues on grape berries.

78 72 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Natura Resource Management The soi map of India has been generated on 1 : 1 miion from the state soi maps. The map eaborates sois designated to 7 orders, 62 greatgroups and 1,649 soi units. The map can be harnessed in and use panning for sustainabe agricuture. The soi resource atases of Bhopa, Guna, Betu, Dhar and Ratam districts have been brought out. Soi Map of India SOIL RESOURCE INVENTORY The soi map of India has been generated on 1 : 1 miion scae from the state soi maps on 1 : 250,000 scae. The map comprising 11 sheets has sois designated to 7 orders, 62 great-groups and 1,649 soi units. The sois beonged to 9 major physiographic regions namey Himayan mountain and Siwaiks, North-Eastern hi ranges and vaeys, hi ranges (Ghat), Deccan pateau, Centra highand, Indo- Gangetic auvia pain, Gujarat pains, Coasta pains and Isands. The map is usefu in and use panning for sustainabe agricutura production. LAND USE PLANNING AT VILLAGE LEVEL The detaied, micro-eve and participatory and use panning (1 : 5,000 scae) has been undertaken for Suki viage, Nagpur (Maharashtra), using cadastra maps. The soi units were deineated at series and phase eve. The farmers were motivated to adopt the aternate and use pan aong with affordabe crop management package. A perceptibe change was noticed in the and use scenario and socioeconomic condition of the farmers after adoption of the aternate and use pan. The transformation resuted in an increase in the per capita avaiabiity of cereas and puses from 169 and 25.5 kg/annum to 172 and 96 kg/annum, respectivey. Soybean got estabished as cash crop aong with cotton. Mode District Resource Panning The soi resource atases of Bhopa, Guna, Betu, Dhar and Ratam districts have been brought out containing thematic maps each devoted to physiography, sois, vegetation, and use and demographic features, etc. The atases are usefu for district and use panning. Soi Correation The soi series identified during the reconnaissance, rapid reconnaissance and detaied soi reconnaissance have been correated, identified and pubished as soi series handbooks for Madhya Pradesh (240 soi series), Maharashtra (150), Chhatisgarh (67), West Benga (81), Himacha Pradesh (90), Goa (32) and Rajasthan (117). RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Soi Erosion Maps Soi erosion maps have been generated for Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, West Benga, Uttar Pradesh, Himacha Pradesh and Tripura based on soi resource data and grid observations. These maps are usefu for formuating appropriate soiconservation measures. Soi erosion maps have been deveoped for Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, West Benga, Uttar Pradesh, Himacha Pradesh and Tripura. The bioengineering measures were deveoped integrating soi-erosion contro structures with appropriate vegetation. Soi- and Water-conservation Measures The cost-effective bioengineering measures were deveoped integrating soierosion contro structures with appropriate vegetation ike munj (Erianthus munja syn Sachharum munja), Ipomea carnea, giant napier, etc. In these structures, design engths of headwa extension and apron were reduced by 20 30% to reduce the cost by 20 30%. To rehabiitate wasteands in Saaviyur watershed in Western Ghats, 3 percoation tanks on private and and 2 on community and were constructed with a water storage capacity of ha-cm. Significant increase in area under horticuture with mango, tamarind, ama, guava, pomegranate and sapota has demonstrated the outcome of the watershed studies on adoption of aternate and use pan and crop diversification. The Sef-Hep Groups (SHG) undertaking works have aready paid back about Rs 14,362. The money has been poughed back to support 3 new SHGs.

79 73 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Watershed Management Studies on impact of watershed management reveaed that peopes participation index (PPI) in 15 watersheds of Coimbatore district was 55, 44 and 27% at the panning, impementation and maintenance stages, indicating medium, ow and very ow eve, respectivey. Benefit : cost anaysis of the project, considering 10 years ife at 10 and 15% discount rate, gave benefit: cost ratio of 1.53 : 1 and 1.28 : 1, respectivey with 28% interna rate of return. The credit utiization and repayment capacity have improved as a resut of watershed programme. A hoistic deveopment of Kokriguda micro-watershed was attempted foowing the mutifaceted interventions based on needs, perceptions and priorities of the viagers known through participatory rura appraisa (PRA). With the dedicated efforts of Watershed Deveopment Team (WDT), the area under vegetabes increased from around 3 ha in to 18 ha in , fetching net returns of Rs 14,245/ ha during Not ony cutivation, but consumption of vegetabes has aso increased from 15 to 33 persons. These deveopmenta activities have increased working hours of women in farm activities by 70%. Contribution of viagers varied from 5 to 60% depending upon the activity. Adoption of Resource Conservation Technoogies (Zero-tiage) in Rice- Wheat Systems The project is based on cardina principes of resource conservation technoogies (RCT), which protects sois by reducing disturbance of soi structure due to tiage, buid up of organic carbon, stimuate beneficia microbes, and improve infitration of rainwater and reducing its oss. Zero-tiage sowing and surface seeding were undertaken in 43 cana irrigated viages consisting of 418 farmers in Patna. Observations coected from the farmers on zero-tiage sowing reveaed that: (i) It reduced cost of tiage from Rs 2,000/ha to Rs 650/ha with a saving of Rs 1,350/ha; (ii) eary seed germination under zero-tiage by 2 3 days; (iii) eary sowing of 7 10 days in moist fied can be done when conventiona tiage is not possibe; (iv) there is ess incidence of weed sma canary grass (Phaaris minor); (v) crop remains green after 1st irrigation due to eary recession of water in the fied; and (vi) in conventiona tiage wheat became pae yeow due to proonged water stagnation. According to the farmers observations the constraints were: (i) Reguar maintenance of machine is required to stop cogging of fertiizer and seed; (ii) initia training of machine operation is required which is acking; (iii) spare parts are not avaiabe ocay; and (4) tractor owners are waiting for the market demand trend this year and they wi purchase the machine next year. The deveopment of Kokriguda watershed was undertaken by means of interventions to make it a compete and sef-contained system. Area under vegetabes increased from 3 ha to 18 ha. A panoramic view of the Kokriguda watershed (top). A bumber crop of cabbage (bottom) SOIL FERTILITY AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT Tota Carbon Stock in Indian Sois The soi organic carbon (SOC) and soi inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks in soi orders, agro-ecoregions (AERs) and agro-eco subregions (AESRs) of the entire country were estimated. Tota carbon stock in upper 30 and 150 cm soi depth has been estimated as 14 and 64 Pg (1 Pg=10 15 g), respectivey; SOC and SIC contributing 47 71% and 29 53%, respectivey. The carbon-transfer mode indicates that both soi organic carbon (SOC) and soi inorganic carbon (SIC) are equay important for C transfer and potentia CO 2 sequestration. With the adversity of the cimate there wi be depetion of organic carbon and that the carbon wi be sequestered as inorganic CaCO 3 in sois. Organic Poos and Dynamics The rate of restoration of soi organic C with management was found to be in the The ong-term appication of FYM aone to maize-wheat in acidic red soi at Kanke, Ranchi, has produced significanty higher yieds of crops compared to 100% NPK. The recommendations under Integrated Pant Nutrient Suppy System have been made and tested on farmers fieds in 3 major agroecoregions of the country under FAO- ICAR-IFFCO coaborative project.

80 74 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT The rhizobia popuations in the fieds constanty cutivated with same egume crop are very ow. Therefore, egume inocuation of rhizobia and other bacteria biofertiizers shoud be practised by the farmers every year. The vermicompost prepared from sugarcane trash, pressmud, poutry waste and soybean straw contained 30 40% higher nitrogen compared to the compost prepared by heap or pit methods. order: Vertisos> Inceptisos> Afisos, irrespective of cropping systems. Carbon sequestration was positive under 100% NPK and 100% NPK + FYM pots due to higher biomass production and residue turn over in the soi. C-mineraization rate was maximum under NPK + FYM compared to NPK, NP and N indicating need for reguar appication of organic manure for sustained soi productivity. Impact of Nutrient Management on Soi Productivity The ong-term appication of FYM aone (since 1956) to maize-wheat in acidic red soi at Kanke, Ranchi (Jharkhand), has produced significanty higher yieds of crops compared to appication of 100% recommended NPK. The yieds of maize and wheat were and tonnes/ha in the former treatment compared to and tones/ha in the atter treatment became comparabe with organic treatment for maize when it was suppemented with ime. The yieds of wheat under NPK + ime were significanty higher over organic treatment. Organic manure addition increased soi ph and organic carbon content in the sois. With the addition of ime aong with chemica fertiizers, there was increase in soi ph but organic carbon content remained ow. Therefore, both iming and organic manuring aong with baanced chemica fertiization coud be the right proposition for better management of acid sois to sustain high productivity. The addition of ime and FYM are, therefore, crucia for sustainabe management of acid sois. Change in soi organic carbon with addition of NPK and farmyard manure. Effect of continuous use of chemica fertiizers and FYM on soi productivity and properties Treatments Grain yied (tonnes/ha) Soi properties Maize Wheat ph Organic C (%) N NP NPK NPK + ime FYM FYM + 50% NPK CD (P=0.05) Integrated Pant Nutrient Suppy System The recommendations under Integrated Pant Nutrient Suppy System (IPNSS) based on the soi tests, avaiabiity of irrigation and farmers resources have been made and tested on farmers fieds under 3 agro-ecoregions of the country under FAO-ICAR-IFFCO coaborative project. Tracking Inocuated Bacteria in Soi Cyanobacteria cutures. A, Anabaena azoae (MPK-SK-38); B, Nostoc muscorum; C, Westieopsis (C 100 TR 5 ST 3 PA-SK); D, Osciatoria Methods for assessing the surviva of inocuated diazotrophs Azospirium and Azotobacter in soi were standardized using stabe genetic markers ac Z and gus A. Inocuated Azospirium ipoferum strains Cd and S-28 marked with ac Z survived in the rhizosphere of wheat up to 120 days. However, ac Z + strain of other heterotrophic soi bacteria were aso present in the soi and thus did not provide a specific assay. Since ac Z is non-specific and gus A assays are expensive, using gfp (green fuorescent protein) marker combined with tetracycine marker was found more usefu for ecoogica studies as it was staby integrated. Bradyrhizobium sp. noduating greengram was marked with gfp and identified in soi, nodue and charcoa-based inocuant.

81 75 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Quaity Contro of Cyanobacteria Inocuum through Moecuar Markers Seventeen cyanobacteria strains beonging to 6 genera, viz Anabaena, Nostoc, Auosira, Toypothrix, Westieopsis and Fischerea were seected and random ampified poymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting was carried out to deveop potentia markers. The primers OPB 09, OPG 04, OPAH 02 generated markers specific for Nostoc; OPAH 02 for Westieopsis; OPG 01 for the acid toerant Westieopsis-4A 2; OPF 03 for Toypothrix tenuis. Primers OPB 09, OPAG 03 and OPG 05 coud be used for Fischerea cutures. The resuts suggested a marked variation among the cyanobacteria strains to different primers that coud be used as moecuar markers for identification of the standard strains used in preparation of cyanobacteria inocuum. Surviva of Rhizobia in Pough Layers The resuts in a network experiments have showed that in sub-tropica sois, rhizobia popuations even in fieds continuousy cutivated with the same egume crop are very ow due to prevaiing high temperature/ow reative humidity in summer. The studies have reinforced the need to practise egume inocuation each year for vigorousy promoting the use of rhizobia and other bacteria biofertiizers by the farmers. RAPD fingerprinting profie of cyanobacteria cutures for primer OPB 09. 1, Westieopsis (ARM 48), 2, Westieopsis sp; 3, Westieopsis (C 100 TR 5 ST 3 PA-SK); 4, Westieopsis proifica; 5, Westieopsis (4 A2); 6, Nostoc muscorum; 7, Nostoc sp; 8, Anabaena variabis; 9, A. azoae (SK-SL-TNAU 1); 10, A. azoae (MPK-SK-AM- 24); 11, A. azoae (MPK-SK-AM-25); 12, Azoae (MPK-SK-AF-38), 13, Anabaena sp; 14, Anabaena (TR 52 ST 1); 15, Toypothrix tenuis; 16, Auosira pseudoramosa; 17, Fischerea sp; M, marker Comparative Evauation of Composting Methods The vermicomposts prepared from sugarcane trash, pressmud, poutry waste and soybean straw contained 30 40% higher nitrogen compared to the compost prepared by heap or pit methods. Simiary, C : N ratio of vermicompost was, generay, ower compared to the manure prepared by other methods. Suphur Deficiency in Sois of Gujarat Widespread deficiency of S has been reported from the sois of Gujarat with 37, 13, 50% of the 6,598 soi sampes anayzing as deficient, margina and sufficient in S, respectivey. Suphur deficiency was more than 45% in sois of Panchmaha, Bharuch, Mehsana, Ahmedabad, Saberkantha and Banaskantha; 24 36% in Bhavnagar and Surendranagar and ess than 20% in Rajkot, Amrei, Jamnagar and Vasad. Sois irrigated with suphate rich water showed adequate suphur. Recycing of Crop Residues to Correct Zinc Deficiency A 7-year study at Pusa, has indicated that appication of 2.5 kg Zn/ha ony to first, crop pus 50% crop residue of every crop was as much effective as 100% crop residue aone or 10 kg Zn/ha. Rice was benefited more than wheat from crop residue incorporation. Avaiabe Zn status of soi improved progressivey with increasing eves of crop residues and appied Zn. Infuence of Sewage Irrigation on Heavy Meta Accumuation in Soi and Pants The continuous irrigation with sewage water around Amritsar has resuted in more accumuation of Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in surface (0 15 cm) ayer by 2.76, 1.57, 1.96, 5.1, 1.08, 1.72 and 4.36 times compared to irrigation with tubewe water. Simiary, the studies around Cacutta have reveaed the accumuation of heavy metas in various pant parts of vegetabe crops irrigated with city sewage effuent compared to irrigation with tubewe water. The soi sampes anayzed from different districts of Gujarat indicated deficient, margina and sufficient sois in suphur. WATER MANAGEMENT Water Resources Databases of Bihar and Jharkhand The reationa diagram of the database design of water resources of Bihar and Jharkhand was finaized. The database design of Water Resources Information

82 76 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT The database designs of Water Resources Information Systems of Bihar and Jharkhand were competed. PBW 443, K 8047 and RW 927 wheat varieties were identified as drought toerant. Crop diversification with profitabiity is workabe in cana commands of coasta Orissa with the adoption of aternate raised- and sunken-bed system. Zero-tiage and raised-bed panting systems heped in considerabe water saving in wheat. Mutipe use of irrigation water, e.g. for fish cuture and cutivation of crops advocated. Performance study of one type of sprinker system was conducted under various operating pressures. Low-energy water appication device has been designed, deveoped and evauated. It has been promising even at ow-operating pressures. Integration of rice farming with fish increased productivity. System (WRIS) has been competed using MS ACCESS as its front end and Visua Basic V 6.0 as the database. Enhancing Productivity of Land and Water Resources of Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh The project was impemented in the command of RP Channe-V of Sone Cana System in Bihar and Gandak Command of eastern Uttar Pradesh, where over 87% rura popuation are dependent on agricuture. Snowba samping technique was foowed for coecting data from key informants ike non-agricutura women group, sharecroppers, members of Water Users Associations, and andess/agricutura abourers at Panchayat eve. Constraints were identified and ranked by the informants and on-farm demonstrations were organised. The project embarked on to deveop and test new practices ike deep summer poughing with tractor-mounted disc pough, mapping of fied pots and existing natura resources using Differentia Goba Positioning System, GIS and remote sensing which reduced cost of fied preparation and weeding time, and over a saving in abour requirement for and and water management that improved yied and net income for the iveihoods. Evauation of Drought Toerance Traits in Wheat Fied experiment with 13 wheat genotypes was conducted to evauate different drought (moisture stress)-toerant traits cacuated from the post-harvest data. Out of a the indices yied stabiity (YS) vaues showed cear distinction among wheat genotypes (YS > 50%). The genotypes, which showed drought-stress index (DSI) > 1.0 are susceptibe. Depending on YS and DSI vaues, RW 899 and RW 890 were identified as most susceptibe, whie PBW 443, K 8047 and RW 927 were identified as toerant. The DSI showed significant negative correation with yied, whereas the YS index has a significant positive correation with yied. Dry-matter stress index (DMSI) showed a highy significant correation with yied under stressed condition. Crop Diversification in Cana Command of High-rainfa Area Kharif rice foowed by dry season rice is the cropping sequence commony pursued in cana irrigation commands of coasta Orissa. Studies were conducted with the objectives of diversification and intensification of crops with increased empoyment and economic return by modification of microenvironment through and shaping in this area. The experiment was carried out in dry season in the farmers fied at Baipatna bock, Khurda, Orissa under Nimapara Branch Cana of Mahanadi deta. The fieds were converted into aternate sunken and raised beds (50 : 50), with raised beds 60-cm higher than the adjacent sunken beds. Among different cropping sequences in modified and, rice + cabbage maabar spinach produced the highest rice-equivaent yied (21.61 tonnes/ha), foowed by the rice + tomato ridge gourd sequence (16.74 tonnes/ha) and rice + cabbage (15.14 tonnes/ha). Rice aone in the modified and produced ony 3.19 tonnes/ha. The highest net return and benefit : cost ratio (BCR) was recorded in rice + cabbage maabar spinach sequence (3.01). The east BCR (1.13) and net return were recorded in unmodified and. Crop diversification with increasing cropping intensity, profitabiity and wateruse efficiency is possibe in high-rainfa, shaow-watertabe areas of cana command with the adoption of aternate raised- and sunken-bed system. Integrated Rice-Fish Farming in Rainfed Ecosystem In the rainfed system, in-situ conservation of rainwater in rice fieds by optimum weir height, conserving excess water in the refuges constructed at the down stream of rice fied and rearing of fish in the refuges in medium and enhanced the productivity. Initiay the study was carried out at the Research Farm, WTCER, Deras, Khurda, and demonstrated in 6 farmers fieds at Sadeiberini viage of

83 77 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Dhenkana, Orissa. Three weir heights (15 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm) were constructed with refuges occupying about 6-8% of the area of the rice fieds with depth of refuge kept at 1.8 m conducive for fish growth. Indian major carps (cata, rohu and mriga) were 20,000/ha ony for 6 months with high-yieding rice varieties Jagannath and Padmini during the kharif. Resuts reveaed that the average rice yied at the farmers fied increased from 1.6 tonnes/ha (before intervention) to 4.65 tonnes/ha. The average fish yied from the system was 1,106.9 kg/ha in 6 months duration with improved average rice equivaent yied to 5.07 tonnes/ha with highest rice equivaent yied of 5.67 tonnes/ha obtained in 20 cm weir height pots. Utiizing the water stored in the refuges, the cropping intensity increased from 100% to 131%. Zero-tiage and other Water Management Methods In a study at the Sabajpura Farm, Patna, to find out the suitabiity of zero-tiage practices, other water management methods, the root parameters at tiering and fowering stages were highest under raised bed panting, with higher vaues under 5- and 7-cm depth of irrigation. Zero-tiage has given simiar yied (3.26 tonnes/ ha) as obtained with conventiona sowing (3.23 tonnes/ha) and raised bed panting (3.21 tonnes/ha). Mean water saving under zero-tiage and raised bed was 11.3 and 55.9%, respectivey. Saving and preparation, sowing and irrigation were Rs 1,850, Rs 1,400 and Rs 450, respectivey in zero-tiage. Maximum gross benefit of Rs 3,943/ha was achieved under raised bed with 3-cm depth of irrigation. The minimum benefit of Rs 481/ha was found under zero-tiage with 9-cm depth of irrigation. Mutipe Use of Irrigation Water with Fishpond and Secondary Reservoir Efforts have been made to increase the productivity of the irrigation water through mutipe use ike fish production. A fishpond (16.5 m 14.5 m 2.25 m depth) with 1: 1 side sopes, ined with 250 micron ow-density poyethyene (LDPE) fim, was constructed at the Research Farm of the ICAR-RCER, Patna, to deiver pumped water to the tank in 4 neary equa parts for better aeration and exchange of water for fish growth. Indian major carps (cata, rohu and mriga) and Chinese carps, were grown in the pond at a density of 75,000/ha from Juy August to harvest in February to May. The tota harvest of fish was tonnes/ha in and 6.22 tonnes/ha in , respectivey. Evauation of Pressurized Irrigation Equipment Performance study of doube nozze and singe nozze type of sprinker system (M/s Premier Irrigation Systems) has been conducted under various operating pressures for its appication rate, uniformity coefficient and distribution efficiency. Various concusions drawn were: (i) Doube nozzes give higher vaue of uniformity as compared to singe nozze for same operating conditions; (ii) under ow-wind condition (<1.5 m/s), doube nozze performs better as compared to singe nozze; and (iii) wind speed more than m/s affect distribution pattern of doube nozze, whie wind speed more than 0.5 m/s affect the distribution pattern of singe nozze. Vegetabe Crops with Drip- and Micro-sprinkers Fied experiments with tomato-brinja, and cabbage-okra sequences for irrigationscheduing through drip systems and on bitter gourd for fertigation studies have indicated that appication of irrigation was promising for better yied at 80% ET with 3 days schedue in tomato, whereas 60% ET with 2 days schedue in cabbage. Design, Deveopment and Evauation of Low-energy Water Appication Device The deveoped manifod-based ow-energy precision appication (LEPA) was found a suitabe device for operating at ow pressure with ess weight compared to LEPA designed earier. After evauation it was found that soi erosion was a major

84 78 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT probem. So, perforated pipe system was designed and evauated whose area of coverage is found to be ess. A prototype rotating arm water appication device was designed which is promising even at ow-operating pressure. It was tested for various combinations of its arm ength, hoe diameter, operating pressure, spacing, etc. Management of Agricuture under Arsenic Contaminated Ground Water The ground waters at shaow depths (15 35 m) and the surface sois of Baruipur Bock of South 24 Parganas district of West Benga are contaminated with toxic eves of arsenic. The use of these waters for drinking purposes, and the consumption of crops/vegetabes raised on contaminated soi may be potentia harmfu sources to humans and animas. Arsenic uptake was higher in pants raised in ight textured soi compared to heavy textured soi showing higher arsenic fixation capacity. Evauation of Production Potentia of Agrotechniques at Sone Cana system Seed rate in rice cutivation has been reduced from 30 kg to 10 kg/acre. The optimization of date of transpanting (advancing in particuar) increased the unutiized rainwater from 40 50% to % and doubed the production. Institute-Viage Linkage Programme in Sone Cana System Aong the Indira Gandhi Cana, adoption of high-water demanding crops, with food irrigation eads to waterogging and secondary sainization. In Haryana, subsurface drainage system faciitated the recamation of waterogged saine sois. The antagonistic effects of ong-term use of akai/sodic water on physica and chemica properties of sois can be mitigated by the use of soi amendments, e.g. gypsum and pyrite. A superfine grain, scented rice variety CSR 30 has been reeased for sodic sois of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana. Waterogging aong with akai stress was more detrimenta compared to akai or waterogging stress aone in wheat. La-jhav, babu, mosquite, Eucayptus, Acacia tortiis, Casia siamea and eephant appe are promising tree species for rehabiitation of cacareous sois. Management of sat-affected back sois of Gujarat was accompished by growing mustard-tree forage grass. It gives seeds rich in oi and may be used in environmenta-greening. Appication of chemica fertiizers suppemented with organic manure gave higher rice yied in sat-affected coasta sois. Technoogy assessment and refinement through Institute-Viage Linkage Programme (IVLP) in irrigated agro-eco region in the command of Sone Cana System, Bihar was taken up in 4 viages (Bheura Rampur, Beeranchak, Veerpur and Doshiya) of Majhoui distributary of Sone Cana. Border irrigation method in wheat resuted in 26.0 to 34.2% water saving in tubewe command and % in cana command under heavy sois of centra Bihar. SOIL SALINITY AND COASTAL ECOSYSTEM Morphoogica Benchmarking of Sat-affected Sois in Sunderban In a benchmarking survey (after 29 years) sat-affected sois in Sunderban Deta, the coour in the surface horizon remained unchanged, whie in the substratum, it changed from grey to dark greyish brown in cutivated conditions. The ph of the surface horizon decined from 6.8 to 6.2, whie that of the next horizon from 7.9 to 7.2. At 1-meter depth, the soi ph increased from 6.0 and 6.7 to 7.0 and 7.3, respectivey. In uncutivated condition, the coour changed from dark greyish brown to greyish brown in the surface horizon and from grey to dark grey in substratum. The ph of the surface horizon changed from 7.2 to 6.8 and and subsurface horizon from acidic (6.4 to 6.9) to akaine (7.4 to 7.9), respectivey. Deineation of Sat-affected Waterogged Sois Aong the Indira Gandhi Cana Project, the farmers adoption of high-water requiring crops with food irrigation practices are causing waterogging and secondary sainization in the region. Image interpretation of sateite data showed that about 12% of the tota area of a seected zone cose to main cana were affected due to surface ponding and 25% was affected by critica (water-tabe depth<1.5 m) and potentia waterogging (water-tabe depth> 1.5 m). Further, visua interpretation of the sateite data evidenced by surface sat efforescence reveaed around 11% of the area to be sat affected. Effect of Fyash on the Yied of Rice-Wheat on a Recaimed Akai Soi Fyash, a by-product of therma power pants is reported to cause serious environmenta hazards due to its inappropriate disposa. The yeary addition of fyash to gypsum amended akai sois (as a source of siica), did not dispay any

85 79 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT adverse effect on soi properties and crop yied even up to 50 Mg/ha. Further, the incorporation of fyash to the soi did not show any interaction with fertiizer N and aso no significant effects were documented on the reease pattern of exchangeabe and non-exchangeabe K. Assessment of Land Drainage Probems in Irrigation Command The precise assessment of soi sainity in arge areas in an irrigation command makes it possibe to deveop appropriate approaches for managing such sois. Such estimates can be made using GIS technique by expoiting variation of refectance properties of different and uses affected with waterogging and sainity probems. The variations in refectance properties of these areas in 3 different bands can be used to derive normaized difference vegetation index (NDVI); the reative difference of which makes it possibe to distinguish waterogging- and sainity-affected area. For the cutivated and drainage-instaed fieds, the NDVI vaue was maximum (0.4511) with minimum ( ) for the ponded water and that each and use cass can be identified in the irrigation command based upon its NDVI vaue. Soi and Crop Improvement under Subsurface Drainage Subsurface drainage system instaed in an area of 1,200 ha under Haryana Operationa Piot Project in 1999, with an average depth of 1.6 m at 60-m drain spacing faciitated the recamation of waterogged saine sois, with varied sat remova in space and time. Significant reduction in soi sainity (ECe), SARe and choride contents in 0 30 cm soi depth was recorded by eaching through subsurface drainage. Soi sainity in the drained area decined by 40% aong with 50% reduction in SARe, compared to initia vaues. Further, eaching through subsurface drainage did not resut in any nutrient oss as evidenced by the N, P and K status in drained and undrained areas. Bioogica Oxygen Demand Toerance of Crops Disposa of urban and agroindustria effuents into the rivers causes soi and water poution by increasing their organic oad, affecting crop yieds when used for irrigation. Distiery effuents having typicay high bioogica oxygen demand (BOD) vaues were expoited for their irrigation potentia. Paddy yied improved by irrigation with waters having BOD up to 500 ppm (increase of 36%) compared to tubewe waters, and decined thereafter. Methods to Improve the Efficiency of Soi Amendments The adverse effects of ong-term use of akai/sodic water on physica and chemica properties of sois can be mitigated by the use of soi amendments. Crop performance was better with pyrite than gypsum appication. Irrigation with neutraized akai waters by passing over a speciay designed amendment bed resuted in significanty higher yied compared to their respective soi appications. Akai water appication (9.1 Mg/ha) neutraized through pyrite bed produced maximum yied of sorghum foowed by soi appication of pyrite, equivaent to gypsum on suphur basis, at the rate of 150% of gypsum requirement. Further, the yeary appication of gypsum/pyrite to the soi produced significanty higher yieds compared to their appication after every 3 years. CSR 30 A New Scented Rice Variety for Sodic Soi A superfine grain and basmati type rice variety, CSR 30 (IET 14720) has been reeased by the Centra Variety Reease Committee for sodic sois (ph ) of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana, with 20% more yied over nationa check (Taraori Basmati) with comparabe quaity parameters. It has highy scented, ong and sender grains (7.12 mm), good head rice recovery (59%), high-kerne eongation on cooking, intermediate-geatinizing temperature (GT) and intermediate-amyose Research at the CSSRI, Karna, has shown that sewage water (BOD up to 500 ppm) can be used for growing paddy and other crops CSR-30, a superfine grain and basmati type rice variety reeased for sodic sois. It gives 20% more yied over the nationa check (Taraori Basmati)

86 80 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT content (23%) at par with Taraori Basmati. In the pane test, it was rated as one of the best cutures due to its attractive fakiness, aroma and fine eongation of cooked rice. Under non-stress conditions, it reaches cm with moderatey strong cum, whie it reaches intermediate height ( cm) under sodic stress which prevents its odging. It is a non-shattering, suitabe and scented rice variety for timey sown and irrigated conditions. Toerance of Wheat to Saine and Waterogging Stress Wheat yieds are affected seriousy in recaimed akai sois by stagnating water due to untimey heavy rains during its growing season as we as by rising watertabe in different areas of the country. In a study on toerance of wheat variety (114 genotypes) to waterogging (10 days during critica growth stages), reveaed that waterogging up to 10 days at grain-fiing stage was the most critica with highest yied reductions. Waterogging aong with akai stress was more harmfu compared to akai or waterogging stress aone in wheat (5 days of submergence) at the sowing and emergence stage. Evauation of Tree Species Suitabe for Highy Cacareous, Saine and Irrigated Sois For the rehabiitation of cacareous sois, 31 tree species were evauated at Bir Forest, Hisar. Saine water was appied for initia 3 years foowed by saine irrigation for 3 subsequent years during winter ony. Ten years of experimentation reveaed that a-jhav (Tamarix aphya syn T. articuata), babu (Acacia niotica), mesquite (Prosopis chiensis syn P. juifora), Eucayptus (Eucayptus umbeata syn E. tereticornis), Acacia tortiis, Cassia siamea and eephant appe (Fironia imonia) hod promise for pantation with furrow panting method in arid and semi-arid regions. Performance of a-jhav with saine water irrigation at Bir forest, Hisar Mustard-tree forage Grass for Management of Sat-affected Back Sois Management of highy saine back sois (EC ds/m) of Gujarat was achieved by growing mustard-tree (Savadora persica) forage grass based and use system (at a cost of Rs 2,760/ha at 4 m 4 m spacing) economicay. Due to the abiity of mustard tree to germinate in saine water, it grows we under highy saine conditions. It produces seeds rich in oi and its muti-potentia utiities ike environmenta-greening make it an idea species for soi and water management in saine back sois. Integrated Nutrient and Agronomic Management of Sat-affected Coasta Sois Integrated nutrient management (appication of chemica fertiizers suppemented with organic manure) of rice-based cropping system in sat-affected coasta sois gave significanty higher rice yied than chemica fertiizer aone. Highest rice yied was achieved by the addition of urea (4.2 Mg/ha) suppemented by city compost (1.52% N) in the ratio of 1 : 3 in terms of N equivaence. It was neary 50% higher over the contro (farmer s practice of using 20 kg N/ha) and about 7% higher over fu-recommended dose (100 kg N/ha). Appication of city compost aong with urea improved soi heath in terms of highest microbia biomass carbon (260 µg/g) and nitrogen (37 µg/g), dehydrogenase activity (3.5 µg TPF/g) and rate of soi respiration (9.17 µg CO 2 /g). RAINFED RESEARCH Improved Modes of Tanka Tankas are traditiona water-harvesting storage systems in desert regions. These are mosty owned and used by individua famiies. This is a very efficient system

87 81 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT but dogged by the probems of heavy oad of sediments. The stored water is mosty used for home and ivestock consumption. The Operationa Research Project at Mohia viage under A India Co-ordinated Research Project for Dryand Agricuture at the CCSHAU, Hisar, has improved the tankas in capacity and reduced sediment oad. The capacity was increased to 5.6 m deep and 5 m diameter. There was a paved catchment deveoped with an inward sope towards the centra we. There were more than 4 entry points each with its own sit trap and sieve of 2.5 cm diameter. The cost of construction of a pucca tanka was Rs 1.5 akhs. The water is being used for gravitationa drip irrigation to a kitchen garden and tree systems ike ber (Indian jujube), pomegranate, kaa jamun, neem, etc. The rainfed crops of the region ike pearmiet, guar, cowpea, greengram, mustard, barey, chickpea and fodder are aso being taken up with a seasona rainfa of mm. Combined Use of Inorganic and Organic Fertiizer Sources Under the nationa network of A India Co-ordinated Research Project for Dryand Agricuture, permanent manuria trias are being conducted with ocation specific crops. In an attempt to reduce the recommended dose of inorganic fertiizer by substituting 50% of the recommended nitrogen by crop residue, FYM, etc. Appication of 50% N (inorganic source) + 50% N (organic source) was found to be at par with recommended dose of fertiizer for rabi sorghum (Soapur), pearmiet (Agra), groundnut (Anantapur), and cotton and greengram (Akoa). Significanty higher fingermiet yied was attained at Bangaore with a combination of fertiizer and organics. However, recommended dose of fertiizer was superior for rice at Ranchi. Common Poo Resources in Semi-arid India Surveyed Appication of 50% N (inorganic source) + 50% N (organic source) was found to be at par with recommended dose of fertiizer for rabi sorghum, pearmiet, groundnut, cotton and greengram. Construction of conservation furrows in the fieds resuted in higher yied of castor and pigeonpea crops by 16 17% over the contro. Integrated pest management strategy for castor semiooper was worked out. The efficacy of castor semiooper parasitoid bacuovirus aone, or in combination with insecticides was demonstrated in arge-scae on-farm trias. Prototype-3 of groundnut stripper, power tier-drawn seed-cum-fertiizer dri-panter and air-assisted tractordrawn orchard sprayer were deveoped for dryand crops. A survey was conducted at Hyderabad, to understand the dynamics, management and iveihood contributions of common poo resources (CPRs) in semi-arid India. The survey covered the area from Punjab in the northwest to the southern Tami Nadu and encompasses over 206 districts. The resuts reveaed that the extent and productivity of CPRs is decining since independence. In the case of viage ands, decine is arge due to breakdown of traditiona management systems which resuted in a shift from common property to open-access regimes, and to some extent privatization and encroachment denying access to the poor. These CPRs are now subject to a series of probems of erosion and and degradation resuting in irreversibe damage to the semi-arid ecosystem. Vast parts of the potentiay productive CPRs are rendered unproductive or under productive. Low-tiage and Integrated Nutrient Management Strategies The highest sorghum grain yied both under conventiona and reduced tiage was recorded with 2 tonnes Giricidia oppings + 20 kg N. Appication of 4 tonnes FYM + 2 tonnes Giricidia oppings was the next best treatment. The 4-year study concuded that by foowing ow-cost nutrient management strategy, the expenditure on fertiizers coud be reduced significanty without concurrent yied oss. However, greengram, 2 tonnes FYM + 10 kg N and 2 tonnes FYM + 1 tonne Giricidia oppings outyieded the contro both under conventiona and reduced tiage systems, respectivey. A survey of common poo resources in semi-arid India was conducted to comprehend iveihood output from these. The area and productivity of common poo resources is decining since Independence. The combined effect of cutivation on margina ands and increase in ivestock popuation has resuted in decined share of widife in the common poo resources. Overexpoitation has ed to the depetion of vegetation and acceerated runoff. Rainwater Management Conservation furrows across the sope at 3 m interva, as a measure of moisture conservation and runoff management, were evauated in 10 farmers fieds in 5 viages in the Nagonda district of Andhra Pradesh. Castor was intercropped with pigeonpea in 5 : 1 ratio. During the growing season, the study area received 429 mm rainfa in 33 rainy days (rainfa 2.5 mm/day). The pots with conservation furrows stored 8 35% additiona soi moisture over the contro throughout the The highest sorghum and greengram yieds were obtained by adopting integrated nutrient management strategy (combined appication of FYM, Giricidia oppings and nitrogen) both under conventiona and reduced tiage

88 82 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT growing season. This resuted in better pant growth and higher yieds of castor and pigeonpea crops by 16 17% over the contro. Environment friendy integrated pest management strategy for castor semiooper was demonstrated on arge-scae on-farm trias. It invoved the induction of biocontro agent bacuovirus aone, or in conjunction with insecticides. Bacuovirus is host specific and ocay produced bioagent Integrated Pest Management Castor semiooper, Achaea janata, is a key pest on castor that causes severe damage to the crop during Juy September. In the fied, 3 natura parasitoids are active against the pest. Bacuovirus of castor semiooper is one such bioagent. During the past efficacy of this virus was confirmed in the aboratory as we as in argescae on-farm trias. The efficacy of bacuovirus aone, or in combination with insecticides, was demonstrated in arge-scae on-farm trias through farmers fied schoos. Rura youth were aso trained on virus-production technoogy. Improved Machinery for Dryand Crops Prototype-3 of groundnut stripper was deveoped at the CRIDA, Hyderabad. This powerized version s stripping efficiency is maximum at 400 rpm for 1-day-od harvest. A SUCCESS STORY DRUMSTICK PLANTATION A young farmer Mr Buchi Reddy Janardhan Reddy, Meerkhanpet viage, Kandukur Manda, district Ranga Reddy, is reaping rich benefits by taking up drumstick pantation in his fied. He adopted the recommended practices advocated by the KVK in his 0.16 acre and after panting approximatey 400- drumstick sapings (cv PKM 1). To effectivey utiize the inter-space tomato was taken up as an intercrop in the pantation. A tota expenditure of Rs 7,160 was incurred. The gross return from the sae of pods, drumstick seeds and tomato was Rs 17,186 within a span of 6 months (Juy December), reaizing a net profit of Rs 10,026. Groundnut stripper was deveoped at the CRIDA, Hyderabad. Its efficiency is maximum at 400 rpm for 1-day-od harvest Power tier-drawn seed-cum-fertiizer dri/ panter was engineered for sowing backgram, greengram, sorghum, groundnut, maize and castor. It has an area coverage of ha/hour Power tier-drawn seed-cum-fertiizer dri/panter was deveoped for sowing backgram, greengram, sorghum, groundnut, maize and castor. The impement which sows seeds in 4 rows simutaneousy, has a fied coverage of /ha/hour. An industria mode of air-assisted tractor-drawn orchard sprayer was fabricated, and is now ready for commerciaization. This sprayer is significanty superior to the conventiona ones and saves time, money and energy. AGROMETEOROLOGY Agrocimatoogy Anaysis of monthy rainfa data over eastern dry zone of Karnataka for the period indicated shift in rainfa pattern when the monthy rainfa during were compared with that during A comparison of the data sets indicated that in the recent decade there has been a fa in Juy and September rains, whie an increase is noticed in August and October rainfa. These shifts infuenced the sowing and subsequent growth of crops in the region. Simiar observations were noticed in the adjoining districts of Anantapur and Bijapur. Based on these rainfa shifts, new cropping strategy has been suggested in the above region to match the change in rainfa pattern. Cimate change at Paampur in Himacha Pradesh has been worked out using the data coected over the period The rainfa pattern indicated a decreasing trend for the months January to March and again for the months of Juy and October. However, increase in pre-monsoona rainfa to an extent of 20 80% has been noticed.

89 83 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Crop-Weather Reationships Rabi: The radiation-use efficiency (RUE) of 3 wheat cutivars, viz. HD 2285, HUW 234 and HP 1633 sown under 3 dates of sowing at Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh showed that HUW-234 recorded higher RUE vaues compared to other 2 varieties. Kharif: The effects of shading on the grain yied of 20-hybrid rice varieties at Dapoi, showed that varieties, Karzat 4, Indrayani, Panve 2, Pagarh 1 and Pagarh II were shade toerant and are thus suitabe for regions experiencing excessive couding during the kharif crop season. Anaysis of the infuence of weather parameters on the grain yied of rice at Kanpur, showed that average RH, mean wind speed, minimum temperature and tota rainfa during the crop growing season recorded highest correations with grain yied. At Faizabad, it was noticed that irrespective of the date of transpantation, if initiation of fowering in the rice crop occurred around 5 September, it ed to highest yieds across a the cutivars. This suggests that adjustment of sowing/ transpantation date, to match the fowering stage around 5 September, can hep achieve higher yieds in this region. Weather Effects on Pests and Diseases Prediction equations for powdery-midew disease incidence in ber pantations as we as in grape vines were deveoped by Bijapur centre. The equations, which predict the disease occurrence two weeks in advance in ber, expains the variabiity of disease up to 69%. Night time temperatures (minimum) between C are responsibe for triggering tea mosquito bug popuation in cashew pantation during fushing and fowering stages. Hence based on minimum temperature distributions in the cashew-growing regions during reproductive phase, the regions prone to infestation of tea mosquito bug have been identified and demarcated. The popuations may be moderate to severe across west coast and ow to moderate aong the east coast and in the hi ranges in southern peninsua. The areas, which are reativey free from the pest, are the tracts aong West Benga and northeastern states due to ow temperatures in winter season. Advance Estimation of Food Grain Production Using Monsoon Rainfa and Southern Osciation Index A simpe mode has been deveoped by the Co-ordinating Unit of the AICRP on Agrometeoroogy (AICRPAM) for advance estimation of nationa food grain production. The mode uses rainfa indices based on seected sub-divisiona rainfa (with 1% significance correation with production index) during June to September months, southern osciation index (SOI) based on winter to spring pressure tendency (March to May December to February vaues) and trend vaue. The mode was deveoped using 40 years nationa food grain production data ( ) and has been vaidated using the past 8 years actua production. It can be said that the mode coud successfuy predict the nationa food grain production within ± 2% (sometimes at zero per cent) except in 1 out of 8 years of testing. The mode has predicted the year productivity at miion tonnes, which is very cose to the officia estimate of miion tonnes, provided in June. The significant feature of this mode is that it can predict the tota (kharif and rabi) food grain production about 8 months in advance (by October itsef). Weather-based Forewarning Systems for Crop Pests and Diseases From the historica data coected on the incidence of important crop pests and diseases in respect of 6 major crops, viz. cotton, rice, pigeonpea, groundnut, sugarcane and mustard grown in different agrocimatic regions of the country the corresponding weather data, prediction equations have been deveoped. Anaysis of monthy rainfa data over eastern dry zone of Karnataka for the period indicated shift in rainfa pattern. Based on these rainfa shifts, new cropping strategy has been suggested. At Dapoi, Karzat 4, Indrayani, Panve 2, Pagarh I and Pagarh II rice varieties were shade toerant and are thus suitabe for regions experiencing excessive couding during the kharif. Predictions equations for powderymidew disease in ber and grape were deveoped. The regions prone to infestations of tea mosquito bug have been identified and demarcated. A mode has been deveoped for advance estimation of nationa food grain production. Prediction equations of important pests and diseases in crops, viz cotton, rice, pigeonpea, groundnut, sugarcane and mustard have been deveoped.

90 84 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Efficient cropping systems for different agro-ecozones have been identified. The tota productivity of rice-wheat system was higher (9.3 tonnes/ha) under direct seeded pudded condition rice. At Modipuram, a technique for rapid decomposition of rice straw using pretreatment foowed by composting was deveoped to prepare superior manure. Cropping Systems CROP PRODUCTION Efficient cropping systems for different agro-ecozones have been identified. Under arid ecosystem; at Hisar, cotton-wheat (Rs 69,417/ha) foowed by pearmietpotato-greengram (Rs 67,027/ha) and at S.K. Nagar, castor-castor-greengram (Rs 80,707/ha) foowed by pearmiet-fenne-cowpea (Rs 74,260/ha) were identified as more remunerative systems. Under semi-arid ecosystem; at Kanpur, maize-potato-sunfower (Rs 58,892/ha) foowed by maize-potato-wheat (Rs 81,039/ha), at Bichpuri, dhaincha (green manure)-potato-sunfower (Rs 80,719/ ha) foowed by pearmiet-wheat-greengram (Rs 45,822/ha), at Rudrur, soybeansaffower (Rs 43,028/ha), at Junagadh, groundnut-onion-faow (Rs 136,694/ha) foowed by pearmiet-onion-cowpea (Rs 118,632/ha), at Parbhani, soybean-onion (Rs 116,621/ha) foowed by cotton-cotton-groundnut (Rs 55,110/ha) and at Kathaegere, hybrid cotton-hybrid cotton-groundnut (Rs 92,234/ha) foowed by hybrid cotton-cotton-sunfower (Rs 81,213/ha) were more remunerative cropping systems. Under sub-humid ecosystem; at Paampur, rice-vegetabe pea-potato (Rs 46,676/ha), at Sabour, berseem (F) -maize + cowpea (F) (Rs 141,081/ha) foowed by rice-potato-sunfower (Rs 95,651/ha), at Pantnagar, rice-wheatgreengram (Rs 71,892/ha) foowed by rice-vegetabe-rice (Rs 70,312/ha), at Varanasi, rice-wheat-cowpea (F) (Rs 70,867/ha) foowed by rice-potato-greengram (Rs 70,555/ha), at Chipima, rice-groundnut-sesamum (Rs 53,182/ha) and at Jabapur soybean-wheat (Rs 47,863/ha) were found more suitabe in terms of economic return. Under humid ecosystem; at Jorhat, rice-brinja (Rs 78,789/ha) and at Kayani, ricecabbage-rice (Rs 100,923/ha) were identified more remunerative. Under coasta ecosystem; at Bhubaneswar, rice-maize (cob) -cowpea (Rs 94,891/ha) foowed by rice maize (cob) -greengram (Rs 68,325/ha), at Navsari rice-sorghum (F) -groundnut (Rs 51,940/ha) foowed by rice-wheat-greengram (Rs 50,396/ha), at Karjat, ricemaize (F) (Rs 86,171/ha) foowed by rice-groundnut (Rs 57,420/ha) and at Thanjavur, rice-rice-pigeonpea (Rs 60,899/ha) foowed by rice-rice-sesamum (Rs 54,993/ha) were noted most promising systems. Direct Seeded Rice in Rice-Wheat System is More Remunerative than Transpanted Studies conducted at the PDCSR, Modipuram, indicated that various crop estabishment methods of rice, viz. direct seeding (dry), direct seeding (pudded) and transpanting produced amost simiar grain yied of rice ( tonnes/ ha). Transpanting of rice resuted in significanty ower yied of succeeding wheat (3.5 tonnes/ha) as compared to direct seeded rice with either pudded or unpudded conditions ( tonnes/ha). However, the tota productivity of rice-wheat system was higher under direct seeded rice with pudded condition (9.3 tonnes/ha) foowed by transpanted (9.10 tonnes/ha) and direct seeded dry condition (8.99 tonnes/ha). A New Technique for Rapid Decomposition of Rice Straw Deveoped Rice-wheat system was more remunerative under direct seeded rice with pudded condition (9.3 tonnes/ha) than transpanted rice (9.10 tonnes/ha) A technique for rapid decomposition of rice straw empoying pre-treatment foowed by composting for 21 days was deveoped to prepare quaity manure at Modipuram. Rice straw aone, or in combination with pigeonpea hu (4 : 1), was treated with aqeous soution containing 1.25% urea, 1.25% ZnSO 4, 0.625% FeSO 4 and % CuSO 4 in the first step for 48 hours for atering the ignoceuosic compex of the rice straw. In the 2nd stage, the treated materias were composted for 21 days. Pre-treatment foowed by composting heped in owering the C : N ratio of the substrate and improving the quaity of compost in terms of N, P and K content. The highest response was obtained in the mixture of treated rice straw + pigeonpea hu (4 : 1).

91 85 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ARID ECOSYSTEM Khadin: Nove System for Drought Proofing Khadin is an age od unique practice of water harvesting and moisture conservation in arid ands for raising a successfu crop, even during drought years. In this system runoff is coected from upand and rocky surfaces in the adjoining vaey by encosing a segment with an earthen bund. The CAZRI, Jodhpur, has deveoped an improved design of khadin for different ecoogica sub-zones of the arid ecosystem. One such improved khadin farm of 6 ha is ocated in Baori-Bambore watershed. The effective rainfa during the monsoon of 2002 that contributed runoff to this khadin was ony 11.6 mm. Neary 35% (4 mm) runoff from upand catchment was harvested and stored in the khadin farm, which enriched the soi profie moisture. The stored moisture was effectivey used for raising successfu fodder crop of sorghum (CSV 10) during the drought year. The CAZRI, Jodhpur, has deveoped an upgraded design of khadin for different ecoogica sub-zones of the arid ecosystem. Maru Sena 3, a bioformuation of the biocontro agent Bacius firmus against Macrophomina phaseoina deveoped. M. phaseoina causes dry root-rot and charcoa-rot in custerbeen, cowpea, mothbean, greengram, etc. The improved khadin at Baori-Bambore watershed. The entire khadin system becomes a sef-contained unit for winter cutivation. However, during severe drought years the khadins are used for monsoon cutivation aso Sorghum fodder crop grown in the khadin during the kharif. The stored water was used in growing efficaceous fodder crop during the drought year Maru Sena 3: A Bioformuation of the Biocontro Agent Bacius firmus against Macrophomina phaseoina Under the dry and warm growing conditions of arid region, Macrophomina phaseoina, a soi pathogen causes dry root-rot or charcoa-rot in custerbean, cowpea, mothbean, greengram, etc. During the course of deveoping management strategies, a soi-bacterium, Bacius firmus, inhibiting the growth of Macrophomina phaseoina, was isoated from arid sois. After working out the potentia vaue of the biocontro agent, bioformuation of this strain was deveoped in an inert materia at the CAZRI, Jodhpur.. This bioformuation has been named as Maru Sena 3. One packet of 200 g is sufficient to treat egume seeds for sowing in 0.4-ha and. Production of inhibition zone and scaret pigmentation by the biocontro agent Bacius firmus against Macrophomina phaseoina, a causative bacterium of root-rot and charcoa-rot in custerbean, cowpea, mothbean, greengram, etc. The CAZRI, Jodhpur, has deveoped a bioformuation of B. firmus Maru Sena 3. WEED MANAGEMENT Management of Parthenium through Mexican Beete (Zygogramma bicoorata) A reease of 500 Mexican beetes was made on Parthenium weed during the year 2000 in Sonpur viage of Jabapur district. Today vast area (more than 100 hectares) of waste and grazing and in and around Sonpur viage is witnessing exceent contro of Parthenium. A very heavy popuation of both aduts and arvae has competey defoiated the pants aong with fruits and fowers. Severa reeases invoving hundred and thousands of beetes have been made in the past both in rura and urban areas. Intercropping Cowpea in Maize Suppresses Weeds and Suppements Nitrogen Weeds often invade inter-row spaces in wide spaced crops ike maize. The quick growing and rapid canopy forming crops such as cowpea can be successfuy intercropped with maize (1 : 1). Experiments conducted at Jabapur have reveaed Management of Parthenium weed accompished through Mexican beete has been a tremendous success. Intercropping of cowpea in maize suppresses weeds and suppements nitrogen.

92 86 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT (a) (b) (c) A reease of Mexican beetes to contro Parthenium weed was enormous success in Sonpur viage of Jabapur district. Many hectares of and was infested with Parthenium (a). Defoiated Parthenium attacked by Mexican beetes (b). Mexican beete (c). Taking advantage of the success, a fied day was organized invoving the farmers, residents, schoo chidren, teachers and Bharat Forest Organization, Jabapur (NGO), to create awareness about its deeterious effects and management strategy. Weeds often infest inter-row spaces in wide spaced crops ike maize (top). Swifty growing and vigorous canopy forming crops such as cowpea can be intercropped with maize. Cowpea for fodder or green manure suppressed weeds emphaticay (bottom). GROWING PROBLEM OF INVASIVE WEEDS IN INDIA The aien invasive weeds have been a growing probem in Indian agricuture and environment. In north-eastern states, a serious invasion of exotic weed shiah-kanta (Mimosa himaayana syn M. rubicauis) has been reported in the word famous Kaziranga Nationa Park, Assam. The weed originay used as a cover crop to prevent soi erosion in tea gardens has escaped into the forest areas. Spread by wind-bown seeds, the profuse growing weed has virtuay taken over the entire game sanctuary. The weed, being very competitive has become successfu in smothering oca vegetation and creating food shortage to the herbivores inhabiting the forest. It may be pointed out here that Kaziranga is the home for endangered singe horned rhinoceros which is aso a herbivore. The reports of weed sma canary grass (Phaaris minor) infestation in wheat in centra Gujarat have aso been received recenty. The infestation is beieved to have come through contaminated combine harvesters originating from infested areas of north west India. It is estimated that about 25% species have become invasive in a short period of years. Some of these species incude, Lantana (Lantana camara var acueata), sian weed (Chromoaena odorata), Mikania (Mikania micrantha), Mimosa (Mimosa invisa), water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes) and Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus). A of these invaders from the neotropics are rapid coonizers, with high reproductive capacities and dispersa rates. Lantana is we adopted to western and eastern Himaayas. Whereas, Mikania is distributed in north-eastern hiy region and Western Ghats. The distribution of C. odorata is imited to areas receiving a rainfa of 150 cm and above. In hiy range and pasture ands of northern Himaayas, the species ike Ageratum conyzoides, A. houstonianum, L. camara are shrinking the cutivabe and grazing areas to a great extent. In north-eastern states, a dangerous exotic weed shiah-kanta has spread into the forest of the Kaziranga Nationa Park, Assam. Intiay the weed was used as a cover crop to check soi erosion in tea gardens. The weed has stifed oca vegetation and created food scarcity to the herbivores in the forest. that growing cowpea for fodder or green manure suppresses the weeds quite significanty. It reduces the requirement of abour or herbicides at east by haf. Further, being a egume crop, cowpea suppements substaintia quantity of nitrogen to maize crop. This technoogy is considered sustainabe and suited to sma and margina farmers who practice subsistence farming.

93 87 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FARMING SYSTEM RESEARCH Evauation of Rice-based System in Goa Among the 8 hybrids of rice evauated during the kharif 2001, Sahyadri recorded the highest yied of 7.15 tonnes/ha and was cosey foowed by the hybrid KRH 2 which recorded a yied of 6.87 tonnes/ha. Both were significanty superior to the oca check varieties Jaya and Jyothi which yieded 5.72 tonnes/ha and 4.68 tonnes/ ha, respectivey. In trias under the rice-based farming system, it was observed that rotating groundnut with rice increased the grain yied of subsequent rice crop by over 5 tonnes/ha. Aso rice grown under recyced paddy straw with mushroom substrate in 2 : 1 ratio consistenty registered higher productivity (4.5 tonnes/ha). Among the different cropping systems tried, rice-brinja system, registered the best productivity eve particuary under recyced FYM. It was aso observed that rice-cowpea system was the best option under residua moisture situation. Rice-cowpea rotation resuted in a 78% higher productivity over rice faow system. Pooed economic anaysis reveaed that integration of rice-brinja with mushroom and poutry was economica with the best net returns of Rs 77,305/ha. Performance of Pantation Crops In a high-density cropping mode invoving coconut (main crop), banana, mango and back pepper, an average yied of nuts/pam/year was recorded in coconut (Benauim). Amrapai was found to perform we in this high-density cropping mode registering an yied of 4.75 kg/pant. Post-harvest Technoogy of Fruits In Goa, Sahyadri and KRH 2 recorded highest yied of 7.15 tonnes/ha and 6.87 tonnes/ha, respectivey as compared to oca check varieties Jaya (5.72 tonnes/ha) and Jyothi (4.68 tonnes/ha). Economic anaysis reveaed that integration of rice-brinja with mushroom and poutry was advantageous with net returns of Rs 77,305/ha. Jackfruit bubs coud be stored in sugar soution with potassium meta bisuphate or sodium benzoate for 4 months in poythene bags at room temperature. Studies on storage of jackfruit bubs indicated that the ripe bubs coud be stored in refrigerator for 23 days when packed in poythene bags. Those stored in sugar soution (40 B) with potassium meta bisuphate (250 ppm SO 2 ) or sodium benzoate (250 ppm) kept we for 4 months in poythene bags at room temperature. Matured, but unripe jackfruit bubs coud be stored for 12 months with their origina coour and firm texture in brine soution at room temperature. Caramboa (sweet type), squash (48 brix, 0.5% acidity and 250 ppm SO 2 ) coud be stored under ambient as we as refrigerated conditions for more than 12 months. Proximate anaysis of nutmeg rind, parts of jackfruit and breadfruit reveaed that these fruit wastes are rich sources of fat and fibre and can be incorporated in ivestock feeds. Sahyadri one of the hybrid rice varieties taken up for arge-scae cutivation in Goa Genetic Improvement of Neem AGROFORESTRY Genetic improvement work in neem (Azadirachta indica) was carried out at Jhansi. Two hundred sixty five accessions of neem were coected from 8 states. In provenances tria of 26, provenance Bhopa was identified as an outstanding for growth parameters. In pus tree progenies tria of neem, progenies PT 24 and PT 15 were performing we when compared to check. Ten seections were identified in provenances and pus tree progeny tria based on fast growth and high fruit yied. Out of these, Se 1, Se 3, Se 4 and Se 5 had more than 0.60% azadirachtin A and 44% oi content in their kernes, whie seeds of Jhansi provenance had 0.47% azadirachtin A and 41.0% oi content. In our extensive agro-ecoogica regions, most crops dispay a great dea of diversity. The variabiity in oca brinja types in Goa is shown here Cona Propagation of White Sik Cotton Tree Cona propagation techniques were standardized for white sik cotton tree (Ceiba pentandra) using cuttings, grafting and air ayering at Mettupaayam. Maximum

94 88 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT A SUCCESS STORY USE OF PHEROMONE TRAPS TO MANAGE RED-PALM WEEVIL IN COCONUT A series of fied and aboratory experiments were conducted to assess the impact and refine the existing technoogy of using food-baited pheromone traps to manage red-pam weevi, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coeoptera: Cucuinadae) in coconut pantations of Goa. The significant findings of these experiments are presented beow. A surveiance programme to monitor the activity of the pest with pheromone traps (Ferroure +) reveaed a high incidence of redpam (62 weevis/trap), which was at par with sugarcane (49.33) and significanty different from coconut petioe (32.66) weevi throughout Goa. On an average weevis were captured per trap. Oi pam fruit when used in pheromone traps has a repeing effect on red-pam weevi adut. Red-pam weevi was most active in the State during the month of October, whie it was east active during June. A simiar trend in its activity was observed during the previous year. The fied ife of the costy pheromone ure (800 mg Ferroure +) can be extended for up to 6 months by setting traps under shade to attain sow reease of the chemica into the environment. For mass trapping programmes fied testing of various trapping densities reveaed that, the recommended trap density of 1 trap/ ha can be effectivey reduced to 1 trap/3 ha, without impairing weevi captures. The efficiency of the pheromone-trapping system can be maintained with even a ow reease of 0.13 mg per day. Reease of ferroure + in the fied was significanty and negativey correated (r = -0.59) to rainfa, whie it was positivey correated (r = 0.43) Trap coour did not significanty infuence weevi captures. to maximum temperature. However, jute sack wrapping on the exterior of bucket traps enhanced weevi captures. Carbofuran 3G (0.05 %) was found to be most suitabe for use in red-pam weevi pheromone traps. Weevi captures were not impaired even when the kairomonereeasing food bait (coconut petioe bits) was not repaced in the trap for 1 month. However, water in the trap had to be repenished Fied trias reveaed that the best weevi captures were obtained when traps were serviced (repacing food bait and insecticida soution) every 10 days. if traps were not serviced beyond 15 days. A 2 months fied tria during May and June 2002 with a formuation Vertica preference for trap heights indicated that highest weevi captures (30.4 weevis/trap) were recorded when traps were paced at a height of 1.0 m from the ground. of pheromone ure deveoped by the CPCRI, Kayanguam, when tested separatey with banana and coconut petioe, recorded mean weevi captures of and 8.00 weevis/trap, respectivey. Laboratory reared monsoon, winter and summer broods of pheromone trap captured weevis indicated that young, gravid However, the reguar formuation (ferroure +) with coconut petioe recorded a mean weevi catch of weevis/trap. and fertie femae weevis were attracted to the pheromone traps. Thus, pheromone trapping of red-pam weevi is beneficia as it suppresses the buid-up of red-pam weevi in the fied. Laboratory studies with 6 coconut cutivars, reveaed that the coconut cutivar, Maayan Yeow Dwarf was east preferred by the weevi for egg aying. Mass trapping programmes in weevi infested coconut pantations, successfuy contro the pest with no new reports of fresh infestation. Spatia distribution of red-pam weevi in coconut pantation showed that the pest was highy aggregated and foowed the negative binomia pattern of distribution. Hence pantations in Different kairomone-reeasing food baits indicated that dates when used in the pheromone traps gave the highest captures the vicinity of heaviy infested pams are most prone to red-pam weevi attack and need protection from the pest. As a resut of the above findings the use of pheromone trap to manage red-pam weevi in coconut is becoming popuar among the farmers in the State and aso esewhere in the country. Pheromone traps used for capture of red-pam weevi. The food-baited pheromone traps to manage red-pam weevi are appropriate and popuar among the farmers Red-pam weevi aduts. A surveiance programme to watch the activity of the pest indicated a higher incidence of red-pam weevi in coconut pantations of Goa

95 89 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT rooting of cuttings was achieved on treating with IBA 3000 ppm. Successfu grafts were produced through ceft grafting method, and air ayering was successfu when air ayers were treated with IBA at 3% power formuation. Vegetative Propagation of Chironjee and Ama A tota of 178 chironjee pants have been estabished at the IGFARI, Jhansi, in 1 hectare area. Vegetative propagation efforts indicated maximum (40%) success through veneer grafting in August and 20% through chip budding. Vegetative propagation of ama (embic myrobaan) through ceft grafting was standardized. It was observed that seedings grown in February March attained graftabe growth by August. August was found to be the best month for grafting giving 85% success. Varieta response to grafting was not significant. Capping of grafts for 21 ± 2 days was instrumenta in graft success. The technique was successfuy demonstrated in mango and custard appe aso. Teak-based Agroforestry In teak-based agroforestry system at Dharwad, marketabe wood vaue of teak was significanty higher (Rs 222,520/ha) in 10 m spacing compared to 20 m spacing (Rs 121,760/ha). The teak-based agrisivicutura system deveoped at Parbhani, reveaed that pigeonpea is the most suitabe intercrop up to 5 years, after that yied reduction is more than 50%. After 5 years, turmeric and ginger were economicay remunerative crops. At Jhansi, in neem provenances tria, provenance Bhopa was found outstanding for growth parameters. Severa contrivances were deveoped for cona propagation of white sik cotton tree. Vegetative propagation of chironjee and ama was successfu. In teak-based agroforestry system at Dharwad, market vaue of teak wood was significanty higher (Rs 222,520/ ha) in 10 m spacing compared to 20 m spacing (Rs 121,760/ha). The yied of wheat was impaired under the canopy of safed siris, neem and teak compared to the contro. Tree-Crop Interactions The infuence of tree species such as safed siris (Abizia procera), neem (Azardirachta indica) and teak (Tectona grandis) and tree-management practices (pruned up to 50% height and unpruned) and cropping system (with and without understorey crop) was studied on nutrient recycing, soi properties and productivity of companion crops (backgram and wheat) at Jhansi. The yied of wheat was affected under the canopy of a the tree species compared to the contro; maximum effect being under safed siris. Pruning has positive effect on crop yied and the variation between pruned and unpruned treatment within the species was in the range of % ony. Tree-crop interaction in agroforestry systems was probed. Intercropping of teak with wheat was taken up. The yied of wheat was decined In teak-based agrisivicuture system turmeric was economicay remunerative intercrop after 5 years. Here 7-year od teak spaced at 5 2 m has been shown with turmeric.

96 90 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT This is a success story of a margina farmer, Mr Tijju of viage Karai, district Jhansi (Uttar Pradesh). He used to cutivate ony kharif crops before the adoption of agroforestry. He was the target farmer of an extension programme initiated by the NRCAF, Jhansi, in Mr Tijju adopted agrihorticutura system invoving growing guava, ama, pomegranate and ber (Indian jujube) with A SUCCESS STORY ADOPTION OF AGROFORESTRY crops namey groundnut, wheat and urdbean in 2.5 acres of and after obtaining training on management of fruit trees. Prior to the adoption of agroforestry, his annua income from agricuture produce was merey Rs 9,400/ha. The annua net income of this farmer in 5th year of agroforestry adoption raised to Rs 21,715/ha. In addition to higher returns, Mr Tijju obtained fuewood, fodder, fruit and sma timber from the same price of and for his domestic consumption. Earier his wife used to wak 2 3 km in the search of fuewood for cooking food. His standard of iving improved consideraby. Mr Tijju became roe mode for other viagers who are coming forward for the adoption of various agroforestry systems. Agrihorticuture system associating ama (eft) and ber (right) with wheat Soi Respiration under Trees Soi respiration studies conducted at Jabapur under different tree species reveaed higher respiration vaues during summer (March June; mean 6,268 mgco 2 /m/hour) foowed by rainy season (Juy October; mean 3,590 mgco 2 m/hour). Lowest CO 2 evoution (mean 3,094 mgco 2 m/hour) was in winter (November February). Among different tree species, maximum CO 2 evoution was observed under bamboo (3,345 mg CO 2 m/hour) and owest under jamun (1,409 mg CO 2 m/hour). The genetic diversity in forage crops was enriched by 1,318 accessions of various forage crops. Combined use of urea and FYM in 1 : 1 ratio produced maximum biomass yied of sorghum and cowpea. The voatiization osses of ammonia coud be reduced significanty by combined use of 25% urea-n + 50% FYM-N + biofertiizers. Performance of oca goat was found better in terms of kidding percentage, birth weight and reproductive probems ike sti birth under sta feeding than grazing. In oca goat, the tota ingestion time under sta feeding was minutes, whereas under grazing it was minutes. Maximum seed yied was obtained in common sesban with the appication of phosphorus. FODDER CROPS AND GRASSLAND MANAGEMENT Fodder Crop Improvement The genetic diversity in forage crops was enriched by 1,318 accessions of various forage crops. In ucerne, somatic embryos induced in the cotyedonary caus of 3 genotypes and 6 generated pantets of LLC 3-34, 1 regenerated pantet of LLC 3-36 and 1 regenerated pantet of LLC 3-40 were transferred to the fied. Response of Fodder Crops to S Appication The productivity of napier and seasona egume-based cropping system increased by 38% for green fodder and 49% for dry matter with added suphur eve of 40 kg S/ha in a the 3 seasons over no suphur ( tonnes/ha green and tonnes/ ha dry matter) in soi having ow suphur (8 ppm). Suphur appication in 2 continuous seasons, i.e. in the kharif to cowpea and in the rabi to berseem was sufficient for napier grown in summer season. Among suphur source, singe superphosphate proved superior to gypsum and eementa suphur. The quaity of napier + seasona egume mixed fodder improved by increasing crude protein from 13 to 20% with decreasing N/S ratio from 27 to 16 with the appication of suphur.

97 91 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SUCCESS STORY COMPLETE FEED BLOCK FOR CATTLE FEEDING The wheat bhusa (40%) was mixed with berseem hay (20%), moasses (20%), concentrate mix (19%) which incudes inseed cake and ground barey in a ratio of 1 : 1 and minera and vitamins (1%) to produce a compete feed bock (CFB). The inseed cake was soaked overnight in water. Moasses were heated in an open pan up to a temperature of 70 C to iquidize it and then mixed with remaining ingredients to have proper mixing. These ingredients were thoroughy mixed manuay. The added moisture was adjusted at 20% to have proper binding of the materia. The mixture was then processed at the IGFARI, Jhansi, in densifying machine hopper to get desired bocks. The compete feed bocks of size cm were made weighing 20 kg each, which can be easiy handed by a singe person. The machine had an output capacity of about 500 kg/hour with an average density of prepared baes as kg/m 3. A tota of 5 abourers are required for the compete operation. The prepared bocks have 88.31% organic matter, 9.72% crude protein, 44.02% NDF, 31.11% ADF, 12.91% HC, 3.27% ignin and 11.69% ash. On-farm feeding tria of prepared CFB were conducted in nearby viages of Jhansi to assess the acceptabiity of the product. Two groups of buffaoes were made, 1 group was fed with CFB and the second with traditiona materia (wheat bhusa ad ib and 2 kg concentrate) as usua. In addition, 5 kg green berseem was aso fed to each anima. After 1 month feeding of CFB as adoption period, 7 days digestibiity tria was aso conducted. Feeding trias indicated that average dry-matter (DM) intake/anima and average and dry-matter intake/100 kg body weight was simiar in the group fed with CFB and the traditiona feeding system. The dry-matter digestibiity and average mik yieds were, however, 9.15% and 19% higher in the group fed with CFB. Average mik fat content (8.3%) was simiar in both the groups. Reduction of Voataization Loss of NH 3 through Combined Use of Inorganic and Organic Manuring Combined use of urea and FYM in 1 : 1 ratio produced maximum biomass yied (35.4 tonnes/ha green and 8.67 tonnes/ha dry) of sorghum + cowpea. However, it was at par with 100% FYM, 25% urea + 75% FYM and 25% urea + 50% FYM + biofertiizers. The voatiization osses of ammonia coud be reduced significanty by combined use of 25% urea N + 50% FYM-N + biofertiizers. The eve of organic carbon, avaiabe N and K and microbia biomass carbon improved maximum in case of 100% manuring (FYM). Pant-Anima Reationship Performance of oca goat was found better in terms of kidding percentage (100 vs 56), birth weight (1.47 vs 1.32 kg), and reproductive probem ike stibirth (ni vs 22.22%) under sta feeding than grazing. Overa tota ingestion time per hour under sta feeding was minutes, whereas under grazing condition it was minutes. Under hot dry environment, suppementation of extra energy (20%) through barey improved feed intake of 18.2% with positive effect on weight gain in crossbred (Jersey Tharparkar) heifers fed on iso-nitrogenous mixed ration of concentrates and forages. Phosphorus Appication Improves Common Sesban Seed Production In common sesban (Sesbania sesban), the maximum seed yied (1,112 kg/ha and 1,115 kg/ha) was recorded with the appication of 80 kg and 120 kg P 2 O 5 /ha, respectivey. In the opping management treatments, the highest seed yied (925.5 kg/ha) was obtained without opping.

98 92 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Livestock and Poutry Improvement and Management Popuation data of various ivestock species are avaiabe. Kankrej, Ponwar, Gangatiri and Kherigarh catte were studied. Jaauni,Kheri,Mandya,Hassan and Mecheri sheep surveyed in their home tract. Higher absorbance of immunogobuins reduces mortaity in caves. Insuin-ike growth factor binding protein 3 gene studied in catte. Dwarf and naked neck birds superior in antibody titres compared to their crosses. Moecuar characterization of Indian ivestock and poutry breeds is being done. DNA repository estabished for Indian ivestock and poutry breeds. Kankrej are mosty kept by rabbaries.evauation of bus through progeny testing is under process. ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES Livestock Information Management A database based on the information coected from various sources was deveoped. Descriptors and questionnaires for coecting information on various breeds of ivestock and poutry through fied surveys, and a software package for entry and anaysis of this data were deveoped. An information system on Anima Genetic Resources of India (AGRI-IS) containing information on breed habitat, management practices, breed characteristics, farms, iterature, photographs, habitat map, etc., was aso deveoped. This system is avaiabe on CD medium. A database on district-wise ivestock and poutry census from 1961 onwards is aso being maintained. This databank was updated with the popuation data of various ivestock species for the year 1997 and now contains data for 14 states and Union Territories. Information on came breeds of India was added to AGRI-IS. Software package: A progamme for anaysis of sheep data was deveoped and added to software package for anaysis of data coected through survey. Database deveopment for buffao genetic resources: Questionnaires for buffao breeds were deveoped for various data environments containing the most typica conformation traits under study. Reporting system is being designed. Characterization and Conservation of Anima Genetic Resources Kankrej catte: The Kankrej breed, distributed in 14 districts of Gujarat and Barmer and Jodhpur areas of Rajasthan, has its origin from Kankrej area of Banaskantha district. Kankrej animas are mosty with the rabbaries, the seminomadic peope. Very few animas are in mik at a given period of time. The average actation mik yied, fat percentage and actation ength were 1,535.8 kg (ranging from 578 to 3,258 kg), 4.3% (ranging from 2.8 to 6.2%) and days (ranging from 159 to 369 days), respectivey. The coat coours are white, grey and iron grey. Muzzes are grey, white and back. Hoofs are back, grey and white. Hump is arge and we deveoped. Dewap is medium, thin and penduous. Face is short. Horns are grey, white or back, ong, curved and yre shaped. Ears are ong, arge and penduous. Udder is sma and mik veins are not prominent. Gait is Swai cha. Temperament is furious. Evauation of bus through progeny testing is being undertaken at the DURA, Mehsana. The dam mik yied of bus put to test ranged from 2,257 to 3,065 kg. Ponwar catte: This breed is primariy maintained for draught purpose. Ponwar catte constitute approximatey 30% of the catte popuation in its breeding tract Puranpur bock of Piibhit district. Buocks are fast and good for agricutura operations. These animas are maintained on grazing in the forest area. Coat coour of the animas is brown or back with white patches in different proportions. Coour of the muzze, eyeids and hoofs is generay back. Tai switch is white in back animas and back in those having more patches of white. Body is sma, compact and non-feshy. Skin is tight. Face is sma and narrow and ears are sma. Forehead is sighty concave, narrow and has a white marking. Horns are sma to medium and curving inward with pointed tips. Ears are erect sideways and have pointed tips. Dewap is medium. Hump is sma in femaes and deveoped in maes. Tai is ong and reaches beow the hock. Cows have sma udder and teats. The animas of this breed are aggressive.

99 93 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Cows produce itte mik about 0.5 to 2.5 kg/day for 8 to 10 (average 8.85 ± 0.24) months. Lactation mik yied averaged ± kg. Age at first caving ranges from 40 to 60 (average 50.8 ± 1.27) months. Intercaving period averaged ± 0.27 months and service period varied from 60 to 100 (average 76 ± 2.75) days. Cows remain dry for an average of 114 ± 6.89 days. Buocks of this breed can easiy transport 8 to 10 q of oad up to 10 km and can pough one acre of and in a day working for 6 to 8 hr. Gangatiri catte: Gangatiri is an important dua purpose catte breed of Uttar Pradesh. They are mainy found in the doaba bet of eastern Uttar Pradesh and adjacent area of Bihar. The breeding tract incudes Chandaui, Ghazipur and Baia districts of Uttar Pradesh and Rohtas, Shahabad and Bhojpur districts of Bihar.The coat coour is white with two variants greyish known as sokan and totay white known as dhawar. The mik production is 4 6 kg/day and actation ength days. The inter caving period varies from 14 months to 2 years. Kherigarh catte: The breeding tract of Kherigarh catte is Nighasan and Paia- Kaan bocks of Lakhimpur Kheri district. Some animas are aso avaiabe in Ramia Behar bock. The herd size of the catte has dwinded to animas from 500 because of shrinkage of the grazing area.kherigarh catte are ighter in appearance than Hariana. The buocks are good for ight draught and quick for ight transport. They have white and grey coat coour. The horns are yre shaped, thin, curving outward, upward, tapering and pointed at the tip. The face is sma, narrow, fat or dished. The ears are sma and horizonta, neck short but strong, hump is we deveoped in maes as compared to femaes. The dewap is thin, penduous, starts beow the chin and continues down to the brisket. The muzze is back, sheath is short and moderatey tight, the egs are thin and straight, the hooves are sma and back, the tai is ong, neary touching the ground and ending in back switch. Cows are poor mikers producing ony kg of mik for 9 12 months. Severa farmers do not mik the cows and mik is sucked by the caves. The age at first caving ranges between 3 4 years. Service period ranges between 3 5 months and caving interva between months. Bus attain maturity between years and start servicing. Buffao mik production in rura areas of Karnataka: At the SRS, NDRI, Bangaore, the first day mik yied and peak yied in the actation curve were infuenced mosty by breed-graded buffao having 3.85 itres of mik in the first day and 6.54 itres as peak production. The first day yied of oca buffao was 1.3 itres in Koar and 1.7 itres in Chitradurga, whereas, the peak yied was 2.6 itres in Koar and 2.8 itres in Chitradurga. The persistency of actation was ow because of poor feeding and adverse environmenta factors. Buffao popuations of Orissa: The conservation efforts are required for Parakhemundi and Chiika buffaoes because of their dwinding numbers. Survey couped with specia conservation efforts are required for Manda buffaoes as their breeding tract is ocated in hiy areas of Ganjam and Gajapati districts of Orissa. Jirangi animas are muscuar and suitabe for draughting but the animas have argescae admixtures of Parakhemundi and Manda, hence, it was difficut to ocate very distinct animas. Jaauni sheep: Jaauni sheep are migratory but mainy distributed in Jaaun, Jhansi and Laitpur districts of Uttar Pradesh, and Tikamgarh and Datia districts of Madhya Pradesh. Average fock size was 37 and ranged from 6 to 81. Generay one adut mae is maintained in each fock for breeding purpose. Farmers generay practice docking. Age at first ambing was years, and on an average 7 9 ambings take pace in the ifetime of an ewe. Lambing interva is one year. There was no specific ambing season and ambing takes pace throughout the year, however, mosty in October and November. Jaauni sheep are maintained for mutton and woo production. The woo quaity is coarse. Shearing is practiced 3-times in a year in October November, March Apri and June Juy. Average woo production is g/shearing. Maes, 9 12 month od, are sod for saughter with an average body weight of kg. Parakhemundi buffaoes are to be conserved as their number is decreasing Jaauni sheep are kept for meat and woo purpose.lambing takes pace throughout the year

100 94 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Kheri sheep: Their breeding tract is Jodhpur and Nagaur Districts of Rajasthan. The sheep breed is migratory and is maintained both for meat and woo production. The average fock has 1 3 rams and femaes incuding young ones. The major breeding season (Juy September) is foowed with major ambing season (December February), and the minor breeding season (Apri May) is foowed with minor ambing season (Juy September). Age at first ambing raged from 20 to 24 months with a ambing interva of 7 8 months, and amb production was 8 10 in its ifetime. In maes, the age at first mating is months. Maes are seected on the basis of dam s mik production and physica appraisa; woo weight was given some weightage. The rams are used for a maximum of 2 years and repaced thereafter to avoid inbreeding. Average woo production is about 1.5 kg in 2 3 shearings/annum. Mandya sheep: Mandya sheep is distributed in Mandya district and bordering area of Mysore district of Karnataka. The breed is aso referred as Bannur and Bandur. Bandur sheep, mosty restricted to a part of Mavai bocks, forms a distinct strain within the Mandya breed characterized by a compact, ow set body and typica meaty conformation. The focks are generay sma, mosty with 16 animas. The animas are sma, white with ight brown face usuay extending up to neck; some animas may be competey white. Amost a the animas have wattes. The neck is comparativey short. Bandur animas have compact and ow set body, sma egs and typica reversed-u shape from the rear. Animas of this strain have typica meaty conformation and are vaued for meat quaity with intra-muscuar fat giving a marbing effect to the mutton. However, the animas of this strain are restricted within a pocket of Mavai tauka of Mandya district. In the remaining area, the animas are comparativey arger in size and do not possess the typica meaty conformation of Bandur animas. The ears are medium, ong and drooping but aert. Average ear ength is 13.0 ± 0.08 cm (range: 9 18 cm). Nose ine is sighty roman. Both the sexes are poed; maes may rarey have scurs or rudimentary/sma horns. Tai is short and thin (range: 7 16 cm). Feece is extremey coarse, open and hairy. The focks are generay purebred; maes are seected on the basis of size and conformation. In Bandur animas, Roman nose, medium sized head, white patch from po to neck, ong body with medium height, short and strong egs, particuary the hind egs and presence of waets are the desirabe traits for seection of breeding maes and femaes. Typica Bandur ewes are seected and maintained with great MECHERI SHEEP Under the Network Project on Anima Genetic Resources, Mecheri sheep was studied. Mecheri is a promising hairy breed, which occupies the first position in popuation and area of distribution in Tami Nadu. The breed is mainy distributed in Saem, Erode and Dharmpuri districts of Tami Nadu. Its approximate popuation is about 0.58 miion. Kongy, Vear and Vanniyars are the communities responsibe for deveoping this breed. The average fock size of this breed incudes about 16.6 breeding ewes, 1.02 breeding rams and 4.12 ambs. The coat coour of this breed is mixture of brown and white. The animas are poed, medium sized with penduous ears, hairy coat v shape thin and short tai.the Mecheri sheep skin is superior for the quaity viz., softness, grain tightness, funess, surface smoothness, uniformity of coour and genera appearance. The histoogy of Mecheri skin has thick stratum corneum, more number of hair foices in the papiary ayer and sebaceous gands in the reticuar ayer. The popuation in the present status does not require conservation but genetic improvement for better growth needs to be undertaken. Adut Mecheri ram Adut Mecheri ewe Patti with bamboo sticks Round encosures (koodu) for ambs

101 95 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT efforts and care for producing breeding rams; the cost of such ewes and their progeny is comparativey very high. November to December is the main ambing season and August to October the minor. Lambing rate is about 70% with an average ambing interva of 8 12 months. An ewe produces ambs in its ifetime. The animas are generay sheared twice a year (January February and Juy August). Average greasy woo production is about g/annum in two cips. Hassan sheep: Hassan sheep breed prevais in Hassan district of Karnataka; the name was derived from the name of its habitat. The focks are of medium size average fock size is 34 very sma focks are rare. The animas are sma to medium in size. The body coour is white or white with ight brown or back spots on head and different parts of the body. Ears are medium ong and drooping. Average ear ength was 14.1 ± 009 cm (range: 8 17 cm). Femaes are usuay poed; about 30 40% of the maes are horned and remaining poed. Tai is short and thin (range: 8 24 cm). Feece is white, extremey coarse and open; egs and bey are generay devoid of woo. The animas are generay shorn twice a year in October December and Apri June. Average greasy woo production is about 300 g/annum in two cips. Biochemica Poymorphism At the IVRI, Izatnagar, poymorphic studies were conducted on insuin-ike growth factor binding protein 3 gene in 138 animas of indian and taurine breeds. Indian catte (Nimari, Sahiwa and Gir) were homozygous for aee A (genotype AA), whie taurine catte (Hostein-Friesian and Jersey) were heterozygous (genotypes AA, AB, BB) possessing both A and B aees. Biochemica markers identification: Biochemica markers associated with growth and production status in buffaoes were identified, and some markers, which are associated with high vs ow mik production (nuceic acid metaboites) were estabished. Genetic contribution was assessed for some biochemica parameters in body fuids (bood Hb, mik proteins etc). Roe of immunogobuins to enhance survivabiity in caves: Higher eves of absorbed immunogobuins within first 16 hr after birth (about 90%) reduced the mortaity in caves and resuted in faster growth rate by 20 22% by 2 years of age. Status of immunogobuin eves at 24 hr post birth coud predict the heath status of caves. A critica eve of these bood proteins, was assessed for the survivabiity of caves in buffaoes. Suppementation of some fat soube vitamins enhanced Ig secretion up to 80% in coostrum and 30% in bood of caves. Immune competence of dwarf and naked neck ines: The use of tropica adaptabe major genes ike dwarf (dw) in broier parent ine (for efficient egg production) and naked neck (Na) gene (for superior growth, better feed efficiency and toerance to heat stress) was studied for immunoogica aspects. The dwarf and naked neck gene ines maintained consistenty higher antibody titres, impying superiority of these pure ines over their cross combination. However, the cutaneous basophi hypersensitivity response remained uniform for a the genotypes. Equines: Haemogobin poymorphism studies indicated presence of two phenotypes in equine bood. The most common had singe band, ony two sampes exhibited two bands. Abumin exhibited two phenotypes controed by two codominant autosoma aees. The fast homozygotes were common. No sow homozygote was observed. Five phenotypes controed by three autosoma aees were recorded in equine bood transferrin. Two phenotypes were observed for carbonic anhydrase contro by two co-dominant autosoma aees. Horse amyase did not show any genetic variabiity ti now and ony singe band was observed. Hassan sheep produces about 300g/annum greasy woo MILK CASEIN POLYMORPHISM IN INDIAN GOATS Mik protein poymorphism study, carried out to anayze the genetic variabiity of mik protein in the Indian goats, reveaed variation in eectrophoretic pattern mainy in αs1-cn and αs2-cn oci between breeds. The frequency of αs1-cn AA aee (which was directy reated to higher casein yied) was 0.89, 0.89, 0.93, 0.78 and 0.85 in Jamunapari, Barbari, Marwari, Sirohi and Jakhrana goats, respectivey. The F variant was aso observed as homozygous FF in two sampes of Jamunapari goats. The most prevaent variant was A type at αs2-cn ocus in these breeds. The αs2-cn aee was absent in a the breeds, highest frequency was in Jakhrana (0.43) and owest in Marwari (0.22) goats. A faster migrating variant in ß-Cn ocus, observed in Jamunapari goats indicated the existence of an additiona ß-Cn aee in the eectrophoretic pattern. The distribution frequency of αs1-cn was higher in a goat breeds except Sirohi. The five Indian goat breeds studied were in H.W. equiibrium at αs1-cn and ß-LG oci. Moecuar Characterization Sahiwa and Hariana catte: At the NBAGR, Karna, the number of aees and aeic frequency at 25 microsateite oci for Sahiwa and Hariana breeds of catte were cacuated from the siver stained ges. The tota number of aees generated

102 96 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT GAROLE SHEEP Moecuar genetic characterization of Garoe sheep was achieved using 48 unreated genomic DNA sampes and 25 microsateite markers. Number of aees at 25 microsateite oci and genotype of each anima was recorded from air-dried ges. The data thus generated were used to cacuate aee frequency; expected, observed heterozygosities and poymorphism information content (PIC) vaues. The number of aees varied from 2 to 11. Effective number of aees ranged from 1.09 to Aee frequency distribution at 25 oci ranged from 0.01 to Other genetic variabiity measures cacuated on the basis of aee frequency incuded heterozygosity, PIC for each marker and mean diversity indices for the investigated breed. Expected heterozygosity estimates for different microsateite oci varied from 0.0 to 0.85, and observed heterozygosity vaues for different markers ranged from to PIC varied from 0.08 to The average high number of aees (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.603) and PIC vaues (0.63) refected high eve of genetic variabiity in the Garoe breed. Estimated means of Wrights fixation index (Fis-0.228) reveaed a ow rate of inbreeding. by 25 microsateite markers in Sahiwa and Hariana breeds were 151 and 169, respectivey. In Sahiwa detected aees ranged from 3 to 13 with a mean number of 6.04 aees/microsateite marker. In Hariana detected aees ranged from 4 to 15 with a mean number of 6.76 aees/microsateite marker. Within breed, diversity for each marker was cacuated in terms of heterozygosity and poymorphism information content (PIC) vaue. The unbiased estimates of expected heterozygosity at different microsateite oci ranged from to in Sahiwa and to in Hariana. The PIC vaues were to in Sahiwa and to 0.901in Hariana. Buffao: The number of aees and their frequencies at eight microsateite oci in Murrah, Nii Ravi, Jaffarabadi and Mehsana breeds, were studied. Locus BT13 had maximum (11) aees and ocus B246 minimum (5). The overa average number of aees at these oci was 8.37 ± 1.76 and overa average number of effective aees was 4.27 ± The overa observed heterozygosity across a oci ranged from to and expected heterozygosity ranged from to for the same oci, indicating suitabiity of these microsateite oci for genetic diversity study in Indian buffaoes. Overa observed heterozygosity across a four breeds ranged from to and H e ranged from to 0.690, which indicated random samping and genetic variation of these popuations. Most of the oci studied, were at HWE indicating the oci to be neutra. This is an important criterion for seection of microsateite ocus in biodiversity anaysis. However, the ocus BT13 showed a significant departure from HWE in a the breeds. PCR based mtdna studies: Mitochondria DNA marker, viz., cytochrome-b (Cyt-b) was anayzed in indigenous buffaoes using PCR based approach. Conserved primers for Cyt-b region were used to ampify corresponding region in buffao mitochondria DNA. A pane comprising Murrah, Jaffarabadi, Toda and Mehsana breeds of buffaoes was taken to check for the PCR-ampification of Cyt-b region. Successfu ampification was achieved in a the four breeds having simiar MW of 380bp. This was further confirmed by ampification of Cyt-b region in catte, sheep, goats and cames. The PCR products were RE digested and anayzed on agarose and poyacryamide ges to detect poymorphism. Both MspI and Sau3AI patterns reveaed simiar Cyt-b hapotypes. Digoxigenin (DIG) based system was used for abeing of microsateite oigo probes and detection of DNA fingerprint pattern in buffaoes. Genomic DNA from Murrah and Mehsana buffaoes was digested with either Hinf I and HaeIII restriction enzyme and fractionated on 0.7% agarose ges. Southern botting was carried out by capiary transfer. Oigo microsateites, viz., (GTG) 5 and (GGAT) 4 were used to evauate the best possibe enzyme-probe combination for generating informative DNA fingerprint pattern. Evauation of DNA fingerprints indicated more number of scorabe DNA bands with (GTG) 5 than (GGAT) 4 probe. The HinfI-(GTG) 5 probeenzyme combination was more suitabe than HaeIII-(GTG) 5 combination in generating informative DNA fingerprint pattern in indigenous buffaoes. At the IVRI, Izatnagar, the PCR-RFLP anaysis of DRB 3.2 gene of major histocompatibiity compex of Murrah buffao with PstI and HaeIII, reveaed the presence of 284-bp fragment with different restriction patterns demonstrating the poymorphic nature of the gene. Heritabiity estimate of growth traits in Muzaffarnagri sheep: At the CIRG, Makhdoom, heritabiity estimates of body weight of sheep at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were 0.20 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.07, 0.14 ± 0.06, 0.20 ± 0.07 and 0.34 ± 0.08 respectivey. The genetic progress of body weights at birth and 9 months of age were ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.50 respectivey. The overa repacement rate was 31.13%. RFLP anaysis of κ-casein fragment: The B-variant of κ-casein was favourabe for mik quaity, as it is associated with highest protein percentage. The genotyping of animas at κ-casein ocus may be one of the criteria for seection of dairy animas. Using the primers, K1 and K2 reported for buffao, ampification of κ-casein fragment was successfuy done in catte, buffao and sheep. Fragment size observed in catte,

103 97 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT buffao and sheep was 379 bp. The RFLP anaysis with the restriction enzyme Hin fi and Hind III reveaed that a the buffaoes under investigation were homozygous for most favourabe aee B. The catte under investigation were heterozygous for this aee, and the sheep had atogether different genotype. Conservation of Anima Genetic Resources Nicobari and Asee breeds of poutry: Nicobari and Asee breeds of poutry were subjected to microsateite anaysis at the NBAGR, Karna. Asee birds were coected at random from its breeding tract Baster (Chhattisgarh) and Khammam (Andhra Pradesh). Number of aees ranged from 3 to 11. Microsateite oci having PIC vaues higher than 0.5 were considered highy informative. Unbiased heterozygosity ranged from to in Nicobari and to in Asee. Both popuations reveaed higher unbiased-heterozygosity and averageheterozygosity. These high heterozygosity vaues far exceed the vaues estimated for commercia breeds. High eve of heterozygosity in both the popuations signifies that (i) there was very itte seection in the popuation with respect to singe/mutipe traits of economic importance, and (ii) sufficient numbers of aees representing genetic diversity existed in the popuations studied. The vaues obtained as mean unbiased heterozygosity over a oci were 0.62 and 0.61 and heterozygosity (direct count) were 0.51 and 0.55, respectivey, for Nicobari and Asee birds. A the oci seected were highy poymorphic and suitabe for genetic diversity anaysis. A resource popuation for naked neck gene introgression was deveoped, and the crossing up to BC1 generation invoving two genetic groups (Na. nn and nn. Na) was competed by crossing the F 1 and recipient ine in reciproca way. Two panes of microsateite markers, i.e., pane I of 11 markers from chromosome 3, and pane II of 10 markers from other chromosomes, were identified. Initiay the microsateite markers from chromosome 3 were used in genotyping. The genetic simiarity between grand sire and BC 1 progenies ranged from 0.25 to Simiary the estimates of genetic distances ranged from 0.15 to Saient findings of the study on Evauation of genetic distances among ongterm seected and contro ines of WL using DNA methods were: (i) highy poymorphic bands were observed with most of the primers, and some primers reveaed unique ine specific bands of different sizes; (ii) BSF estimates were obtained with RAPD-PCR and DFP. DFP with Hinf I digest and Jeffreys 33.6 probe reveaed marked variabiity among the ines; DNA fingerprinting reveaed simiar trends of genetic distances but resoved finer genetic differences more than RAPD-PCR; (iii) biodiversity in chicken coud be measured convenienty with simpe and rapid method of RAPD-PCR, however, DFP was more cumbersome and expensive. Identification of moecuar markers and marker assisted seection to improve performance in buffaoes: DNA sampes (60) were isoated and stored at the recommended status of the quaity/quantity basis in the DNA repository. Fingerprinting of DNA is under progress, initiaizing with the bovine/caprine/ovine RAPD primers/markers to test their suitabiity for buffao genome study. Some poymorphic sequences of other species were abe to identify the poymorphic sites associated with the variation in performance status in buffaoes. Moecuar genotyping of pure egg ines using ISSR-PCR: The emphasis is on PCR based genotyping of the various pure ines through random primer based mutiocus profiing. Inter simpe sequence repeat based poymorphism studies were conducted on poutry using random oigoes of 17 or 18 primers containing dinuceotide repeats as the core units. A set of 30 primers that ampify successfuy in the other eukaryotic genome, mosty incorporating AT, TA, CT, TG and CA repeats incorporating 3 anchors was tried on the above resource popuation (egger ine base). The AT and TA based primers faied to ampify any ampicons, whie the (CT) n primers gave rise to isomorphic ampicons foowing the ISSR- PCR. Promising resuts in diversity anaysis coud be possibe by using the primers consisting of AG and TG cores. A the ampified PCR products of ISSR anaysis confirmed the expectations and parameters reevant to the distribution of MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIAN GOAT BREEDS At the CIRG, Makhdoom, Kutchi, Jakhrana, Sirohi, Jamunapari, Barbari and Marwari goat breeds were anaysed using 15-microsateite markers. MILST S076 and ysozyme were monomorphic having sizes of 120 bp and 236 bp, respectivey, in a the sampes. Microsateite markers BM 4521, IDVGA 7, BM 6526, Oar HH 56 and Oar AE 101 were highy poymorphic oci in Indian goats. Aee frequencies of a the oci were used to generate phyogenic tree to estabish the genetic reatedness of the goat breeds. Mitochondria-HVRI of goat was ampified and sequenced, and anayzed for evoutionary reationship of Indian goats. Comparative genomic approach was successfuy adopted by using catte and sheep microsateite markers to obtain goat microsateite markers.

104 98 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT IMPROVEMENT AND IN-SITU CONSERVATION OF JAMUNAPARI GOATS IN THEIR HOME TRACT CHAKARNAGAR, ETAWAH The traditiona technica knowedge regarding seection criteria of bucks by farmers was studied and suppemented with scientific methods of seection in fied condition. The body weight of mae kids at birth, 3, 6 and 9 months of age were 2.60, 14.02, and kg, respectivey. The tota average mik yied in fied condition was about 1.03 itre/day. The kidding rate was 1.60 with and 16.5% in twin and tripet both, respectivey. The 90 days mik yied was itres. The body weight is showing increasing trend over the years indicating use of superior sire for breeding purpose. The bucks seected from viages were reared in semi-intensive and intensive system of rearing. The goats reared under intensive system attained about kg and kg at 9 and 12 months of age, whereas, the goats in semi-intensive system attained about kg and kg at 12 months of age. Reproductive abiity and fertiity percentage of bucks varied from 66.6 to 100% in natura mating. microsateite oci in the chicken genome. The BG region poymorphisms are being studied using the MHC cass IV region probes aong with the minisateite based profiing for the diversity anaysis within and across the purebred popuations. At the NRC on Came, Bikaner, bood sampes of 55 unreated cames of Bikaneri, Jaisameri and Kachchhi breeds were coected. Six microsateite primers were utiized for characterization. The microsateite anaysis of 30 sampes of Bikaneri and Jaisameri breeds with six primers was competed. A the six microsateite primers used were poymorphic. RFLP anaysis of MHC-DRB3 fragment: At the NRC on Came, Bikaner, ampification of MHC-DRB3 ocus was successfuy attempted in catte (BoLA), horse (ELA), donkey (ELA), sheep (OLA) and buffao (BuLA). The fragment size in a species was 308 bp in 1% agarose ge eectrophoresis. RFLP anaysis was then carried out using the restriction enzymes HinfI, HaeIII and RsaI. Indigenous pigs: Bood sampes (50; 25 sampes per popuation) were coected from geneticay unreated oca pigs from Haryana (North Indian type) and Assam (North-Eastern type). Aee frequencies for the 23 microsateite oci in each popuation were cacuated by aee counting. A aees ranged between 4 and 12 with generay itte difference between the breeds. The effective number of aees ranged from 2.8 to 7.9 in NR and from 2.5 to 8.7 in NE. The mean effective number of aees for a 23 oci was 5.0 in NR and 5.3 in NE. These numbers are aso refected in mean observed heterozygosity of 0.71 ± 0.14 and 0.68 ± 0.12 in NR and NE, respectivey. The mean effective number of aees and the mean observed heterozygosity is quite simiar in both the pig types. The heterozygosity vaues in Indian pig popuations, however, were a itte higher compared to that of European breeds. It is ikey that the Indian pig types studied are represented by arge effective popuation in comparison to European pig breeds which are we defined, purebred stock, and are represented by smaer popuation. Nei s origina measure of genetic distance and Nei s unbiased measure of genetic distance between these two popuations were and 0.160, respectivey. These data suggested that the two popuations ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCE DIVERSITY (MISSION MODE) The DNA repository was estabished for the foowing breed/species: Garoe sheep 56 Puga sheep 34 Benga goat 48 Jaisameri came 55 Asee poutry 38 Nicobari 36 Miri poutry 20 Bhadawari buffao 52 Tarai buffao 60 Kashmir Favoroa micro sateite oci were anayzed in four poutry breeds (Asee, Nicobari, Kashmir Favoroa and Miri). The poymorphic information content was very high for a the oci in a the four breeds. The four breeds have shown deviation from the Hardy- Weinberg Proportions in most of the microsateite oci. The genetic distances cacuated reveaed separate custers using method of aee sharing for a the four breeds/sub-popuations. Dendogram anaysis reveaed that Nicobari and Asee breeds are more coser to one another than Kashmir Favoroa and Miri. The dendograms, topoogy and phyogenetic tree were constructed using various methods. Heteroogus microsateite were studied in goat, buffao and came breeds and were utiized for biodiversity anaysis. PIC vaues, heterozygosity vaues were aso cacuated for goat and buffao breeds. Breed descriptors were deveoped for Tarai and Bhadawari buffaoes, Chegu goat and Nicobari poutry. Survey of Benga goat, Puga and Garoe sheep, Miri and Kashmir Favoroa breeds of poutry was competed. Genera awareness about the indigenous breeds of ivestock and poutry was generated among the farmers/breeders.

105 99 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT are very cosey reated indicating that domestic Indian pigs have evoved from the same parent stock. Conservation and utiization of indigenous fow: Asee (Peea and Kagar) and Kadaknath fows are being maintained in pure form. Third generation of grading up of Naked-Neck and Frizze popuation with WL showed significant improvement in the part time egg production. Identification of genes ike Siky, Bantam, V-shaped comb and Dupex comb in desi fow for creation of gene poos of major genes and their introgression was taken up as the major chaenge in this area. Characterization of Kashmir Commercia ayer chicken was aso undertaken for cytogenetic profies, biochemica anaysis and moecuar genetic studies. ANIMAL BREEDING CATTLE Anaysis of data of IVRI dairy herd for the years indicated that the effect of generation was significant for production, reproduction and production efficiency traits of cows beonging to FH, FBH, BFH, JFH genetic grades. The performance of cows of F 2 and F 3 generations in a the genetic groups improved compared to F 1. Frieswa The present catte popuation consists of 21,369 femaes incuding 14,290 Frieswa and 7,079 other crosses ocated at 43 Miitary Farms under this project. At present 837 eite cows are avaiabe at different Miitary Farms out of which 604 are Frieswa, and 233 are 3/8 and other of ower crosses. Lactation yied, 300 days mik yied, actation ength and peak yied of Frieswa cows were 3, ± kg, 3, ± kg, ± 9.15 days and ± 0.36 kg, respectivey. The average age and weight at first caving, dry period, service period and caving interva of Frieswa cows were ± days and ± 4.24 kg, ± days, ± days and ± days, respectivey. The overa age and body weight of Frieswa bus at first semen donation were ± 26 days and ± 8.13 kg, respectivey. Year and seasons significanty affected the mik production performance of Frieswa cows. The wet and herd averages (kg) of Frieswa cows during summer, rainy season and winter were ± 0.04 and 7.39 ± 0.03, 8.53 ± 0.04 and 6.18 ± 0.04, and 9.53 ± 0.03 and 6.99 ± 0.03, respectivey. Hot humid weather conditions adversey affected the production performance of Frieswa cows. The reduction in wet and herd averages from March (highest average yied) to October (owest average yied) was and 26.67%, respectivey. Neary 630,000 doses are presenty avaiabe for future use, and 36 bus are under coection semen in the project. Production, reproduction and production efficiency traits improved with generations. Season affected mik yied in Frieswa catte. Indigenous bus are being seected by progeny testing at organized farms. Indigenous Breeds Indigenous catte breeds, viz. Hariana, Ongoe, Gir and Tharparkar are being covered under Indigenous Breeds Project. Hariana: At the CCS HAU,Hisar, the breeding popuation consisted of 782 femaes, 6 breeding bus and 37 young bus (above 2 years). Overa conception rate in heifers and cows was 46.7% and 50.6%, respectivey. In tota 1,124 ( ) daughters have so far been produced due to 5 sets, respectivey. On cosing date 36,531 doses of frozen semen of test bus were avaiabe. Average age at first caving, first actation mik yied and peak yied was months, 866 kg and kg, respectivey. First dry period, service period and caving interva averaged 269, 207 and 497 days, respectivey. Ongoe: At the ANGRAU, Lam, femae herd strength was 1,118, the breeding popuation consisted of 692 femaes, 11 breeding bus and 11 young bus (above 2 Best indigenous bu from Karnataka

106 100 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT years). Overa conception rate in heifers was 41.7% and in cows 55.4%. In test matings 33 bus have so far been used in 4 sets ( ). The baance of semen doses avaiabe on cosing date at Germpasm Unit was 12,810, 12,355, 29,010 and 18,595 (tota 72,770) from first, second, third and fourth set of bus, respectivey.average age at first caving, first actation mik yied and peak yied were months, 588 kg and 3.77 kg, respectivey. First dry period, service period and caving interva averaged 331, 240 and 544 days, respectivey. Based on the daughters first actation yied, two sets, which comprised 8 bus in each set, were evauated and ranked. Top two bus from first set were L 15 (sire index = 583) and L 10 (sire index = 579), and from second set L 12 (sire index = 517) and L 35 (sire index = 503).Draught power studies reveaed that power varied from 0.64 to 1.13 HP among the bus. Gir: At the GAU, Junagadh, the germpasm herd reported 87 cavings out of which 11 were from the heifers. Age at first caving of these heifers was 53.0 months.mean actation yied, actation ength, dry period, service period and caving interva were 2,100 itres, 338 days, 133 days, 184 days and 457 days, respectivey. Fied Progeny Testing MULTIPLICATION OF ELITE GERMPLASM The technique of IVF was assessed for its practicabiity in buffaoes, and the different steps were standardized using saughterhouse oocytes. Avaiabe knowedge and practica techniques were made avaiabe to concerned scientists and teachers through ICAR sponsored Summer Schoo entited Appication of cryopreservation of germpasm for improving productivity of dairy buffaoes. Under the Frieswa Project and other Hostein Friesian crossbred bus are being progeny tested under fied conditions at the PAU Ludhiana, KAU Mannuthy, and BAIF, Urui-kanchan.At the PAU, Ludhiana, inseminations were done from bus of third set (746 inseminations) and fourth set (4,084 inseminations) of the Network programme. The production performance of the first set of bus showed that the daughters of bu No. WAM 303 recorded highest average mik production of 3,208.1 ± kg (first actation 305 days), and daughters of bu No. DON recorded the minimum (2,030.7 ± kg) indicating considerabe variation in their breeding vaues the age at first caving was 34.7 ± 0.03 months, and the fat percentage at second, fifth and eighth month of actation was 3.4 ± 0.03, 3.8 ± 0.03 and 4.2 ± 0.03, respectivey. At the BAIF, Urui-kanchan the average mik production of 8,076 daughters of 19 bus was 2,969.8 ± 9.99 kg, ranging from 1, kg for the daughters of Tony bu to 3, kg for the daughters of Nabha bu. Out of 17,239 inseminations foowed for pregnancies, 7,673 pregnancies were confirmed and the conception rate was 44.51%. At the KAU, Mannuthy, the overa average first actation mik yied of the daughters of tested bus was 2,056.7 itres as compared to their dams yied of 1,764.1 itres in different parities. The average age at first caving of the daughters was 34.5 months. The overa averages of fat percentage were 3.51 and 4.27 in the morning and evening mik sampes, respectivey, at second month, 3.87 and 4.47 at the fifth month, and 4.06 and 4.68 at the eighth month of actation, showing that fat percentage increased with the stage of actation. BUFFALO Evauation of Bus under Progeny Testing On basis of the data on 305 days mik yied of daughters, received from various centres, bu number 392 and 896 of the CIRB were ranked as first and third. Superiority over contemporary daughters for the two bus was 22.8 and 5.5% respectivey. The semen of these bus is being used for nominated matings on the eite animas. Network Project on Buffao Improvement The test mating from sixth set resuted in 413 inseminations, out of which 165 pregnancies were obtained. Seventh set started from Juy 2002.

107 101 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Carpet Woo SHEEP Avikain: The strain has the potentia to be deveoped as dua-type sheep for carpet woo and mutton production. Annua tupping and ambing per cent on ewes avaiabe basis were and 87.88% respectivey. Least squares means of body weight at birth, 3,6 and 12 month were 2.88, 11.20, and kg. Magra: Magra, an important breed of arid area produces the best carpet woo of unique uster. The birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months weight were 2.79, 12.98, 20.06, and kg, respectivey. The tupping, ambing on avaiabe and ambing on bred basis were 84.3, 74.5, 88.4%. The adut spring, autumn and annua and ambs first and second cip greasy feece weight were 0.907, 0.791,1.779 and and kg respectivey. The adut spring cip was kg. The overa east squares for fibre diameter, hetro fibre, meduation, stape ength and crimp were 33.07µ, 37.08%, 50.15%, 5.32 cm and 0.77/cm, respectivey. The survivabiity was 94.5%. Marwari: The Marwari breed, important sheep popuation of Rajasthan, was improved for carpet woo production through seection. At birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 month weights were 3.00, 12.17, 16.72, and kg respectivey. The overa tupping and ambing on avaiabe and bred basis were 88.4, 80.9 and 91.5%. The east squares means of fibre diameter, hetro fibres, hairy fibres, meduation, stape ength and crimp were 31.15µ, 34.72%, 20.48%, 56.59%, 3.69 cm and 0.57/cm. The overa survivabiity was 96.3%. Fine Woo Gaddi synthetic: The focks maintained at the CSWRI, Garsa Station, showed the pooed birth weight as kg. The tupping percentage on ewes avaiabe basis in spring and autumn was 16.6 and 100 respectivey. The overa conception rate on the basis of ewes tupped was 81.92%. The ambing during autumn and spring on ewes tupped basis was ni and The adut GFY of maes and femaes were kg and kg, respectivey, during spring whereas in autumn, GFY in maes and femaes were kg and kg respectivey. The pooed GFY was kg. The 6 monthy woo yied was kg. Stape ength was 2.75 cm, diameter 20.14µ and meduation 1.5%. The preweaning survivabiity was 54.23%. Choka: At the CSWRI, Avikanagar, average annua woo yied was about 2 kg. Average body weight at birth, 6 and 12 months of age were 2.72, and Eite sheep fock Marwari sheep, was deveoped as a carpet woo breed through seection Twin ambing in Garoe Mapura strain improved to 52%. Mik yied and body weight at marketabe age of Jamunapari, Barbari and Sirohi goats improved. Rabbits weaned at 28 days of age showed highest daiy weight gain. Strain cross deveoped at CARI produced eggs, 3-times higher than commercia strains. Feed requirement in ayer birds reduced by 174 g to produce one dozen eggs. Synthetic broiers attained 944 g at five weeks of age. Caribro-Dhanraj weighed 1,595 g at 7 weeks of age. Poutry germpasm adapted we in different agro cimatic conditions. Phenotypic and genetic responses for economic traits in quais studied. Turkey birds performed we in huts. Breed affected the growth in cames. Caving was highest in Kachchhi came.

108 102 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT kg respectivey. Overa survivabiity of the bock was 93%. Annua ambing (based on ewe avaiabe) was 93%. Mutton Production Mapura: Overa means for birth, 3, 6 and 12 month body weight were 2.92, 12.51, and kg in Mapura. The twin ambing in Garoe Mapura ewes was 52%, and it was 19% higher compared to previous year.the Mapura ewes gave birth to mosty singe ambs except 4% twin ambing. Survivabiity in Garoe Mapura genetic group was amost at par with that of Mapura. Garae Mapura ewe with tripet Network Project on Sheep Improvement Improvement in feece weight and body growth in Muzaffarnagri sheep: At the CIRG, Makhdoom, the Muzaffarnagri sheep was improved for faster growth and high feed conversion efficiency. It is one of the best mutton breeds in India and is widey distributed in the semi-arid region of western Uttar Pradesh, Uttarancha, and in some parts of Dehi and Haryana. Seection of maes was done on the basis of 6-months body weight and first cip greasy feece weight. Under semi-intensive feeding system the average body weights of animas, maintained at birth, 3, 6 and 9 months body weight were 2.99 ± 0.05, ± 0.32, ± 0.66, ± 0.66 and ± 0.91 kg, respectivey. The average daiy weight gains of animas were ± 9.54 and ± 1.71 g at pre- and post-weaning ages. The east-squares means of greasy feece yied at first cip (6 month) and second cip (12 month) were ± 8.01 and ± g. The adut annua woo yied was 1, ± g. Animas under intensive system of management weighed ± 0.43 and ± 0.98 kg at 3-month and 6-month of age, respectivey. The average first cip woo yied was ± g and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) ± 0.69%. Animas under intensive feeding management had higher 6-month body weight than animas reared under semi-intensive system, which indicated the expoitation of potentiaity of these animas under optimum (ad ib.) feeding system. The tupping per cent was 95.16%, whereas ambing per cent on the basis of ewes avaiabe and ewes tupped was and 95.60% respectivey. BHARAT MERINO At the CSWRI, Avikanagar, genetic improvement process was continued by seection of ram ambs for future breeding on the basis of seection index deveoped by incorporating first 6-month woo yied and 6-month body weight. The average body weight at birth, 3, 6, 12 month were 3.13,13.12, and kg respectivey. The strain has the potentia to be deveoped as dua-type sheep for fine woo and mutton production. At the eite fock maintained at the SRRC, Mannavanur, mean body weight at birth,3, 6 and 12 month was 4.209,20.69, 25.5 and kg respectivey. Survivabiity was 100%, and ambing per cent based on ewes aowed and ewes bred were 82.6 and 88.8% respectivey.

109 103 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT AICRP on Goat Improvement GOAT The goat improvement programme is being carried out with farm and fied-based programmes. In farm based programme production performance of Jamunapari, Barbari at the CIRG, Makhdoom, and Sirohi at the CSWRI, Avikanagar, was improved by seection. The major emphasis was to improve mik production and body weight at marketabe age of Jamunapari and Barbari goats through use of seected bucks. The bucks were seected on the index basis combining 9/12-month body weight of the buck and 90 days mik yied of their dams. Jamunapari: The production performance of the nuceus fock was improved through seective breeding in the nuceus fock based on seection index. The genetic potentia of Jamunapari goat in intensive system of management was 26.9 kg and kg at 9 months and 12 months of age, respectivey. The body weight gain in intensive system of management was ± 4.54 g/day during 6 9 months of age foowed by ± 3.27 g/day during 9 12 months of age. The mik yied was ± 0.95 kg and ± 1.39 kg at 90 days and 140 days, respectivey. The mik yied was and 22.26% higher over the previous year. The average kidding rate in Jamunapari goats was about The popuation growth during the year was about 45.64% and overa mortaity 10.42%. Barbari goats: The breed is best known for meat and mik as we as its adaptabiity over wide range agrocimatic conditions. The kidding rate of Barbari goat was about 1.5, indicative of high reproductive potentia of the breed. The present mik yied at 140 days was itres. The Barbari goat has shown impressive popuation growth of about 145% during The first kid was obtained at 377 days indicating the potentia of Barbari goat as a successfu commercia breed. The fock mortaity was 8.46% during the year. Sirohi performance improved after seection PIG Under the A India Coordinated Research Project on Pigs, 50 80% crossbred F 1 progenies were produced at a the Centres. Energy-protein ratio for optimum production is being worked out. Rabbit for Woo RABBIT Kit survivabiity in German Angora was 97.45% and British Angora 90.90% respectivey. Average itter size at birth (LSB) and itter size at weaning (LSW) were 5.39 and 5.25 in German Angora, and 6.60 and 6.00 in British Angora, respectivey. Average LSB of GA and BA were and g whie pooed weaning weights (42 days) were g and g respectivey. Rabbit for Meat In broier rabbits maintained at the CSWRI, Avikanagar, the overa means of LSB itter weight at birth, LSW, itter weight at weaning and weight at kinding were 5.45, g, 4.80, 1, g and 3.16 kg respectivey. The body weight at 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 weeks were , , , 1, and 2, g respectivey. At the NTRS, Garsa, the LSB were 6.23, 5.41, 5.26 and 5.0 in GG, WG, SC and NZW, respectivey, and LSW were 5.3, 4.66, 4.29 and 5.00 respectivey. The body weight at 84 days was 1.75, 1.7, 1.48 and 1.35 kg in NZW, WG, SC and GG respectivey. Daiy weight gain was highest in rabbits weaned at 28 days as compared to the animas weaned at 35 and 42 days. The kits survivabiity ranged from 81 to

110 104 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT %. The rabbits reared during winter performed better than those reared during summer and rainy season. At the SRRC, Mannavanur, 883 kits were produced. Overa kit mortaity was 24.7%. Mean weight at 6 weeks was and kg in WG and SC, respectivey. Weight at 12 week was and kg in WG and SC, respectivey. LSB, LSW, LWB and LWW were 6.8 and 6.5, 403 g and g; 6.0 and 5.1 and kg and kg for WG and SC, respectivey. Poutry for Egg POULTRY Parents of White Leghorn cross IMPROVEMENT OF LAYER POPULATIONS At the PDP, Hyderabad, pure ines IWH and IWI are being maintained under this programme. In S3 generation the seected ines matured 4 14 days earier, and produced eggs more than the contro. The body weight decined by g at 40 weeks of age in these ines. The egg weights were g and g; g and g for 28 and 40 weeks of age, respectivey, for both the ines. The frequency distribution of egg production up to 40 weeks of age indicated that 62 to 73% of birds aid more than 100 eggs as compared to ony 32% in contro birds, indicating the efficiency of seection method used. The heritabiity estimates of age at sexua maturity, body weight at 18 and 40 weeks of age, egg weight at 28 and 40 weeks of age and egg production up to 40 weeks of age were ow to moderate in magnitude, with the evidence of dominance and or materna effect in inheritance of body weight at 18 and 40 weeks of age in IWH ine and a the traits in IWI ine. Comparative performance of White Leghorn pure strains: At the CARI, Izatnagar, various strains of White Leghorn popuation competed part record egg production up to 40th week of age after S25 generation of seection. Their puets matured between the average age range of 134 and 145 days compared to 164 days of age in the contro ine. In WL strains eary egg weight at 28th week of age ranged from 46 to g and at 40th week to 57 g, whie in the contro popuation g. The egg production ranged from to 104 eggs up to 40th week of age in WL seected strains, and 75 eggs in the contro popuation. The genetic changes in ASM and 40th week egg weight were highy significant and negative in direction. The ASM decined to the tune of 0.46 to 1.04 days, whereas, egg weight decined from 0.10 to 0.21 g per generation. The genetic response in 40-week egg production ranged from 0.99 to 1.52 eggs/generation. The regression coefficients for various important economica traits in the contro popuation were nonsignificant indicating its stabiity in eiminating the environmenta trend. Evauation of strain/breed crosses for egg production: Among 2-way, strain and breed crosses JG strain cross produced the highest number of eggs foowed by JR, HR, HI, RH and CD in order of merit. The JG strain cross puets aso matured with the owest age at sexua maturity of days. Comparative performance of Rhode Isand Red pure strains: The RIR seected ine reveaed superior economic traits compared to the contro popuation. Average genetic response per generation for egg number and egg mass up to 40th week of age and 40th week egg weight were highy significant and positive. The corresponding estimates for the above traits on genetic scae were 1.21 eggs, g and 0.12 g, respectivey. The poutry for egg component of the AICRP on Poutry Improvement, has eggstrains, IWD and IWF at ANGRAU, Hyderabad; IWN and IWP at KAU, Mannuthy and GAU, Anand, besides IWG, IWH, IWI and IWJ at the CARI, Izatnagar. The response of seection for enhanced period of 64 weeks showed an increase in egg number by 10 to 12 eggs in IWD and IWF strains over contros at the ANGRAU centre. The reaized genetic gain in egg production was 1.25, and 1.18 eggs up to 40 weeks of age per generation in IWH, IWI, IWG and IWJ, respectivey. This gain was statisticay significant. The egg weight at 28 and 40 weeks of age was, respectivey, g and g for IWN, and 50.2 and 54.1 g for IWP. On seection of the same strains for feed efficiency at the GAU, the average feed consumption/day was 109 g and 106 g for IWN and IWP, respectivey, up to 40 weeks of age. A significant decine in feed requirement of 500 g in IWN and 400 g in IWP ines to produce 1 kg egg mass was noticed in this generation. A strain cross deveoped at the CARI, Izatnagar, produced eggs, which was higher than three prominent commercias, in 31st RSPPT, Bangaore. The feed intake (117 g/day), feed efficiency (1.77 kg/dozen eggs) and margin of receipts (Rs 58.29) over feed cost were markedy better over commercias. Another cross from the KAU recorded 282 eggs in the same test with a margin receipt of Rs over feed cost. Seection for efficiency of feed utiization in egg type chicken: IWK was evauated for feed efficiency. The puets of seected ine matured 9 days earier compared to

111 105 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT the contro. The residua feed consumption per day, a mutipe regression of egg mass production, weight gain and metaboic body size was 2.36 g in IWK and 1.72 g in contro. Heritabiity of egg production and feed efficiency was ow. Genetic correations of part period egg production with feed efficiency traits in IWK ine were in genera negative, indicating that any attempt to improve feed efficiency wi resut in improvement of egg production efficiency. The average feed consumed per day, feed per dozen egg, and feed per kg egg mass production during weeks of age were 88.2 g and 95.4 g; 1,382 g and 1,556 g and 2,332 g and 2,974 g in IWK and contro ines respectivey. The feed consumption was reduced by 7 g in seected ines and the feed requirement was ess by 174 g to produce a dozen eggs or 642 g ess to produce 1 kg egg mass. Evauation of strain crosses of ayers: Two- and three-way crosses were generated utiizing the avaiabe pure ines. HI combination was better for production up to 40 weeks of age. The reciproca crosses differed in degree of manifestation of heterosis suggesting infuence of both materna and sex-inked effects. Three-way crosses amost performed equay ti 40 weeks of age and the egg weight recorded at 28 and 40 weeks of age was around 1 g and 1.5 g more, respectivey, in KIH cross combination. Anaysis of a resource egg type popuation for quantitative, immunogenic and moecuar profiing: Three sub popuations were produced with inbreeding infused in FS and HS 0.25 and 0.13 per generation, respectivey, apart from the usua non-inbred group. As envisaged, these constituted the genotypic groups with varying degree of homogeneity, moving towards estabishing near-congenic ayer popuations for the B-hapotyping studies. Poutry for Meat The synthetic broier dam ine (SDL) at the CARI, Izatnagar, has undergone 12 generations of seection. The fertiity was 81.2% and hatchabiity per cent of TES and FES were 65.3 and 80.5%, respectivey. The mean body weights at 4, 5, 6, 20 and 24 weeks of age were ± 2.5, ± 3.70, ± 27.88, ± and 2876 ± 11.9 g, respectivey. The heritabiity estimates for body weights at 4 and 5 weeks were ± and 0.12 ± 0.032, respectivey. The genetic correation between body weights at 4 and 5 weeks was ± and phenotypic correation The phenotypic correation between 4 and 20 weeks body weights was and between 5 and 20 weeks The seection and breeding programme for deveopment of speciaized broier mae ines with white and cooured pumage continued in Cooured Synthetic Mae Line (CSML), Cooured Synthetic Femae Line (CSFL) and Synthetic Broier mae ine (SML-2). The SML-2 ine had two sub ines growth ine (SG), seection was based on 6 week body weight, and index ine (SF), seection criterion was 4 6 weeks feed efficiency (FE). So far, CSML and CSFL have reached seventh generation and SML-2 ine has reached 11th generation of seection. Average body weight at 3 and 5 weeks in CSML were ± 2.83 and ± 4.69 g, respectivey. The corresponding means in CSFL were ± 2.02 and ± 3.53 g. The average body weight of mae, femae and combined progeny in growth ine (SG) were 551, 441 and 476 g at 3 weeks; 938, 746 and 812 g at 4 weeks; 1,210, 992 and 1,101 g at 5 weeks; 1,576, 1,356 and 1,466 g at 6 weeks; and 1,860, 1,682 and 1,770 g at 7 weeks of age. The corresponding body weights in index ine (SF) were 465, 425 and 445 g at 3 weeks; 736, 686 and 711 g at 4 weeks; 1,035, 918 and 976 g at 5 weeks; 1,360, 1,216 and 1,288 g at 6 weeks and 1,800, 1,580 and 1,690 g at 7 weeks of age.the phenotype gain in combined sex of SG for body weights at 4, 6, 7 and gains during 4 6 weeks were 28.60, 39.16, and 8.55 g/generation, respectivey. Corresponding vaues for reaized responses in SG ine were 23.06, 42.79, and 14.5 g/generation. In SF ine the phenotypic gains for body weight at 4, 6, 7 weeks, FCR (4 6 weeks) and FE (4 6 weeks) were 22.05, 27.42, g/ generation, 0.02 and 0.003/generation. The corresponding genetic gains were 16.50, 30.83, g/generation, 0.04 and 0.006/generation. CARI-PRIYA CARI-Priya, the unique white-sheed egg ayer, achieved the first rank among a the entries in 31st random sampe poutry performance test for egg production hed at Bangaore centre. CARI-Priya topped in the hen-housed egg production under cage-house system. The average egg weight of g was aso idea from commercia point of view. The performance of CARI-Priya in deep-itter system ranked among the best commercia ayers avaiabe in the country. It edged over other commercia ayers in amost a important economic traits and thus recognized as the idea bird for commercia ayer farmers in India.In RSPPT at Bombay the strain crosses from GAU and ANGRAU achieved exceent hen-day production of 291 and 289 eggs, respectivey, and the feed consumption was we under 100 g/day. The margin of receipts was Rs and Rs over feed cost for both the entries.

112 106 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT PERFORMANCE OF CARI-DEBENDRA CARI Debendra, a dua-purpose breed cross showed an average fertiity of 85.19%, whie the hatchabiity on fertie eggs transferred basis was 51.69%. The body weights at 6, 8 and 10 weeks of age in the combined sexes were , 1, and 1, g, respectivey. The average gain in body weight between different age groups, viz. 6 to 8 weeks; 8 to 10 weeks and 6 to 10 weeks,was , and g, respectivey; and average feed consumed per bird during the afore-mentioned period was 1,024, 1,119 and 2,143 g, respectivey; and feed conversion rates were 1.98, 2.76 and 2.32, respectivey. The CARI- Debendra puets matured at an average age of days. The mean egg weight was and g at 28 and 40 week of age, respectivey, with the egg production performance of eggs up to 40-week of age. Performance of Frizze cross, IC-3 and IR-4: The programme for introgression of frizze into broier competed fifth generations of back crossing. The overa mean body weight of Frizze SDL and SDL Frizze crosses at 5 weeks of age were ± 13.7 and 925 ± 8.5 g, respectivey. The averages of body weights at 5 weeks of age in IR-3 and IC-3 were ± and ± g, respectivey A India Coordinated Research Project on Poutry The synthetic dam ine of the CARI centre showed positive genetic response of and g for body weight at 4 and 6 weeks of age, respectivey. At the PAU, Ludhiana, the body weight of femae ine was 1,207 g at 6 weeks of age and they matured by 162 days of age and produced on an average 99.6 eggs by 52 weeks of age. The average egg weight at 40 weeks of age was 56.1 g. At the UAS center, Bangaore, the average body weight was 94.6 g at 5 weeks of age in S7 generation. These birds matured at 172 days of age and produced 72 eggs by the end of 40 weeks, with an average egg weight of 56.2 g. The dam ine maintained at the OUAT centre recorded 1,407 g and 1,164 g body weights in maes and femaes, respectivey, at 6 weeks of age. They matured at 180 days of age and produced on an average eggs, and the eggs weighed 58.4 g at 40 weeks. At the JNKVV, Jabapur, the existing purebred dwarf ine, and three dwarf crosses were maintained and tested. Cooured and white dam ine from the CARI and a singe dam ine from the PD on Poutry were utiized to produce the crosses of dwarfs at this centre. The mean body weight at 6 weeks of age was 580 g in pure dwarfs and 910 g, 882 g and 872 g in the 3 crosses with dwarfs. Compared to G2 generation an improvement of 20 g in body weight was achieved in dwarf pure ine at 6 weeks of age. During the ast 3 generations, the phenotypic response for 4 and 6 week body weight was 26 g and 17 g/generation. The egg production of dwarf dams improved by 1.8 and 3 eggs/generation, respectivey, for 40 and 72 weeks of age and, the trend was in the desirabe direction. The egg weight improved by 0.4 g/generation. The egg production of dwarfs in G 3 generation up to 40 weeks of age was 60, with average egg weight of 43.3 g and 53.6 g at 28 and 40 weeks of age, respectivey. The egg production in the 3 crosses was 56 and 62 for the 2 crosses at CARI and 54 for PDP combination. Compared to the pure dwarfs the egg weight of crosses was higher at 28 and 40 weeks of age. The crosses evauated at the CARI, PAU, UAS and OUAT centers, produced promising resuts in RSPPT conducted at Bangaore, Mumbai and Gurgaon. CARI- Bro-Visha recorded 1,484 g and 1,866 g body weights, respectivey, at 6 and 7 weeks of age with corresponding feed efficiency of 2.19 and 2.33 and yieded a margin of Rs and Rs over feed cost. The entry from UAS achieved 1,407 g and 1,734 g at 6 and 7 weeks of age and ranked second. In Gurgaon test, another cross the Caribro-Dhanraj from CARI, recorded body weights, 1,361 g and 1,595 g at 6 and 7 weeks of age, respectivey, with the corresponding feed efficiency of 2.15 and The margin of receipts was Rs and Rs at both the ages. In the same test, the PAU cross recorded 1,430 g and 1,900 g at 6 and 7 weeks, with feed conversion of 1.65 and 1.78, for both periods. Rura Poutry The introduction of Rura Poutry component in the ater part of IX pan period at the ICAR Research Compex, Agartaa, was intended to fied test the germpasm deveoped by the PD on Poutry, for rura farming under scavenging conditions. Vanaraja dua purpose germpasm deveoped by the PD on Poutry, Hyderabad, and Giriraja from UAS, Bangaore, were tested both on farm at Agartaa centre, and at househod eve in the hiy tracks. Both the varieties adapted we to the free-range scavenging situation. Improvement of mae and femae ines for production of rura germpasm: At the PDP, Hyderabad, the mae ine is used to produce the termina cross, Vanaraja.

113 107 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Genetic parameters showed sufficient scope for improvement and, intense seection was imposed for shank ength and antibody titre but not on body weight. Breeders in S 3 generation matured 12 days earier with a reduction in egg weight by 1 2 g over S 2. The muti-coour femae ine is being improved using famiy index and it is in S 2 generation. Due weightage was given for juvenie body weight, shank ength, antibody titers and pumage coour in seection at 6 weeks of age and a desirabe bend of these traits was achieved in the termina cross for efficient rura adaptation. In S 2 generation, 4 and 6-week body weight were, respectivey, 357 g and 699 g in maes and 328 g and 626 g in femaes. The shank ength and antibody titers at 6 weeks of age in maes were 3.04 inches and 5.21 og 2, respectivey, and in femaes the same were 2.88 inches and 5.75 og 2. In S 2 generation the average body weight at 4 and 6 weeks of age decined by 35 g and 140 g, respectivey, over earier generation, which was desirabe for making the bird acceptabe for rura situation shank ength an important criterion in seection, to overcome the predator probem in free-range system of rearing. Chicks from various coour combinations were seected and saved to achieve desired pattern of pumage coours in the termina cross. Fina seection at 6 weeks of age was done based on humora response to SRBC and deveop birds, which wi respond we to initia vaccination. The average intensity of seection for shank ength and SRBC titers was 0.46σ and 0.32σ. The heritabiity for 4 and 6 weeks body weight was moderate in magnitude and ow for shank ength. Tinted egg ayer for backyard poutry farming: A pedigreed ine of Deham red was utiized for generating the coour termina cross for rura poutry production. In S 0 generation the age at sexua maturity, body weight at 20 and 40 weeks of age, egg weight at 24, 28 and 40 weeks of age and egg number up to 40 weeks of age were days, 1,425 g, 1,789 g, g, g, g and eggs, respectivey. Deveopment of naked neck (Na) and dwarf geneines (dw) for tropica adaptation: The juvenie body weight of naked neck gene ine for 4- and 6-week body weights were 588 g and 1,273 g in maes, and 518 g and 1,031 g in femaes respectivey. The 6-week body weight showed an improvement of 230 g compared to earier generation. The introgression of avaiabe naked neck gene into ayer background was attempted (IWH ine) and the advantages of adaptabiity and egg weight were evauated against the pure ine White Leghorn. They matured at 146 days of age, produced 109 eggs which weighed 45.5 g, 49.7 g and 53.5 g at 24, 28 and 40 weeks of age, respectivey. These birds were heavier by 400 g over pure Leghorn and produced eggs that weighed 2 6 g more than pureine. The first generation of backcross progenies was produced and its performance is being recorded. The body weight of dwarf gene ine at 4 and 6 weeks was 449 g and 849 g for the combined sexes, respectivey. The intensity of seection was ony 0.23σ and 0.15σ correspondingy for maes and femaes. The average age at sexua maturity was days and the egg number up to 40 weeks of age was eggs with egg weight of 51.6 g and 58.2 g at 32 and 40 weeks of age. Improvement of coour broier popuation: The coour mae ine is an open nuceus popuation and has competed two generations of random mating. The average intensity of seection for body weight at 5 weeks of age for the maes, femaes and for combined sex was 0.92 σ, 0.56 σ, and 0.61 σ, respectivey. At 16 weeks of age, 505 femaes and 125 maes were saved for recording of production and other body weight traits after screening for skeeta and other deformities. The mean body weight at 20 and 40 weeks of age, egg weight at 32 and 40 weeks of age, and egg number up to 40 weeks of age were 2512 g, 3,488 g, 56.7 g, 60.8 g and 59 eggs, respectivey. As compared to earier generation the egg production up to 280 days of age and egg weight at 32 and 40 weeks of age remained stabe. In femae ine,body weight at 5 weeks of age was recorded in S 11 generation. At 6 weeks of age, femaes and maes were seected based on 5-week body weight Vanaraja mae parent Vanaraja femae parent Coour broier popuation

114 108 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT PROPAGATION OF VANARAJA FOR RURAL POULTRY FARMING Vanaraja was under focus for its inherent trait of adaptabiity under varying cimatic conditions and diverse topographica regions of the country. Day-od chicks and fertie eggs of Vanaraja were provided to user agencies in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, Northeastern states, and Andaman and Nicobar Isands. Feed resources under scavenging conditions were scanty in dry areas and rich in forest and hiy regions. Vanaraja birds adapted extremey we to regiona variations and seasona fuctuations. Under free-range conditions the adut femae birds produced eggs in a year. The maes were utiized for the meat purposes, as they attained kg ive weight by 12 weeks of age depending upon the feed resources avaiabe to them. and were maintained on restricted feeding schedue. The average intensity of seection for body weight at 5 weeks of age for the maes, femaes and combined sex was 0.96 σ, 0.56σ and 0.56σ, respectivey. The mean body weight at 20 and 40 weeks of age, egg weight at 32 and 40 weeks of age and egg number up to 40 weeks of age were 2,482 g, 3,432 g, 56 g, 60 g and 59 eggs, respectivey. As compared to earier generation, the egg production up to 280 days of age showed an improvement of 2 eggs on phenotypic scae without any change in egg weight at 32 and 40 weeks of age. Backyard poutry production in Orissa: At the CARI Regiona Centre, Bhubaneswar, fied performance of coour broier, frizze cross, naked neck cross and CD birds was studied. CARI-Dhanaraja and CARI-Debendra attracted the tribas more due to their coour pattern, rapid growth, better adaptabiity and survivabiity in free-range system. They attended the body weight of more than 1 kg in 10 weeks of age (1,165 ± 83 g) and above 1,500 g at 14th week (1,686 ± 17 g). These birds started aying at 24 26th week with average of eggs/year. The CARI- God started to ay brown eggs of good size at the age of 140 days. The production varied from eggs/year. The average egg weight was 51 g at 35 weeks of age. Maintenance of parent ines and coection of data (on farm research) is continuing. Three-way cross B77, as mae ine performed very we as compared to a femae ine. QUAIL The regeneration and seection programmes in different quai ines continued for meat and egg production. Individua seection for high 5-week body weight was the major seection criterion in CARI-Uttam, CARI-Ujjawa, CARI-Sweta and contro. Further, the CARI-Pear (White egg she ine) was seected initiay on the basis of high 5-week body weight, and ater mid seection on the basis of egg production and egg weight at 18th week of age was carried out to improve the reproductive traits. The phenotypic and genetic responses for different economic traits in broier and ayer quai ines were estimated in respective ines. GUINEAFOWL Mass seection continued in Pear variety of guineafow for 12 weeks body weight. Divergent seection continued in Lavender variety of guineafow and S 2 generation was generated in high and ow SRBC ines. CHANGING THE LIFE OF DONKEY OWNERS BY ENHANCING GENETIC POTENTIAL OF THEIR EQUINES The Nationa Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, made an effort to improve the socioeconomic status of the poorest of the poor cass of the society engaged in donkey and mue activities. Good quaity donkey germpasm produced at the Centre was suppied to the viage eve equine breeding societies for increasing the production potentia of the indigenous donkeys. The reports from the societies indicated enhancement of their income from Rs 3,000 4,000 to Rs 10,000 12,000/year. Thus the centre is heping the underprivieged community of donkey owners in improving their socio-economic status through enhancement of potentiaity of their donkey germpasm.

115 109 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT TURKEY Production performance of femae turkey housed in bamboo and thatched house: Daiy egg production, feed consumption, FCR and mortaity pattern reveaed that numericay ower feed intake and better FCR was observed in the birds housed in hut as compared to those in conventiona pakka house during first phase (20 42 weeks). During second phase (43 55 weeks) numericay higher egg production and average egg weight were observed in birds housed in hut, whereas better FCR was observed in conventiona pakka house. CAMEL Quaitative and quantitative genetic parameters in Indian came: The growth data over the years ( ) was anayzed at the NRC on Came, Bikaner, for studying the effect of breed and sex on growth. The weight at birth, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months were ± 1.24 (201), ± 4.61 (132), ± 5.36 (119), ± 6.32 (120), ± 6.93 (151), ± 6.14 (104), ± 8.03 (79) and ± (78) kg, respectivey. The effect of breed was significant at various stages of growth. The effect of sex was nonsignificant at amost a stages of growth. Except initia decine for 2 3 years body weight showed increasing trend in a came breeds in 2, 3 and 4 years weight. This can be attributed to seection and improved management practices adopted at the centre. Improvement was aso observed in per cent conception and caving pooed over breeds and years, 63.98% and 73.42%, respectivey. Highest caving percentage was observed in Kachchhi (81.82%) foowed by Bikaneri (72.22%) and Jaisameri (81.82%) breeds. Anaysis of gestation ength indicated significant breed effect. The gestation ength in Bikaneri, Jaisameri and Kachchhi femaes was ± 0.73, ± 1.12 and ± 1.12 days respectivey. The caving interva, pooed over breeds, was ± 8.46 days. The year to year variation in the gestation ength and caving interva was significant. YAK Preiminary survey in Sikkim and Jammu and Kashmir reveaed conditions of yak husbandry akin to that of Arunacha Pradesh. Foot- and-mouth Disease ANIMAL HEALTH Antigenic anaysis reveaed that 32% of the FMDV type O fied isoates recovered in the year 2002, are antigenicay different from the vaccine strain IND R2/75, indicating an upsurge in the number of such heteroogous strains in the fied. However, in type Asia 1, majority (>95%) of the fied isoates coected during the ast 3 years indicated adequate seroogica reationships (r vaue > 0.4) with the vaccine strain IND 63/72. In type A, 64% of the isoates are antigenicay divergent (r vaue < 0.20) from the two vaccine strains (IND 17/77 and IND 490/97 [WBN 17/82]) used in the country. Of the two genotypes of A presenty co-circuating, genotype VII gave a better antigenic coverage (r vaue > 0.40) to 64% of the isoates compared to genotype VI (r vaue 0.40 and above) that gave coverage to 24% of the isoates. Genetic anaysis of type O FMDV fied isoates indicated emergence of a new group which is about 8% divergent at the nuceotide eve from hitherto predominant Pan-Asia group. The newy emerged strain overtook the weestabished Pan-Asia strain and was responsibe for type O FMD outbreaks in 11 states. In Asia 1, 1D gene-based anaysis indicated the prevaence of co-circuating genotypes A and B, and the ater is widey circuating and majority of the recenty Upsurge in heteroogous strains of FMD observed. Indigenousy deveoped C-ELISA kit. for rinderpest was vaidated by IAEA,Vienna. IBR continues to be the major herd probem. India.AdmasEpitrak software was made more user friendy. PCR for ampification of RNA gene of Theieria annuata standardized. Repository of Pasteurea mutocida isoates estabished. Faeca egg count reduction test reveaed resistance against abendazoe in sheep infected with haemonchosis.

116 110 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Vaccine against Samonea Abortusequi was prepared. Rajasthan 98 strain of EHV-I was the most viruent pathotype. Zero eve achieved in EIA infection in equines in India. Antitrypanosoma potentiaity of Lantana camara needs more investigation. PCR tests were standardized for Babesia equi infection in equine and trypanosomiasis infection in came. Dwarf and Naked neck gene ines showed antibody titres higher than pure ines. ECO-PATHO ZONES Identification and deineation of ivestock heath specific eco-patho zones based on the endemicity of disease profie during 1987 to 2002, was worked out. This is a unique and intensive effort as the present agro ecozones are based on pant production system and there are no simiar approaches to demarcate the country into ivestock disease based zones. A fivestage approach was conceived to identify disease specific nationa eco-patho zones. The first phase is now being accompished using statistica methods and GIS technoogy. INDIGENOUS MEDICINES The Deonix regia, popuary known as Gu-mohar, has promising medicina activity and the studies conducted at the IVRI, using various experimenta modes, with favonoid-rich fraction of fowers of the pant reveaed significant antiinfammatory and anagesic (pain kiing) activities, thereby suggesting its potentia use in infammatory conditions. Studies conducted on severa fractions derived from medicina pants, IVR-8 and IVR-9 (coded fractions) showed significant inhibitory effect on the motiity of Fascioa gigantica (iverfuke), and paraytic effects on the parasite. These fractions show good promise as anthemintic compounds. samped isoates formed a separate group within this genotype and are > 9% nuceotide divergent from the remaining isoates. Sequencing of the capsid-coding region of type A isoates reveaed that genetic recombination is another mechanism of genetic and antigenic divergence. Recombination between strains of a serotype coud be a poy by the virus to evade immune response. In high disease endemic region ike India, roe of recombination needs further investigation. The iquid phase bocking-elisa, which is used to determine the protective antibody eve foowing vaccination, reveaed esser than desired eve of antibody titres against the four FMDV serotypes in majority of post-vaccinated sera sampes tested. The virus repository maintained at the Project Directorate had by the end of the year, about 1,055 isoates comprising type O 684; type Asia 1 206; type A 151; and type C 15. Anima Diseases Monitoring and Surveiance Nationa sero-epidemioogica survey reveaed that overa incidence of bruceosis was 24.6% and IBR 23.3%. The mik based bruceosis kit was further fied vaidated on 3,820 pooed mik sampes at Ludhiana, Tirupati and Ahmedabad, and the overa incidence was found 14%. IBR continues to be major herd probem and semen production centers are concerned about this situation as the virus is excreted through semen. The IBR mik version of the ELISA kit was tested on 413 pooed mik sampes at Ludhiana and Tirupati, and showed evidence of infection in 31.8 and 9.7% tested respectivey. The recombinant rinderpest, C-ELISA kit was vaidated by IAEA, Vienna, after undertaking fied performance trias in Kenya. The epidemioogica study on eptospirosis has made 54 isoations making it 500 in the past five years. The present isoates originated from bovine, pigs and dogs. Using the MAb based typing kit 21 isoates were indentified as beonging to autumnais, icerohaemorrhagiae, conicoa, hebdomadis, grippotyphosa and hardjo serovars. The remaining needs to be identified. The warehousing of anima heath information database through upgradation and integration of the India.AdmasEpitrak software, was accompished. Its specific appication in the Web based Nationa Anima Disease Referra Exert System (NADRES) of PAD_ADMAS is in the fina stage of aunching. Using this data warehouse, top ten ocations of epidemioogica importance with respect to 22 endemic diseases woud be identified aong with their disease precipitating factors. Bood Protista A PCR for ampification of sma sub-unit ribosoma RNA gene of Theieria annuata in ymphnode biopsy and bood of infected catte was standardized. Infected bood showed intra-erythrocytic parasitaemia up to %. Seroprevaence study by IFAT of bovine babesiosis, from catte reveaed 43.5% positivity. Side enzyme-inked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA), reveaed that 41 out of 48 sampes from Orissa and 19 out of 47 from Uttar Pradesh, were positive for Babesia bigemina antibodies. Heparinized bood from catte was subjected to PCR for detection of B. bigemina infection using specific primers. Random ampified poymorphic DNA anaysis of T. evansi isoates derived from buffao, came and horse was carried out using 12 random oigonuceotide primers, and informative primers (AP 14, AP 17, AP 18, AP 19, AP 22 and AP 23 ) were identified. Nuceotide sequencing of the 5' and 3' ends of a RAPD-DNA fragment using M 13 forward and reverse primer resuted in sequence adder, which resoved 230 bases from the RAPD primer binding site. The partia sequence determined was 232 bp from the 5', and 110 bp from the 3' end of the fragment. Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Epidemioogica survey and prevaence of different serotypes of Pasteurea mutocida resuted in identification of serotypes, viz. A : 1, A : 3, A : 1, 3, A : 3, 4, A : 4, A : 3, 4, 12, B : 2, D : 1, D : 3, F : 1, F : 3, F : 3, 4, F : 4, 12 from catte,

117 111 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT buffao, sheep, goat, pig, chicken, quai, duck, ion, tiger, dog and eopard. The fied isoates were characterized by biochemica tests, toxin production and antibiotic resistance. A repository on Pasteurea mutocida isoates from different species of animas was estabished, and currenty it is maintaining more than 250 isoates coected from different parts of the country. PM-PCR, HSB-PCR, mutipex PCR and nested PCR for P. mutocida serotype A specific and serotype B : 2; B : 2, 5; B : 5 were standardized for identification of P. mutocida. A new set up primers for serotype A were deveoped which ampified a product of ~564 bp. REA, RFLP, AFLP, ribotyping using 16S rrn gene, RAPD, REP and ERIC-PCR were used for characterization of P. mutocida strains from different anima species. The moecuar characterization of fied isoates of Pasteurea mutocida from different regions of the country was carried out by using REA, REP-PCR, ERIC-PCR, RAPD-PCR, ribotyping and AFLP. A ow voume saponified HS vaccine showed good protection against chaenge up to 9 months and 12 months post-vaccination in cow and buffao caves, respectivey. A combined HS (serotype B : 2 and D : 1) and FMD (serotype A, O and Asia 1) vaccine for pigs gave protection up to 9 months post-vaccination on chaenge test (maximum period tested). Buetongue Buetongue (BT), an economicay important vector-borne vira disease (OIE- List A) of sheep and other ruminants ike goat, catte and wid anima species, is endemic in India and out of 25 known serotypes of virus 21 are prevaent in India.This compicates the diagnosis and contro of disease. Out of 769 cinica/sampes 188 were positive in sheep, goat, catte and buffaoes from Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashra and Tami Nadu. AGID-based buetongue disease diagnosis kit, deveoped at Izatnagar centre, was effectivey used for sero-diagnosis of disease. One virus isoate from Tami Nadu was typed as type-1 at this centre. Sero-epidemioogica survey in 6 districts of Karnataka indicated the presence of antibodies against BTV serotypes 1,2,12,16,17 and 20, 21 and 23 as typed at the Anima Virus Research Laboratory, Onderstepoort. Out of 25 bood sampes coected by the Parbhani Centre from five viages of Maharashtra, one sampe gave positive reaction in chicken embryos. Variations in fragments of RNA genome of 6 isoates of BTV types 18 and 23 were detected in RNA-poyacryamide ge eectrophoresis at the IVRI, Izatnagar. Reverse transcriptase poymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR were standardized at Izatnagar and Hisar centres for the detection of BTV genomic nuceic acid using the VP3, VP7, NS1 and NS3 specific primers. Three sampes of Cuicoides suspected fies submitted were identified as Cuicoides oxystoma. Inactivated buetongue vaccines, prepared by inactivating type-18 isoate of BTV with BEI or hydroxyamine and adjuvanted with auminium hydroxide ge and/or saponin, provided encouraging protective immune response in sheep against viruent BTV chaenge. No untoward reaction of vaccine was observed in pregnant sheep and ambs borne to them. PATENTS FILED BY IVRI WITH CONTROLLER OF PATENTS, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA An Asian inkage iver attenuated homoogus vaccine for peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus infection. Indigenousy deveoped cost-effective and potent auminum hydroxide ge concentrated oi adjuvanted vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease. Indigenous drug formuation against skin disease of animas. PATENT APPLICATIONS OF IVRI SUBMITTED TO THE COUNCIL Oigonuceotide primer sequences for rapid identification of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tubercuosis by a singe-tube mutipex PCR. Deveopment of indigenous methodoogy IVRI crystoscope as a fied too for determining optimum time for fertie insemination in animas. A process for preparing a herba formuation for the treatment of mange. Gastro-intestina Parasitism Prevaence of gastro-intestina parasitism in goats was studied. Abendezoe resistance was recorded in sheep naturay infected with Haemonchus contortus by faeca egg count reduction test (FECRT). In DID, hyperimmune sera raised against somatic antigen of H. contortus showed doube precipitin ine with homoogous antigens. Soube arva extract antigen showed entirey different antibody response. The antibody eve remained higher in third and fourth week and the OD vaues were amost 3 4 times more than the contros. Characterization of somatic antigen of H. contortus by SDS-PAGE reveaed poypeptides ranging in moecuar weight from kda of which 26 kda appeared to be common

118 112 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT COMPLETE GENOME SEQUENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF VACCINE STRAIN OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS Infectious bursa disease is a highy contagious immuno-suppressive vira disease of young chickens. The virus primariy destroys antibody producing B- ymphocytes, birds become more susceptibe to other bacteria and vira infections and aso show poor response to vaccines. The virus possesses bisegmented doube-stranded RNA genome of around 6.1 kb in ength. Significant difference was noticed in the genome of various strains of IBD viruses. The Indian fied isoate of IBD virus was characterized. The sequence of Indian IBD fied virus is avaiabe in the EMBL database under accession numbers AJ and AJ The sequence anaysis reveaed 1.2 to 4.9% divergence at nuceotide eve in segment A, and 1.8 to 12% in segment B within serotype 1 IBD viruses, whereas this difference was 19.6 and 11.8% from serotype 2 virus, respectivey. Deduced amino acid sequence of segment A aso reveaed 5 amino acids to be specific to Indian fied virus with amino acids 222Aa, 256Ie and 291 Gy in VP2 protein to be specific to very viruent viruses. In segment B encoded VP1 protein, there were 7 amino acid changes unique to Indian fied virus. Phyogenetic anaysis based on nuceotide sequence of both segments A and B reveaed that the Indian fied virus KT1/99 is simiar to very viruent viruses of Europe, Japan and other countries as they custered together in the same ineage. Sequence anaysis of virus segments A and B reveaed very cose phyogenetic reationship between the Indian fied virus KT1/99 and the Bangadesh very viruent strain BD3/99 and Japanese very viruent strain OKYM, respectivey. The sequencing data generated wi hep in better understanding of the disease by identification of pathogenic markers and in deveoping better immunoprophyactics. A thermostabe vaccine strain of intermediate viruence was deveoped from an indigenous viruent IBD virus isoate. The vaccine strain is free of immunosuppressive effect and provides good protection against IBD. The thermostabiity of the vaccine strain makes it an idea choice for use in the tropica countries. between Bunostomum trigonocephaum and Oesophagostomum coumbianum and H. contortus. Doube immunodiffusion test with hyperimmune serum raised against somatic antigen of H. contortus showed doube precipitin ines with the homoogous antigen. Simiary hyperimmune serum raised against O. coumbianum with its homoogous antigen showed two precipitin ines, whereas, homoogous antigen of B. trigonocephaum showed singe precipitin ine. Seriay diuted (1 : 200 and 1 : 400) sera of infected and contro groups of goat when subjected to different H. contortus antigen showed variabe OD vaues in ELISA. Maximum OD vaue coud be recorded with soube arva extract during III week (0.647 ± 0.08) and IV week (0.90 ± 0.14) in the infected group, whereas, in the contro group it was ± In sheep and goats SDS PAGE anaysis of somatic antigen of different GI nematodes H. contortus reveaed 16, 19, 22, 26, 32, 39, 50 and 69 kda protein, B. trigonocephaum 15, 19, 26, 31, 50, 56, 63 and 71 kda, and O. coumbianum 16, 22, 20, 26, 42, 64 kda. Most prominent band of 26 kda was common to a antigens. In soube arva extract antigen of H. contortus 83 kda protein band was the most prominent. These proteins of 26 kda and 83 kda need further investigation for immunodiagnostic potentia. Among aternate contro methods, spray of ow eve (1.25 g nitrogen%) urea on pasture significanty reduced the transation of worm eggs to infective arvae on singe as we as continuousy contaminated pastures. Among nematophagus fungi, Duddingtonia fagrans trapped the nematode arvae to the extent of 98% in hr postinocuation whereas Arthrobotys oigospora, trapped ony 67% arvae in 144 hr P. Singe ora administration of 1.5 miion chamydospores of D. fagrans in sheep caused significant reduction in the number of infective arvae in faeca cuture 24 hr post-dosing. No such effect coud be seen for A. oigospora. Sheep Based on FECRT, 92% of the focks tested showed emergence of anthemintic resistant strain of parasites. Resistance to tetramisoe in H. contortus was observed in 33.3% of focks tested. The resistance to cosante was not observed. Egg hatch assay detected 75% of the focks harbouring BZ resistant GI nematodes with a mean ED 50 of ± µg TBZ/m. Russian Merino and Rambouiet were more susceptibe to GI nematodosis. The highest prevaence (88.75%) was recorded in Russian Merino. In Rambouiet sheep highest EPG (8,000) was recorded during winter. Sheep infected with haemonchosis showed resistance against abendazoe when 7.5 mg/kg body weight oray. Per cent reduction in EPG was Equines Vaccine against Samonea Abortus-equi infection, prepared using outer membrane protein extracted from the causative organism, gave encouraging resuts. It was superior to that of the existing vaccine as it can be used aong with the EHV- 1 vaccine, which was not possibe with the existing vaccine. Rajasthan-98 strain of EHV-1 was the most viruent pathotype. Coggins test reveaed absence of the EIA antibodies indicating that India has achieved zero eve infection for EIA and it is a great achievement for the country as it woud boost export of equines from the country. The prevaence of Mycopasma equigenitaium was recorded for the first time indicating existence of mycopasmosis in equines in the country, and it needs thorough investigation. One case of EHV-1 induced abortion reveaed that EHV-1 infection is sti persisting, which indicated the necessity for continuing the investigations against this infection. Serum sampes reveaed a variabe eve of fuoride content (0.018 ± to 0.32 ± 0.02 ppm) indicating wide significant regiona differences but within the norma vaues reported for the equids abroad. Antitrypanosoma potentiaity of the crude extract of Lantana camara, was found

119 113 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT unsuitabe for parentera use in its crude form. Purification of the extract is required to excude its toxic principa. Sero-surveiance was conducted on 1,715 sera sampes from thoroughbred horses and indigenous mues, donkeys and ponies/horses, for detection of Babesia equi infection by COFEB-kit. Among indigenous equids, an overa rate of infection was 21.68%. The state-wise prevaence rate was: Uttarancha (50.00%), Rajasthan (45.71%), Punjab (28.20%), Uttar Pradesh (20.14%), Karnataka (19.11%), Maharashtra (8.43%), West Benga (0.00%), Gujarat (0.00%). Among donkeys infection rate was 45.00%. PCR test was standardized specificay for detection of Babesia equi parasite in bood. Came Parasitoogica examination of 72 came bood sampes (10 m) coected from trypanosome-endemic area, reveaed no positive sampe. PCTR ampification reveaed that six sampes (8.3%) were positive.the ampified PCR product is genome-specific. With this PCR detection method drug sensitivity test, fied monitoring for incidence and prophyaxis can be performed with high accuracy. Indigenous formuations comprising ocay avaiabe herba ingredients were evauated for its efficacy against naturay occurring mange, caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in dromedary came. Herba preparations were capabe of reieving animas from symptoms of intense itching, scratching and biting, oozing of thick brown scabs in some cases, thickening and wrinking of skin, etc. Microscopicay skin scrapping became negative for parasites (mites/eggs) between 10th 15th day of its oca appications without any noticeabe reapse even up to 30th day post treatment. Haemato-biochemica examination faied to yied any significant diagnostic ateration except eosinophiia, hypoproteinemia, hypoabuminemia and reverse trend of A/G ratio, which a together were restored after drug appication. The preiminary screening of the formuation encourages to carryout further detaied study for which a coaborative research is in progress. Lung of Bab/c mice infected with EHV-1 showing brown staining of vira antigen in bronchia epitheium and ung parenchyma by indirect immuno-peroxidase technique Poutry Naked neck chicken vaccination with ive attenuated fow-pox vaccine intramuscuary at 21 days (eary) and 42 days (ate) of age reveaed better antibody titres against Newcastes disease (ND) when they were vaccinated for pox at 21 days than that at 42 days of age. This boost in ND titres was significant after 6 weeks. Better response was aso observed in the antibody titres to SRBC and CBH to PHA-P due to eary pox vaccination. Priming of the chicken immune system with fow-pox at an eary age yieded better immune response to ND vaccination and generaized immune response. Technoogies deveoped A monocona antibody (MAb) based competitive-elisa deveoped at the IVRI, Mukteswar Campus, for rinderpest antibody detection in serum sampes was vaidated by IAH, Pirbright, UK. The test kit is the second of its kind in the word for rinderpest diagnosis. The kit has aso been approved by OIE A MAb based competitive-elisa was deveoped for the detection of PPR antibody in serum sampes A sandwich-elisa for PPR antigen detection in cinica sampes was deveoped for specific diagnosis of PPR virus infection A recombinant buetongue group specific antigen coding VP7 region of BTV was deveoped and tested successfuy for its potentia diagnostic use An RT-PCR technique was standardized for detection BTV in bovine semen A non-structura protein 3AB of FMD virus was coned and expressed in

120 114 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT DIAGNOSIS OF ANIMAL MYCOPLASMOSIS Mycopasma, the smaest sef-repicating prokaryote, is responsibe for a number of dreaded diseases in ivestock and poutry of which the contagious bovine peuropneumonia (CBPP) in catte and contagious caprine peuropneumonia (CCPP) in goats are of considerabe economic significance. The diagnosis of these diseases is generay based on isoation of the organism and seroogy. However, due to very high DNA-DNA reatedness and sero-crossreactivity among the causative agents, it is very difficut to diagnose the infections rapidy with seroogica toos. A poymerase chain reaction (PCR) was standardized and used extensivey using various Mycopasma spp. Primers, which can detect mycopasmas up to the genus as we as species eve in a few hours, as compared to 1 to 4 weeks required whie using the conventiona methods. The disease can be detected directy in ungs, speen, ymphnodes and peura fuid coected at postmortem or from saughterhouses, and from the nasa discharges of cinicay affected animas coected on fiter paper strips. The technique of detection of mycopasma from the fiter strips wi be very hepfu in future, particuary as the materias transported from fied cases can be stored at room temperature for a very ong time. The detection of mycopasma contamination if any, in ce cutures is aso possibe by PCR, which may be a boon to the anima viroogists. The Referra Laboratory at the IVRI, has aso deveoped a coour antigen of Mycopasma mycoides subsp. capri for fied diagnosis of CCPP which has shown encouraging resuts. In near future, the antigen wi be avaiabe for fied use. yeast system. The coned vira protein showed a good potentia as a seroogica marker for differentiation of FMD infected animas from vaccinated stock Poycona and monocona antibodies were raised against the purified recombinant bovine interferon γ protein. The interferon γ assay was successfuy used in detection of bovine tubercuosis in two organized catte farms and the test was more sensitive than SID PCR assay for differentia diagnosis of Mycobacterium tubercuosis and M. bovis targeted to oxyr and pnca genes of mycobacteria were standardized and fied tested A sensitive PCR for detection of Mycobacterium a. paratubercuosis from faeca sampes was standardized with a threshod sensitivity of 10 6 bacii/g of faeces. Lymphocyte stimuation test (LST) was sensitive in detecting subcinica paratubercuosis. PCR was standardized on cinica and postmortem sampes for the diagnosis. Lumino-dependent chemiuminescence activity was higher for M. paratubercuosis than staphyococcus antigens SDS-PAGE profie and immunobotting of ce surface proteins of Listeria spp. and outer membrane proteins of 32 different serotypes of Samonea reveaed 28 and 75 kda poypeptides to be immunodominant and L. monocytogenes-specific, and 32 kda of OMP to be common and immunodominant among Samonea spp Using synthetic peptide approach, VP7 protein sequences of buetongue virus (BTV) were expoited and three most reactive VP7 specific peptides were identified at the IVRI using BTV specific sera, which were , and Antipeptide antibodies against mutipe antigen peptide (MAP) reacted up to 1 : 12,000 and aso specificay to VP7 of BTV in western bot, ELISA and dot-elisa An indirect ELISA was standardized for serodiagnosis of caprine toxopasmosis. Major poypeptides of tachyzoite antigen of Toxopasma gondii in the MW range of kda were identified in siver stained SDS gradient (5 15%) ges. Immunodominant antigens of T. gondii in the ascitic fuid of infected mice were identified by western immunobotting with positive caprine sera Diagnosis of parasitic diseases of domestic animas: At the IVRI, Izatnagar, the antigen (s) of F. gigantica were purified, and evauated using F. gigantica infected sera from experimentay infected buffao yearing caves by using ELISA, western bot and dip-stick ELISA with 100% sensitivity. Antifascioa antibodies were detectabe as eary as two weeks post-infection. Cysteine proteinase (defined protein antigen) was purified from F. gigantica regurgitant and the isoation protoco was standardized. A cdna of F. gigantica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) was coned in a suitabe vector and expressed as recombinant protein using prokaryotic (E. coi) expression system. Purification was achieved up to 90 to 95% eve. The usefuness of FABP fusion protein of F. gigantica as a diagnostic antigen needs to be tested by ELISA and dot-elisa. Diagnostics for cassica swine fever were deveoped: The CSF viruent virus obtained from CADRAD, IVRI, Izatnagar, and CSF vaccine virus (apinised) obtained from Bioogica Products Division, IVRI, Izatnagar, were used for standardizing the RT-PCR for detection of CSF virus. For the viruent strain, speen, ymphnodes and tonsi sampes from an experimentay infected pig were used, whie the vaccine virus was used after suitabe diution of the freeze-dried vaccine (speen suspension of rabbit). The protoco was standardized with known positive tissue sampes. The protoco was successfuy appied to fied outbreak sampes originating from the ast reported outbreak of swine fever in Punjab.

121 115 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT SUCCESS STORY BIOMATERIALS IN TENDON RECONSTRUCTION Tendons, important constituents of the muscuoskeeta system of an anima, are anatomicay paced superficiay in the body and are therefore more prone to injuries. The use of draught animas is sti very much in practice in India despite mechanisation in agricutura operations. Direct trauma inficted by agricutura impements is the most common cause of tendon injuries. Detaied studies were conducted at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute,Izatnagar,to evauate various impant materias for the reconstruction of tendons and to prevent adhesions formation foowing tendon surgery. Carbon fibres as impant for tendon reconstruction in catte Carbon fibres (6,000 fiaments of 7.5 µm each) were used to fi the 2.5 cm ong defect of tendon in crossbred caves weighing kg. At day 30, there was formation of neotendon around the carbon fibres which simuates to norma tendon at day 90. Histoogica observation did not revea any untoward reaction. Scanning eectron microscopic (SEM) observation reveaed growth of neotendon in between the carbon fibre fiaments. The study suggested the carbon fibres to be promising impant materia for tendon reconstruction. Aogenic/xenogenic aceuar grafts in the reconstruction (repair of tendon defect) in bovids Antigenicity of aogenic/xenogenic tendon grafts is the main prohibitive factor for their use in tendon reconstructive surgery. A hypothesis is that their antigenicity can be reduced/minimized if they are made aceuar. Tendon grafts of aogenic/ heterogenic origin were coected from the abattoir. These grafts were made aceuar by chemica treatment and the technique for making graft aceuar was standardized. During in vitro and in vivo biocompatibiity testing, these aceuar grafts were ess immunogenic and imfammogenic. The aceuar grafts were used to repair 2 cm ong defect of fexor tendon in buffao caves. Cinicay, the grafts were acceptabe. Gross observation reveaed absorption of graft by day 90 and repacement by neoformed tissue. Histoogica observation did not revea any untoward reaction. Modaities for the prevention of adhesion formation after tendon surgery Different modaities were evauated for preventing the adhesions. They were evauated on the basis of cinica, radioogica, angiographica, gross, histoogica and scanning-eectron microscopic observations. Administration of autogenous synovia and 1% hyauronic acid at the reconstructive site of tendon twice weeky on 4 occasions was effective. Therapeutic utrasonic therapy starting from day 3 post-operativey was aso effective in preventing peritendinous adhesion formation foowing tendon surgery. Spit section of figure 5. Scanning eectron microscope photograph showing neo tendon growth between carbon fibre fiaments. X1000. Showing creation of 2.5 cm defect in superficia digita fexor tedon. (top) Repair of defect with pasma preserved aogenic graft.(second-from-top) Repair of defect with two strands (each strand containing 6000 fiaments having diameter of 7.5 micron each) of carbon fibres (midde) Longitudina spit section of neoformed tendon around fibres on day 30 post repair. (bottom-butone) Neoformed tendon on day 90 post repair having simiarities with tendon.(bottom)

122 116 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Feedbase-2001CD provides information on feed resources and feed baance sheet. Vitamin suppementation improved oxidative stabiity of mik. Bypass protein vaue of feeds prediction possibe. Barey proved a better energy ration for ruminants. Formadehyde treatment of mustardcake reduced degradation of gucosinoates in rumen. Lysine content highest in sik pupaemea. Area specific minera suppementation resuted in improved fertiity in cows. Compete feed bocks insured proportionate intake of roughage and concentrates. Compete feed was prepared for came using guar phagati and ardu. Foxtai miet can repace 57% maize in broier starter ration and 67% in finisher ration. Higher afatoxin resuted in certain pathoogica changes in poutry. Propionic acid, neem eaf and neem seed-cake prevented moud infestation of poutry feed. ANIMAL NUTRITION AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY ANIMAL NUTRITION Nationa Information System on Feed Resources The information system on avaiabiity and requirement of feed resources and feed baance sheet for a the states in the country, was brought out in a compact disc Feedbase It comprises NIANP, Feed Resources, Anima Resources and Baance Sheet modues. It provides information on avaiabiity of feed resources in terms of crop residues, greens and concentrates for a the states from 1985 to Assessment of the avaiabiity of desired feed resources in a particuar year/period of years across the different states, woud aso be possibe. Anima resources data provide information on anima resources avaiabiity for catte, buffao, sheep and goat for a the states individuay, and the country as a whoe. The information is provided for different categories of animas both in terms of absoute numbers and standard ruminant ivestock units. This package provides information on changing trends in the popuation of different ruminants in the various states/regions, which is vita as the type of ruminant species has a important bearing on the quantity and quaity of feed resources requirements. Based on the avaiabiity of feed resources and the ruminant ivestock popuation in different states it woud be possibe to formuate production systems that are best suited to match the feed resources against the ruminant popuation. This woud be a vauabe too for poicy makers, panners, researchers and impementing agencies for formuating better ivestock deveopment activities. Newer Feed Resource and Processing COMPLETE ECONOMIC RATIONS FROM SUGARCANE Compete diets prepared at the IVRI, Izatnagar, having ammoniated bagasse pith coud be successfuy fed to adut animas without any adverse effect on intake and digestibiity of nutrients. For ammoniation of sugarcane baggasse, 4 weeks incubation with 4% urea at 40% moisture eve was the most viabe and effective treatment. The best combination for the ammoniation of sugarcane tops (chopped) was 3 weeks incubation with 3% urea at 40% moisture. Feeding of sugarcane tops as a soe feed had adverse effects on the performance of animas particuary on Ca and P metaboism. It requires to be suppemented with a concentrate mixture or UMLD to meet requirements of animas. Suppementation of sugarcane tops with enti chuni and concentrate mixture gave better performance as compared to wheat bran and urea moasses minera iquid diet, respectivey. Ricin content in castor-cake varied from 13 mg% in expeer castor-cake to 58% in dust deoied castor-cake. Autocaving, heating (100 C for 30 min) and ammonia treatments increased organic matter digestibiity. Quantification of ricin in treated cake reveaed that chemica methods are superior to physica methods in reducing the toxicity of cake. CATTLE Suppementation of α-tocophero and ß-carotene in the cow s diet improves oxidative stabiity of mik: Suppementation of 1,000 mg d-tocophery acetate and 1,000 mg d-tocophery acetate mg ß-carotene/cow daiy during 120 days of actation, improved oxidative stabiity of mik. In non-suppemented group 64% of mik sampes were susceptibe. Non-susceptibe mik sampes contained higher α- tocophero (46.36 vs µg/g fat, ß-carotene 4.42 vs 3.83 µg/g fat) and retina (5.93 vs µg/g fat) than susceptibe mik. Leucaena eaf protein a rich source of bypass protein for ruminants: Leaf-mea from K-8, K-28 and Peru varieties of subabu (Leucaena eucocephaa) had mimosine content ranging from 2.94 to 5.56%, 2.54 to 5.56% and 4.06 to 4.19% respectivey. The effective degradabiity of CP was ower in K-28 (34.80%) foowed by K-28 (31.61%) and Peru (28.82%). The RDP and UDP vaues were ower in Peru than that in K-8. The UDP (g/kg LLM) was the highest in K-8 (57.9), medium in K-28 (53.8) and the owest in Peru (40.2). Nutritiona quaity of K-28 was the highest foowed by K-8 and Peru eaf-mea. Prediction of the bypass protein vaue of feeds: Effective protein degradabiity by in sacco method showed that maize guten-mea had the best bypass protein vaue foowed by cotton seed-cake, soybean-mea, sunfower-mea, Leucaena

123 117 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT ucocephaa and fish-mea. Barey, wheat and wheat bran had ow bypass vaue, whereas, maize grain was quite resistant to microbia proteases. Laboratory methods of N-fractionation coud be used to predict the effective protein degradabiity of feeds, which may be adopted by the feed industry (using prediction equations to cacuate RDP and UDP vaue of feeds). Barey a good energy source in ruminant rations: Better dry matter and organic matter digestibiities were observed in diet comprising barey than that in maize aong with groundnut-cake as protein source. A simiar response was aso observed in rumen fermentation in terms of tota protein TVFA concentration. In vitro dry matter digestibiity and in vitro organic matter digestibiity of compete feed, containing barey with soybean-mea, were aso better than that containing maize grain with soybean-mea. Barey proved better than maize as an energy source, irrespective of the protein sources used. Feeding of formadehyde treated mustard-cake to ruminants: Formadehyde treatment of mustard-cake and groundnut-cake resuted in protection of their proteins from rumina degradation thus making these cakes as artificia source of bypass protein. This treatment aso prevents the degradation of gucosinoates of the cake in rumen to a more toxic form ie thiocynate, which disturbs the anima thyroid metaboism and aso gets excreted into mik. Protected Nutrient Technoogy for High Producers Limiting amino acids: High yieding catte and buffaoes require about 40% of crude protein of their diet in the form of rumen undegradabe protein (UDP) bypass protein, and fraction shoud contain essentia amino acids methionine and ysine. Highest ysine was in sikworm pupae (1.71%) foowed by pear miet grain and maize guten-mea. The ysine of other feedstuffs ranged from 0.85 to 1.48%. Maize guten-mea contains the highest methionine (1.25%) foowed by sikworm pupae (1.08%). The methionine of other feedstuffs ranged from 0.11 to 0.44%. The bypass protein fraction of sikworm pupae contained highest amount of ysine foowed by saffower-cake, copra-cake, maize guten-mea-60, maize guten-mea-40, pear miet and groundnut-cake. The ysine and methionine of groundnut-cake protein get extensivey degraded in the rumen and needs to be protected for feeding top high producing animas. UNCONVENTIONAL AND AGRO- INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS FOR LIVESTOCK FEEDS The unconventiona feeds, tested and recommended as energy source in ivestock ration, are mango seed kerne, sa seed-mea, viayati babu pods,tomato waste, tapioca starch waste, mahua fowers, moasses, mat waste, etc. The important protein source are babu seed chuni, kuvadia seeds, piudi-cake, Isabgu goa and ai, ambadi-cake, niger seedcake, rubber seed-cake, neem seed-cake, etc. Mahua-cake, babu pods, sububa seeds, singe ce protein, corn steep iquor, sorghum guten, etc., are good energy and protein sources. Unconventiona feeds decrease the shortage of feeds give empoyment to the rura poor, and being ow cost decrease the cost of ivestock feeds. The BIS approved some unconventiona feeds. Use of these feeds and crop residues in the form of compete feeds provide readymade, baanced, ow cost ration for ivestock. Judicious use of these techniques wi hep sustain economicay viabe ivestock production, which wi provide opportunity to ivestock owners to upift their socioeconomic status. Buffao Ammoniation has aready been advocated to the farmers as the best method for improvement of crop residues. However, there is a great economic oss of urea-n in the form of free ammonia, which escapes to the atmosphere pouting the environment. The modified technoogy of urea ammoniation woud be more usefu in fixing ammonia without affecting the improved digestibiity of crop residues, and it wi be utiized by the anima for its body functions, checking the doube oss caused by urea ammoniation. In the aboratory scae trias efforts were made to trap the excess ammonia during urea ammoniation of wheat straw (AWS) using boric acid, suphuric acid, hydrochoric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid and formic acid. The paatabiity and nutritive vaue of commercia hydrochoric acid treated straw were the best. Feeding of AWS to growing mae buffao caves up to 258 days was superior to HC AWS feeding indicating that trapping of excess ammonia by adding HC during urea ammoniation of wheat straw has no extra benefit. Feeding of AWS as we as HC AWS showed no adverse effect on cinico-nutritiona aspect and buffer quaity. Sheep At the CSWRI, Bikaner, severa experiments were conducted using mustard straw (MS) (treated/untreated) and pea miet kadbi (BK) as major source of roughage in compete feed bocks (CFB). The ration of roughage to concentrate in CFB was MICRONUTRIENTS IN LIVESTOCK FEED Micronutrient: Suppementation of deficient micronutrients through area specific minera sats deveoped by the NIANP, showed highy encouraging resuts in overcoming the probems of infertiity in dairy animas in the IVLPadopted viages. Trace minera requirements of crossbred cows producing up to 10 iters of mik/day, coud be met through feeding good quaity green fodder aong with concentrate. However, animas may not be abe to fufi requirements of Ca and Mg so these need to be suppemented through specific minera sats. The retention of mineras was better in cows suppemented with mineras through inorganic source.

124 118 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT MILK REPLACER FOR KIDS Mik was repaced by providing three eves of protein (20,24 and 28% CP) in Barbari goats. Paatabiity of a three mik repacers was very good in Barbari kids. Fina body weight of repacer fed kids in a three groups was comparabe with that of mik fed contro. Average daiy gain was aso simiar in treatment groups. DM, CP and OM intake increased during ast phase of the tria in repacer fed groups over mik fed contro. In the midde phase aso OM and CP intake increased in repacer fed group. Rumina VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate and A/P ratio in repacer fed groups were comparabe with that of mik fed contro at 3 and 6 hr of feeding. Hence, rumen fermentation was not adversey affected. The experimenta animas specificay repacer fed kids sustained very harsh weather of extreme cod.the cost per itre of reconstituted mik repacer in a three types is esser than market price of goat mik. Precautionary measures to be adapted during mik repacer feeding are: mik repacer shoud be thoroughy mixed in ukewarm water (40 C), reconstituted mik shoud be prepared just before feeding, feeding bottes shoud be ceaned thoroughy after each feeding, and two-times feeding of mik repacer is sufficient. MAIZE IS DISPENSABLE FROM POULTRY FEEDS Maize has remained the principa source of energy in poutry feed for severa years but the diversified utiity of maize for industria purposes imited its avaiabiity for poutry. The increased cost of maize and its scarcity often prohibited its use in poutry diets. At the Project Directorate on Poutry, Hyderabad, possibiities of aternative energy sources for repacing maize from broier diets, were expored. Entire maize from broier starter (57%) and finisher (67%) diets was effectivey repaced by korra (foxtai miet) without adversey infuencing their body weight, feed consumption and meat yied. Korra as energy source had the advantage of retaining ow serum choestero eve compared to maize. Bajra and ragi were aso usefu in partiay (25%) repacing maize from broier diets. 60 : 40 or 70 : 30. The bock checked seectivity of ingestion of concentrate and insured a constant proportionate intake of roughage and concentrate. Dry-matter intake of animas fed MS based bocks, ranged from 827 g to 956 g/anima a day, and was optimum for adut sheep. Intake from CBF, based on BK, ranged from 1,036 1,350 g/day. Mustard straw based CBF contained adequate CP to maintain adut animas. Urea and NaOH treatment and AHP (H 2 O 2 ) pus urea suppementation increased digestibiity of fibre fractions and gross energy. Goat Economic feeding systems and feed processing technoogies were deveoped for sma hoders and commercia goat farmers. Effect of different nutritiona strategies on feed utiization, growth rate and meat production in goats, were studied. By-products of puses, oi seeds aong with coarse cereas grains were utiized for intensive goat production. Minera status of feeds vis-à-vis goats, were studied. Came At the NRCC, Bikaner, compete feed using guar phagati (Cyamopsis tetragonooba) as the basa feed was formuated. The compete rations coud meet the protein and energy requirements of came caves. Ardu was the cheapest (Rs 270/q) and khejri the costiest (Rs 290/q) due to incusion of higher tree eaves quantity in the compete ration. Mithun Survey and evauation of feed stuffs eaten by mithun: A survey was conducted to identify the green forages of junge consisting of tree eaves, grasses, herbs and shrubs, which are normay consumed by mithun in hi tracts of Nagaand. Survey was carried out pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon period at high and ow atitude hi areas. Thirty-three feed stuffs from ow hiy area and 26 from high hi area were identified and anaysed for nutritive vaue. Maximum growth rate of 610 g/day coud be achieved in mithuns on feeding of high energy and high protein diets. Growth rate and nutrient utiization improved on feeding of cutivated grasses, tree eaves and junge grasses aong with baanced concentrate feeds. A compete diet was formuated by using ocay avaiabe green forages and cereas byproducts. A growth rate of 517 g/day was recorded on feeding of this compete diet. Yak Locay avaiabe tree fodders were identified and anayzed for different nutritiona parameters, and comparative status of 12 different tree fodders as source of macroand micro-eements was studied. Poutry Utiization of phytate phosphorus in poutry diet: Maize and soya products contain approximatey 4.72 g phosphorus/kg, which is avaiabe to chicken esser than 1.11 g/kg as it is present in phytate forms. A significant improvement (up to 38%) was achieved in utiization of phytate phosphorus in broier chicken by reducing the eves of suppementa cacium from 11 to 60 g/kg diets. By increasing the utiization of phytate phosporus, the need for suppementation of inorganic phosphorus was reduced by about 33% (from 4.5 g to 3 g/kg diets). The proper utiization of these findings in practica feed formuations, may resut in a net savings of Rs 150/ton broier feed besides minimizing the environmenta poution through reduced excretion of Ca, P, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe by 25 to 52%. Synthetic coour broier breeders perform we even on ow-density diets: At the PD on Poutry, pure ines responded we to ow protein (18.5%) and ow energy (2,650 kca ME/kg) diets up to 6 weeks of age. The performance of broiers for

125 119 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT body weight, feed conversion and meat yied was optimum with 18.5% in the diet. It was aso supportive in maintaining ow serum choestero and ow fat deposition. The owest (0.3%) eve of methionine was as efficient as higher eves for growth and feed intake for pure ines. But, by increasing methionine eve to 0.4% in the diet containing 18.5% protein, a significant improvement in feed conversion efficiency, and size of bursa, and decrease in abdomina fat were achieved. The broier breeder ines need ow concentration of energy, protein and methionine in diets impying minimization of cost on feed, which is the key for economica poutry production. COMPLETE FEED AN INNOVATIVE SYSTEM OF FEEDING ANIMALS AFLATOXIN DETOXIFICATION Afatoxin production was maximum in fake (ungrounded) form of feed as compared to mea (ground) form. Storage of feeds in open containers increased the afatoxin production. Feeds stored in HDPE bags deveoped brownish green discoouration due to anaerobic conditions. Among the severa antifunga agents screened propionic acid, copper suphate, ammonia and sodium hypochorite were most effective in preventing the growth of Aspergius fungi. Compete feeding is a system that provides concentrate and roughages together in bended form, and except water a dietary essentias are suppied through it. It is advantageous against conventiona system of feeding because of reduced abour cost, maintenance of uniform roughage concentrate ratio, uniform feed intake favouring uniform suppy of nutrients and maintenance of rumen environment. Compete feeds based on crop residues and un-conventiona feeds were evauated for growing, actating and adut catte. Growing Animas 30.0% wheat straw, 18.0% groundnut-cake (deoied), 20.5% rice poish, 19.0% wheat bran, 1.0% sat, 10.0% moasses and 1.0% minera mixture supports the growth rate of 435 g/day. It provides 12.0% DCP and 56.0% TDN. 30.0% sugarcane bagasse, 8.5% maize guten, 20.0% Prosopis juifora pods, 12.0% corn steep iquor, 0.5% urea, 8.0% moasses, 1.0% sat and 1.0% minera mixture supports the growth rate of 497 g/day of growing caves. It provides 12.0% DCP and 58.5% TDN. It is 44% economica in terms of feed cost/day and 33% more economica in terms of feed cost/kg gain than conventiona system of feeding. 40.0%wheat straw, 19.5% deoied groundnut-cake, 8.0% wheat bran, 10.0% mango seed kerne, 10.0% minera mixture and 10.0% moasses resuted in growth rate of 450 to 500 g/day in growing caves. It provides 11.0% DCP and 54.0%TDN. The feed cost is Rs 15/anima per day. Compete feed/tmr based on 52.0% wheat straw, 23.0% deoied groundnutcake, 9.0% Prosopis juifora pods, 8.0% corn steep iquor, 5.0% moasses, 1.0% sat and 2.0% minera mixture supports the growth rate of 468 g/day in growing caves. The feed cost/kg gain decreased by and 36.84% in compete feed and TMR (tota mixed ration), respectivey, over the conventiona rations. AFLATOXIN EFFECT No harmfu effects on growth and feed intake in broiers were noticed when the afatoxin eve was maintained beow 100ppb in feed. At 200 and 400ppb eves a significant depression in growth (19 and 40.6% respectivey) and feed intake (16.4 and 38.2% respectivey) was observed. The broiers fed 200 and 400ppb eves of toxin reveaed marked pathoogica changes by enarged iver (31.6 and 79.5% respectivey) and kidney (38.6 and 116.3% respectivey) besides a reduction in the size of thymus (14.5 and 39.1%, respectivey). Skin pigmentation assessed against shank coour was poor with increased toxin eve. Lactating Animas 30.0% wheat straw, 20.0% Prosopis juifora pods, 6.5% rice bran, 5.0% wheat bran, 26.0% deoied groundnut-cake, 0.5% urea,1.0% sat, 2.0% minera mixture, and 10.0% moasses coud be used as ration of actating cows without any adverse effects on mik yied and mik fat%. 45.0% wheat straw, 25.0% deoied groundnut-cake, 14.0% Prosopis juifora pods, 3.5% babu seed chuni, 10.0% moasses, 1.0% sat, 1.0% minera mixture and 0.5% urea coud be used as ration of actating cows without any adverse effect on production performance of cows. Tota mixed ration is 8.66% economica than compete feed in terms of feed cost/kg mik yied. It decreases the feed cost/kg mik yied by 36.58% over conventiona system of feeding.

126 120 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT COMMERCIAL COMPLETE FEEDS Various centres of the Network Programme have aready aunched the programme for promoting the use of compete feed in various viages in their state. About 250 miion tonnes of compete feed was suppied to farmers at production cost (Rs 4.20/kg) in summer when there was scarcity of green fodder. In this season the farmers get remunerative price of mik. The mik production increased by 1 to 2 itres/day an anima. Compete feed wi be the best option for feeding dairy cows during periods of scarcity/drought. The piot scae pant for producing compete feed peets instaed as a part of the ICAR project has a capacity to produce 4.5 tonnes of compete feed per day in one shift. The technoogy for compete feed formuation is avaiabe for commerciaization. HERBAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS PREVENT MOULD INFESTATION OF POULTRY FEED Neem eaf, neem seed-cake, propionic acid and cutures of Trichoderma viridae produced positive response in controing funga proiferation in poutry feed. Neem eaf depressed funga proiferation for 2 weeks, when 800 g/ton feed, but not for a proonged period of storage. A reduction of 47% in funga growth was obtained with neem seed-cake on its incusion at 100 g/ton feed. However, propionic acid (0.1%) in feed was highy effective with no trace of funga growth. Adut Animas 55.0% wheat straw, 22.0% Prosopis juifora pods, 20.0% corn steep iquor,1.0% sat, 1.0% urea and 2.0% minera mixture provides 6.7% DCP and 61.2% TDN. It forms an economic baanced ration for ivestock. 60.0% wheat straw, 22.5% deoied groundnut-cake, 5.0%, Prosopis pods, 10.0% moasses, 0.5% urea, 1.0% sat and 1.0% minera mixture, provides 9.7% DCP and 54.2% TDN which is adequate for maintenance of adut catte. Processing and Utiization of Poutry Waste in Ruminants The deep stacked poutry itter coud repace 30 50% of concentrate mixture on N-basis when suppemented to quaity roughage ike naturay fermented straw, preparation as compete diet depending the production status of buffao. ASSESSMENT OF MICRONUTRIENT STATUS IN ASSAM, KARNATAKA, KERALA, MADHYA PRADESH, TAMIL NADU AND WEST BENGAL Status of soi, pants, feeds, ivestock was evauated to assess the micronutrient avaiabiity to ivestock in various agro cimatic zones of these states. Trends of deficiencies in these agro cimatic zones were ascertained. The bioavaiabiity of the micro- and macro-eements, which hampers production of mik, meat, egg and other anima products was studied. Area specific minera and trace eement suppements were panned for raising ivestock productivity and to check unnecessary oading of micronutrients. Assam: Upper Brahmaputra Vaey zone and North Bank Pain Zone were surveyed. Ca, P, Mg and Cu were observed beow critica eve in some fodder. Deficiency for Cu, Fe and Mn was above the critica eve in 100% fodder in both districts. Mo was recorded beow toxic eve. The serum inorganic phosphorus concentration was beow critica eve in actating animas of a categories of farms. Caf, heifers and pregnant animas beonging to sma, medium and arge farms aso showed deficiency in Dibrugarh district. Cu was aso observed beow critica eve in certain group of animas in this district. In Tinsukhia district a categories of animas showed beow critica eve for serum inorganic phosphorus except pregnant animas of organized farms. Other mineras were observed we above the critica eve. In North Bank Pain Zone Ca, P and Mg were observed beow critica eve for few fodders, whereas, Cu was observed beow critica eve in a fodder sampes. The other minera sampes were we above the critica eve. Karnataka: After assessing the micronutrient deficiency in different agro cimatic zones of Karnataka, area specific minera sats were advocated. For cows yieding up to 10 iters of mik/day most of the trace minera requirement coud be met through feeding good quaity green fodder aong with concentrate. However, requirements of Ca and Mg coud not be met, and had to be suppemented through specific minera sats. The overa mineras retention was better in cows suppemented with mineras through inorganic source. Strategic suppementation of micronutrients through ocay avaiabe green fodders, which are good source of most trace mineras coud be a cost effective approach. The survey work reveaed that the major deficiency is of Ca, P, Cu and Zn in animas. Region specific minera suppements were formuated on the basis of these resuts. Cataoguing of ocay avaiabe feeds and fodder was done based on the micronutrient status, for strategic suppementation in deficient zones. Keraa: The surveyed areas reveaed norma serum minera concentrations in animas except for a margina deficiency of Mg in certain areas, scattered deficiency of Ca in soi sampes, and Cu and P eves in a few fodder sampes. The ower

127 121 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT dietary intake of Ca in certain areas probaby is because of the differences in the type of feeds and quaity of minera mixture provided to animas. Survey and anaysis of soi, feeds, fodder and bioogica materias did not revea any specific minera deficiency in a the 14 districts of the state. The higher incidence of ow production and reproductive disorders may be either due to margina deficiencies of mineras/ vitamins which may go undetected, ower utiization of mineras due to interaction or imbaances or mainy deficiencies of major nutrients particuary energy. Tami Nadu: In North West agro cimatic zone the growing and actating catte and buffaoes had ower pasma P eve. The Ca to P eve was wide in growing animas may be because of difference in the feeding practices adapted to raise growing catte (grazing aone). In actating catte and buffaoes, the minera deficiency/imbaance minimized due to additiona suppementation of green forage/ feed/feed ingredients. The minera status of fodder/feed supports this view. Sheep in north eastern zone had ower pasma copper eve. The forage species in pastures aso had simiar ow eve of Cu. As growing and actating sheep in this region are maintained excusivey on grazing, there was no variation in the pasma minera status of sheep. Goats in this region had ower pasma P eve. The tree eaves, which they generay browse aso had ow P content. The study ceary indicated a need to suppement P and Cu in this region. The ow eve of mineras did not show any critica systems in this hiy zone. West Benga: Micronutrient survey studies in respect of soi, pant, feed and animas was competed in a the agro cimatic zones of West Benga. The dietary intake of Cu, Mn and Zn at 140% of the NRC recommended eves coud enhance the digestibiity of organic nutrients significanty. ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY MINERAL STATUS OF SOIL, PLANTS AND ANIMALS IN TAMIL NADU In Cauvery deta and high rain fa zones no incidence of minera deficiency symptoms was observed. The P eve in four tauks in western zone was ower in growing HF crossbred catte and in actating cows in three tauks. Cu was beow critica eve for growing HF crossbred catte in three of the tauks surveyed and actating catte in two tauks, whie Zn and Fe concentration was above critica imits. None of the tauks surveyed in Southern zone reveaed minera status beow the critica eve in catte. Studies on correation between soi and pant reveaed that even though Cu was above critica imit in soi the grasses/herbage grown on these sois were beow critica eve. However, Ca was beow critica eve in most of the unfortified soi, the herbage/ native grasses aso have Ca concentration beow critica eve. Simiar to soi and pant reationship, a positive correation exists between pant (native grasses) and animas for P eve. However, the Ca and Cu in animas did not appear to be infuenced by the respective minera concentration in native grasses. Catte and Buffaoes The area specific minera sat provided with copper and cobat, deveoped for Karna area, were when 1 g/day an anima, improved anoestrous in dairy catte and buffaoes. A highy sensitive and specific second antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on microtitre pates for oxytocin determination in bovine pasma was deveoped. This study opens the prospects of exporing the roe of this hormone in various processes associated with reproduction and actation which wi provide reasons of ow reproductive efficiency in bovines. Enzyme immunoassay for LH determination and FSH in buffao pasma were aso deveoped at the NDRI. Maximum heat symptoms were observed during winter (November to February) and owest heat symptoms from March to August. Mutipication of Eite Buffao Germpasm through IVF Technoogy The technique of IVF is being assessed for its practicabiity in buffaoes and the different steps were standardized using saughterhouse oocytes. Next step is aimed at coection of oocytes from ive animas through utrasound guided aspiration technique to make the technique appicabe for mutipication of eite germpasm and to acceerate the progeny testing of bus. Deveopment of buffao embryos in vitro using compex and defined media: The ceavage rate of 60% and transferabe embryo yied of 25% were achieved in oocytes/ embryos cutured in compex media, as against the ceavage rate of 40% and transferabe embryo yied of 12% in chemicay defined media. The use of compex media containing serum resuted in more bastocysts per ceaved embryo compared to defined media. The post-thaw morphoogy and survivabiity rate of moruae cuture in defined media was higher than those cutured in compex medium. The overa post-thaw viabiity of in vitro produced buffao embryos was poor because embryos are highy sensitive to cryo temperature. Buffao embryos were deveoped invitro using compex media. Carting potentia of cames was studied. Came semen processing and AI studied. Biofreezer used for freezing of goat semen. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin was isoated, purified and characterized for the first time. Behavioura studies were carried out in mithun.

128 122 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT MITHUN The maintenance and socia behaviours of mithuns were recorded both quantitativey and descriptivey under semi-intensive system of management. The ethogram reveaed that the mithun spent more time in grazing and/or browsing foowed by rumination. The mithun usuay foowed a definite bioogica cock. The eder mithun cow generay took the eadership of an afemae socia group. Their respective mothers usuay take care of mithun caves. Sheep Nuiparous ewes, mutiparous ewes and both combined (contro) were separatey penned out of sight of rams for 4 months. About 39% nuiparous ewes and 69% mutiparous ewes came in to estrus, after 15 days of introduction of ram. None of the ewes in the contro group exhibited signs of estrus. Pasma progesterone remained undetectabe/ow during estrus and parturition in Mapura ewes. Average pasma progesterone was 1.17 ± 0.36 ng/m and 0.2 ± 0.0 ng/m on the day of estrus during autumn and spring, respectivey. The pattern of individua sheep breed suggested the random occurrence of peaks throughout the utea phase of estrus cyce. The average progesterone and estrus eves were significanty different between parturition day. Semen from 17 rams were processed for freezing. Doses of ram semen were stored in 0.25 m (218) and in 0.5 m (250) for use in aparoscope aided intrauterine AI or transcervica AI (TCAI), respectivey. Evauation of fertiity and ambing rates were done foowing TCAI of native sheep with frozen semen using needes of different shapes. Lambing rates achieved were 30% with bent type neede, 30% with straight round tip and 30% with bent round tip. The conception and ambing rates with fresh and frozen semen achieved were 40, 30% and 40, 30% respectivey. The conception and ambing rates foowed by AI frozen semen through os-cervica, aparoscope aided intrauterine (IUAI) and TCAI methods, were 36.3,60, 30% and 27.3, 40, 30% respectivey. The conception and ambing rates foowed by AI using fresh and frozen semen through os-cervica methods, were 50 and 36.3%, 33.3 and 27.3% respectivey. The overa conception and ambing rates foowed by TCAI using frozen thawed semen from Mapura ram, were 90 vs 60% and 50 vs 40%. Conception and ambing rate foowing TCAI of native sheep with froze semen were 90 and 50%, whereas in epidosin (diating agent) treated group the conception and ambing rates were 80 and 30% respectivey. The overa conception and ambing rate with 0.5 m and 0.25 m dose of frozen semen by TCAI method, were 90 vs 80% and 50 vs 30%. The conception and ambing rate with fresh and frozen thawed semen with TCAI were 71.4 vs 57.1 and 57.1 vs 28.6% respectivey. Goat Protoco for automation of semen freezing for higher post-thaw motiity and fertiity in goats, was standardized. The atest improvement in the fied is the freezing of semen through biofreezer using controed rate freezing. Caffeine addition in diuter was superior for achieving higher percentage of intact acrosome, progressive motie sperms compared to addition of ascorbic acid of contro group in frozen buck semen. Work on deveopment of a non-invasive technique of embryo coection and transfer in goats was initiated. Five kids were born through embryo transfer technoogy during the year. Physioogica basis of thermoadapatabiity of goats was studied. Bood metaboic profies of goats in different environmenta periods were quantified. Package of management practices for commercia goat farming was deveoped. Hormona and biochemica profies of goats during different physioogica stages were studied. Came Carting potentia for Jaisameri cames: A cart oad equivaent to 300, 350 and 400% of their body weight coud be successfuy pued by 80, 40% and 0% Jaisameri cames on a kachcha desert track of 20 km in 3.5 hr without any sign of stress. Came semen processing and artificia insemination: Reguar carting has adverse effect on rutting activity, ibido and semen donation efficiency. Out of 100 semen sampes kept for refrigerator preservation 46, 35, 18, 10 and 2 coud maintain motiity respectivey, for 24,48, 72, 96 and 120 hr in Tris diutor whie a commercia diutor was not abe to sustain sperm motiity. None of the 10 femae cames inseminated with diuted iquid semen conceived whie 40% femaes coud successfuy be

129 123 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT impregnated with whoe semen deposited into uterus. This indicated some important roe of geation of semen in sperm banking in genita tract and fertiity. Came behaviour: Neonata behavioura study in oose housing system reveaed that the average time taken for the caf to stand on eg was ± min whereas the range was 25 to 90 min. The average time taken for first sucking attempt was ± 8.53 min whereas the time interva for sucking varied from 1 to 3 hr. In 90% cases the ocomotary movement of newy born caf was norma within 12 to 24 hr after parturition but 10% caves took more time to normaize their ocomotary movement. Maximum caf (90%) coud propery wak after 6 to 7 days of parturition but in some cases (10%) caves waked propery before 6 7 days. The study wi be very usefu in proper management and increasing survivabiity of newy born came caves. Equine The resuts of defatted fresh jenny s mik as diuter for freezing semen were not encouraging and post-thawing sperms motiity was ess than 20%. Performance of citrate EDTA as centrifuge media and actose-gucose-edta-egg yok as freezing media, was satisfactory and achieved up to 55 to 60% post-thawing sperm motiity. Conception rate of 45.4% in jennies was achieved at the farmer s door using frozen semen technoogy deveoped by the NRCE, Hisar. Equine chorionic gonadotropin aso known as pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) was isoated, purified and characterized from serum of pregnant mares for the first time in India. This purified gycoprotein hormone was 2.8 mg/ itre of serum with bioogica activity of 13,500 IU/mg. This hormone have dua hormona activity, i.e., FSH and LH type activities, and is generay used for superovuation and synchronization of estrous cyces in animas other than equines. Work was initiated on the deveopment of ELISA based test for pregnancy diagnosis in equines and cryopreservation of staion semen and perfection of artificia insemination for Marwari horses. Pregnancy diagnosis in a jenny after AI using frozen semen Yak The baseine data on minera profie in yak bood and mik were generated, and comparative eementa distribution in hair of yak, catte, goat and pig was studied. Sexua behaviour of yak bu during usage of artificia vagina and natura mating was studied. Semina characteristics were studied in summer and winter. Estrogen and progesterone in a ratio of 1 : 3.5 successfuy inducted actation in yaks. The Jai Vigyan Project on Househod and Nutritiona Security for Triba, Backward and Hiy Areas: Improved Livestock Productivity in Triba, Backward and Hiy Areas Migratory sheep, integrated piggery and backyard poutry were studied to deveop sustainabe ivestock systems of higher monetary return, which shoud not ony provide a the needs of ife support system but aso nutritiona security to the househods for these areas. MIGRATORY SHEEP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Migratory sheep production systems were studied in cod and arid regions of Jammu and Kashmir and Himacha Pradesh and hot dry conditions of Rajasthan, to improve productivity of migratory sheep by appying scientific technoogies of breeding, nutrition and heath cover, and to provide iveyhood security to the farmers round the year by giving the inputs on their migratory routes of three states.

130 124 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT IMPACT OF MIGRATORY SHEEP PRODUCTION Pasture improvement was inked with sheep improvement programme to overcome poor ambing rate Suppementation of mineras, trace eements Narrowing down the mae : femae ratio from 1 : 100 to 1 : 50 Contro of ecto- and gastro-intestina parasites Management of intervention points of migratory routes for giving inputs, checking the heath status; and grassand, pasture and and range and improvement programmes shoud get a priority. Tropica and temperate pasture species of grass and egumes shoud be introduced on migratory routes. IMPACT OF INTEGRATED PIGGERY PRODUCTION The biggest impact of the project is deveopment of sef-hep group for sustained piggery production by estabishing Breeding Unit and Fattening Unit. This programme had biggest impact in Mizoram, Nagaand and Jharkhand, where farmers reaized that this programme can sustain and mutipy in wider areas if two-tier system of breeder unit and fattener units are estabished having cose ink among the units. Rajasthan: Rajasthan migratory sheep start facing the fodder shortage from November, and so move to Diggi, Tonk, Bharatpur, Agra, Etawah and finay reach Kanpur. They start return movement on the same route after the onset of monsoon in Juy. Fourteen intervention points were identified on these migratory routes two in Uttar Pradesh and rest in Rajasthan. These intervention points are for providing services by State Governments of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. During migration high mortaity was recorded due to pneumonia, gastro-intestina parasites, and protozoan infestation. Ectoparasites were aso the cause of ow production in most of the focks. The number of rams in fock of 250 to 350 ranged between 2 to 4 ony. Himacha Pradesh: The three migratory routes namey Unna to Chamba (route 1); Chamba to Biaspur (route 2); and Lahau to Sirmaour (route 3) have 13 intervention points (4+5+4). Approximatey 8 to 12 g minera mixture with common sats were suppemented. No other feed suppement was given from the project. Heavy infestation of stongye, amphistomes, coccidiosis in young sheep was observed. Sheep body coats were having tick infestation aso. Dipping tanks were constructed to disinfect migratory sheep on these intervention points. The groups receiving heath coverage and minera suppement gained better body weight as compared to the group receiving ony one input. Route 3 from Lahau to Sirmour was better as compared to reoute 1 from Chamba to Unna, and route 2 from Chamba to Biaspur in terms of gain in body weight, ambing per cent and woo yied in sheep focks. Treatment-wise and route-wise variation in woo growth was not different significanty. Maximum abortions (8.3%) were recorded in focks on route 1. Number of ambs born on three routes were 2,759, and 351 aborted. Jammu and Kashmir: In the first year of the programme, migratory routes for undertaking studies were identified in the districts of Srinagar and Badgaon. INTEGRATED PIGGERY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Deveopment programme on piggery, a very important enterprise for triba communities of northeastern hiy region, is in operation at Meghaaya, Nagaand, Mizoram and Jharkhand (Ranchi) to demonstrate the economic benefits of scientific management of pig husbandry by providing quaity pig germpasm and inputs ike feed, heath cover, and other services, study the impact of the programme through modified service support system ike inking pig germpasm unit (breeding unit) with fattening unit under sef controed rura mechanisms, and to demonstrate the benefits to attract other farmers for adopting simiar programmes without support from out side. Improved germpasm of Hampshire and oca crosses at Meghaaya and Nagaand, Yorkshire at Mizoram, and Tamworth and oca crosses at Jharkhand, were distributed among farmers. It is a two-tier programme inking pig breeding unit with fattening unit. The programme was undertaken in 35 viages of four states. Fattening units (269), breeding units (31) and farm famiies (302) were covered. Litter size at birth ranged between 4 and 9 in three states but at Mizoram it ranged between 7 and 8. Litter size at birth was more uniform in Large White Yorkshire in Mizoram. Farmers agreed to return the surpus pigets from first generation for distribution to next group of farmers. Farmers reaized the importance of feeding pigs according to their age group and heath status. BACKYARD POULTRY PRODUCTION Backyard poutry production suits to the conditions of triba farmers of remote and backward areas. The main objectives of this project are to demonstrate the benefits of rearing speciay designed poutry birds (Vanaraja) under the backyard system of ow input, and to provide food and nutritiona security through consumption of surpus eggs and meat. Vanaraja a muticoour medium sized dua purpose bird was deveoped for

131 125 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT rura and backyard systems at the Project Directorate on Poutry. For the first time in four North Eastern States of the country, Vanaraja was introduced for the benefit of triba peope. The significant achievement of the project are Chicks achieved a body weight ranging from 750 to 882 g in 6 weeks in a the four states. Feed conversion ratio aso ranged between 1.63 and Performance of Vanaraja aduts was aso satisfactory age at sexua maturity 160, 180 and 176 days in Manipur, Arunacha Pradesh and Mizoram; body weight varied between 2.52 and 3.22 kg in maes and 1.78 and 2.52 kg in femaes; ayer performance 9.3, 14 and 11.5 egg/month a bird, which was more than 2-times of oca birds. Nutritiona Security Studies Egg consumption in high income group farmers and ow income group farmers improved. This backyard system provided high degree of nutritiona security in one of the remotest viages in the country on China boarders. At Manipur Centre, 20 week-od Vanaraja birds weighed 2,360 g and 2,520 g under open and semi range conditions and oca birds weighed 1,895 g. Under two range conditions number of days Vanaraja aid eggs was 168 days, which was 20 days esser than oca birds. Another important innovation of Manipur farmers was use of broody hens instead of government hatcheries. The chicks hatched under broody hen mechanism were in very high demand by the triba peope both for rearing and sef-consumption. STUDIES ON PASTURE BASED ANIMAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM IMPACT OF BACKYARD POULTRY FARMING IN MANIPUR At househod eve, these birds were fed on surpus grains, kitchen wastes, worms, insects, eaves, etc., with no cost invoved on feeding. The eggs were sod, consumed and hatched. The twin objectives of egg consumption and generation of suppementary income were we achieved. Objectives of Network Programme on Crop Based Anima Production System are to compare the different grazing management practices, and suggesting the best possibe aternative for ivestock systems dependent upon this system. The ivestock system under this study consisted of catte, buffao, sheep, goat and came. IGFRI, Jhansi: Pasture improvement, forage evauation, nutrient osses, and water conservation aspects were studied. Rotationa grazing proved to be a good practice for Cenchrus ciiaris and Sehima nervosum, and under continuous grazing the vigour of Cenchrus ciiaris and Heteropogon contortus decreased consideraby whie Dichantium annuatum fourished we in deferred rotationa system. As a whoe rotationa grazing promoted the vigour character of range grasses and continuous grazing system hampered these to some extent. Tota forage production ranged from 7.9 to 9.5 tonnes/ha in continuous and deferred rotationa systems respectivey. Heteropogon contortus was the main forage producer in a the four systems and its production varied from to g/m 2 in cut-and-carry to deferred rotationa system, which is more than 45% of tota production. CIRG, Makhdoom: Biomass production was more in the cut-and-carry system but cost of fodder production is higher under this system because it is more abour intensive. Rotationa system grazing is mot economica on account of owest rate of cost of fodder production. Livestock productivity is more under deferred rotationa system of grazing. By integrating both ivestock and fodder production the deferred rotationa system seems to be more economica over other system of grazing. CSWRI, Avikanagar: Economics of sheep and goat rearing under different grazing systems was worked out. The cost of grazing, fodder, shearing and prophyaxis and treatment for 16 animas in each group for 1 year under continuous, rotationa, deferred rotationa and grazing pus suppementation system was Rs 10,482, 5,990, 1,000, 238 and 316 respectivey. The cost of concentrate feeding in continuous, rotationa, deferred rotationa and grazing pus suppementation system was Rs 2,809, 2,805, 2,819, and 7,533 respectivey. Thus the tota expenditure on 16 animas in these group was Rs 20,835, 20,859, 20,834 and 25,548 accounting grazing charges Economics of goat sheep rearing under different grazing system was studied

132 126 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Low cost processed cheese prepared. Conica process vat for viscous dairy products improved. Fruit dahi preparation technoogy deveoped. Dahi prepared from came mik. and cost of fodder consumed by these animas from the pasture under continuous, rotationa, deferred rotationa and grazing pus suppementation system, respectivey. However eaving aside the expenses on account of grazing charge and fodder cost, the tota rearing expenditure under the four systems wi be Rs 3,363, 3,387, 3,362 and 8,076 respectivey. The tota receipt in terms of vaue addition from ambs/kids, woo and manure was Rs 8,309, 7,702, 7,268 and 10,147 under continuous, rotationa, deferred rotationa and grazing pus suppementation systems respectivey. DAIRYING AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY Vaue Added Products/Processes/Technoogies Deveoped ow cost processed cheese (PC) preparations: The PC preparations substituting mik fat competey with vegetabe fat were ower in costs and with a quaity comparabe to that of conventiona processed cheese. Process for micro-fitered mik with extended shef ife: The shef ife of the micro-fitered mik and that of the pasteurized micro-fitered mik was more than 1 month whie it was 4 days for raw mik and 14 days for the pasteurized mik at 46 C. Improved the conica process vat for viscous dairy products: This unit can be adopted by dairy pants handing viscous mik products. Adoption of continuous paneer making machine: The unit can easiy be adopted for other acidic coaguated mik products. Deveoped technoogies for fruit dahi: Fermented miks have been deveoped with the improved shef ife and acceptabiity. The pain dahi, had a shef ife of 18 days and the fruit dahi of 26 days at a storage temperature of 6 ± 1 C. Standardized process of came mik fermentation, viz., dahi: Its sensory evauation test indicated 85% acceptabiity. The texture of came curd (fermented mik) is oose and requires onger incubation period (18 22 hr) as compared to catte mik curd. Came mik curd has positive infuence on digestive systems. Synergistic action of anti-microbia components was observed in goat mik. Campyobacter jejuni isoates from mik and mik products were characterized A mutipex PCR was deveoped for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in mik and mik products Beneficia effect of came mik on gycemic contro and diabetic quaity of ife in type I diabetes meitus MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY Dehydrated instant chicken soup mix deveoped using spent hen. Egg crepe, a convenience egg-rich item, deveoped. Food-borne pathogens testing methods deveoped. Red chii incusion in chicken meat products improved storage stabiity. Processing and Vaue Addition Technoogies were deveoped for chicken nuggets, sausages, tandoori kababs, fried tenders (breast musce-minor) from broier-spent hens and enrobed meat products with high consumer acceptabiity. Compementary technoogies were deveoped for chicken samosa, stuffed chicken paratha and chicken ge (stock for chicken soup) to improve the commercia viabiity of spent hen utiization and ow cost improved chicken meat chips and curs. Deveoped dehydrated instant chicken soup mix from spent hen meat: To widen the avenue for efficient disposa of ess desirabe spent (cued) hens, efforts were made to formuate dehydrated instant chicken soup mix from cooked (1 kg/cm 2 ; 15 min) and oven-dried (70 ± 1 C; 12 hr) spent hen meat stock (40%) in combination with refined wheat four (30%), skim mik powder (15%), hydrogenated vegetabe

133 127 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT oi (7%), common sat, seasonings and permitted food additives. Chicken soup mix packed aerobicay in LDPE fim (300 G) pouches or under vacuum in auminum foi-ldpe aminated pouches reveaed a gradua decine in ph and a progressive increase in TBA vaue of the product during 90 days of storage at mean ambient temperature (24ºC). The rate of ipid oxidation was, however, much faster in aerobicay than that in vacuum packed sampe. The product had ow (0.53) water activity (aw) initiay, which did not evince much change during storage. Simiary, moisture ( %), crude proteins ( %) and ether extract ( %) of the product during storage did not change. Both bacteria (og cfu/g) and yeast and mod (og cfu/g) counts remained fairy ow throughout the storage regardess of packaging treatments. A few anaerobes were encountered in vacuum packed sampes but no coiforms or staphyococci were detected. Sensory quaity tended to decine with storage time but vacuum packed sampes were preferred organoepticay over aerobicay packed group throughout the storage. Egg crepe preparation: Egg crepe, a thin, fat, circuar egg-rich product, can be popuarized as a convenience egg-rich item at growing fast food outets and at homes. The most acceptabe standardized formuation consisted of 60% homogenized iquid whoe egg and 40% mixture of bended whoe white rice and dehusked back gram spits. Besides skimmed mik powder (5%), sat (0.5%) and seasonings were incorporated in the formuation. Storage studies of most acceptabe egg crepes at refrigerated (4 ± 1 C) and frozen ( 18 ± 1 C) temperatures showed progressive increase in weight oss and TBA vaues and decrease in moisture content with storage time, but changes were sower in vacuum than that in aerobic packaging and at frozen than that at refrigerated storage. The bacteria counts graduay increased under refrigerated and the same tended to decrease during frozen storage. Athough sensory quaity evinced a gradua decine, the product remained sensoriy acceptabe for up to 22 days in vacuum and 20 days in LDPE packaging at refrigeration (4 ± 1 C) temperature. At frozen temperature ( 18 ± 1 C), the crepes remained sensoriy acceptabe and microbioogicay satisfactory for up to 60 days in both packs, but the vacuum packed crepes consistenty received higher ratings over air-packed sampes during storage. The ingredient cost of formuating 1 egg crepe (cooked weight about 46 g) was cacuated to be Rs Quaity assurance and monitoring of foods of ivestock and poutry origin: Standardization/improvization of immunoogica and moecuar methods for certain food-borne pathogens was carried out at the IVRI, Izatnagar. SDS-PAGE profie and immunobotting of ce surface proteins of 30 different isoates of Listeria spp reveaed that 28 and 75 kda proteins were immunodominant, as we as L. monocytogenes-specific. Antiserum was raised against these peptides and used for standardizing immunoassays. A PCR method for detection of L. monocytogenes targeted to hy A gene was standardized. The test was specific and sensitive. A PCR method was standardized for detection of Samonea spp of 32 different isoates. A 32-kDa poypeptide was immunodominant and the antiserum was raised against this protein antigen. An indirect-elisa was further standardized. A PCR protoco was aso standardized targeted to inva gene for detection of Samonea spp from foods. Different seective broths were aso evauated for use in PCR protoco, of which a newy deveoped Samonea enrichment broth and tetrathionate broth were better than RV and seenite cystine broth. PCR protocos for detection of verotoxic E. coi targeting VT1, VT2 and Ehy genes and S. aureus targeting enterotoxin gene were standardized. Evauation and extension of storage stabiity of poutry meat products: Effect of incorporation of different eves (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) of red chii extract in chicken meat-skin (70 : 30 w/w) and chicken gizzard snack resuted in decine in ph, moisture and microbia counts with increasing eves of red chii extract. Frozen sampes had ower microbia (TPC, anaerobes, yeast and mouds) counts than the refrigerated sampes, regardess of the type of the product. Sensory quaity decined with storage time. Both chicken skin-meat cutet and chicken gizzard snack containing 0.05% red chii extract had microbioogicay safe and organoepticay acceptabe shef-

134 128 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT EQUINE AND CAMEL HAIR BLENDS WITH WOOL Indian came and equine hairs are having unique characteristic of natura coours ranging from ight to dark brown, grey and ight back. However, the fibres are coarse. The fibre quaity of fineness and stiffness changes with the age of the anima, i.e., younger anima produces better quaity fibres. These hairs are not commerciay utiized and there is no commercia marketing centre. To expore the possibiity to utiize fibres in sma and medium sector enterprises, it was tried to bend coour came hair and equine hair with white fine woo in different proportion to obtain various shade ranges, i.e., from ight grey to dark grey and brownish coours. These bends were processed on standard wooen spinning system into yarn inear density of 2 to 4 Nm. The furnishing fabrics having weight per sq. metre of 300 to 400 g/sq. metre were deveoped on handooms. The various came and equine bended products, which have excusive natura coour resistant to fading on washing and sun exposure and aso have higher drape and attractiveness over the traditiona furnishing fabrics which are generay dyed. Moreover, these hair-bended products are ow cost and unique fire extinguishing property. Expoitation of these non-conventiona hairs for commercia products wi enhance the marketabiity of fibre and enhance the income of hair producers. Moreover the rura artisan may get empoyment for manufacturing such unique products using handoom in rura areas thereby heping in deveopment of rura economy. ife of 14 and 28 days under refrigerated (5 ± 1ºC) and frozen ( 18ºC) conditions, respectivey. Determination of BHC and DDT residues in spent hen tissues: The BHC eve in musce of spent hen carcass ranged from ppm whie in iver and adipose tissue it was ppm and ppm, respectivey. Adipose fat was store house of BHC. The eve of DDT was recorded to be ppm in musce and iver whie it was higher ( ppm) in fat tissue. BHC was aso higher in adipose fat (68%) foowed by musce (50%) and iver (34%). On the other hand, DDT occurred at higher rate in a tissues compared to BHC. WOOL AND WOOL PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY Processing Technoogy of Hand-made Fets Hand-made non-woven feted products were deveoped using came woo, coarse sheep woo and their bends. The product thickness ranged from 2 to 5 mm and area density 300 g to 500 g/sq. m. The products have unique feature of natura coour, warmth, and strength.these can find appication in foor coverings, jackets, etc. Embroidery and coour designing through patchwork woud enhance the quaity of fet. Light Weight Hand-made Fets These fets were prepared by using Angora hair in bends with fine quaity sheep woo and have area density of approximatey 100 to 200 g/sq. m. These products have unique whiteness, and can be dyed with natura and synthetic dyes.

135 Fish Production and Processing CAPTURE FISHERIES MARINE SECTOR The marine fish production, in India, during 2001 has been estimated at 2.33 miion tonnes, a decrease of 13%, as compared to 2.69 miion tonnes of the preceding year. The peagic, demersa and crustaceans group formed about 51%, 27% and 17%, respectivey, of the tota andings. The mechanized and motorized sector constituted 67.7% and 24.6%, respectivey, of the tota andings. The percentage contributions of north east, south east, south west and north west regions are 7.3, 22.2, 32.0 and 37.0 respectivey. INLAND SECTOR Inventory and mapping of arge water bodies of West Benga A compete inventory and mapping of arger water bodies above 10 ha in the West Benga have been done through digita image processing technique by using sateite data (IRS-IC & ID) acquired from Nationa Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad. Anaysis techniques were aso deveoped to extract brightness (vaue), hue (coour) and saturation (coour purity) for each pixe which are correated with actua on-site data on water quaity. Mutipe correation coefficient has been computed for regression of these water quaity parameters on refectance of four bands. The significant vaues have been observed for water temperature, ph, chorinity, sainity, NO 3, tota N, siicate, Ca, GPP and respiration. Marine fish production was 2.33 miion tonnes. Management guideines prepared for Rajasthan reservoirs. Induced breeding and arva rearing of medium carps achieved. Crossbreeding of freshwater prawns was attempted. Growth rate of Jayanti rohu was better in ower stocking density. Lysine and methionine suppementation induced eary maturation in Indian major carps. Aquatic poutant resuted in reproductive incompetence. Assessment of production potentia of Rajasthan reservoirs Ecoogica investigations with major thrust on the evauation of production potentia of four southern Rajasthan reservoirs, viz., Jawai, West Benas, Nandsamand and Gambhiri were conducted. Based on biogenic production potentia management guideines have been formuated for these reservoirs. CULTURE FISHERIES FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE Diversification of carp cuture with medium carp To diversify freshwater aquacuture, successfu induced breeding and arva rearing of Anabas testudineus, Carias batrachus, Heteropneustes fossiis, Ompok pabda, Mystus vittatus, Labeo fimbriatus, Puntius gonionatus, Channa striatus and Pangassius pangassius were achieved. The medium carp Puntius gonionatus was evauated as a candidate species for monocuture in three stocking densities of 5,000, 10,000 and 15,000/ha ponds. After eight months of cuture the mean growth and surviva eves recorded were 331 g and 94.3%, 259 g and 82.2% and 183 g and 77.3% gross and the respective net.

136 130 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Ornamenta fishes identified in north and north-eastern states. Riverine resources were assessed in Garhwa, Uttarancha. Immunostimuant technique deveoped for heath management. Lightweight boat with strength and durabiity for backwater and coasta fishing was deveoped. Ready-to-consume fried musse deveoped. Protocos deveoped sperm cryopreservation of fishes. The production was 1,562.5 and 1,527.5 kg; 2,128.3 and 2,053.3 kg and 2,115 and 2,009.7 kg/ha respectivey. Large-scae breeding of giant freshwater prawn Breeding and seed production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was carried out in a semi-cosed two phase arva rearing system. Twenty-one batches were reared ti metamorphosis. Intensive rearing of the post-arvae in outdoor cement cisterns reveaed that they coud be 735/m 2 in one month. In the monocuture trias of the giant freshwater prawn, an yied of 658 kg/ha/7 month was recorded. Crossbreeding of commerciay important freshwater prawns Crossbreeding was attempted between Mahanadi river stock of Macrobrachium macomsonii and Padma river stock of M. gangeticum. Hatched zoea arvea were reared in sainity range of ppt. The arvae of F 1 generation were more or ess simiar in characteristics to those of M. gangeticum. However, the red chromatophores found on entire region of merus of second cheate egs from stage of M. gangeticum arvae were absent among the hybrids. Muti-ocationa testing of improved Jayanti rohu Under muti-ocation fied testing experiments, Jayanti rohu was cutured at Jaandhar (Punjab), Rahara (West Benga) and Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh). Resuts indicated higher growth efficiency of improved rohu over contro in a the three testing centres. The cuture of improved rohu was aso carried out at stocking densities of 100 and 150 fingerings in 10 m 2 cages for six months. The growth rate was higher in ower stocking density as compared to those reared under high stocking. Eary maturation of Indian major carps reared on ysine and methionine suppemented diet The CIFA has achieved success in advancing the maturity of the Indian major carps by suppementing the semi-baanced diet with ysine and methionine broodstocks of the Indian major carps were reared on the 5 mm peeted semibaanced diet. Natura spawning took pace in the cemented tank after 6 hr of the ovaprim administration. Cage cuture of fish Cage cuture experiment has been initiated to demonstrate the possibiities of fish production in cage from an open water system. A cage having dimension of 12 m 3 made of 5 mm Neton screen was used to grow fishes in Mathura bee and West Benga. The cage was reinforced by framed acryic pipes. Fish growth increment in 45 days has been recorded as 50 g in Cata cata and 44 g in Labeo rohita. Fish heath Experiments conducted on reproductive physioogica response of fish Rita rita to aquatic poutants reveaed accumuation of ovarian and hepatic choestero and reduction in hormone 17ß estradio eve indicating reduced steriodogenesis and consequent reproductive incompetence. Survey and breeding of the ornamenta fishes A survey was conducted to identify ornamenta fish species in north and north eastern states. More than 100 species of ornamenta fishes were identified. Captive breeding of Carassius auratus, Puntius conchonius and Coisa fasciata were standardized. A tota of four variants in body coouration and cauda fin formation were recorded in god fish.

137 131 FISH PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING Seed of Ompak pabda being reared in the hatchery Hatchery produced seed of Mystus vittatus Broodstock of rosy barb, Punitius conchonius Ornamenta fish Danio devario COLDWATER FISHERIES Riverine resource assessment in Garhwa region of Uttarancha Ecoogica investigations were conducted on gacier and spring fed streams of Garhwa Himaayas to generate biodiversity database for deveoping conservation action pan. Most of these streams are in the oigotrophic state. The water quaity was quite congenia for sustaining fish and benthic food chain. The main fishery comprised Schizothorax richardsonii (57 58%) foowed by Tor putitora (5 15%). The other species recorded were Labeo, Bariius, Gyptothorax, Pseudecheneis and Nemacheius. The catch per unit effort was extremey ow in these systems. Potentia site for conservation of both mahseer and snow trout were ocated in these streams. Characterization of mahseer stock A study was undertaken to characterize the popuation of commerciay important mahseer in riverine and acustrine ecosystem of Uttarancha. Significant variation in the size and fecundity of mahseer stock in riverine and acustrine was noticed. The study wi be usefu for stock improvement programme in the codwater sector. Fishery potentia in Nainita ake, Uttarancha Ecoogica investigations were taken up to know the fisheries potentia in the A typica hi stream in Kumaon Himaayas

138 132 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Nainita ake. Based on the conversion efficiency between primary production to fish biomass, it was estimated the ake has high production potentiaity and fish production to the tune of kg/ha/year coud be achieved. BRACKISHWATER AQUACULTURE Prevention of seepage in brackishwater ponds Farm reared brood fish of Rainbow trout at Chirapani Laboratory studies were conducted to measure the seepage rate of different soi groups and to test ining materias to contro seepage using the extended type LYNX faing head permeameter. These tests were repeated in fied conditions in ponds with a variety of ining and fibrous materias ike biocrete, sand cement pastering cay banketing compaction using roer, poythene ining, ime, sea she and sand pastering. Based on modified Penman method the evaporation rate was worked out to be 0.48 cm/day. Among the materias tested biocrete (mixture of cement, sand and natura fibre incuding bamboo frames) and catte manure were found effective in controing atera seepage in ponds. Identification of dietary choestero eve in mud crab To determine the dietary requirement of choestero for the juvenie of mud crab Scya tranquebarica, feeding trias with six purified diets containing 0 to 1.4% choestero eves were conducted. The resuts indicated that juvenies crabs fed with 0.5% choestero diet gained highest weight with good mouting frequency and maintained natura coouration. Diet for sea bass A compounded diet with indigenous feed ingredients ike soybean mea, squid mea, shrimp mea, trash fish and cerea four was formuated for arva of sea bass. The seabass fry were successfuy weaned on the formuated diet for 15 days. The performance of the formuated diet in terms of growth and surviva was quiet high. Shrimp disease Kit for detection of White Spot Virus in Shrimps To tacke shrimp disease probems, an immunostimuant has been deveoped for heath management. A fied tria with a Vibrio whoe ce immunostimuant has been conducted with P. monodon in farmers fieds in Tami Nadu and West Benga. The tria was successfu and the shrimp exhibited better growth and the production was significanty high in immunostimuated pond as compared to contro ponds. A Reverse Transcriptase Poymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique was perfected for detection of yeow head virus which causes the devastating yeow head disease, in farmed shrimp. MARICULTURE Broodstock deveopment, breeding and arva rearing of damsefish Chrysiptera unimacuata and grouper Epinepheus maabaricus was achieved in captivity. Juvenies of Sepia pharaonis were reared up to 10 mm size in captivity. FISH HARVEST AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY An improved design of a FRP boat which has ight weight, strength and durabiity for backwater and coasta fishing was deveoped. Simiary a design was deveoped of a sai system for use on-board medium cass fishing vesses for reducing fue consumption during free running mode. Two canoes were constructed for marine and backwater fishing from rubber wood.

139 133 FISH PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING Canoe constructed from rubber wood Harvest of heathy Penaeus monodon from on immuno stimuated pond Technoogy for the production of ready-to-consume fried musse in fexibe retortabe pouch with shef ife of more than a year at room temperature was deveoped. The technoogy for production of battered and breaded bas from sma squids as raw materia which otherwise not suitabe for export was standardized. Chitin and chitosan incorporated isingass fims were found very effective in maxiofacia surgery. FISH GENETICS RESOURCES Poymorphic microsateite oci were identified from nine prioritized species through cross species ampification of primers obtained through bioinformatic toos. By using the identified microsateite and aozyme markers for genetic stock of Labeo rohita, Cata cata, Tor putitora and Labeo dero across the natura range of their distribution were identified. Using the deveoped protocos, sperm cryopreservation for wid accessions of Horabagrus brachysoma, Labeo rohita, Cata cata and Cirrhinus mrigaa were made. Protoco deveopment for sperm cryopreservation of Labeo dyocheius was aso done and viabe progeny produced using frozen mit. A comprehensive bibiography on pathogens and diseases of native and existing exotic fishes, shrimps and mouscs have been prepared. A Nationa Strategic document Pan and Guideines on Exotics and Quarantine of Aquatic Animas has been finaized. Genetic characterization of Labeo spp. viz., L. rohita, L. cabasu, L. bata, L. fimbriatus, L. dyocheius and L. gonius was performed using RAPD profiing. Fifteen seected RAPD primers were used for profiing. The mean intraspecific genetic simiarity (GS) vaues were 0.86±0.04, 0.88±0.04, 0.74±0.05, 0.88±0.05, 0.82±0.06 and 0.86±0.05 for L. bata, L. cabasu, L. dyocheius, L. fimbriatus, L. gonius and L. rohita respectivey. Immunogobuins were purified from BSA immunized Cirrhinus mrigaa serum by affinity chromatography. The purity was confirmed by the presence of a singe band in native gradient PAGE of % acryamide. In SDS-PAGE the purified immunogobuins showed one heavy and one ight chain, the moecuar weights were determined to be ~ 84kD and ~ 28 kd respectivey. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The academic programmes at Masters and Doctora eves, offered by the Centra Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, Centra Marine Fisheries Research FORMULATION OF CIFELOSTRESS TO REDUCE STRESS AND MORTALITY OF FISH SEED The CIFE, Mumbai has deveoped CIFELOSTRESS, a combinationa antistress formuation which reduces stress and resutant mortaity of fish seed during transportation. The formuation has shown exceent resuts and there was satisfactory response from the users. The formuation is economicay viabe and hep in ensuring high surviva in ong distance, transportation of fish seeds. The technoogy has been transferred to a private firm for its commerciaization.

140 134 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT A fish farm women earning by doing in a training course organized at Madhubani Institute, Kochi; Centra Institute of Fisheries Technoogy, Kochi; and Centra Institute of Freshwater Aquacuture, Bhubaneswar progressed satisfactoriy as per schedue. A tota of 85 students were awarded their Masters Degrees and 22 Ph.D. degrees were aso awarded, whie 30 trainees successfuy competed the one-year PG Dipoma in Inand Fisheries. Besides the three new Masters Programmes, viz., Fish Pathoogy and Microbioogy, Fish Nutrition and Biochemistry, Fish Genetics and Biotechnoogy, which were started during the ast year, a new programme on Fish Business Management was aso introduced from the current academic session. Ph.D. Programme on Post Harvest Technoogy commenced during the academic session of Students (47) incuding 2 foreign students enroed under these 9 Masters programmes, whie 25 students, incuding 4 in-service candidates and one foreign student, enroed for the Ph.D. programmes, 30 trainees were admitted to the one year PG Dipoma in Inand Fisheries at Kokata Centre. Three training programmes, 8 Mass Awareness programmes conducted under DBT/NBDB Sponsored Programme on HRD in Coasta Bio-resource Deveopment and Management besides Summer Schoo sponsored by the ICAR on EIA and Management of Coasta Zones, and Indo-Israe Internationa Training Programme on Advances in Aquacuture. The CIFE, Mumbai conducted training programmes for the farmers of Andaman & Nicobar Panchayats at Mumbai and Powarkheda, Madhya Pradesh in coaboration with MPCON, the Academy of Scientists, Engineers and Technoogists, and the DST, New Dehi. SUCCESS STORIES MANAGEMENT OF COASTAL AGRO-ECOSYSTEM AFFECTED BY SUPER CYCLONE IN INDIA Seven ponds in super cycone hit bocks of Ersama, Jagatsinghpur and Astarang (Puri) were taken up for composite fish cuture aong with prawn M. rosenbergii under poverty aeviation programme. Farmers were suppied with inputs ike rice bran, rice poish, groundnut oi-cake, soyabean and advised to prepare suppementary feed by incorporating vitamins, mineras and probiotics. A partia harvest has shown g size and g size prawns in six months duration. Musse farming in Keraa The technoogy for farming edibe musse (Perna viridis) deveoped by CMFRI is being adopted on commercia scae in the viages of northern Keraa. With the financia assistance from state Government under the SGRY (Swamajayanthi Gramaseva Rosar Yojana) and Co-operative Banks, more and more Women Sef Hep Groups (SHG s) are coming up for musse farming in the backwaters adjacent to their houses. By adopting this production technoogy aquafarmers are producing 0.8 to 1.0 tonne of musses in their farms. PCR kit for WSSV in shrimp A diagnostic PCR kit for identification of dreaded White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has been deveoped by CIBA Chennai. This PCR kit has a sensitivity of detecting 10 copies of virus. The PCR kit is economica and it has been transferred to a private firm for commerciaization. FRP canoes for coasta fishing The CIFT, Kochi has deveoped a sma size FRP canoes by using fibre gass reinforced pastic especiay for use in backwaters and near-shore waters. Ti now six such canoes have aready been constructed for the Cheanam Viage SC/ST Cooperative Society under the scheme of Specia Centra Assistance to Specia Component Pan. The fabrication cost of each FRP canoe is about Rs 23,000.

141 135 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Agricutura Engineering and Technoogy FARM IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINERY Tractor-operated Laser-controed Land Leveer for Wetands A commercia design of the tractor-operated aser-controed eveer was fied tested at the ANGRAU, Hyderabad. Based on the feedback from the testing of the above eveer, a new eveer has been designed by the ANGRAU, Hyderabad centre, for wetands by adopting a commercia aser-beam sensor on it, which can be operated by a tractor-hydrauic system. In this, the ange of the bade can be changed to contro the depth of the cut. The rotating aser-beam when touches sensor, activates hydrauic system to change the depth of the cut automaticay. Fied trias were carried out in 8 hectares, and the resuts were very encouraging for the precision eveing in wet conditions. Its fied capacity has been found ha/day at 3 4 km/hr speed. Rotavator Attachment for Sefpropeed Reaper Unit A rotavator attachment for the sefpropeed reaper has been deveoped by the CIAE, Bhopa, from the avaiabe standard power-tier rotavator components. The rear portion of the sef-propeed reaper was removed and engine was shifted to the front of the power unit. The rotavator attachment was hitched to the drawbar of the power unit at the rear. The rotavator has 12 C- shaped bades, fitted on a rotavator-axe of 45 cm. The drive for the rotavator transmission system was taken from the PTO (power take-off) of the power unit through sprocket and chain-drive. Rotavator bades speed was set for 200 and 110 rpm with periphera veocities of bades as 4.7 and 2.7 m/sec. To avoid injury to operator, a hood made of meta sheet has been provided at the top with a rubber cover at the rear. The depth of the cut can be adjusted with the rear whee. The rotovator attachment was tested in the fied, and the fied capacity of the rotavator has been found as 0.06 ha/hr at a fied efficiency of 65%. Power-tier-operated Wetand Leveer A power-tier-operated wetand eveer, deveoped by the ANGRAU, Hyderabad, has been tested in back cotton sois, red sois and chaka sois. Its operation speed varied between 1 and 1.2 km/hr, fied capacity between 0.16 and 0.18 ha/hr and fied efficiency between 60 and 65%. ANGRAU tractor-operated aser-controed wetand eveer. This has given encouraging resuts for precision eveing in wet conditions. Its fied capacity is ha/day at 3 4 km/hr speed Deveoped a rotavator attachment for sef-propeed reaper. With this, the depth of the cut can be adjusted with the rear whee. Deveoped a power-tier-operated wetand eveer with a fied capacity varying between 0.16 and 0.18 ha/hr and fied efficiency between 60 and 65%.

142 136 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT FARM IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINERY AT A GLANCE Wheat raised-bed panter. Its cost of operation with 45-hp tractor for fresh beds is estimated at Rs 200/hr. With this, wheat yieds obtained were 4.48 tonnes/ha, compared to 4.08 tonnes/ha of fat sowing Modified PAU sef-propeed rice transpanter. The estimated cost of the machine is Rs 70,000 as against Rs 120,000 of the imported unit Tractor-mounted sugarcane trash-shedder. Its soi-mixing bades dig soi from the sides of the ridges and mix it with chopped trash. Due to its soi digging, fibrous roots of stubbes coud be removed; which is usefu for the ratoon-crop Modified sprouted rice transpanter. Seeding of sprouted rice with 4-row seeder has been found 70.8% abour-, 87.11% energy- and 83.67% cost-effective compared to mechanized transpanting of seedings Tractor-mounted hydrauicay-opeated hoist for harvesting mango, guava, sapota and coconut. It is safe and stabe in operation, and easy to transport, and its cost of operation is Rs 336/hr

143 137 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FARM IMPLEMENTS... AT A GLANCE (continued) Tractor-mounted turmeric digger. It coud dig turmeric bubs from 12-cm depth with 4% bub damage A commercia straw combine for straw harvesting has been fied evauated. It is recommended for faster coection of chopped straw from combine-harvested wheat fied Tractor-operated straw-chopper-cumspreader. For rice-straw management, a tractor-operated, straw-chopping machine has been deveoped. The machine chops straws of 5-cm ength and spreads it in the fied. Its capacity is 4 ha/day

144 138 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Raised-bed Panter for Panting Wheat The effective fied capacity of the raised-bed panter for fresh beds was 0.2 ha/ hr, and its cost of operation with 45-hp tractor was Rs 200 per hour. And its time, cost and operationa energy used per hectare with preparatory tiage were found 17.61, and 19.70% higher than fat sowing. Three rows of wheat were panted shaow (depth of panting = 40 mm) at the inter-row spacing of 150 mm on each bed with 80 kg/ha seed rate and N : P : K at 90 : 30 : 15 kg/ha, based on the soi test. The peformance of the bed-panted wheat was found superior to fat sowing in respect of growth, active tiers and yied. The yied of the bed-panted wheat was 4.48 tonnes/ha compared to 4.08 tonnes/ha in fat sowing. Wheat panting on permanent beds was more advantageous than fresh beds with preparatory tiage and fat sowing with conventiona tiage. RAISED-BED PLANTER VERSUS SEED-CUM-FERTILIZER DRILL FOR WHEAT SOWING Bed panting using Fat sowing with seed - raised-bed panter cum-fertiizer dri Preparatory Bed Tota Preparatory Fat Tota tiage panting tiage sowing Time required, hr/ha Cost of operation, 1, , , , , Rs/ha Direct (operationa) 1, , , , , energy requirement, MJ/ha Soi condition Moisture content=23.16%db Moisture content =23.82%db Buk density=1.18g/cc Buk density=1.26 g/cc MWD of cods=17.42 mm MWD of cods=21.42 mm Depth of tiage=138 mm Depth of tiage=110 mm PLANTING OPERATION ON PERMANENT BEDS/FRESH BEDS/ CONVENTIONAL FLAT SOWING On per- On fresh Convenmanent beds with tiona fat beds prepara- sowing tory tiage Time required (hr/ha) (70.1)* (63.8) Cost of 860 2,587 1,996 operation (66.8)* (Rs/ha) (56.9) Operationa 804 2,582 2,073 energy used (68.9)* (MJ/ha) (61.2) *Figures show% saving over panting on fresh beds Figures show% saving over conventiona fat sowing Refinement of PAU Designed Sef-propeed Rice Transpanter Design of the sef-propeed rice transpanter has been refined at the PAU, Ludhiana centre. Machine s estimated cost is Rs 70,000 as against Rs120,000 of the imported unit. Its performance has been found at a par with that of the imported unit; commercia, avaiabe in the market. Production of this is being taken up in coaboration with a oca manufacturer. Sprouted Rice-seeder Refinement A four-row manuay-operated rice-seeder has been deveoped and refined at the CIAE, Bhopa, based on the feedback from the fied tests. Its metering mechanism is of gravity drop-type, consisting of 2 seed-containers with diverging ends. On the outer periphery of each container 8 hoes of 12 mm diameter are provided. The ength of the seed container is 220 mm; the diameter is 220 mm at both ends and 160 mm at the centre. The container is provided with an opening of 60 mm 60 mm with a cover for fiing seeds. The capacity of each container is 2-kg sprouted seeds. The seeder containers (2 no.) are mounted on a shaft connected to 2 ugged whees. One frame-hande as marker and for puing is provided. The drive whees with ugs are made to function as support/transport whees by providing mid stee round-ring over ugs. The support/drive whees at both the ends coud improve stabiity during operation compared to singe whee at the centre. The row markers spaced 200 mm apart have provision for changing depth of operation, suiting to height and convenience of the operator. The seeder

145 139 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY required 20-kg pu and dropped 6 seeds per hi with a spacing of 12 cm. The effective fied capacity of the drum seeder was 0.08 ha/hr and its fied efficiency was 85%. Seeding of sprouted rice with the 4-row seeder has been found 70.8% abour-, 87.11% energy-and 83.67% cost-effective compared to mechanized transpanting of seedings. Tractor-operated Aero-bast Sprayer The sprayer was tested in mango (0.82 ha), sapota (0.14 ha) and jackfruit (0.15 ha) orchards at the CIAE farm. The penetration of the spray into mango-canopy was measured by spraying red-cooured soution on 50 pieces of white card-sheets of 15 cm 7.5 cm, mounted at the various ocations in the canopy. Deposition of discharge was 84.25% at the periphery. Penetration efficiency of the sprayer reduced with increase in depth of the canopy, resuting in 44.95% deposition at 1-metre depth and 32.42% at 2-metre depth from the canopy surface. The deposition was found negigibe beyond 2 metres. The operator fet uncomfortabe to manoeuver tractor and sprayer beyond PTO speed of 411 rev/min. The manuay-operated rocker-sprayer had ow cost of operation, ow appication rate and moderate fied capacity, but tractor-operated aero-bast sprayer had highest fied capacity, owest manpower requirement, highest reach of discharge but high cost of operation. Muti-crop Harvester for Intercrops in Rainfed Areas Sef-propeed vertica conveyor-reaper for paddy has been redesigned for harvesting saffower and sorghum. The prototype of muticrop harvester was tested with a 5.4 hp-diese engine and with a 3.5-hp bi-fue kerosene engine for harvesting SUCCESS STORY During peak rice-transpanting season, abour is scarce, and this resuts in deayed transpanting, which in turns affects productivity. To overcome this probem, a manua pre-germinated-rice-seeder has been deveoped by the TNAU, Coimbatore centre. It has eight rows with 200 mm row-to-row spacing. A ugged whee is provided for giving drive to an agitator in the drums to faciitate easy fow of pre-germinated seeds. The machine foats on two skids. Pre-germinated rice seeds are kept in 4 drums, which have periphera openings at two ends for seed discharge. The seed fow can be cut-off by cosing hoes with rings, provided over the drums. The seeder is manuay drawn and requires two persons, one for operating the unit and the other for heping operator for fiing seeds and turning at headands. The overa dimensions of the unit are 1,650 mm 1,600 mm 690 mm and it weighs 11.2 kg. Due to maintenance of rows at required spacing, the weeding and intercuture can be carried out easiy using ong-handed toos. Fied trias at the Research Farms at Coimbatore, Madurai and MANUALLY-OPERATED LOWLAND RICE-SEEDER Bhavanisagar recorded average effective fied capacity of the riceseeder at 0.12 ha/hr with 63% fied efficiency. Average seed rate of the seeder in the fied was 85 kg/ha. The germination of rice-seed is not affected by the continuous seed-drum rotation. Rice Research Centres of the Tami Nadu Agricutura University, at Coimbatore, Madurai, Aduthurai, Tanjore, Ambasamudram and Bhavanisagar had assessed performance of the owand rice-seeder with transpanted rice and broadcasting method, and found grain yied higher with rice-seeder at a ocations. IIT, Kharagpur centre, had carried out prototype feasibiity testing of the seeder. The seed rate for B 7029, Loat, IR 36 and Shankar rice varieties during trias varied from 42 to 60 kg/ha. The fied capacity of the seeder was found in the range of ha/hr with the abour Manuay-operated owand rice-seeder requirement of man-hr/ha. It was aso tested at the ANGRAU, Hyderabad; CIAE, Bhopa; UAS, Raichur and KAU, Tavanur centres. Seeder fied capacity varied from 0.08 to 0.14 ha/hr. The average fied efficiency was 75%. The initia cost of machine is Rs 2,500 and its cost of operation is Rs 600/ha.

146 140 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Wheat panting on permanent beds found more advantageous than fresh beds with preparatory tiage and fat sowing with conventiona tiage. Modified 4-row manuay-operated rice-seeder found cost-effective compared to mechanized transpanting of seedings. Evauated tractor-operated aero-bast sprayer for orchards. It showed highest fied capacity, owest man-power requirement, highest discharge rate but its cost of operation was high. saffower. The fied capacity of the harvester was ha/hr, indicating 11.7 times more coverage than manua harvesting by a singe person. The fied osses were minimum, 0.86, within the permissibe imits for the mechanica harvesting, though higher than manua harvesting. The physica comfort rating with harvester was quite high in terms of freeness from thorn-picking and tiredness from continuous work. It was 94 as compared to 27 points with manua sicke in 100 points score. Its harvesting efficiency and fied efficiency were 98.2 and 97.0%, respectivey. The machine coud not harvest chickpea as shattering osses were high due to poor conveying of the harvested crop due to shorter crop height. The fied capacity was 0.24 ha/hr at a forward speed of 3.0 kph for a non-odged erect crop. Performance of the harvester for harvesting wheat was found good. Tractor-mounted Turmeric Digger MPKV, Pune centre, has deveoped a tractor-mounted turmeric digger. It consists of 2 cutting-bades mounted 32-cm apart, which cut ridges from both the sides. It can dig turmeric-bubs grown on both sides of the ridges. The bades are fitted with ifting rods to separate soi from turmeric-bubs. The preiminary trias conducted on 4 hectares of turmeric, grown on raised beds, have showed that it coud dig turmeric-bubs from the depth of 12 cm with 4% bub damage. Combine for Harvesting Wheat and Soybean Combine harvester use was assessed by the CIAE, Bhopa, in Centra Narmada Vaey, Vindhya Pateau and Mawa Pateau of Madhya Pradesh. Its maximum use was in wheat harvesting (69.5%) in Centra Narmada Vaey, foowed by Vindhya Pateau (45.9%) and Mawa Pateau (10.6%). Out of the three zones, highest percentage of soybean area harvested was in Vindhya Pateau (40.6%), foowed by Centra Narmada Vaey (35.9%) and Mawa Pateau (1.71%). Combine use was directy reated to crop yied in wheat but this was not true for soybean. Tractor-mounted Hydrauicay-operated Hoist TNAU, Coimbatore centre, has deveoped a tractor-mounted hydrauicayoperated hoist for harvesting mango, guava, sapota and coconut. It is idea for treeopping, pruning and for spraying on the tree-canopy and for oi-pam harvesting. It is safe and stabe in operation, and easy to transport. It consists of 600 mm 600 mm auminum adders made of U-section as frames and round-hoow pipes as cross-members. The owering and raising of the hoist patform is by the hydrauic motor, run with auxiiary hydrauic system of tractor. This heps as a safety frame for the person standing on the patform, and the adder patform height can be varied from 5.8 to 9.8 m. Its cost of operation is Rs 336/hr. Tractor-mounted Sugarcane Trash-shredder MPKV centre has modified tractor-mounted sugarcane trash-shredder by repacing C -shaped bades by power-tier, rotary-type bades. Sugarcane-trash height ying in the fied after harvesting was cm. Dry eaves (trash) of 118- cm ength were reduced to a ength of cm. The soi-mixing bades were abe to dig soi from the sides of ridges and mixed it with chopped trash. The fied capacity of the machine was 0.21 ha/hr. In addition to this, due to digging of soi on both the sides of the ridges to a depth of 7 to 8 cm, fibrous roots of the stubbes coud be removed; which was usefu for ratoon-crop. Straw Harvester for Combine-harvested Wheat Fied Harvesting rice and wheat with combine eaves considerabe straw and stubbes in the fied. At an average straw : grain ratio of 1.50 : 1.00 for wheat and 1.00 : 1.00 for rice (about 5 7 tonnes of straw) are avaiabe per hectare after crop harvest. A commercia straw combine for straw harvesting has been evauated at the

147 141 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY CIAE, Bhopa. The machine was hitched to rear of the tractor on the draw bar-ink. Loose straw and stubbes eft on the fied after grain-combining gave an overa mean of 581 g/m 2. During fied operation of straw harvester ony 52% of the tota straw/stubbe avaiabe on the fied coud be harvested and the rest remained beyond the reach of the cutter-bar and the straw-coection unit of the harvester. Straw/ stubbes 20% and 6% were broken and bent, being suppressed under the whees of the grain-combine and tractor. Therefore, out of 5.81 tonnes of straw/stubbes/ha, straw harvester coud recover ony about 3.02 tonnes of straw/ha at the straw output of 1,027 kg/hr. With 52% recovery of the straw and partia coection of the eft-out grains from the fied, the net income gains were Rs 1,690 per hectare. It is recommended that straw harvester may be used for faster coection of chopped straw from combineharvested wheat fieds. When straw is not to be coected, machine may be used to bow-out and spread chopped straw on the fied for incorporation, and it may faciitate unimpaired driing of the subsequent crops in straw-much cover. Tractor-operated Straw Chopper-cum-Spreader To sove the probem of rice-straw management, for its incorporation in the soi, the PAU, Ludhiana centre, has deveoped a tractor-operated, straw-chopping machine. The machine harvests straw and chops it into pieces for spreading in the fied in a singe operation. The chopped and spread stubbes are buried easiy in the soi by traditiona disc-harrows in 2 operations. The straw chopper can be operated by a hp tractor, and can chop straw to 5-cm ength and spread it in the fied. The fied capacity of the machine has been found as 4.00 ha/day. Prototype feasibiity testing done on tractor-mounted rotavator, puverizing roer attachment, ANGRAU Hydrotier, zero-ti dri and ight weight power-weeder. Evauated sef-propeed vertica conveyor-reaper for rice and wheat. The saving in cost by this was 24% in harvesting and 60.5% in abour requirement. Tractor-mounted Rotavator PROTOTYPE FEASIBILITY TESTING The machine has showed promise for seed-bed preparation in a singe or doube pass compared to 3 4 operations in the conventiona method of the seed-bed preparation. Tractor-mounted Puverizing Roer-attachment PAU, Ludhiana centre, has deveoped a puverizing roer-attachment to 9-tine cutivator. It is suitabe for pudding as we as for dry seed-bed preparation. Performance of equipment at higher speed of 4 5 km/hr is better because of churning action of the soi. The equipment coud cover ha/day with 70 90% of fied efficiency and saved one-third of the irrigation water, because of better pudding. It saves 40% in abour requirement and 20% in cost of operation over the traditiona method. A puverizing roer attachment to 9-tine cutivator has been deveoped at the PAU centre. It saves 40% on abour and 20% over cost of operation ANGRAU Hydrotier It churns wet soi and eves fied thus reducing abour (6 man-hr/ha) for eveing pudded soi. Its fied capacity was 0.18 ha/hr with fied efficiency of 94% and cost of operation was Rs 311/ha compared to 0.15 ha/hr, 81% and Rs 516/ha, respectivey, of the power-tier. The cost of pudding operation by this was 40% esser than power-tier

148 142 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT ANGRAU Anima-drawn Pudder in NEH Region The ANGRAU anima-drawn pudder was operated by the ICAR Research Compex for NEH Region, Barapani centre in the vaey ands of watershed in Mawpun viage of Ri-Bhoi district of Megyaaya. This pudded soi was better than the soi pudded with oca pough. It saved 80% in abour and 72% in operationa cost as compared to buock-drawn country pough. The fied efficiency was 65%. Tractor-mounted Zero-ti Dri for Peas The sowing of pea for seed-grain purposes under the sodic saine sois coud be advanced by 9 12 days with the zero-ti dri. The net profit of Rs 17,670/ha coud be achieved by using zero-ti dri as against of Rs 7,436/ha with 3 operations of tiage (two cutivator + one patea) and of Rs 2,066/ha by broadcasting in the weprepared fied. Light-weight Power-weeder for Intercuture Light weight power-weeder for intercuture. It is found suitabe for weeding with 40-cm rotavator and rotary whee. There is a net saving of Rs 1,070/ha with this, compared to traditiona method of intercuture The ight-weight power-weeder has been found suitabe for weeding with 40- cm rotavator and rotary whee. The intercuture was conducted in 9 hectares of sugarcane, 4.5 hectares of maize and 2 hectares of tobacco. Fied capacity and fied efficiency of the weeder for the crops were 0.2 ha/hr, 0.11 ha/hr and 0.2 ha/hr and 90%, 77.5% and 95%, respectivey. And there was a net saving of Rs 1,070/ha with the use of the weeder compared to traditiona method of intercuture. Sef-propeed Vertica Conveyor-reaper Evauated the reaper at the AADU,Aahabad centre, for rice Pant 10 and wheat PBW 245 and UP 262, covering ha and 18.5 ha. Machine capacity was 0.19 ha/hr and its efficiency was 59%for rice. For wheat PBW 245 and UP 262, machine capacity ranged between 0.16 and 0.22 ha/hr and its efficiency between 63 and 68%. Manua harvesting required 144 man-hr/ha and another 84 man-hr/ha were required for crop coection and bunding. Thus, harvesting manuay costed Rs 1,900/ha against Rs 1,442 (incuding crop coection and bunding) per hectare by the reaper. There was the saving in the cost of harvesting by reaper of 24% and in abour requirement by 60.5%. POST-HARVEST ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Pre-miing treatment and recovery of da ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS MINIMIZED FROM SOYBEAN Soak soybean seeds inocuated artificiay with Rhizopus oigosporous and Aspergius oryzae, foowed by banching them for 10 and 40 minutes. This resuts in 68% reduction in phytic acid. The banching for 10 minutes was done at 15 psi or 1 atmosphere and for 40 min through open-boiing at 100 C. Whoe pigeonpea grains (Asha variety) were treated with 4% soi, foowed by 4% CIRCOT enzyme. The pitted and ceaned sampes were soaked in water for 75 min and ater dried up to 10% moisture. The sampes were mied for 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 seconds. The resuts showed enhanced recovery of da due to appied enzyme. The da yied was to 84.04% with % broken materia. Post-harvest Losses Reduction in Strawberry GA 3, NAA, 2,4-D, TIBA, CaC 2 and Ca (NO 3 ) 2 were sprayed at 4 and 2 weeks before harvesting strawberry. Cacium nitrate (1%) reduced PLW, GA 3 (25 ppm) favoured TSS retention during storage; 2,4-D (40 ppm) arrested acidity; NAA (75 ppm and 25 ppm) preserved more sugar and vitamin C contents respectivey during storage. Cacium choride, ascorbic acid and cacium nitrate were used after harvest. Ascorbic acid at 0.2% and at 0.05% was found better for minimum PLW and higher vitamin C retention. Cacium choride at (0.1%) was effective in arresting acidity

149 143 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY during extended storage. No chemica proved better over contro for higher TSS and reducing sugar retention in storage (up to 9 days) Enhancement of Shef-ife of Ber For room storage of ber, poyethyene bags and waxing of fruits shoud be preferred to minimize decay osses (24.31%) after 9 days of storage. Gunny bags were best packaging materia for zero-energy coo chamber storage, as it minimized decay osses (16.91 and 17.22%) in waxed and unwaxed fruits in 9 days of storage. Storage of ber was not economica beyond 9 days. OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION FEASIBILITY STUDIES OF SOME VEGETABLES Parameters Commodity Cauifower Mushroom Greenpeas Initia moisture content (% weight basis) Best suited osmotic 10% sugar + 10% sat 10% sugar + soution 10% sat 10% sat + 0.1% MgHCO 3 Moisture oss due to osmosis (% points) Optimum time for osmosis (hr) Soids gain (g/100g wet materia) Maximum dehydration ratio Texture g (oad) Fresh Dehydrated Coour (LAB scae) Fresh 88.3, 7.8, 80.9, 4.03, 44.94, 9.47, Dehydrated 92.2, 6.7, , 7.96, 42.4, 8.28, Recovery of da from pigeonpea enhanced in miing with the appication of 4% CIRCOT enzyme. Antinutritiona factor, phytic acid, reduced from soybean seeds artificiay inocuated with Rhizopus oigosporous and Aspergius oryzae, and banching them for 10 and 40 minutes. Okara, by-product of soymik, found suitabe for making high fibre nutritious soy-cerea snacks with rice, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. Technoogy for jaggery-chocoate production standardized. Pastic and stainess stee pots proved promising for storing rabs (iquid jaggery). OKARA FORTIFIED SOY-CEREAL SNACKS USING WENGER EXTRUDER Okara is a by-product of soymik process. From 1 kg of soybean about 1.1 kg of okara is obtained, having 75 78% moisture. On the dry basis, soy okara contains 22% protein, 10% fat, 27.5% carbohydrates, 34.5% insoube fibres and 3.5% ash, and hence is suitabe for making high-fibre nutritious soy-cereas-based snacks. Okara was added to rice, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra at 6, 14,and 18% fortification eve. The highest expansion was obtained when okara was fortified with jowar, foowed by wheat and rice. Storage of Jaggery-chocoate Technoogy for jaggery-chocoate production has been standardized. Equiibrium moisture content (EMC) of unwrapped jaggery-chocoate stored at room temperature was more than wrapped sampes at different reative humidities. Wrapped chocoate coud be stored at higher temperature and even at higher reative humidity. Preservation of Rab (Liquid Jaggery) The pastic and stainess stee-pots have showed their suitabiity for storing rabs. Citric acid (0.04%) and potassium meta bi-suphite (0.1%) heped in preventing inversion, bacteria growth and aso crystaization. Jaggery-based Extruded Product Raw materias for jaggery-based extruded products are wheat-four and broken rice-four. The fours were roasted separatey and added to meted jaggery. This paste was extruded through 3-mm-size orifice of extruder, oven-dried at 60 C, packed PROBLEM AREAS IN KHANDSARI UNITS The major probems in khandsari (sugar) industry incude poor juice recovery, openpan system of manufacturing, crushing, inversion osses due to uncontroed heating and ack of mechanization of different unit operations. The tota osses of sugarcane in khandsari mi with openpan system ranged from 3.7 to 6.2% and with vacuum-pan system osses were ony from 1.65 to 2.9%. The study suggested use of vacuum-pan system, mechanization of various operations, improvement in juice recovery through imbibition system, and crop management through varieta schedue.

150 144 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT ECONOMICS OF PILOT PLANT FOR SOY-BASED ICE-CREAM Four piot pant equipments, pasteurization tank, homogenizer, refrigerated ageing tank and softy ice-cream machine were procured to produce 100-itre soy ice-cream per day. Experiments were conducted by repacement of mik with 100% soymik in common ice-cream to compare it with a commercia ice-cream pant. Hundred per cent soymik ice-cream was found inferior in quaity compared to commercia dairy mik icecream. However, when compared with ice-cream of 100% over-run, as obtained by commercia pant, the ice-cream from the piot pant with 60% over-run was more acceptabe. The working capita investment was Rs 287,925 for 100 itres per day capacity pant. The cost of production per itre and net profit were Rs and Rs 1,180,800. The break even point was 33 days/5,209 itres. To prepare grey-cotton fabric for dyeing, pasma treatment, deveoped at the CIRCOT, can substitute fuy or partiay the conventiona wet chemica process. Deveoped a new bio-chemica scouring technique for cotton and P/C bended fabrics. This process can be couped with Hand-processing unit, and can reduce poution by 25% and save 30% in energy needs. and subjected to sensory evauation. The product obtained from broken rice-four and wheat-four and jaggery in 1 : 2 : 0.25 attained the highest score on 9-point hedonic scae, and was most iked due to texture, taste, appearance and overa acceptance. COTTON TECHNOLOGY Eco-friendy and Cost-effective Means to Strengthen Cotton-Yarn Cotton-yarn wetting brings about many changes in its properties. A recent investigation conducted at the CIRCOT has reveaed that subsequent to sweing in water if the yarn is stretched and dried in taut state (referred to as treatment), permanent structura transformations coud be brought about. This increases yarn strength by 20% and brings about considerabe improvement in various modui vaues, making it more eastic. The treated yarn does not exhibit any changes in its properties on wetting in water. Bio-chemica Scouring Technique for Cotton and Bends In this method, empoying a mixed microfora, the fabric was subjected to an anaerobic treatment at the room temperature, foowed by boiing in the mid akai. Whie the properties of beached and dyed fabrics were at a par with the conventionay processed ones, but their coour vaue was found higher. This process can be easiy couped to existing Hand-Processing Unit, and can resut in reduction of poution oad by 25% and ead to energy saving of 30%. Pasma Treatment for Improving Cotton Fabric Dyeabiity Pasma treatment can substitute either fuy or partiay the conventiona wet chemica process used to prepare grey-cotton fabric for dyeing. Grey and beached fabrics indicated increased absorbency by about 68 75%; the onger was the pasma treatment time, the better was the absorbency, and absorbency vaues were on a par with those of beached fabric, normay used for dyeing. LIPASE FROM CANDIDA CYLINDRACEA FOR WAX REMOVAL IN GREY-COTTON FABRICS Candida cyindracea ipase and the commercia ipase coud remove sufficient wax in the moderate conditions of treatment. The weight oss in enzymetreated fabric sampes was esser than chemicay scoured fabric. JUTE TECHNOLOGY Simutaneous Akai Treatment and Beaching of Jute Goods The novety of the present method ies in achieving mutipe advantages by prior akai treatment and then beaching in akaine conditions. The pretreatment with akai in controed way improves softness and dye uptake of the product. There is no need to drain akai, and the softened materia may be beached in the same bath, without additiona heating to get satisfactory whiteness and brightness index. Thus in this process not ony the effuent disposa probem has been overcome to a

151 145 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY significant extent but consumption of energy for beaching can aso be avoided. This singe-bath processed materia can then be convenienty dyed with reactive dyes to get better dye uptake and coour yied. With Procion Red M8B and Remazo yeow FG dyes, coour yied coud be improved by 18% and 42%. Microwave-induced Biomethanation of Jute Waste Methanosarcina barkeri (DSM 804) is a methanogenic and stricty anaerobic bacteria, capabe of acceerating biogas production from ceuosic wastes. Methane content of biogas can be improved further by inducing bacteria with microwave, and it was estabished that irradiation of bacteria with a microwave of 31.5 GHz frequency of 10 dbm power for 2 hours coud boost methane content of gas up to 76%, as against 55% achieved with the use of non-induced bacteria. Deveoped a nove method for jute beaching. In this jute is given akai treatment, and then beached in akaine conditions. This singe bath processed materia can be dyed with reactive dyes, Procion Red M8B and Remazo yeow. Improved methane content of biogas by inducing Methanosarcina barkeri (DSM 804), a bacteria, with a microwave irridation at 31.5 GHZ frequency of 10 dbm power for 2 hr. LAC TECHNOLOGY Quaity Brood and Stickac Production on Ber A sustainabe technoogy has been deveoped for good quaity brood and stickac production under three-coupe system. Two coupes consisted of kusum pants and one of ber. The technoogy offers 40 to 50% increase in productivity and profitabiity, as compared to on kusum ony or on ber ony. Bioactive Compounds Synthesized from Aeuritic Acid From aeuritic acid, a component acid of ac resin, 10-carboxy methy-z decenoic acid has been synthesized and tested as pant growth reguator (PGR anaogue) on in-vitro shoot-tip cuture of Femingia macrophya. At 5 ppm concentration of the PGR anaogue, root-initiation was observed after 45 days of inocuation. This initiay suggests presence of auxin-ike activity in the PGR anaogue. EXTRACTION OF FIBRES FROM BANANA PSEUDOSTEM The appied compressive stress during fibre extraction from banana pseudostem shoud be more than what non-fibrous tissue can withstand, but at the same time esser than the fibre-breaking stress so that non-fibrous tissues get ruptured and fibres can be extracted without damage. ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY Drying, Enrichment and Handing of Biogas Pant Spent Surry To study the effect of sope on surry fitration, a variabe sope surry fitration system was deveoped, which provided 2 4', 5 3' and 7 5' sopes to the fitration unit. The sope of 2 4' was found optimum. Composting pits of 2 m 1.5 m 1 m each were constructed and poyethyene sheet was aid on the bottom of the pits to check any possibe seepage and moisture depetion. The rice straw and soybean straw were eveny spread on the bottom of the separate pits in cm thick ayers and the cooida fitrate, from the fitration of the biogas spent surry, was poured in such a fashion that fitrate moisture is absorbed by the ayer of the seected absorbent. The fitrate absorption capacity of rice and soybean was 11 to 8 times of the initia weight. And the tota soids content of fitrate and rice straw and fitrate and soybean straw varied between 8 and 11% and 12 and 14%. This practice was foowed on the daiy basis. After competion of one ayer, another ayer of absorbent was prepared. The composted mass was eft undisturbed for 60 days for composting, and temperature inside the pits was monitored periodicay. The temperature graduay increased after twefth day and reached maximum on the 25 day. Then sowy decreased to ambient temperature. The eguminous straw decomposed faster than the cerea straw. The mixture containing soybean straw and biogas pant spent surry was nutritionay 22 27% more enriched as compared to mixture of rice straw and spent surry.

152 146 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT A Famiy-size, Soid-state Anaerobic Digester for Agro-residues The avaiabe soid-state digester of 1.18 m 3 capacity has been used. A mid stee perforated eachate re-circuation tray was deveoped and stationed over the top of the digester under the gas hoder for soving the probem of uneven moisture and microbia fora distribution inside the digester. The eachate percoated at 4 itre/ min through the digester substrate-bed and accumuated in the buit-in eachate coection chamber, having 78.5 itres capacity for the next 24 hours. For easier emptying of digested mass, a cyindrica sieved structure suiting to avaiabe digester was designed. The feasibiity of the fabricated system has been tested by charging mixed substrate in the perforated cyinder, and the system has been found workabe. The generated gas was removed from gas penum and conveyed through fexibe/ rigid pipe for introducing at the bottom of the digester near the eachate-accumuation chamber. Biogas Pant for High Water-tabe Regions Groundnut-shes-based Open-core Gasifier. The fue used for the system is dry groundnutshes and groundnut-she briquettes. In the system, every 4 kg of groundnut-shes repaced 1 itre of ight diese oi Compared to rice straw and biogas spent surry mixture, soybean straw and spent surry mixture was found 22-27% nutritionay more enriched. Deveoped a famiy-size, soid state anaerobic digester for agro-residues. Deveoped a biogas pant of 6 m 3 capacity and of foating dome-type, suitabe for high water-tabe regions. Deveoped groundnut-she-based Open-core Down Draft Gasifier. In this, every 4-kg groundnut-shes repaced 1 itre of LDO. Upscaed mode of the CIAE Natura Draft Gasifier refined to achieve a therma output of 92,000 kca/hr, and it was evauated on wood chips and groundnut-shes. Deveoped a simpe eectronic temperature controer for use on the natura convection soar dryers. The soar-water heater for paddy parboiing compared to traditiona paddy parboiing saved 50% coa requirements, besides essening time for parboiing. A bends of HSD fue and ethano tested for engine-fue found with the simiar power-producing capabiity as HSD fue aone. A biogas pant of 6 m 3 capacity and of foating dome-type, suitabe for high water-tabe regions such as tarai of Uttarancha, has been deveoped. Its digester depth is ower than (diameter to depth ratio is 1 : 1) the conventiona KVIC design. This design pants have been instaed in 4 rura houses in Nainita and Udhamsingh Nagar at Rs 32,000 each. The average biogas yied varied between 4.2 m 3 /day in summer and 2.2 m 3 /day in winter. The famiies did not require LPG cyinders, excepting for December to February. Natura Draft Gasifier for Rura Community Appication The SPRERI Natura Draft Gasifier (85 kw) has been put under operationa research project trias for boiing forest produce (bae and ama) at viage Khori in Sheopur district. A boier having a capacity of 400 kg of forest produce, designed and deveoped by the MPSTEP and IIFM, has been retrofitted with SPRERI Natura Draft Gasifier, and modifications have been incorporated for guiding the fame. Its initia testing was conducted at the CIAE, Bhopa, for about 20 hr. Its steam initiation time was minutes and biomass consumption varied from 22 to 27 kg/hr. The PHU of the system was 33.4 to 39.2%. The gasifier has been instaed at 1.6 m beow the ground and a chain-puey system has been instaed for easy oading and unoading of the forest produce in the boier, paced above the gasifier. Groundnut-shes-based Open-core Gasifier Groundnut-shes-based Open-core Downdraft Gasifier has been deveoped by the SPRERI, VaabhVidyanagar. It consists of a we-insuated, open-top cyindrica reactor with a manuay-operated cast-iron grate, a bower for producing appropriate draft and a naturay aspirated producer gas-burner. The fue used for the system is dry groundnut-shes (moisture content around 8%) and groundnut-she briquettes. With oose groundnut shes, fue consumption rate varied between 44 and 50 kg/ hr, and gas s caorific vaue ranged between 900 and 1100 kca/m 3 after stabiization of the operation. The gasifier efficiency varied from 55 to 60%. When the gasifier was oaded with 133 kg groundnut-she briquettes, system operated continuousy for 3 hr. The fame temperature was found consistent, varying from 870 to 929 C. Every 4 kg of groundnut-shes repaced 1 itre of LDO (Light Diese Oi) i.e. a saving of approximatey Rs 13 per itre of LDO repaced. Payback period has been computed around 1,000 hr of operation. 100-kW Natura Draft Gasifier for Wood and Crop Residues Upscaed mode of the CIAE Natura Draft Gasifier was refined to achieve a therma output of 92,000 kca/hr, and it was evauated on wood chips and groundnutshes. The fame temperature varied from 850 to 1090 C with wood chips and /

153 147 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY from 810 to 1021 C with groundnut-shes. The caorific vaue of the gas generated ranged between 980 and 1,276 kca/m 3 with wood chips. The biomass consumption was recorded at kg/hr and at kg/hr for wood chips and groundnutshes. The temperature profie of the gasifier was 1, C and C near the grate for wood and groundnut-shes. The present gasifier has faced probems of fy-ash moving aong with the producer gas and of faing of partiay burnt groundnut-shes from the grate. Agro-industria Appication of Gasifier Performance of the modified CIAE Portabe Updraft Gasifier (25-kW capacity), instaed at the mentho-oi-extraction pant, situated at viage Khajuri in Bhopa, was monitored. Economics and energy audit anaysis of the pant were carried out based on the monitored data. The energy expenditure per hour for gasifier system was 433 MJ/hr as compared to 615 MJ/hr in the conventiona system. The energy saving was 29.6% over conventiona system. Batch-process time increased by 8.9%, as more time was required for steam initiation. Pant s operationa cost was 4.3% ess than conventiona system. The study reveaed that gasifier system fitted with the pant was energyefficient and cost-competitive. High-efficiency Soar Air-heater Design for packed bed-type, soar air-heater has been deveoped. This design is simiar to the commerciay avaiabe soar air-heaters, excepting upper surface of the air-duct is made up of a transparent gass-sheet, which is packed with backened SUCCESS STORY MODIFIED BIOGAS PLANT FOR SOLID-STATE DIGESTION OF CATTLE-DUNG The CCSHAU Hisar centre has modified 2 m 3 capacity famiy-size fixed-dome-type biogas pant (popuary know as Janta design) for use of catte-dung in soid-state as substrate (TSC around 16%). Main modifications in the biogas pant are as foows. The inet feed chamber is repaced by a RCC pipe of 30- cm inside diameter. The upper end of the pipe extends above ground by about 1.2 m. The outet chamber is enarged suitaby to accommodate tota voume of surry dispacement from digester. The step-type construction of outet chamber of Janta pant has been changed to an incined wa for streamined fow of digested surry and outet has been widened for easy discharge of the digested surry on to ground. The modified pant was commissioned as usua with 1 : 1 mixture of catte-dung and water. The pant operation was stabiized over a period of about two months. Thereafter, the required quantity (50 kg) of the fresh catte-dung, having TSC 16%, was poured everyday straight into the inet pant pipe. The effective retention period for the pant was thus increased to 100 days. The modified pant consistenty produced around 30 40% more gas yied compared to the conventiona design. Besides, water requirement was negigibe and digested surry handing had become much easier. Modified pant cost has been estimated approximatey simiar to that of the conventiona biogas pant of 2 m 3 capacity. The hydrauic retention period for the pant has been optimized as 80 days for winter and 60 days for summer. Operationa research trias for the design are under progress at many centres /

154 148 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT iron-chips. Iron-chips act as absorber of soar radiations and gass-sheet acts as gazing. The duct is insuated with gass-woo at the bottom and at the sides. Each modue of the soar air-heater has an aperture area of 1.25 m 2. Even at ow air-fow rates, packed-bed soar air-heater gave high efficiency, because of better heat transfer due to turbuence created by the iron-chips and voumetric absorption of the soar radiations. The optimum ength of the packed heater has worked out to be 1 m compared to 2 m for the avaiabe soar heaters. The payback period for the heater is computed as 260 days and 310 days, depending on whether it repaces eectrica energy and LDO/furnace oi, respectivey. Comparative evauation, carried out at the SPRERI Vaabh Vidyanagar centre, for air-fow rate varied between 35.0 and 65.7 m 3 /hr, and reveaed higher therma efficiency of 35.7 and 49.9% for the packedbed heater and 25.0 to 39.1% for the commercia air-heater. Eectronic Temperature Controer for Soar Dryers A simpe eectronic temperature controer for the use on the natura convection soar dryers has been deveoped. The device contros temperature within the desired range, suitabe for the products being dried. It consists of a thermister sensor circuit to detect hot-air temperature, has a differentia ampification unit, a buffer circuit for impedance matching and a controer circuit to actuate exhaust-fan. The controer unit is fixed at the bottom of the soar coector. The temperature probe is paced on the midde-pate coector and a 50-Watt domestic exhaust-fan is fitted across the chimney. The controer is avaiabe commerciay. Soar Water Heater for Paddy Parboiing For parboiing paddy, improved CRRI Cuttack method incudes soaking of paddy in hot-water at around 70 C for minutes. The soar-parboiing system consists of a soar water-heater of 200-itre capacity/day and an improved mini paddy parboiing unit of 50-kg hoding capacity. The advantage of the soar system over the traditiona is 50% saving in coa requirement and esser time for parboiing. Tota system costs about Rs 35,000 and cost of parboiing 100-kg paddy has been estimated at Rs 63. Eectronic temperature controer fixed with a natura convection soar dryer. This is now commerciay avaiabe. Acoho as Fue for Diese Engines Extensive studies were carried out on the use of anhydrous and aqueous ethano of different proofs for bending with high-speed diese fue for operation of a 7.5- kw constant speed diese-engine. Distinct phase separation was not observed in 80 : 20 bend of HSD fue and ethano, provided moisture content of the ethano was up to 10% (180 proof ethano). For ethano of 170 proof (moisture content 15%), the bend shoud have a maximum of 15% of ethano by voume. A bends of HSD (High Speed Diese) fue and ethano tested for engine fue are found to have simiar power-producing capabiity as that of HSD fue. Up to 20% of 180 or 190 proof aqueous ethano can be bended with HSD fue for satisfactory operation of the CI (Compression Ignition) engines. Anhydrous 1-butano was used as a surfactant to increase miscibiity of aqueous ethano with HSD fue. The performance of a 7.5-kW constant speed-diese engine using emusified fues reveaed that the power of the engine was amost same as that for the HSD fue. CO emission was ower but NO x and unburnt hydrocarbons were higher with micro-emusion fues than HSD fue. CO and NO x were, however, found ower in fue containing 20% ethano in the bend. The study concudes that up to 38.9% of HSD fue can be repaced by 170 proof ethano and 1-butano for CI engines.

155 149 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Improved Anima-drawn Equipments ANIMAL ENERGY Thirteen anima-operated zero-ti-dris were fabricated and provided to the farmers of the hiy and tarai regions. Aso, ten sets of matching impements of increased size, moud-board pough, disc harrow, cutivator and patea, were provided to farmers. Use of increased size impements gave 20 30% of higher area coverage with the same pair of animas. Buock-owning farmers extensivey used wedge pough for intercuture operations. Wedge pough was modified and fabricated for attachment of 2 and 3 rows. Five sets of increased size bakhar bade, Nagpuri yoke, three row seed-cumfertiizer dri, wedge pough and sweep cutivator were provided to farmers of Udaipura, Ghana and nearby viages of Goharganj Tehsi of Raisen district. They found these equipments superior to traditiona ones. Under the ORP trias, the Udaipur centre provided came-drawn matching package of impements, bade harrow, bund former, disc harrow, 3- and 5-tyne cutivator, mutipurpose too frame with seeding attachment, CIAE incined pate panter and groundnut digger to the farmers of different viages of Bikaner and Sardarsahar in Churu district. The farmers found that these equipments gave about 30% more output than the traditiona impements. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING Artificia Groundwater Recharge through Bore-wes An underground irrigation grid system has been designed, and instaed at the CIAE, Bhopa farm, for recharging groundwater using harvested water. The pipe ines were of HDPE pipes with rated pressure of 6 kg/cm 2 to meet carrying capacity of 40 ps. The pipe-ine was aid at 0.75-m depth. Depending upon the fied requirement, risers with hydrants were provided at 66-m interva to take out water through vave-opener for irrigation. At a water sources, water meters were fitted with non-return vaves in grid system for recharging the groundwater. Before nonreturn vave, a hydrant was provided so that water from the tube-we/open-wes coud be pumped into the grid system. The pipe-ine coud be used for irrigation as we as for recharging groundwater. The fuctuations in water-tabe were measured at fortnighty interva in 3 observation wes. These indicated approximatey a fa of above 10-m in water eve in February in a observation wes compared to water-eve in rainy season. An abandoned tube-we at the Institute farm was tested for recharging, and intake rate was found to be 8 ps, indicating a very good potentia for recharging. Automated Surge-fow System Deveoped for Irrigating Furrows The system consists of an inet water-tank and a surge irrigation pipe with 10 outets spaced 60-cm apart. Portabe muti-outet irrigation system has been designed to appy water in furrows. It was designed to operate 5 outets at a time for a prefixed surge-cyce time and number of surge cyces. The combination of 1.5 ps (itres per second) stream size, 0.5 CR and 15 min CT (cyce time) was found optimum for surge irrigation system. Mutipe outet size was 25 mm dia to deiver 1.5 ps discharge into furrows. The veocity of the fow in furrows (36 cm/s) was found within permissibe imits of non-erosion for vertisos. Main pipe was 100 mm in dia, seected for carrying a tota of 7.5 ps suppied discharge with an aowabe veocity of 2.5 m/s in the PVC pipes. Automation system for the surge irrigation system incudes surge timer, surge counter, inet soenoid vave (75 mm dia), 10 soenoid vaves (25 mm dia) for outets, water-eve sensor and eectronic hooter. When water eve in suppy tank reaches EFFICIENT FILTER AND TAR-CRACKING DEVICE FOR THE ENGINE-QUALITY PRODUCER GAS Tar-cracking device The system has been deveoped to achieve the desired residence time of the gases in the cracking unit (10 seconds) and aso for maintaining its temperature at 900 C. The device is a rectange of 150 mm 150 mm 450 mm. Eectrica heaters of 5.2-kW rating were fitted on the device. The gases from the gasifier were anayzed for tar eve before their entry either to tar-cracking unit or to fiter. Gases eaving tar-cracking unit or fiter were passed through another condenser for measuring tar present in the gases coming out from the cracking or fitering system. Gas temperature is monitored after tarcracking system and condenser outet. Evauation of tar-cracking device The seected Downdraft Gasifier was tested on wood chips for anayzing its tar output. The wood used was mm in ength. The moisture content of the wood was found between 10.1 and 10.9%. The tar generated from gasifier varied from 1.7 to 2.1 g/m 3. The tar-cracking unit fitted with eectrica heaters and insuated from outside for preventing heat oss was tested. The eectrica power consumption was found to vary from 4.7 to 4.9 kw. The gasifier and tar-cracking unit were connected to assess cataysts used for tarcracking. Evauation of tar fiter A sand-fiter has been deveoped. The fiter is of 80 mm dia and consists of a sieve for hoding sand-bed of 50-mm thickness. The water beow the sieve was kept for 50 mm height to impregnate gases in the water coumn. The effectiveness of the tar fiter for tar absorption was assessed by drawing part of the gases generated from gasifier to fiter. Tar content after tarcracking unit varied between 28 and 44 mg/m 3, which was considered on the higher side. Tar reduction up to 89.2 to 91.9% coud be achieved in the fiter.

156 150 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT AGRO-INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF SOLAR TUNNEL DRYER SUCCESS STORY A wak- in-type soar tunne dryer in an industry producing di-basic cacium phosphate (DCP) near Udaipur city has been designed, erected and commissioned. DCP produced has moisture content of 35 40%, which is mechanicay dried to 5% in two stages. In the first stage, the moisture content is reduced to 15% in the diesefired tray dryers. The tray drying operation has been repaced by the soar tunne dryer. Saient features of the Soar Tunne Dryer It is a hemi-cyindrica-shaped wak-in-type and has base area of 3.75 m m and maximum ceiing height of 2.0 m. Metaic-frame structure of the dryer has been covered with UV stabiized semi-transparent poythene sheet of 200 micron thickness. A gradient of has been provided aong the ength of the tunne to induce natura convection air-fow. Cement concrete foor has been painted back for better absorption of soar radiations. Gasswoo of 5-cm thickness for insuation has been provided to reduce heat oss. Back poythene sheet has been provided on the northern side to reduce heat oss. Inets for fresh air have been provided aong the periphery of the tunne near the ground eve. Two chimneys of 20-cm diameter and 75-cm height have been provided on the top of the curved surface to exit hot moist air. Besides, an exhaust fan of 1,000 1,200 m 3 /hr air-fow rate capacity and 0.7 kw-power rating has been provided on the upper end of the tunne. The humidity sensors and controer are fitted inside the tunne to maintain maximum reative humidity as per the requirements. Upper end of the tunne has been provided with a door of 1.60m 0.75 m size to faciitate oading and unoading of the materia. Wet DCP is spread in thin ayers of approximatey 4-cm thickness in trays of 40 cm 80 cm. Twenty-four trays are packed on to a troey. Ten troeys containing 1.5 tonnes materia are oaded into the tunne dryer in the morning. The drying time varied between 2 and 3 soar days depending upon the soar insuation. On an average 4 6 kw of eectricity was consumed in operating exhaust fan for drying one batch. The tota cost incuding cost of materias and of abour worked out to be around Rs 50,000. The average cost of drying one batch of DCP of 1.5 tonnes has been worked out at Rs 470. For the same quantity of DCP, cost in the existing diese-based tray dryer worked out at Rs 1,739. The payback period for the soar tunne dryer has worked out as 100 working days. Designed an underground irrigation grid system and instaed it at the CIAE, Bhopa farm. Designed a portabe, automatic mutioutet irrigation system to appy water in furrows. Surface drains at 15 m to 20 m spacing found sufficient to remove excess runoff water from soybean fieds in vertisos. 20-cm depth, water-eve sensor activates operation of soenoid vaves fixed to outets. These vaves are operated in a sequence (5 at a time) with on-and-off cyces for a seected time and number of surge cyces. After fixed cyces are over in irrigation, an eectronic hooter gets activated to draw attention of user for checking competion of furrow irrigation. The abe massage is provided on the contro pane for the user to operate the system again by adjusting counter vaue if irrigation is not sufficient in furrows. The system runs on 220 V AC power suppy. Surface Drainage Fied Experiment in Vertisos Fied experiment on surface drainage system for soybean comprising five drain spacings of 15 m, 20 m, 25 m, 30 m, 35 m and contro with 3 repications of each drain spacing was conducted second time during kharif 2001 at the CIAE farm. Surface drains having bottom width of 35 cm, depth of 50 cm and side sope of 1 : 1 were aid out using tractor-drawn ditcher. Spacing treatments indicated that variations in grain yied of soybean were significanty higher in a compared to the contro at 5% eve of significance. Surface drains at 15 m to 20 m spacing are sufficient to remove excess runoff water from fieds for soybean-crop in vertisos. Sub-surface Drainage System Fied Tria For the subsurface drainage (SSD) system, drainage coefficient for the soybean-

157 151 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY crop was obtained; it was 5.34 mm/day through the anaysis of the meteoroogica data.the designed SSD system consists of a corrugated perforated PVC pipe of 72/ 80 mm diameter instaed at 20-m drain spacing and at 1.0-m depth on 1.0-ha fied for effective drainage discharge. The sub-surface drains enveoped with geo-textie fiter materia were aid manuay in trenches of 1.0-m depth 0.5-m width in ongitudina direction of the fied by maintaining a bed gradient of 0.2%. To maintain water eve beow sub-surface drains, a sump of 1.2-m diameter with an automatic pumping and measuring system of drained water was constructed. Grain yied of soybean under SSD system during kharif 2001 increased by over 50% compared to contro. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER An industria prototype of SAF-750 thresher has been fabricated for its commercia production. The design modification and testing were carried out as per the guidance of the CIAE. The machine has performed satisfactoriy for wheat-crop. Rura soymik enterprises by the CIAE, Bhopa, have been initiated under the NATP activity on the Househod Food and Nutritiona Security; in which viage-women produced soymik and distributed sweetened mik to rura chidren.the heath benefits of soy-products were expained to rura peope, and they were exhorted to take up soy-based entreprises. Prototypes (449) of 10 equipments were prepared and suppied through the NATP on the Prototype Manufacturing by the CIAE, Bhopa; 177 prototypes and 18 manufacturing drawings were suppied to various organizations and entrepreneurs. Adaptive trias for zero-ti dried, strip-ti dried and raised-bed panted wheat were conducted by the CIAE, Bhopa, at three viages, Kardhe, Chached and Pipaiya Gajju, on farmers fieds in the participatory mode. The farmers coud raise good crops with recommended cutura practices. CIRCOT variabe speed Doube Roer Gin technoogy has been commerciaized to convert conventiona DR gins for productivity increase on an average from 45 kg/hr to 65 kg/hr through M/s U.D. Pate & Co, Mumbai. CIRCOT has successfuy transferred to M/s Hanjer Agro and BioTech Energies Co-operative Society Ltd, Surat, the technoogy of converting textie mi waste into compost. The firm is currenty producing around 100 tonnes of compost per month and seing it at the rate of Rs 2,000/tonne. Technoogies know-how for preparation of Mefoac, a wood-varnish composition, gasket sheac compound, water-soube ac, spiritess varnish, air-drying insuating varnish, FRP sheet-based as two different compositions, were transferred by the ILRI, Ranchi. The MPUAT, Udaipur centre, had instaed smokeess durabe improved cookstoves in 50 houses in 5 seected viages. The modes of the durabe stoves incuded were singe-pot stoves caed Chetak and doube-pot stoves caed Udairaj. The therma efficiency of Chetak and Udairaj stoves with desi babu (Acacia niotica) was found around 22% and 28% in the aboratory. The cost of the singe-pot stove was estimated at Rs 175 and of doube pot at Rs 230. A beneficiaries were of the opinion that there was substantia reduction in smoke eve inside the kitchen; and 80% agreed that there was significant saving in fue-wood consumption compared to traditiona stove. An industria prototype of SAF-750 thresher fabricated for commercia production. The technoogy of converting textie mi waste into compose transferred from the CIRCOT to a society at Surat.

158 152 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Agricutura Human Resource Deveopment CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITIES Assam Agricutura University, Jorhat A new degree programme in Agri-business Management to run as a professiona course was introduced. Admissions were made open to candidates from other states incuding the north east states to discourage inbreeding and encourage competitive spirit. AAU website was aunched during the year. The information buetin and the appication forms for admission are now avaiabe on ine. Facuty of Home Science impemented the revised M.Sc. curricuum. Tea Industria Work Experience Programme (TIWEP), Rura Agricutura Work Experience Programme (RAWEP) for Agricuture, Rura Home Work Experience Programme and In-pant Training (RHWEP) for Home Science and Fishery Work Experience Programme (FWEP) for Fishery impemented for the students pursuing UG programmes. Acharya NG Ranga Agricutura University, Hyderabad Interna and externa evauation system for B. Tech (Dairying) and B.FSc were introduced. Educationa tours were made compusory for undergraduate programmes. Short-term certificate courses with duration ranging from 3 weeks to 1 year for those who cannot afford higher education, but sti have an aptitude for earning practica skis, entrepreneurship and sef empoyment were aunched. Financia support was provided to support the State Agricutura Universities for deveopment and strengthening of UG and PG programmes to expand, deveop and improve the quaity, reevance and utiity of agricutura education and training. Support was provided for instructiona farm deveopment, computerization, internet faciities, educationa technoogy ces, HRD of facuty and non-facuty members and for construction of Girs hostes. Rura Agricutura Work Experience is now being effectivey impemented in most of the SAUs as an integra part of degree programmes. Adequate support was provided for this programme. Baasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoi An MoU was signed with Maharana Pratap University of Agricuture and Technoogy, Udaipur, (Rajasthan), University of Agricutura Sciences, Dharwad and Aspee Agricutura Research and Deveopment Foundation, Mumbai for fostering academic programmes and to encourage inter university working and garner private support for education. RAWE, Rura Home Work Experience Programme (RHWEP), FWEP were remodeed to harmonize with new UG curricua in Agricuture, Horticuture and Forestry. In order to buid sef-reiance and sef-confidence counseing and guidance were provided to students for competitive examinations for JRF/SRF/IFRIE. With financia hep from the ICAR, some steps/changes were initiated in the direction of upgradation in educationa reforms and achievements. Centra Instrumentation Ce estabished at the Coege of Agricuture, Dapoi and Coege of Fisheries, Ratnagiri became functiona during the year. Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agricuture and Technoogy, Kanpur Three new Departments of Home Science, Extension Education, Human and Chid Deveopment and Cothing and Texties were estabished in Coege of Home Science.

159 153 AGRICULTURAL HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Remodeed RAWE programme in tune with the new UG course curricua was aunched. New aboratories viz. Mutimedia aboratory, Centra Instrumentation Laboratory and Pant Cinic Laboratory were set up. Ch. Charan Singh Haryana Agricutura University, Hisar Course curricua for a the undergraduate and Post-graduate programmes were updated. Centre of Food Science and Technoogy was estabished to encourage vaue addition to stape food item. Dipoma course in Food Science and Technoogy was started. Two months training schedue was impemented for agricutura graduates under the Ministry of Agricuture sponsored programme in Agri-cinics and Agri-business centres. Schemes on Women in Agricuture, Pant Cinic, Farmer Service Centre and to free Agricuture hepine for farmers were set up. Students at Computer Laboratory Govind Baabh Pant University of Agricuture and Technoogy, Pantnagar New programme on Biophysics initiated in the Coege of Basic Sciences and Humanities from the academic session Revision in various degree programme have been made as per the guideines of the ICAR. Practica oriented programme on the ines of practica crop production deveoped by the university main campus were introduced in other Coeges of the University. Maharana Pratap University of Agricuture and Technoogy, Udaipur Course curricua for various teaching programmes were revised to support country s needs and emerging internationa scenario. State of the art educationa technoogies were introduced for curricuum deivery. University organized 8 summer/winter schoos/short courses benefiting 199 facuty members in their career advancement pursuits. Two hundred and twenty facuty members were deputed for various Summer/ Winter Schoos, Workshops, Seminars and Conferences hed across various SAUs and ICAR institutes. AHRD Phase II: Dr J.C. Katya DDG (Education) informed on the ICAR concept paper on AHRD Phase II for Word Bank support. Both DEA and Word Bank have agreed in principa to support the project. To incucate cutura feowship and sportsman spirit arrangements have been finaized to hod A-India Inter Agricutura University cutura meet (AGRIUNIFEST) and Fourth A-India Inter University Games and Sports meet. Marathwada Agricutura University, Parbhani Academic bocks which were in diapidated conditions were renovated through catch up support of ICAR. Ninety-eight facuty members were deputed for different nationa and internationa trainings. Around 130 facuty members were trained in Teaching Technoogy by conducting workshops. Sher e-kashmir University of Agricutura Sciences and Technoogy, Jammu Being a newy estabished university, work of seection of site, preparation of site pan, and structura design were finaized during the year. Renovation of od aboratory buidings and od hostes at R.S.Pura was initiated. Tami Nadu Veterinary and Anima Sciences University, Chennai Syabus finaized and adopted as per the VCI guideines. Scene of AGRIUNIFEST

160 154 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT University of Agricutura Sciences, Dharwad Veterinary students being trained under practica poutry production programme Foowing the recommendations of three Deans Committees, the University of Agricutura Sciences, Dharwad introduced deveopment programme to make agricuture in education better. Under the revised curricuum, more emphasis was given to practica oriented courses. A few interdiscipinary courses were introduced to encourage mutisubject teaching-earning. University encouraged exceence among teachers by deputing 120 teachers to participate in the nationa and internationa conferences, seminars etc. University organized four Summer Schoos and three training programmes to give impetus to deveop inteectua skis in the area of agricuture and aied fieds. The Nationa Service Scheme introduced first time as a part of reguar credit course curricua. DEEMED-TO-BE-UNIVERSITIES Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar Tweve short-term training courses were organized for the benefit of facuty members. An Internationa Training Course on Moecuar Bioogy and Biotechnoogy in Anima Research (IGMBBTAR 2001) was conducted. Academic reguations of the Deemed to be University were compied and reeased. MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT Accreditation of Agricutura Universities ALL INDIA ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS Examinations were conducted by the ICAR during June 2002 for fiing 15% seats in UG and 25% in PG for a the SAUs, DUs, CAU and three CUs (AMU, BHU and Viswa Bharti). For 10 programmes in 38 Institutions for UG, 14,288 candidates appied and 864 were admitted. For PG, there were 7,999 candidates in 19 programmes and 88 subjects at 37 institutions of which 1,129 were admitted. For aotment of seats, counseing was hed during Juy The Counci thus contributed in faciitating muticutura shade in educationa institutions and provided opportunity to meritorious students for seeking education in an institution of their choice. The entire expenditure on this activity is being met from the Revoving Fund Scheme and the seed money has been refunded to the ICAR. In the continuing process of accreditation, 16 SAUs and 3 DUs have been under process of accreditation during the year. Out of them, peer review teams have visited 5 universities, namey KAU, Thrissur; UAS, Bangaore; PAU, Ludhiana; SKKV, Paampur and CIFE, Mumbai. The reports from the peer review teams are awaited. The visits of peer review teams for 3 SAUs namey, DYSPUHF, Soan; UAS, Dharwad and DBSKKV, Dapoi have been panned during December, The remaining universities namey, CSUAT, Kanpur; GAU, Banaskantha; GBPUAT, Pantnagar; IGAU, Raipur; JNKV, Jabapur; RAU, Bikaner; SKUAST, Srinagar; BAU, Ranchi; IARI, New Dehi; IVRI, Izatnagar and NDRI, Karna have competed their sef study and they are in the process of finaizing the Sef Study reports of the university and constituent coeges. The sef study reports are expected by March, 2003 and the entire accreditation process is panned to be competed by December, Revision of PG curricua and syabi The exercise of revising PG curricua and syabi has been competed with revision of syabi of one more Master s degree program. Thus, the PG curricua and syabi have been revised for major discipines of Agricuture and Aied Sciences (excuding Veterinary and Anima Sciences), totaing to 44, which have been approved by the Accreditation Board. During the year, 5 more course cataogues for Master s degree programs have been printed raising the number of such cataogues to 13. The printed cataogues aongwith revised academic reguations have been suppied to a Agricutura Universities for impementation from the academic year Most of the universities have started the process of approva and adoption.

161 155 AGRICULTURAL HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The conference of Vice-Chanceors of State Agricutura Universities for the year 2001 was hed on January 2002, in which three committees addressed the foowing issues: Efficient University Governance: Dr I.V. Subba Rao VC, ANGRAU Hyderabad, presented various aspects of efficient university governance. The report has been finaized for submission to ICAR. Financia heath of the SAUs: Dr K.S. Auakh VC, PAU Ludhiana, highighted the concern on meagre financia grants to the SAU vis-à-vis expected output. Additiona budgetary provisions have been made to SAUs for making agricutura education better. Approach towards X Pan support: Dr J.C. Katya DDG (Edn) presented approach papers towards X Pan support. The need for infusing appropriate change in course curricua to address rea ife subjects and instruments of governance to create an enabing environment for enhancing facuty performance were highighted as the centra points of the pan proposa. Master s degree syabi revised and impemented in 44 discipines under 13 Broad Subject Areas. Meetings of Accreditation Board and Sectora Committees The Accreditation Board and its Sectora Committees on Accreditation Norms and New Institutions/Programs, and Governance and Personne/Financia Poicies met during the year and took severa decisions. Some of the important decisions are as foows. Deveopment of Nationa Poicy on Higher Agricutura Education keeping in view the present concerns and future thrust. Guideines for starting of new institutions and programs. The accreditation process and eigibiity criteria for financia and technica support to identified institutions and programs in agricuture and aied Sciences outside ICAR-SAU system. Amendment of rues pertaining to estabishment and functioning of Accreditation Board. Check ist for Peer Review Team report for accreditation of Agricutura Universities and Coeges. Starting of PG program in Post Harvest Processing and Food Engineering at OUAT, Bhubaneswar. Accreditation Reated Pubications During the year foowing pubications came out: Curricua and Syabi for Master s degree programs in Agricutura Engineering, Pant Protection, Dairy Technoogy, Fisheries Science and Forestry (5 nos) Academic Reguations and Degrees offered in Agricuture and Aied Sciences (1 no) Hands on Training Manuas on Sef Study and Peer Review (2 nos) Information Brochure on Accreditation of Higher Agricutura Education Institutions and Programs (1 no) Peer Review Team for Accreditation visiting KAU, Thrissur The Accreditation Board recommended to provide technica and financia assistance to identified private coege offering higher agricutura education, subject to fufiment of eigibiity criteria incuding accreditation and affiiation to SAU of the region. However, affiiation cause is not appicabe to coege offering academic programmes not ony in agricuture and aied sciences, but aso in other fieds ike, science, art, commerce, etc. Admission of Foreign Nationas ICAR has deveoped a strong agricutura education system in the country. It is faciitating human resource deveopment by offering undergraduate programmes in 11 major discipines and postgraduate and Ph.D program in 65 discipines to the students from 53 countries. In the year , 121 students from 26 countries have been provided admissions in ICAR deemed-to-be Universities and State Agricutura Universities. Summer/Winter Schoo and Short Courses To enhance the facuty competence in new and emerging areas as a part of skied Accreditation Meeting hed at New Dehi in Juy 2002

162 156 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Summer Schoo human resource deveopment, this is in operation. Recognizing the need for training of arge number of scientists, Counci has increased the number of training programmes substantiay. This year, 82 Summer/Winter Schoo and Short Courses have been organized in which approximatey 2,050 scientists are to be trained. During this year specia emphasis was on Managing Digita Libraries in Agricuture, Video Production for Technoogy Transfer, Computer Aided teaching, earning and Designing, Computer Mutimedia appication in Agricuture and Aied Sciences. A specia course on Water Quaity monitoring and surveiance was undertaken and many more in recent advances to update the Scientists/facuty for their respective area of speciaization. Another highight of the programme was deveopment of exceent instructiona materia for effective curricuum deivery. This year the efforts are being made to put up a the synthesized instructiona materia on ICAR website. This wi faciitate a the scientists and the students to have easy accessibiity of the atest iterature in the speciaised areas. Perspective Pan for Agricutura Education and Human Resource Deveopment The mission of the agricutura education has been to harmonize agricutura education with exceence in science and technoogy output for iveihood security and sustainabe deveopment. The perspective Pan focusses at adopting utiitarian approach aiming at producing professionas and academicians who are sef reiant, sef confident and sef-competing individuas and who are not white coar job seekers. The Perspective Pan envisages to strengthen the agricutura education system accordingy and take new initiative in the direction of better inking of education with entrepreneurship deveopment, spread of distance mode of education for reaching and benefiting the unreached, export of agricutura education, and strengthening of inter-institutiona inkages. Feowships/Schoarships The ICAR conducts competitive examinations for entrance of students against 15% seats in various courses in Agricuture and aied subjects for pursuing Ph.D./ M.Sc. and B.Sc. During the year, 201 SRFs have been provided for pursuing Ph.D. 470 JRFs have been provided for pursuing M.Sc. The Governing Body has approved enhancement of the rates of feowships at par with the rates prevaiing in other science departments ike DST, CSIR. For the encouragement of taented students a over the country, Nationa Taent Schoarships have been awarded to 230 students for pursuing undergraduate courses. Merit-cum-means schoarships have been awarded to 7.5% of the intake capacity of the students in different coeges of SAUs. The SC/ST students have been provided schoarships/feowships to the extent of 15% and 7.5% of the tota intake. CENTRES OF ADVANCED STUDIES Training Course on Advanced Pant Moecuar Bioogy Techniques conducted by CAS in Biochemistry, at IARI, New Dehi Centres of Advanced Studies (CAS) scheme was aunched to improve the quaity of teaching in State Agricutura Universities. (SAUs) and Deemed Universities (DUs) of ICAR. The objective of the scheme is to identify the major discipine in SAUs/DUs which have deveoped faciities and facuty in the area of speciaization and to make them capabe of imparting advanced training to facuties of other SAUs/ institutes to enhance their teaching and research capabiities. As per recommendations of QRT, steps are being taken to open new CAS in Pant Biotechnoogy, Anima Biotechnoogy, Pharmacoogy, Veterinary Pathoogy and Internationa Agricuture Trade and Marketing. During the year , 72 trainings were organized in which 1,278 scientists from various institutions in different discipines were trained and 72 manuas were prepared. Some of the

163 157 AGRICULTURAL HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT important areas of the trainings conducted are as foows: Mutimedia in teaching of cinica medicine and therapeutics. Watershed management as an approach towards efficient resource use. Breeding heterosis and disease resistance of commercia vegetabe crops. Emerging trends in functiona foods. Brood stock management and genetic seection in fish seed production. Microbia transformations in soi. Demand-suppy projections of agricutura commodities. Designing vortas for NARS. Socia sciences in agro-bioogica research. Preservation of Ghee and fat rich dairy products. Diseases of wid ife and their management. PROFESSIONAL EXCELLENCE RECOGNITION Best Teacher Award In the year under reference foowing facuty members were awarded Best Teacher Awards. Dr S.S. Pahuja, Professor,COA; Dr Prem Singh, Associate Professor, COVS; Dr (Ms) Santosh Dhion, Professor, COBS&H from CCS Haryana Agricutura University, Hisar; Dr P.B. Jha, Associate Professor, Department of Pant Breeding; Dr K.C.P. Singh, Associate Professor, Department of Veterinary Microbioogy, Bihar Veterinary Coege; Dr V.K. Chawdhary, Department of Genetics; Dr P.H. Pandey, Associate Professor, Department of Post Harvest Technoogy; Dr Usha Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Foods and Nutrition, Coege of Home Science from Rajendra Agricutura University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar. University Leve Text Book Writing Out of the 33 tites finaized under AHRD Project for writing Textbook in Agricuture and Aied Sciences, 14 books have been competed and sent to Pubication Division of ICAR for printing. Dr L.K. Wader and Dr Murthy C. from UAS, Dharwad were awarded Book Writing Award on Agricutura Marketing Cooperation, which was competed this year. Nationa Professor and Nationa Feow In a study on the enhancement of yied through innovative genetic approaches in rice undertaken at DRR, Hyderabad, by Professor E.A. Siddiq, an advanced backcross popuation comprising 251 individuas from the cross invoving the IC22015 of Oryza rufipogon and IR58025A and IR58025B was deveoped and utiized for inkage map construction as we as for identification and mapping of yied reated QTLs. A tota of 25 QTLs that infuence 12 yied reated traits were identified on five chromosomes. With the objective to generate transgenic rohu, restore a strain or species of fish from its preserved sperm and genome-inactivated surrogate eggs of another strain or species, and to generate tripoids in seected Indian fishes, the ICAR Nationa Professor project was given to Professor T.J. Pandian, Madurai Kamaraj University. Sexuay mature Puntius conchonius were successfuy restored using its preserved ( 18 C) sperm and genomeinactivated surrogate eggs of P. tetrazona. To construct transformation vectors for the indigenous fishes, growth hormone genes of rohu, Labeo rohita and catfish, Heteropneustes fossiis were isoated, coned and sequenced; their fideity was confirmed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. A vector was constructed with grass carp ß-actin promoter driving the expression of r-gh. The sperm The study by Professor E.A. Siddiq has ed to the identification of suitabe ocations and seasons for indigenous temperature sensitive genic mae sterie (TGMS) ines and hybrid seed production. Mode of inheritance of the TGMS trait sources was found to be monogenic recessive. Aeic reationships among the TGMS sources suggest existence of six putative genes designated as tms 1, tms 2, tms 3, tms 4, tms 5 and tms 6.

164 158 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT eectroporation technique was standardized to ensure 25% hatching surviva and 37% presumptive transgenics without suffering any deformity. Genomic integration was confirmed in 15% of the tested individuas (Ti) beonging to famiy ines 2 and 3; another 25% of the juvenies (Te) were aso proved transgenic but with the transgene persisting extrachromosomay for onger than 1 to 2 years. DISTANCE EDUCATION Despite a strong network of educationa institutions in the country, a arge number of young men and women are sti deprived of avaiing the coege education for various reasons. ICAR in coaboration with the Indira Gandhi Nationa Open University (IGNOU) has been in the process of deveoping programmes in distance mode for agricutura education and extension. Whie ICAR and SAUs woud provide the content and patform for education and extension, IGNOU woud faciitate in programme deivering in distance paces in the country through channes ike Gyan Darshan. Monitoring, evauation and certification woud be done jointy. The comparative response of Brassica juncea cv 30 during rabi and Oryza sativa Basmati 1 and Pusa 677 during kharif was studied by Professor D.C. Uprety at IARI. The eevated CO 2 brought about 18% under OTC (open top chamber) condition and 37% in FACE ring in the dry matter accumuation (fowering stage) of the Brassica pant. In kharif season, eevated CO 2 brought about increase in grain yied, 25% increase in Basmati 1 and 19% in Pusa 677 under OTC conditions, whereas, the increase was 27% and 24% in Basmati 1 and Pusa 677, respectivey, in FACE rings. The response was simiar in OTC and FACE, however, intensity was greater in FACE conditions. A study on the identification and quantification of phosphatase hydroysabe organic P sources for pant nutrition and refinement of a non-destructive technique for phosphatase estimation conducted by Professor J.C. Tarafdar at the CAZRI, showed a strong inear reationship between intra versus extraceuar funga acid phosphatase (R 2 =0.94), akaine phosphatase (R 2 =0.96) and phytase (R 2 =0.97). Three-fourth of the phosphatases, generay present inside the funga ces and ony 25% were expected to reease extraceuary within three weeks period. Extraceuar enzymes were found 60% more efficient in the hydroysis of phytin than their intraceuar counterpart. Professor I.M. Santha, isoated and characterized the gene encoding acety CoA carboxyase from Brassica juncea var. Pusa Bod, using two-step strategy which incudes the generation of probe and then identification of the positive cones by screening the genomic DNA ibrary of Brassica juncea prepared in λembl-3 using the probe generated. Professor Renu Khanna-Chopra studied the interactive effect of Zn deficiency with water deficit in wheat. Zn deficiency (~50%) caused reduced growth, eaf area and size and caused significant reduction in dry matter accumuation in wheat var. Kundan. Root growth was promoted in Zn deficient pants eading to higher root/shoot ratio. Zn deficient eaves showed significant reduction in carbonic anhydrase and superoxide dismutase activity but hydrogen peroxide metaboising enzymes such as cataase and ascorbate peroxidase were not affected significanty. Peroxidase activity increased 1.4- times compared to Zn sufficient pants. Under severe water stress Zn sufficient pants exhibited reduction in superoxide dismutase activity couped with higher cataase and ascorbate peroxidase activity whie Zn deficient pants exhibited higher activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and ower cataase activity. Zn deficient pants exhibited eaf necrosis, as enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes were insufficient to manage drought induced oxidative stress. Professor A. K. Sahu in a project on the enhancement of seed production of Asiatic catfish, Carias batrachus using sustained hormone preparations under took arge-scae seed production of magur using 260 femaes and 190 maes at the CIFA, Bhubaneshwar. A tota of 140,000 spawn were produced with a hatching rate of 40 50%. Finay, 50,000 advanced fry were recovered. Advanced fry have been sent to Punjab, distributed among farmers and aso stocked for grow out cuture.

165 159 AGRICULTURAL HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Professor B.R. Yadav estabished genome anaysis of indigenous breeds of catte, buffao and goats using moecuar markers at DNA repository, NDRI. Markers reveaed association with probems reated with anatomy, stunted growth or reproduction, viz., intersexuaity, ate maturity, anoestrous, repeat breeding, irreguar heat cyce, recurrent abortions etc. There can be various reasons for such cases, however, eary detection of these animas is quite important. Professor M.C. Sharma studied macro and micronutrients in reation to deficiency/metaboic diseases and production in animas at the IVRI, Izatnagar. The minera deficiency in soi, fodder and serum (anima) of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarancha, Haryana, Punjab and Dehi and efficacy of various minera suppements was observed during the therapeutic trias. Emeritus Scientist Topworking technique using patch budding during May to September on the wid Prosopis cineraria trees of more than 3 years age was standardized by Professor O.P. Pareek with a success rate of 76%. Professor P.C. Thomas in a study conducted at the CIFA, Bhubaneshwar, standardized brood husbandry, heath care and both indoor and out door induced breeding techniques for stripped Murre. Professor A.C. Thakur studied the effect of management factors on increasing the productivity of Sai (winter rice) and Boro (spring rice) system for high productivity at AAU, station at Shionani. The Boro season variety panting date combination invoving varieties Jyotiprasad and Bishnuprasad transpanted between February ed to higher system productivity of 12 tonnes/ha in and 9 tonnes/ha in in days compared to yieds 1 tonnes/ha ower than those panted 15 days earier. Professor D. V. Singh studied the common scab disease of radish caused by Streptomyces aureofaciens, which was widey prevaent in a agrocimatic regions of Uttar Pradesh with the incidence up to 90% in severe cases and ranging between %. The disease management was possibe by the seed treatment with Pseudomonas fuorescens and antibiotics ike Streptocycine, Agrimycin 100, Agrobiotech and Paushamycin. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH MANAGEMENT, HYDERABAD The Nationa Academy of Agricutura Research Management (NAARM), is the premier Institute entrusted with the responsibiity to achieve higher eves of professiona management in agricutura research and education. Marking the 25 years of its estabishment, the Academy organized a Nationa Seminar on Management A key for improved performance as a part of Siver Jubiee- Foundation Day Ceebrations on September 1, In the Academy s efforts to improve the foundation course based on the participants feedback, the FOCARS training was organized through a moduar approach for the first time. It resuted in tangibe gains in the form of earning outcomes. The Fied Experience Training was organized on the prinicipes of seeing is beieving and earning by doing through muti-discipinary participatory approach. The Academy organized 34 training programmes and a tota of 833 participated in these programmes. It conducted off-campus programme at the Postgraduate institute of Agricuture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. A three months Internationa Programme on Agricutura Research Management was organized for Yemen scientists at the request of the Government of Yemen and the FAO. The Academy organized 34 Training programmes and tota of 833 participated in these programmes.

166 160 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT A Nationa Seminar on Veterinary Drugs and Pharmaceuticas was organized in coaboration with the Department of Science and Technoogy, New Dehi, to improve coaborative research with private sector. One of the significant achievements of the year incude Piot Distance Training on the theme Focusing Agricutura Research on Poverty Aeviation, under the ISNAR-NAARM coaborative project, which was impemented in five SAUs. The Academy deveoped an on-ine data base ( on institutions in Indian NARS and a district eve agri-database, which was used to deveop prioritization of rainfed research using GIS. Under the NATP the Strategic Research and Extension Pan (SREP) guideines were revised by strengthening the research component, and these are currenty being utiized for deveoping effective SREPs. The Academy provided poicy support to ICAR on performance appraisa of scientists-a new methodoogy in conformity with the project based budgeting and training needs assessment for ICAR empoyees which is being impemented at ICAR headquarters.

167 161 SOCIAL SCIENCES AND POLICIES Socia Sciences and Poicies AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ASSESSMENT OF WATERSHED PROGRAMMES FOR PRIORITIZATION OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Watershed programmes have been specificay aunched in the rainfed areas with the soe objective to improve the iveihood of poor rura househods encountering disproportionate uncertainties in agricuture. The study is based on the meta-anaysis. The avaiabe micro-eve studies from 310 watersheds were amassed. Watershed programmes were aunched to improve efficiency, equity and sustainabiity of natura resources in the rainfed areas. To document these benefits, few proxy indicators were chosen and anayzed. The benefit-cost ratio and the interna rate of return were used as proxy for efficiency-gains from watershed programmes. Additiona empoyment generation in agricuture as a consequence of watershed activities was assessed for equity benefits. The sustainabiity benefits were demonstrated by four indicators (i) increased water storage capacity, which augmented the irrigated area, (ii) increased cropping intensity, (iii) reduced run-off, which enhanced groundwater recharge, and (iv) subsided soi oss. Benefits of Watershed Programmes Benefits derived from numerous studies are quite impressive. The watershed programmes performed reasonaby we and the investment was ogicay justified in the fragie and uncertain environments. The mean additiona annua empoyment generated were about 181 man-days. Watershed programmes are argey aimed at conserving soi and water to raise farm productivity. Augmenting water storage capacity contributed in (i) reducing rate of runoff, and (ii) increasing groundwater recharge. These have direct impact on expanding the irrigated area and increasing cropping intensity. On an average, the former increased by about 34%, whie the ater by 64%. Such an impressive increase in the cropping intensity was not reaised in many surface irrigated areas in the country. These benefits confirmed that the watershed programme is a viabe strategy to overcome severa externaities arising due to soi and water degradation. Water runoff rate reduced by 34% in watershed management areas. Groundwater recharge increased by 64% in watershed management areas. Sustainabiity status of India s irrigation infrastructure studied. Decrease in transport and statutory charges may narrow down price band for rice and wheat. Buffer stock more usefu in price stabiization than variabe evies on externa trade. Investment in agricuture must 7.91% per annum to reaize target growth. Impact of research management process initiated under NATP being studied. Diversification of farming must to improve farmers condition in western Uttar Pradesh. Benefits from the sampe watershed studies Indicator Particuars Unit No. of studies Mean Mode Median Minimum Maximum t-vaue Efficiency B/C ratio Ratio IRR Per cent Equity Empoyment Mandays/ha/year Sustainabiity Irrigated area Per cent Cropping intensity Per cent Rate of runoff Per cent Soi oss Tons/ha/year

168 162 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT HIGH PRIORITY TARGET DOMAINS FOR INVESTMENT IN WATERSHED RESEARCH Western Himaayan, Northeast His and Southern Zones Rainfa <500 mm and 1,000 1,500 mm Rehabiitation of degraded ands and soi-water conservation Poverty ridden areas Targeting Watershed Research and Deveopment The patterns of benefits from watersheds vary depending upon the ocation, size, type, rainfa, impementing agency and peope s participation. Target domains for investment on watershed deveopment and watershed research were decided. Performance of watershed programme was the best in rainfa ranging between 700 and 1,000 mm, jointy impemented by state and centra governments, targeted in ow and medium income regions, and with effective participation of peope. HIGH AND LOW PRIORITY TARGET DOMAINS FOR WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES High Low Western Himaayan Regions Trans-Gangetic Pain and Western Pateau zone Macro Watersheds Micro Watersheds Rainfa ranging between Rainfa < 500 and > 1000 mm 700 1,000 mm Rehabiitating degraded ands Numerous activities Joint programme by Centra Independent centray sponsored and State governments Poor income regions High income regions Peope s high participation Peope s ow participation Performance of cana irrigation system SUSTAINABILITY STATUS OF INDIA S IRRIGATION INFRASTRUCTURE Suppy-demand management in water sector and efficiency in its every use is crucia for water-food security. Existing and expanding irrigation infrastructure has to be physicay and financiay sustained first. Surface irrigation infrastructure has deteriorated due to deferred maintenance. This has cuminated in stagnating or faing irrigation coverage affecting agricutura growth in severa regions. Area irrigated by major, medium and minor irrigation systems has been either stagnating or decining from mid 1980s or during 1990s. Decining performance of tank system in south India Decining Irrigation Infrastructure Currenty canas in Uttar Pradesh are irrigating 3.06 miion ha in the triennium ending (TE) 2000 as against 3.33 miion ha in TE Simiary, in Andhra Pradesh, canas now irrigate 11% esser area than what was irrigated 15 years back. Bihar, Orissa and Tami Nadu aso recorded simiar decine in the cana irrigated area. On many irrigation commands, effective irrigated area has decined due to deterioration in the distribution infrastructure. Rapid depetion, sainization and poution reated probems threaten regions with sustainabe groundwater baance, whose area is continuousy shrinking. Administrative bocks categorized as dark or critica 5.5% per annum during mid 1980s to mid 1990s. At this rate, 1/3rd of the bocks in the country woud come under grey category within two decades. Groundwater mining has resuted in fuoride contamination in north Gujarat and Rajasthan and arsenic contamination in southern West Benga endangering the sustainabe iveihood of the poor. In 1995, neary 90% of the over expoited bocks were ocated in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Tami Nadu, Karnataka and Rajasthan. Further, Andhra Pradesh, Tami Nadu, Karnataka and Orissa, together accounting for 60% of the India s tank irrigated area, have ost about 37% of the area irrigated

169 163 SOCIAL SCIENCES AND POLICIES by tanks during Physica strengthening and improvements of the infow, storage and distribution systems are needed. Water users in tank commands need to be invoved in panning and impementing the rehabiitation strategies. Physica and Financia Sustainabiity Currenty, irrigation accounts for more than 1/3rd of states revenue deficits. In Orissa, gross irrigated area from surface irrigation sources accounts for 64% of irrigation potentia created. Average operation and maintenance (O and M) expenditure remained ow at 30% of the desired eve. Weighted water rate, based on revised water tariff in 1998, was ow at Rs 104/ha. Current water rate demand from irrigation charges is 50% of potentia demand. A these factors cuminated in cost recovery of 25%. In Gujarat, actua O and M expenditure is one-fourth of the requirement. With average water charge remaining at Rs 165/ha, cost recovery is ony 33%. Andhra Pradesh and Haryana have registered ow cost recovery of 26% and 41%, respectivey, under current account. Physica sustainabiity of the irrigation infrastructure cas for need based O and M funding. Water user groups need to be empowered with the management responsibiities as we. Severa states are in the process of finaizing state-water pans, institutionaizing farmer organizations in irrigation management and periodic review of water charges, improving assessment and coection procedures and prioritizing irrigation expenditures. GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION IN FOODGRAINS MARKET Changing Context Demand and suppy scenario for agricuture in India has undergone profound changes during ast years. Farm price poicy and poicy for food management have to be changed to adjust to new situation and to check serious imbaances in production and severa other probems ike accumuation of huge grain stocks, increase in food subsidy bi, negect of efficiency and quaity, resuting in setback to private trade and regiona bias in government support to agricuture. Average avaiabiity of cereas has foowed a decine in the recent years. The decine in per capita avaiabiity of cereas is neither a resut of sack in production nor it is due to export of cereas. PDS prices during 1990s have increased in jumps and at a faster rate compared to open market prices, and prices of other food and other commodities which caused a decine in per capita PDS demand in the recent years. Diversification in consumption pattern, which is associated with improvement in per capita income and shift in food preference aso possiby caused decine in per capita demand for cereas in open market. An important reason for high poicy support to grains to continue, ti recenty, is that demand projections for grains did not take note of diversification in consumption pattern experienced in rura as we as urban areas. This has resuted in fast growth of the import of edibe ois, whie puse deficit is refected in both imports as we as in the increase in domestic prices of puses. Hence there is a need for suitabe poicy to address these imbaances. Price reguation The reguatory mechanism shoud be used ony when price movements are outside the desired price band representing width between the ceiing and foor price, which permits reasonabe marketing margin for profitabe pubic sector operations. The government intervention in foodgrains markets must aow and encourage active participation of private trade but check their expoitative tendencies. The study has prepared estimates of price band between farm harvest prices of wheat and paddy in surpus states and whoesae and retai price in subsequent months in a major states of the country, and these have required/justified participation of private trade in grain marketing. O and M cost recovery, TE 2000 Particuars Orissa Andhra Pradesh Potentia created (miion ha) Gross irrigated area (miion ha) Average annua 6, pan outay (miion Rs) Average O and M expenditure (miion Rs) Weighted water rate (Rs/ha) Current water rate demand (miion Rs) Receipts, current account (miion Rs) Cost recovery, current account (Per cent) PLANNING CUM METHODOLOGY WORKSHOP OF THE NATP PROJECT WATER FOOD SECURITY ANALYSIS FOR 2025 (14 15 JUNE 2002) Saient activities of the workshop are as foows: Base paper on water-food security representing four AERs presented. Methodoogy review of demand/suppy projections for water/food discussed. Poicy Interactive Diaogue Modeing (PODIUM) methodoogy discussed and adopted. Database needed for the existing PODIUM version identified. Four groups are formed to discuss and finaize refinements in the Consumption, Water baance and Areayied-production modues of PODIUM mode. Centre-wise work pan, miestones and expected outputs finaized. Poicy Brief on Sustaining India s Irrigation Infrastructure pubished.

170 164 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT NCAP OUTREACH PROGRAMME The Centre in coaboration with an NGO, Society for Education and Socia Wefare (SESW), Kandha, initiated in 1999, a diagnostic study on constraints in agricutura Deveopment in Western Uttar Pradesh. This study, covering five viages in the Muzaffarnagar district of Western Uttar Pradesh, reveaed that major constraints are deteriorating soi nutrient status, decining profits from sugarcanewheat farming, irreguar and unreiabe suppy of power and cana water, faing water tabes, and probems in marketing sugarcane due to deayed crushing season and deayed payments. There exists a broad consensus among a concerned that keeping in view the ecoogica and economic situations, farming in this area has to diversify. But ack of dependabe advice on agricuture (technoogy, marketing, vaue addition) and ack of organizations that can support farmers have effectivey bocked the prospects of diversifying to other crops or enterprises. Soving these constraints require co-ordinated effort at the fied eve by a agricutura deveopment organizations of the district. The NCAP is presenty paying a key roe as a faciitator to bring the different agencies together and to provide necessary technica backstopping to farmers by inking them with different agricutura research institutes. This outreach activity is considered as a fied aboratory by the Centre and the experiences with the impementation of this project are expected to provide essons on how the recommendations of a research project gets transated into action in the fied. At existing structure of statutory charges/taxes, and transport and other costs, retai price for wheat in surpus states shoud be higher than farm harvest price by 36 60% in various months to attract private trade. In deficit state ike Maharashtra, retai price before harvest need to be more than doube the farm harvest price in surpus states to provide reasonabe incentive to private trade. Simiary, the band suggests that retai prices of rice shoud be % higher than the farm harvest price of paddy to attract private trade to buy paddy and suppy rice in various months and in severa states. Price difference beyond this band woud impy expoitation by private trade, which woud need government intervention. Transport cost and statutory charges are the main eements of price spread and curtaiing these costs can narrow down price band. Buffer stocks vis-à-vis variabe evies on externa trade The government has used buffer stocks as an important instrument for price stabiisation. However it is becoming fiscay unsustainabe due to heavy cost of procurements, handing, carrying, storage etc. As an aternative it was suggested that the government shoud use the instrument of variabe evies on externa trade to stabiise domestic prices. A comparison of domestic stabiization measures and trade showed that seing and buying wheat in internationa market to stabiise domestic output does not resut in arge changes in internationa prices of wheat due to arge voume of word trade in wheat. However, in rice, stabiising domestic suppy through trade caused sharp fuctuation in internationa price of rice. Among the two options, viz. domestic stabiisation through buffer stock and stabiization through trade, the atter is costier than domestic stabiization in most of the years though it aso depends upon fuctuation in internationa price. If in future, reationship between domestic and internationa prices remains the same, as had been during the ast 26 years, then poicy of price stabiization through buffer stock seems to be a better option than trade. Support price and deficiency payment Minimum support prices (MSP) for various commodities must refect the society s preference for the produce and shoud promote efficiency and quaity. In the present form the guaranteed prices have given rise to severa probems. As it is not feasibe to ensure that prices woud not fa beow MSP in any commodity, ony seected crops shoud be covered under MSP. Sometimes private trade turns out to be expoitative and farmers are paid price beow MSP. A deficiency payment a part of the difference between actua price received by farmers and MSP may be made to farmer to avoid such situation. To check resae of produce the deficiency payment shoud be kept ess than the charges (e.g., mandi fee, auction, abour charges etc.) invoved in first sae of produce. This mechanism woud check regiona bias and commodity bias aso. Government procurement shoud be seective. Its quantity shoud not exceed PDS requirement in a norma production year. Food security buffer stock shoud be maintained by purchasing grains during above norma production and reeasing stock during ow harvest years. A buffer stock of around 7 miion tones woud be adequate to meet suppy shortfas in most of the years. CHANGING PATTERN OF CAPITAL USE EFFICIENCY IN INDIAN AGRICULTURE Investments in agricuture resuted in improved agricutura production and made the country sef-sufficient in food production. However, this pattern of growth is uneven across regions. Baanced growth requires uniform aocation of resources across regions so that tota benefit is maximized due to equaity in agricutura deveopment. An anaysis of incrementa capita-output ratio (ICOR) in agricuture at disaggregated eve woud be of great hep in this. It woud be aso usefu for

171 165 SOCIAL SCIENCES AND POLICIES estimation of capita requirements to achieve a target rate of growth in output, or to derive the expected growth rate once the capita position is cear. Therefore, ICOR vaues were cacuated at the country and state eves for each year since to The study aso assessed the adequacy of current eve of investment by states for attaining the target rate of growth in the agricuture sector. The reaization of target growth rate in agricuture depends on the quantum of investment in agricuture, its regiona pattern of depoyment, and its use efficiency. The anaysis of ICOR demonstrated considerabe variabiity in the ICOR across the states and this variabiity has not reduced over time. Therefore, using a singe ICOR estimate for the entire country by the Panning Commission has atered the normative aocation of resources for agricutura deveopment across the states. Compared to the northern states, the ICOR is ower in eastern and southern states. These are the states where additiona investment wi have arger impact on agricutura productivity. The investment requirement in agricuture is much higher than that assumed by the Panning Commission on the basis of its much ower estimates for ICOR. With the current trend in investment growth, agricuture wi grow 3.01% per annum. This fas short of the targeted 4.5% eve. To reaize the target growth rate in the X Pan, the investment in agricuture shoud grow at an annua rate of 7.91%, as compared to the present eve of 4.95%. Another dimension to this issue is its regiona variabiity. The present trends in investment may resut in negative growth in agricuture in most of the eastern and north-eastern states. Immediate attention is required to check further widening of regiona disparity in agricutura deveopment. These states woud require specia emphasis, because of their higher capita use efficiency, and higher concentration of rura poor. In hiy and arge states, improvement in the capita use efficiency shoud be the priority. This requires more than proportiona rise in the private investment and judicious use of the investment resources. For this, appropriate poicy intervention may be made after carefu monitoring of (i) institutiona arrangements with which capita and other inputs are managed, and (ii) incentive framework for the agricutura sector. Estimates of incrementa output ratio in agricuture by states ( ) AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS A piot survey on Crop Yied Estimation at Bocks Leve Using Farmers Estimates in Karna, Haryana, during in rabi season, on wheat crop to deveop suitabe bock eve estimates of yied using crop cut estimates and farmers estimates was conducted. The samping design of Genera Crop Estimation surveys (GCES) was foowed. Accordingy, the crop cut data coected under GCES was utiized for the purpose. To deveop bock eve estimates of average yied two different estimates were deveoped i.e. one based on simpe average whie the other was doube samping regression estimator utiizing the eye-estimated yieds of the fied as an auxiiary information. Neary 20% reduction in the standard error of the estimate was observed in the doube samping regression estimator over an estimator based on simpe mean vaues. The optimum vaues of sampe size were obtained at various stages of samping by fixing the standard error at 5% and minimizing the tota cost. Overa 45% reduction in the tota cost of the survey was obtained based on the optimum vaues of sampe sizes in cases where there was high correation between the farmers estimate and the estimates obtained through crop cutting approach by adopting the doube sampe regression estimator. Aso, cheaper the cost of obtaining the farmers estimate compared to the crop cut estimates, the greater the percentage reduction in cost obtained by adopting the doube samping regression estimator over an estimator based on simpe mean vaues. Universay optima bock designs for both the direct effects of treatments appied to rabi crop and residua effect of the treatments appied to kharif crop were obtained for the experimenta situations where the experimenter was not interested in the Achievabe growth in agricuture by states during X Pan (per cent/annum) Method deveoped for estimation of crop yied at bock eve. Potato and ginger crop area and yied estimated in north-eastern states. Fodder tree sp., ocation of tree in pot, direction of crop around tree and distance of crop from tree affected yied of crop. Methodoogy deveoped for forecasting fish production from ponds. Agricutura Research Databook 2002 reeased.

172 166 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT IMPACT OF RESEARCH MANAGEMENT PROCESSES INITIATED UNDER NATP The NATP was aunched to introduce major changes in agricutura research and extension in the country and to support agricutura research and extension in high priority areas. The main idea is to improve efficiency of the NARS, so as to: address effectivey the nationa goas of aeviation of househod food and nutritiona insecurity and poverty, sustaining efficient and diversified growth, and conservation of environment and natura resources. This is being done through initiation of a number of new business processes, and funding research and extension activities. The study provides a mid-term assessment of the impact of NATP with particuar reference to research panning, capacity deveopment, competitive research funding, management issues and eary socio-economic impact of promising technoogies. There is a wider appreciation of the need for improved priority setting, monitoring and evauation (PME) mechanisms in the NARS. The progress in mutidiscipinary and muti-institutiona research approach, though steady but is sow on account of some probems, which are considered as transitiona. To acceerate this process further, there is much scope for improving reiabiity, functionaity and efficiency of eectronic connectivity in the system. Peer review of NATP projects is yieding good resuts and ecoregiona approach in research panning and impementation is greaty appreciated. Human capita deveopment is the greatest opportunity under NATP. Despite concrete outputs from previous training programmes, the progress is very sow. It wi be a missed opportunity, if progress cannot be made under this soon. Competitive research funding is doing very we, though there is a scope to improve it further. The aocation of funds under NATP argey to support operationa funds, and priority research (areas, ecosystems, themes etc.) is wecomed widey. But the progress in utiization at the project eve is picking up at a sow pace. Reforms in financia management incuding simpification of rues and procedures hod the key. Another important determinant is decentraization of powers at a eves. Poor performance in utiization of funds are attributed to PIU (NATP) itsef. Deays in reease of funds, compexities in purchase of equipment, competion of audit and submissions of statement of expenditure (SOE) etc., are the important issues. Probems ike deay in reease of grants to principa investigators (PIs), competion of audit and submission of SOE, and compatibiity with non-natp projects, are within the organizations themseves. It may be too eary to track the socio-economic impact of the projects under NATP. But the eary trends of expected impacts of seected technoogies in a the agro-ecosystems are encouraging. There is a need to document and report the socio-economic information so that its quantification becomes easy ater. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH DATA BOOK 2002 The Agricutura Research Data Book 2002, the sixth in the series, comprises 195 tabes, and eeven sections. List of important nationa and internationa Institutions associated with agricutura research and education aong with their addresses and contact points are aso given. POTATO AND GINGER STATUS The potato and ginger crops are the most important crops grown in Meghaaya so their reiabe and stabe estimates were cacuated. The area under potato in East Khasi His was estimated as 3,124 ha. The average yied pooed over different varieties was 6,833 kg/ha. The ginger crop area was estimated as 1,240 ha. The average yied was estimated as 4,042 kg/ha. Entire potato growing area was benefited by manures and fertiizers and 47% of the area was benefited by pant protection chemicas. interaction between direct effects and the residua effects of the two sets of treatments. In such experiments, either the treatments do not comprise compete factoria structure or have at most one repication of the compete factoria structure. Evauation of fodder trees with and without crops under rainfed arabe farming for semi arid conditions, reveaed that factors affecting the yied of the crops (barey and gram) were trees (siris, neem, babu and shisham), ocation of the trees in the pot, direction of the crop on the either side of the tree and distance of the crop from the tree. The impact of siris, neem and shisham was more or ess same on the yied of crop. The maximum returns were obtained from the pot consisting of siris and gram (Rs 16,688) foowed by babu and gram (Rs 15,676). The stabiity anaysis indicated that gram (grain and straw) was more stabe under siris over years as compared to other trees. Land equivaent ratios were cacuated for the system. Methodoogy for forecasting fish production from ponds was deveoped for fitting non-inear forecast modes under heteroscedastic error with auto-correation. Modes were vaidated and forecast mode with 9-month fish weight was best fit for predicting 12th-month fish weight. Non-inear forecast modes under heteroscedastic error structure were better than those deveoped under homoscedastic error structure. Training Activities The IASRI, New Dehi, organized training programmes/courses in Computer Appication for the officias of SAUs, ICAR Institutes. Training programmes on Sampe Surveys reated to the Estimation of Area and Production of Fruits and Vegetabes, Quantitative Techniques in Production Economics Research, Economic Accounts for Agricuture and Deveopment of Crop Statistics Methodoogy were conducted.

173 Technoogy Assessment, Refinement and Transfer The activities of Division of Agricutura Extension incude technoogy assessment, refinement, and its dissemination. The counci have estabished one Nationa Research Centre for Women in Agricuture (NRCWA) at Bhubaneshwar (Orissa). At present, there are 261 KVKs, 8 TTCs, 70 IVLP Centres, and 44 ATICs in State Agricutura Universities, ICAR Institutes, NGOs and other institutions under frontine extension programmes of the counci. The counci have earier strengthened 53 Zona Agricutura Research Stations (ZARSs) to take up the additiona functions of KVKs. During the year, 22 new KVKs and two TTCs have aso been sanctioned. KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRAS (KVKS) The activities of KVK incude ski training of farmers; on-farm testing; in-service training of extension personne; and organizing frontine demonstrations to estabish production potentias on farmers fieds and provide feed back. Farmers Training A tota of 18,461 training courses benefiting 0.43 miion farmers and farm women were organized in various aspects of crop production, horticuture, pant protection, ivestock production and management, home science, agricutura extension, agricutura engineering, fisheries, agroforestry, etc. Training courses for farmers and farm women No. of No. of beneficiaries courses Mae Femae Tota Crop production 4, ,761 22, ,488 Horticuture 2,807 53,108 15,976 69,084 Home science 2,474 6,464 51,035 57,499 Livestock production and management 2,042 33,486 13,543 47,029 Pant protection 1,568 36,718 5,028 41,746 Agricutura engineering ,625 3,785 21,410 Agricutura extension ,394 3,805 14,199 Fisheries 345 5,280 1,412 6,692 Agroforestry 124 2, ,814 Soi fertiity management 121 2, ,892 *Others 2,803 25,475 6,927 32,402 Tota 18, , , ,255 *Mushroom production, rura crafts, sericuture, management of Sef-Hep Groups, etc. KVKs organized 18,461 training courses for farmers, 3,237 vocationa and ski-oriented training courses for rura youth, and 1,634 training programmes for in-service personne. KVKs organized 17,969 extension activities to acceerate dissemination of technoogies. Yied increased in oiseeds, puses, cereas, fodder and horticutura crops through frontine demonstrations. KVKs identified 296 technoogies for on-farm testing to evauate and assess its impact on specific ocations. KVKs produced , 264.8, and tonnes seeds of cereas, oisseds, puses and vegetabes respectivey, in addition to 0.59 miion fruits sapings, miion vegetabes seedings, 85,000 spices seedings, and 0.61 miion seedings of forest species, ornamenta and other pantation crops. Many KVKs started pubication of quartery newsetters in oca anguages. A tota of 849 demonstrations were conducted on high-yieding and pesttoerant varieties/hybrids of cotton. Training programmes (116) for 3,211 farmers and 15 training programmes for 430 extension workers were organized on various production technoogies of cotton. KVKs organized 35 fied days, 4 kisan meas, 4 radio and TV coverage, 28 conventions and 2 exhibitions. Under the coaborative programme with CIMMYT, the increase in yied varied from % over conventiona tiage in Haryana, and % in various districts of Punjab. The density of Phaaris minor was ower in Haryana ( %) and in Punjab (44.30%). Vocationa Training for Rura Youths The training courses for rura youths were organized in agricutura extension, agricutura engineering, agroforestry, anima science, apicuture, crop production, fishery, home science, horticuture, agri-business, mushroom production, pant

174 168 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT protection, rura crafts and other income-generating activities. As many as 3,237 vocationa and ski-oriented training courses were organized for 66,196 rura youths. Training courses for rura youths No. of No. of beneficiaries courses Mae Femae Tota Bicyce-run cocoon defosser deveoped by a farmer who got training at KVK, Mysore (Karnataka) Crop production 456 7,457 1,914 9,371 Home science 808 1,966 14,658 16,624 Horticuture 620 8,700 3,577 12,277 Livestock production and management 426 6,310 1,847 8,157 Agricutura engineering 220 3, ,336 Pant protection 182 3, ,282 Agricutura extension 121 1, ,550 Fisheries 122 1, ,935 Mushroom production 68 1, ,633 *Others 214 3,538 1,493 5,031 Tota 3,237 40,392 25,804 66,196 *Rura crafts, sericuture, aromatic and medicina pants, soi fertiity, women in agricuture, agroforestry, etc. Training for In-service Personne A tota of 1,634 training programmes were conducted covering 40,980 participants. The training was imparted through participatory training methodoogies, fied visits and other interactive methods. Training courses for in-service personne No. of No. of beneficiaries courses Mae Femae Tota NEWSLETTERS Many KVKs have started pubication of quartery newsetters in oca anguages for the benefit of the farming community. These newsetters contain information on agricutura operations for the coming three months, besides usefu artices on crop production, vegetabe cutivation, horticuture, anima sciences, home sciences, agricutura engineering, etc. The newsetters aso carry the schedue of training programmes in the ensuing three months. These newsetters are widey circuated to the farmers, gram panchayats and ine departments. Crop production , ,518 Horticuture 267 5, ,161 Home science ,657 7,266 Agricutura extension 155 3, ,022 Pant protection 139 2, ,968 Agricutura engineering 131 2, ,831 Livestock production and management 124 2, ,456 Fisheries *Others 124 2, ,297 Tota 1,634 31,338 9,642 40,980 *Apicuture, mushroom production, soi fertiity, agroforestry, etc. Extension Activities The KVKs organized 17,969 extension activities to acceerate the process of dissemination of technoogies. These incude kisan meas (320), fied days (1,273), kisan gosthies (1,882), radio and TV taks (1,792), fim shows (1,477), exhibitions (478), newspaper coverages (4,173), popuar artices (879), extension iteratures (1,338) and others activities (4,357) ike advisory services and ex-trainees sammeans.

175 169 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, REFINEMENT AND TRANSFER Extension activities Zone Kisan Fied Kisan Radio & Fim Exhibitions Newspaper Popuar Extension *Others meas days gosthies TV taks shows coverages artices iteratures I II III IV V VI , VII VIII Tota 320 1,273 1,882 1,792 1, , ,338 4,357 *Advisory services and ex-trainee sammeans Frontine Demonstrations The Frontine demonstrations (FLDs) were conducted to demonstrate the production potentia of the newy reeased production technoogies in a given farming system. The training and fied days were organized for extension workers and farmers for dissemination of technoogies. Oiseeds: During the year, 11,195 demonstrations were conducted covering 4,543 ha on major oiseed crops incuding groundnut, mustard, sesame, soybean, castor, sunfower, inseed, niger and saffower. The percentage increase in yied varied from 34.6 in castor to 90.1 in niger. Frontine demonstrations on oiseeds Frontine demonstration on saffower hybrid DSH 129 at KVK, Jana Crops No. of Area Demonstration Loca yied Increase farmers (ha) yied (tonnes/ha) (tonnes/ha) (%) Groundnut (kharif) 2, Groundnut (rabi) 1, Mustard 2,983 1, Sesame 1, Soybean 1, Castor Sunfower Linseed Niger Saffower Tota 11,195 4,543.0 Puses: The demonstrations were conducted on bengagram, redgram, backgram, greengram, enti, toria and fied pea. A tota of 2,587.5 ha was covered with 7,228 farmers. The percentage of increase in yied varied from 47.2 in redgram to as high as 97.8 in fied pea. Other crops: The KVKs organized FLDs on cereas, fodder and horticutura crops covering 3,125.7 ha benefiting 4,751 farmers. The demonstration yied vis-àvis oca check are given. A bumber crop of Pusa Visha greengram under Frontine demonstration programme

176 170 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Frontine demonstrations on puses Crops No. of Area Demonstration Loca yied Increase farmers (ha) yied (tonnes/ha) (tonnes/ha) (%) Bengagram 2, Redgram 1, Backgram 1, Greengram 1, Lenti Toria Fiedpea Tota 7,228 2,587.5 Frontine demonstrations on other crops Crops No. of Area Demonstration Loca yied Increase farmers (ha) yied (tonnes/ha) (tonnes/ha) (%) Paddy 1, Wheat 1,464 1, Barey Pear miet Sorghum Maize Cotton Okra Custerbean Onion Pea Potato Tomato Tota 4,751 3,125.7 On-farm Testing On-farm tria on NDLR 8 rice at KVK, Yagantipae Technoogies (296) were identified for on-farm testing by the KVKs to evauate and assess its impact on ocation-specific basis in different farming systems incuding varieta trias (111), cropping systems (27), nutrient management (108), pest and disease management (35) and weed management (15). Integrated management of Phaaris minor in wheat: On-farm tria was conducted in Gurdaspur, Punjab, with 3 dates of sowing and two varieties (PBW 343, WH 542), two panting patterns (15 cm, 22.5 cm) and two weed contro treatments (unweeded check, Isoproturon 0.94 kg/ha in sub-pots). Wheat sown on 25 October gave 16.1 and 38.7% higher grain yied over 10 November and 25 November respectivey aong with reduction in dry-matter accumuation by Phaaris minor over 10 November. The crop sown at coser spacing (15 cm) gave significanty more yied than sown at norma spacing of 22.5 cm due to more suppression of P. minor. The varieties PBW 343 and WH 542 did not show any difference in drymatter production of P.minor and grain yied of wheat. Further, the crop sown on 25th October maintained superiority in suppressing the weed even without the appication of isoproturon as compared to 10 November sowing with appication of isoproturon 0.94 kg/ha.

177 171 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, REFINEMENT AND TRANSFER Effect of foiage cipping on grain yied of Basmati rice: On-farm tria was conducted on effect of foiage cipping on the yied of Basmati rice, at KVK Gurdaspur, Punjab, during with different dates of sowing and varying eves of nitrogen. The cipping of Basmati 45 days after transpanting (DAT) aong with appication of 125 kg N/ha gave the highest average yied of 2.98 tonnes/ha which was 46.1% higher than the uncipped pots with norma dose of 62.5 kg N/ha. Foiage cipping ony once at 45 DAT with 125 kg N/ha produced 17.8% higher mean grain yied than cipping the foiage twice at 45 and 75 DAT with same eve of nitrogen. Effect of Azotobactor on nitrogen economy in maize: A tria was conducted at KVK Kapurthaa, Punjab, to evauate the effect of Azotobactor on nitrogen economy in maize during The seed treatment with Azotobactor sighty increased the grain yied (0.085 tonnes/ha) cob ength (1.1 cm) and pant height (32 mm). At recommended eve of N, Azotobactor appication increased the grain yied by 0.06 tonnes/ha, whereas with Azotobactor + ¾ recommended N treatment, the grain yied was 3.80 tonnes/ha. Increasing productivity of tomato by minimizing the incidence of eaf cur virus disease in Sunderbans: Tomato eaf cur virus (TLCV) is a serious probem in cutivation of hybrid tomato in upand particuary irrigated situation of Sunderbans. Incidence of eaf-cur disease in tomato may sometimes affect 30 90% of yied. The trias were conducted by the KVK at Nimpith covering 50 farmers in 16 viages of 6 bocks, viz. Canning-II, Mathurapur I and II, Joynagar I and II and Kutai with four eaf-cur toerant varieties, viz. Avinash-2 (commercia), Ramakrishna (KVK deveoped), Sarada (KVK deveoped) and Vivekananda (KVK deveoped). The yied of KVK deveoped hybrid varieties are amost at par with the commercia hybrid. Leaf coour chart based nitrogen management in paddy: On-farm trias were conducted in Kaitha, Haryana, at five ocations to introduce and promote appication of nitrogen based on Leaf Coour Chart (LCC) in paddy (HKR 126) during kharif The appication of nitrogen based on LCC with recommended pant popuation gave an average highest grain yied 5.91 tonnes/ha which was 7.7% more than the appication of nitrogen at recommended eve foowed by the treatment of nitrogen based on LCC. Simiary, tria was conducted on LCC based nitrogen management in paddy (HKR 126) at KVK farm. The highest yied of paddy (5.4 tonnes/ha) was obtained under LCC based N 30 kg/ha compared with basa appication of 20 kg/ha. Monitoring Mechanism The Project is monitored through 8 Zona Co-ordinating Units, ocated at Ludhiana (Zone I), Cacutta (Zone II), Shiong (Zone III), Kanpur (Zone IV), Hyderabad (Zone V), Jodhpur (Zone VI), Jabapur (Zone VII), and Bangaore (Zone VIII). The Zona Units monitor the frontine extension programmes by organizing Zona- and State-eve Workshop, Scientific Advisory Committee Meeting and Visits. During the year, eight Zona Workshops were organized with the participation of the Incharges of a the KVKs to review the work done during the year and formuation of action pan for the next year. Simiary, 32 State-eve Workshops were organized in order to review the frontine demonstrations on oiseeds and puses. To upgrade the knowedge and skis of KVK staff, 15 workshops were organized under HRD programme. SEED/PLANTING MATERIAL The KVKs produced tonnes of seeds of cerea crops, tonnes of oiseeds, tonnes of puses and tonnes of vegetabes. In addition, 0.59 miion fruit sapings, miion vegetabe seedings, miion spices seedings, and miion seedings of forest species, ornamenta and other pantation crops were produced. A tota of tonnes of sugarcane sets, 29.8 bottes of mushroom spawn and 39,123 fodder crops were aso produced. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT PROJECT The Division jointy with the Division of Crop Sciences has been impementing an A India Co-ordinated Crop Improvement Project for muti-ocationa trias across various crop production ecoogies in different parts of the country to identify superior-yieding varieties. The yied data reveaed that wheat variety PBW 343 (5.717 tonnes/ha) and UP 2556 (5.717 tonnes/ha) recorded the highest yied at KVK, Patiaa (Punjab) cosey foowed by CBW 14 (5.614 tonnes/ha) and PBW 502 (5.608 tonnes/ha). Another tria was conducted to identify the high-yieding genotype of durum wheat with broader adaptabiity in Faridabad, Haryana, the variety PBW 283 recorded highest yied. At Faridabad, the wheat variety PBW 502 recorded the highest yied of tonnes/ ha foowed by variety PBW 492 (5.84 tonnes/ha). In another tria of pigeonpea, the variety V 30 gave 1.20 tonnes/ha and V 31 gave 1.14 tonnes/ha. TRAINERS TRAINING CENTRES (TTCS) There are eight Trainers Training Centres. In these centres, training is imparted through work experience, ectures, fied visits, demonstration and discussions. During the year, 188 training courses were organized benefiting 2,893 participants and two more TTCs in the areas of vegetabes and citrus have been sanctioned. TTCs organized 188 training courses benefiting 2,893 participants. Two more TTCs sanctioned in the areas of vegetabes and citrus.

178 172 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT INTEGRATED PIGGERY DEVELOPMENT The programme has been undertaken in 10 KVKs financed by the Department of Anima Husbandry and Dairying. A the 10 KVKs have competed their construction work and created other infrastructure faciities. The KVK, Ambaa and Rewari have been imparting days training programme to the farmers for estabishment of piggery units. Out of 102 farmers trained by these two KVKs, 52 farmers have started their units. KVK, Bankura has seected 14 beneficiaries from schedued tribe with an aim to upgrade the oca stock in their backyard. Nine training programmes were conducted by KVK, Aahabad covering 164 farmers, of which, 21 farmers have started their piggery units. A the KVKs are providing technica information to the farmers for economic management of the pig aong with cinica and vaccination services. MISSION MODE PROJECT UNDER NATP A pubication entited Inventory of Technica Knowedge in Agricuture document-i has been brought out by Mission Mode Project under NATP. Integrated Pest Management pot with focus on weed management and subsequenty pest management Groundnut pots of the farmers where Integrated Pest Management is practised under guidance of KVK, R. Maavapuram, Renigunta Manda Coection, Documentation and Vaidation of Indigenous Technica Knowedge (ITK) The project was aunched under Nationa Agricutura Technoogy Project (NATP) during Information on Indigenous Technica Knowedge (ITK) were coected from the primary sources through vountary discosures. A pubication has been brought out entited, Inventory of Technica Knowedge in Agricuture-Document I. The information on ITK have been cassified in various thematic areas, viz. rain water management (RWM), methods to check soi and water erosion (SWE), practices to check wind erosion (WE), crops and cropping system (CCS), soi fertiity management (SFM), pest and disease management (PMD), methods of weather forecasting (MWF), horticutura crops (HOR), veterinary science and anima husbandry (VET), fisheries (FIS), farm impements (FIM), ethno-botany and agrobiodiversity (BOT), grain/seed storage (GSS), fue management (FM), wood stove/ chuah and therma efficiency (WSC), waste water management (WWM), garbage disposa and management (GDM), food product deveopment (FPD), agro-animabased yarns/natura dyes and weaves (YAM), ow cost housing materias (LCH) and ethnic food (EF). In addition, some of the discosers have provided information cutting across the themes. Out of 2,316 ITKs received through vountary discosures, 2,020 have been identified for documentation in various thematic areas. Vaidation and Promotion of IPM Technoogy in Seected Crops in Different Agro-ecoogica Regions The objectives of the project are to vaidate and refine the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) modues and evauate its impact, and to deveop a mechanism for creating an interface between IPM technoogy generation, verification and dissemination at viage eve among the stakehoders. Seven KVKs have been invoved in impementation of the project. At KVK Dausa, Rajasthan, the average groundnut pod yied in IPM fied was tonnes/ha as compared to 0.8 tonnes/ha in Non-IPM fied with the cost : benefit ratio of 1 : Simiary at KVK Kota, Rajasthan, the pod damage by Heicoverpa armigera in gram was found to be ony 10.40% in IPM fied as compared to 18.54% in Non-IPM fied. The average yied of gram in the IPM seected fied was tonnes/ha against 0.98 tonnes/ha in Non IPM fied. The mean per cent reduction of Heicoverpa armigera arvae in gram varied from to In IPM fied the average number of nodue in gram was per pant as compared to 6.27 in Non- IPM. By adopting IPM technoogy in pigeonpea the farmers in Gubarga district got an additiona benefit of Rs 1,588/ha and Rs 1,667/ha at Samur and Fatahabad viage respectivey over Non-IPM viage. Simiary, at KVK Ranchi, Jharkhand, the farmers

179 173 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, REFINEMENT AND TRANSFER coud harvest tomato crop with a cost : benefit ratio of 1 : Because of the farmers interest towards IPM technoogy and achievement made so far, the State Agricutura Department of Jharkhand has decared one of the adopted viage of KVK Ranchi (Barodi) as Bio-viage. The farmers of Maharashtra normay used to spray cotton crop 6 10 times throughout the season, but on adopting the IPM technoogy demonstrated by KVK Nanded now the farmers are using ony 2 3 sprays of insecticides. Due to the impact of the IPM project, the incidence of pest and disease has come down, the natura predators being conserved, the yied has increased from 0.25 to 0.77 tonne/ha. The KVK centres organized 52 training programmes covering 4,272 farmers, two fied days covering 185 farmers, four kisan meas covering 500 farmers, 24 extension iteratures and 142 newspaper coverages, and 107 advisory services. AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION CENTRES (ATICs) The main objective of estabishment of these centres under NATP is to create a singe window support system inking various units of a research institution/sau to provide technoogica products, diagnostic services and technoogy information to the farmers and other end user. A tota of 0.08 miion farmers were provided with diagnostic services. The centres have provided 3,735 tonnes of seeds of improved varieties, miion nursery pants, and 3.81 miion packets of biofertiizers and pesticides. Others activities were testing of 16,272 soi sampes, diagnosis of 21,112 specimens of diseased pants; and treatment of 47,991 animas. REMANDATED ZONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH STATIONS (ZARSs) The activities incude (i) organizing vocationa trainings for the farmers groups in agricuture and aied enterprises, (ii) on-farm testing of technoogies reated to crop, horticuture, ivestock, fisheries, etc. (iii) frontine demonstrations on major cereas, oiseeds and puses and other reated enterprises and (iv) in-service training of fied-eve extension functionaries. Five training programmes on IPM was organized for scientists of ZARSs. The ZARSs have conducted 1,654 training programmes for farmers and farm women (1,230), rura youths (137) and in-service extension personne (287), covering 40,000 beneficiaries. A tota of 1,197 extension activities incuding kisan meas (78), fied days (180), kisan gosthies (109) fim shows (47), exhibitions (36) and ex-trainees sammeans (2), covering 86,000 participants were carried out. In addition, 553 radio and TV taks, 308 popuar artices, 271 extension iteratures, 329 advisory services to farmers and 1,209 newspaper coverages were aso undertaken. A tota of 809 tonnes of seeds of cereas, oiseeds, puses and vegetabes; and 0.55 miion sapings/seedings of fruits, vegetabes and forest species were produced. The ZARSs have conducted 2,836 frontine demonstrations covering ha. Monitoring of Heicoverpa armigera popuation by using phermone trap at KVK, Kota (Rajasthan) The ATICs provided 3,735 tonnes of seeds of improved varieties, 1.10 miion nursery pants and 3.81 miion biofertiizers and pesticides. Other activities were testing of 16,272 soi sampes; diagnosis of 21,112 specimens of diseased pants, and treatment of 47,991 animas. ZARSs conducted 1,654 training programmes 1,197 extension activities, 553 radio and TV taks, 308 popuar artices, 271 extension iteratures, 329 advisory services to farmers and 1,209 newspaper coverages. ZARS produced 809 tonnes of seeds of cereas, oiseeds, puses and vegetabes. Aso 0.55 miion sapings/ seedings of fruits, vegetabes and forest species were produced. FRONTLINE DEMONSTRATION ON COTTON A tota of 849 demonstrations covering an area of 625 ha were conducted by 38 KVKs under FLD on cotton under Mini-Mission-II. These demonstrations were conducted on high-yieding and pest-toerant varieties/hybrids of cotton. A tota of 115 training programmes for 3,211 farmers and 15 training programes Training is being given on the maintenance of power tier at Zona Agricutura Research Station of the KVK, Udupi (Karnataka)

180 174 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT SETTING UP OF RENEWABLE ENERGY PARKS The Ministry of Non-Conventiona Energy Sources (MNES) under Specia Area Demonstration Programme has provided financia support for setting up of renewabe Energy Parks at 10 KVKs. Various soar devices sanctioned under this project incuding improved chuha, PV street ight, PV domestic ight, PV anterns, water heating system, cookers, soar sti, famiy size bio-gas pant, radio, coour TV, PV pump, wind pump, crop drier, biomass gastifier, educationa kit and sprayers. The seected KVKs have aready instaed these devices in their premises and started imparting training and demonstrations to farmers, farm women and rura youths about the use of soar energy devices. Sef- Hep Groups (SHGs) members were given awareness Soar Pv street ight at KVK, Ranichauri about the renewabe energy sources. for 430 extension workers were organized on various production technoogies of cotton. 35 fied days, 4 kisan meas, 11 radio and TV coverages, 28 conventions and 2 exhibitions were aso organized by the KVKs. INTERFACE AT DISTRICT LEVEL To strengthen research extension inkages, KVKs organized 396 interface meetings invoving the scientists and deveopment officias at district eve. COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMME WITH CIMMYT INSTITUTION-VILLAGE LINKAGE PROGRAMME (IVLP) The Technoogy Assessment and Refinement through Institution-Viage Linkage Programme (IVLP) was taken up under NATP. Out of 70 IVLP centres, 24 are ocated in Rainfed Zone, 19 in Irrigated Zone, 13 in Coasta Zone, 12 in His and Mountain Zone and 2 in Arid zone; covering 62,255 farm famiies in 253 viages. There were 3,558 technoogica interventions incuding 1,873 on crops, 646 on ivestock, 762 on horticuture, 52 on forestry, 82 fisheries, 38 on gender impications and 105 on other reated areas. Refinement of intercropping technoogy of sunfower and pigeonpea under Institution- Viage Linkage Programme at Soapur (Maharashtra) Kisan gosthie at Institution-Viage Linkage Programme Centre, Kanyakumari (Taminadu) QUINQUENNIAL REVIEW TEAM (QRT) Eight Quinquennia Review Teams for eight zones were constituted to review the achievements of the KVKs under State Agricutura Universities, Non-Government Organizations and other educationa institutions. The trias on the use of zero-ti-seed-cum-fertiizer dri were conducted by various KVKs, to make the farmers aware of the advantage of timey sowing and contro of Phaaris minor. These trias were conducted in coaboration with the Regiona Faciitator, Rice-wheat Consortium, Internationa Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), New Dehi. Based on the resuts of 548 demonstrations covering ha, an increase in wheat yied varied from 9.15 to 10.79% over the conventiona tiage in Haryana, and from 0.99 to 9.78% in Punjab. Besides, a saving in the cost of and preparation was observed compared with conventiona method. The density of Phaaris minor was ower in Haryana ( %) and Punjab (44.30%).

181 Women in Agricuture The woman is the backbone of agricuture but wordwide her hard work has mosty been unpaid. She does the most tedious and back-breaking tasks in agricuture fieds, anima farms and homes. The research efforts at the ICAR institutes have tried to reieve her of the drudgery by providing time and abour saving toos. Trainings are aso being conducted to train her in cottage industries, which she can start from her backyard. In extension activities the woman is now the centre of point and activities are being panned keeping her in view. Her enightenment wi change the face of rura India. Severa programmes started at the Nationa Research Centre for Women in Agricuture and under five components of AICRP on Home Science are right steps in this direction. The NRCWA has now ongoing 14 research projects to deveop womenspecific technoogies. The NRCWA organized 30 training programme for 887 farm women 5 courses for 63 inservice extension personne, besides one farmers fair. NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTRE FOR WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE The NRC on Women in Agricuture (NRCWA) has been functioning at Bhubaneshwar, Orissa to deveop methodoogies for identification of gender impications in farming systems approach and to deveop women specific technoogies under different production systems. The saient achievements are given beow. There are 14 ongoing research projects, viz. Gender study on agricuture and househod economy of triba of Orissa; Deveopment and testing of extension methods for farmwomen in eastern India; Studies on technoogica need for empowering women in rura aquacuture; Occupationa heath hazards of farmwomen in coasta Orissa; Standardization of women specific fied practices in rice in Orissa; Identification and evauation of interactive earning modues for dissemination of homestead technoogies; Improvement in storage practices of seeds and grains of important crops with women perspective; Identification and improvement of farming systems suited to farmwomen in eastern India; Improvement in backyard poutry farming for farmwomen of different categories; Improving iveihood, poverty aeviation and income generation in coasta eco-system; Empowerment of women in agricuture; Coection, documentation and vaidation of ITK (storing of puse grains by using dry chiies); Studies on women in agricuture in India with specia emphasis on crop production technoogies; and Reducing drudgery of women in agricutura operations through use of improved equipment. In the project on Studies on technoogica need for empowering women in rura aquacuture, different aquacutura technoogies were transferred to the seected women through demonstration and training reated to carp cuture, nursery raising incuding pond management and feed management, freshwater prawn cuture aong with carp poycuture in the backyard ponds, and ornamenta fish breeding and production at viage eve. Success of these programmes have proved the potentia of backyard fish cuture and ornamenta fish [guppy (Poiciie reticuata) and paty (Xiphophorus macuates) ] production as a good source of income for the rura women, that has attracted others to join it. In the project on Occupationa heath hazards among farmwomen of coasta agroecosystem, the common heath hazards reported by the women invoved in the activities ike seed-bed preparation, transpanting, and harvesting of paddy are waist pain, backache, injury, and cod and cough. Simiary the common heath Trained women netting fish from the backyard pond Women participating in farm women fair

182 176 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT INTRODUCTION OF DRUDGERY REDUCING IMPLEMENTS NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTRE FOR WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE Mandate Transfer of Technoogy for farm women Househod economy of triba woman Deveopment of homestead enterprises Farming systems suitabe for farm women Heath hazards and drudgery reduction Standardization of cutivation practices Capacity buiding options in super cycone affected areas Capacity buiding of extension functionaries and speciaists Highighting gender issues and gender sensitization Achievements Work avaiabiity to gender in a year Maximum number of days engaged Men Women Agricuture sector (a) Kharif season (Rice) (b) Other crops (Turmeric, vegetabes etc.) Non-agricuture Tota Trainer s training programmes Training Duration No. of participants Main centre Care and management of new born caves November Women s domain Entrepreneurship deveopment among 26 November to 15 farm women 1 December 2001 Techniques of improving extension services February for farm women Commercia manufacture of indigenous mik Juy products and their marketing potentia Sub-centre Women friendy agricutura technoogies January

183 177 WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE The seected enterprises EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN DIFFERENT ENTERPRISES Technoogy/ No. of groups Parameters for aotment of enterprise Enterprise covered Aquacuture 12 Avaiabiity of ponds (both backyard and community ponds) Good marketing faciity Easy access to research institute Favourabe attitude towards aquacuture Mushroom cutivation 7 Avaiabiity of paddy straw for mushroom incuding spawn cutivation production and vermi- Recycing of mushroom waste through composing vermi-composting Avaiabiity of congenia space Low cost and simpe technoogy Leisure time activity Good marketing faciity Manufacturing of vaue 2 Avaiabiity of surpus mik at home added dairy products Background knowedge for preparation of indigenous dairy products Easy transportation to urban centres Motivation of farm women for higher monetary returns Foricuture and 5 Avaiabiity of we-drained, upand, oamy vegetabe growing soi in the vicinity Avaiabiity of irrigation Good market demand Beneficiaries can give more time Preparation of masaa 4 Preference for in-house income powder and papad generating activities making Efficiency of women in grinding and other reated works Coir work 3 Lower caste women fok having knowedge on rope making and weaving Easy avaiabiity of raw materia (coir) Encounter seasona unempoyment Nursery raising 1 Avaiabiity of good and with assured irrigation Vegetabe growing areas have great demand for seeding Quick return Poutry 1 Background of poutry rearing Poutry shed exists Good marketing faciity Perceived as a good income generating activity Enterprises were seected with group consensus and above parameters came into force.

184 178 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Training on tomato-seed extraction for a Sef-Hep Group Heart-rate measurement of a farm woman operating a seed-treatment drum at sub-centre of NRCWA (right); Harvesting of mushroom by trained women of a Sef-Hep Group (extreme right) hazards reported by the women invoved in various post-harvest operations ike transporting, threshing, crop drying, sheing, parboiing, and storage are headache, injury, eye irritation, skin infection, and pain. Women invoved in various ivestock activities ike feeding of animas, ceaning of shed, coection of fodder, miking, and chaff cutting, reported pain in waist and hand more frequenty. In the Mission Mode Project on Empowerment of women in agricuture, 540 farmwomen were grouped into 18 experimenta Sef-Hep Groups (SHGs). For each SHG, 2 ink workers were seected for eading a group of 15 farm women. These ink workers were trained on organizing training on different entrepreneuria activities ike piscicuture, mushroom production, nursery raising and vegetabe production, foricuture, processing of mik/mik products, agro-processing, coir work, and vermi composting. During the year, training was imparted to six groups, besides deveoping training materias ike foders, video cassettes/muti media CD on the use of technoogies for reduction of drudgery in transpanting, sowing, weeding and parboiing. The NRCWA organized 30 training programmes for the benefit of 887 farmwomen. In addition, 5 trainings for trainers were organized for 63 in-service extension personne. The NRC aso organized one farmwomen fair with 300 rura women, where the women-specific technoogies were demonstrated. In addition, the scientists of the centre participated in 3 radio and TV taks, pubished 6 popuar artices and deivered 3 popuar ectures. At sub-centre of NRCWA, under the project on Reducing drudgery of women in agricutura operations through use of improved equipment, experiments were conducted for reducing the drudgery of women by using groundnut decorticator, tubuar-maize sheer and seed-treatment drum. HOME SCIENCE Vaue added products using natura dyes have been deveoped Deveopment of human capita of rura women by bringing about changes in their capabiities and capacities is essentia for keeping a baance between micro and macro farm production and consumption systems. For this, the five components of Home Science are exporing the tempora dimensions of reaities of rura ife in different agro-ecoogica conditions to accord rationa and comprehensive and technica inputs towards an integrated improvement in quaity of ife of rura famiies. The mutipe thrust of the project thereby, heps to recognize and acknowedge the

185 179 WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE priorities of rura famiies for which each component is making intensive efforts to deveop and disseminate need-based women-friendy technoogies for its use within an ecosystem. Nutritiona Security for human heath in agrarian ecosystem Iodine deficiency resuts from geoogica rather than socia and economic conditions. The probem is aggravated by environmenta factors such as acceerated deforestation and soi erosion. Unike other micronutrients it does not occur in specific food, rather it is present in soi and is imbibed through food grown on that soi. Hence, anaysis of food sampes from different agro cimatic zones avaiabe in urban markets and aso farmers grown sampes provide an estimate of iodine content based on which ong term sustainabe strategies coud be panned to ensure that iodine reaches the entire popuation and is ingested on a reguar basis. Awareness among popuation coud be created to consume foods containing higher iodine so that no more cretins wi be born, no more babies wi suffer from retarded menta and physica deveopment attributed to iodine deficiency. Estimation of iodine in food sampes was done based on the methodoogy of G. Anmont and J.C. Tresso (1986). The Study highighted Large variation in iodine content was found in sampes from each food group. Significant difference with respect to iodine content in food sampes from different seected zones were found. Compared with pant foods iodine content was found to be higher in mik. Amaranth grain an unconventiona and underutiized crop had an exceptionay higher iodine content. Unconventiona green eafy vegetabes from hiy region contained higher iodine content. RDA of iodine requirement coud be met when the intake of popuation is adequate in terms of major foods such as cereas and puses. However, incusion of mik and green eafy vegetabes in the daiy dietary wi aso hep in meeting the requirement of iodine. Vaue addition to agro and anima based fibres and indigenous dyes Keeping in view of the increased demand for eco-friendy products in texties word wide, the A India Coordinated Research Project has righty aimed at deveoping the eco-friendy natura dyes and processes on natura fibres. Around 36 new sources of natura dyes were identified and their dyeing procedures were standardized for sik/woo and cotton and around 5,184 shades were deveoped by a the nine AICRP centers. Mordanting with different combinations of mordants deveoped new natura shades on cotton and sik/woo. Six mordant combinations were seected namey, aum + chrome, aum + copper suphate, aum + ferrous suphate, chrome + copper suphate, chrome + ferrous suphate and copper suphate + ferrous suphate. Three mordant proportions, viz., 1 : 1, 1 : 3 and 3 : 1 and three mordanting methods were seected. Each AICRP CT center has deveoped new shades on cotton and sik/woo with 6 mordant combinations using 4 natura dyes optimized earier. Thus an additiona 3,888 shades on sik/woo and cotton were deveoped using 36 natura dye sources during the current year. The dyed sampes were assessed for coour fastness to a serviceabe conditions such as washing, sunight, crocking and perspiration. The resuts reveaed that combining mordants have improved some of the shades. Combining two natura dye sources by union dyeing produced severa new shades. A tota of 972 shades were produced by union dyeing. Among these 324 best shades were seected for which coour fastnesss tests were carried out. The combination of dyes produced a wide variety of shades to fi the spectrum of coours for the weavers and dyers in natura dyeing. The technoogies deveoped by each center were introduced to the artisans and COMPREHENSIVE CHILD CARE THROUGH FARM CRECHE The project on Comprehensive Chid Care through farm creche an intervention for optimum deveopmenta outcomes of infants was concuded from birth to 18 months and 497 from experimenta group drawn from nine AICRP (CD) centres with an interva of six months between two testing. The resut indicated a improvement in psychomotor and menta deveopment indices of infants from birth to 36 months. Another component on Empowerment of Rura Gir Chid for quaity ife and prevaence Etioogy of exceptionaities in Rura Areas was aso initiated during this period. The prevaence of exceptionaities/ disabiity among chidren is being studied through snowba samping. The causes of exceptionaities are being studied by interviewing the famiy members of the exceptiona chid. On the basis of situationa anaysis, intervention modues are being deveoped and intervention is being provided to rura adoescents in empowering them educationay, sociay and economicay and egay.

186 180 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT IMPROVED TECHNOLOGIES TESTED FOR DRUDGERY REDUCTION Improved sickes for fodder cutting MAU dibber for dibbing Wiper for mud pastering of house Kita for storing pucked tea eaves Under AICRP on Home Science Ergonomic of farmwomen s drudgery in home, farm and aied activities was conducted. On the basis of difficuty scores farm activities were assessed as very drudgery prone, but most of the dairy and househod activities were assessed as moderatey tiring by the farmwomen. As regarding the heath status of farm-women, it was observed from the findings that the maximum number of women had ow weight, thin cyindrica body, average physica fitness status but good aerobic capacity. The women in exceent heath status were found in very sma number. Resuts of the ergonomic cost of the seected activities showed that except cotton picking, dibbing and tea pucking activities physioogica stress for performing seected farm activities was found very high and above the permissibe imits of workoad for women worker. Simiary physioogica workoad for coecting and bringing fodder and miking animas under dairy activities and fetching water and mud pastering of house under househod activities was found above the permissibe workoad. Muscuar stress for performing the seected farm, dairy and househod activities were aso found high due to the unnatura postures (bending and squatting) adopted by the farmwomen. Ange of bend of spina coumn was found as high as 63 during harvesting, 58 during transpanting, and 32 during uprooting of seedings, 17 for performing the weeding activities. Due to the poor postures adopted whie performing the activities, women fet severe to very severe pain in the neck, shouder joints, ow back, knee, upperthigh and feet and changed the posture frequenty to get reief from the unbearabe pain. Few of the improved technoogies were tested in order to see the impact of these on the drudgery reduction of farm-women in seected activities to a significant eve. The use of improved toos aso enhanced the work efficiency, reduced the time cost therefore reduced the tota cardiac cost of work and physioogica cost of work. weavers who are the utimate users of these technoogies. Many vaue added products using natura dyes were deveoped by each center. Data base on rura women and indigenous knowedge For empowerment of rura women as subsistence-generating units, the Home Science Extension component deveoped database of 27,000 rura women of 41 agro-cimatic zones on participation, decision making and time use pattern. The intensity and nature of participation is depending on crop and time aocation is primariy activity specific with highest time use during peak periods of agricutura operations. The decision making pattern is argey governed by joint decisions in various spheres of ife. Data bank has been deveoped of 150 scientificay vaidated indigenous knowedge on materna heath. Nine technoogy kits consisting of mutimedia resource materias have been deveoped for knowedge empowerment of extension functionaries. Viage adoption with a mission One viage adoption approach for integrated improvement in quaity of ife of rura famiies is being foowed by each centre. In these adopted viages the sefhep groups have been estabished for empowerment of women.

187 181 WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE A.P. CESS FUND SCHEMES OF HOME SCIENCE The adhoc scheme tited Study on suppementation of eaf powder concentrate on Vitamin A and iron status of chidren (1 3 year age) has been impemented by, Dr (Ms) K. Khanna, Director, Institute of Home Economics (IHE), New Dehi. The findings ceary indicated that Leaf Protein Concentrate (cauifower eaf) based suppementary feeding was superior in improving the condition of the under nourished subjects. To improve hemogobin eves significanty there is a need to suppement the receipes with ascorbic acid to increase the bio avaiabiity of the iron. This was needed in addition to other measures ike (ike controing parasitic oad) so as to improve iron status of chidren. Deveopment of diversified food formuations based on miets suitabe for groups at risk particuary from Kumaon was impemented.by Dr (Ms) Sarita Srivastava, G. B. Pant University of Agricuture and Technoogy, Pantnagar. Food Products were deveoped and standardized for househod eve and for commerciaization both, which were based on cereas. Audio Visua kits for demonstration as aso recipe bookets were prepared. The project achievement highights use of miets especiay finger miet, barnyard miet and foxtai miet by popping and mating and further utiization in combination with other ocay grown foodstuffs to produce nutritious, acceptabe heath foods for vunerabe groups. Adoption of this technoogy at househod eve and commercia eve wi benefit peope from Kumaon hi by providing proper nutrition. Gender Sensitization of Rura Women through the introduction of Agro based Vocations: A case study of Himacha Pradesh was impemented by Dr Y.S. Negi, Y.S. Parmar University of Horticuture and Forestry Nauni-Soan. The project highights that women trained in the area of commercia cutivation of fower crops and vegetabes in both manageria and marketing skis were found capabe of estabishing a strong agro based vocation unit of their own. Dr (Ms) Saroj S. Jeet Singh and Dr (Ms) Neeam Pruthi, CCS Haryana Agricutura University Hisar ed a Study on designing the garments for physicay and orthopaedicay handicapped. Through the project the probems of cothing of disabed were identified using interview and observation methods. Garments designed to ease the identified probems and camoufage the disabiity have been a contribution of this project. Specia care has been taken to design for crutch users, imb amputees, Parkinson s/cerebra affected persons. To disseminate information a Nationa eve seminar was organized which invoved organizations deaing with handicaps, industriaists and other takers of the technoogica know how in this effort. Nutrition Education and Communication Support in Hi Areas of Uttar Pradesh. This project was impemented by Dr (Ms) A.R. Kumar G.B. Pant University of Agricuture and Technoogy, Pantnagar. The project highighted that Revoving pihri for miking of animas Finger bades for tea pucking Outfit designed for physicay and orthopaedicay handicapped Project to highight the nutritiona status of adoescent girs of Haryana Suppementary nutrition through iron-rich recipes Sing and arm wrap for upper imb structure

188 182 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT nutritiona education heped remove the major misconceptions about micronutrient deficiencies prevaiing among the rura famiies, viz. Vitamin A deficiency and anemia. In this project the effectiveness increased due to utiization of the educationa package Video fims Drishti, Rakt abhakhani anaemia Ki, story books tited rakt chethna ok chethna and wa caender designed and the study confirmed that the exposure through singe/combination media was significanty effective for the positive effect of nutrition education on targetted groups. The Project on Reviva of Phukari has been impemented by Dr O.P. Singh at Punjab Agricutura University Ludhiana. Documentation of 51 traditiona Phukaris and 66 traditiona Phukari motifs was done photographicay and graphicay. New Phukari motifs were deveoped graphicay for use on different garments and househod artices.a number of exhibitions on Phukari embroidery or Reviva of Phukaris were organized for disseminating the traditiona art to create awareness regarding our vanishing cutura heritage. Demonstrations and trainings were hed in different viages of Punjab. The project highights that the enhancement of knowedge of the skied women woud hep initiate entrepreneurship, however, there is a requirement of financia and marketing support THE MISSION MODE PROJECT OF NATP EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE Scheme impemented on deveopment of nectars from seected fruits and fruit bends (above) papaya powder (beow) nectar and nectar bends with natura favours The empowerment of women being a visionary goa, this project envisages its mission as Technoogica and economic empowerment of farm women to reduce their drudgeries and increase work efficiency in the context of agricuture and anima husbandry and ski deveopment for entrepreneurship deveopment. The project works through Sef Hep Group and covers more than three thousand beneficiaries, drawn from seven states. Dr (Ms) Pushpa Gupta, Dean, Coege of Home Science, MPUA and T, Udaipur, is the Principa Investigator and Dr (Ms) Tej Verma, ADG (H.Sc.), ICAR, New Dehi is the mission eader of the project. Strong inkages have been buit-up invoving scientists and other muti-discipinary areas covering agricutura and mechanica engineering, farm machinery and power, agro-processing and socia science discipines, NGOs and Industries aongwith home scientists paced at seven co-operating centres have successfuy formuated the SHGs. The entrepreneurship deveopment areas have been identified for execution. The Peer Review workshop of Word Bank has aso been hed. The Study on Nutritiona Status of Adoescent girs of Haryana with specia reference to anemic and its eradication through iron suppementation has been impemented by Dr Sai Sehga, CCSHAU, Hisar. The project highights the dietary survey resut that the mean daiy energy, protein, Vitamin A, iron, zinc intake of years adoescent girs was ess than 80% of recommended daiy aowances. It was found that approximatey 96% of the girs were anemic. Hemogobin, PCV, serum iron of subjects in a the three suppementation groups significanty increased at the end of suppementation period as compared to initia and contro groups. Increase in Haemogobin eve was maximum in the group fed with iron foiate tabets foowed by the group fed on fortified sat and iron rich recipes. The Scheme on Deveopment of Nectars from seected Fruits and Fruit Bends was impemented by Dr K. Aruna at PG Research Centre, ANGRAU, Hyderabad. Fruit Pup from Ama (Sma), back grapes, Grapes (green), Guava, Mango (Baneshan), Mango (Rasau), Mango (Raw), Papaya, Pineappe, Sapota and Water Meon prepared using Citric Acid as a preservative and storage ife was evauated. Later nectar bends were prepared. Fruit Powders were deveoped from papaya, pineappe, backgrapes, watermeon and the shef ife was aso standardized for commerciaization.

189 3. Research for Triba and Hi Regions The Indian Counci of Agricutura Research (ICAR) through the Vivekananda Pravatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan (VPKAS), Amora, the ICAR Research Compex for Northern-Eastern His Region, Umaim, Meghaaya, and the Centra Agricutura Research Institute (CARI), Port Bair, evoves technoogies to meet the needs of triba farmers in hiy areas. These technoogies are intended to improve the socio-economic status of the target group, and wi hep them to acquire specia skis through vocationa training in traditiona and non-traditiona crops, agroforestry, apicuture, sericuture, horticuture, anima husbandry, poutry and fisheries. VIVEKANANDA PARVATIYA KRISHI ANUSANDHAN SANSTHAN, ALMORA Crop Improvement Three varieties were reeased and notified. One variety each of wheat (VL Gehun 804), pea (Vivek Matar 8) and barnyard miet (VL Madira 181) reeased. Vivek Sanku Makka 11 maize composite and VLT 9531 tomato variety identified for reease in Uttarancha. Shot-duration, bast-resistant strains (VL and VL ) of rice and exotic ine (VHC 12) of capsicum identified for reease in Uttarancha his. Crop varieties reeased and notified Variety Adaptation region/ Yied Duration/ agro-ecoogy (tonnes/ha) other saient features Wheat VL Gehun 804 Timey sown, irrigated 4.13 (irrigated), 178 days (rainfed), and rainfed conditions 2.57 (rainfed) 164 days (irrigated) of northern hi zone Pea Vivek Matar 8 Uttarancha, days Himacha Pradesh and (mid-season) Jammu and Kashmir VL Gehun 804 wheat having high degree of resistance to brown and yeow rusts and oose smut, gives yied 4.13 and 2.57 tonnes/ha under irrigated and rainfed conditions respectivey Barnyard miet VL Madira 181 Bihar, Karnataka, Eary maturity Madhya Pradesh and (77 days); Tami Nadu suitabe for 200% cropping intensity and has non-shattering, non-odging habits and easy threshabiity Strains identified by the SVT of Uttarancha for reease in the state are: Vivek Sanku Makka 11, an eary-maturing ( days) maize composite was tested as Pop 31 C 4 HS buk (Am.). The grains are orange-yeow, fint and the pants are sighty shorter ( cm) than Makka 16. It has shown toerance to Heminthosporium turcicum eaf bight and yieded tonnes/ha. A tomato variety VLT 9531 was identified with an average yied potentia of A promising garden pea variety Vivek Matar 8, having thick skin and free from fuit-cracking, contains higher tota soube soids (16.8%). It has better toerance to cod and moisture stress and is moderatey resistant to powdery midew and white rot

190 184 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT VLT 9531 tomato gives 29.3 and 23.4% higher fruit yied than best checks Pusa Ruby and Rupai respectivey (eft); VHC 12, a promising genotype of capsicum, identified for reease in Uttarancha his, outyieded best check Caifornia Wonder (midde); Vivek mandua/madira thresher deveoped at the VPKAS, Amora, for threshing and pearing grains of mandua and madira (right) Low-cost poy-tunne technoogy deveoped for 1-month advance production of capsicum and tomato during winter. In a ong-term fertiity experiment under NP and NPK treatments, appied P resuted yied increase of 69.9% in soybean and 20% in residua wheat. Continuous FYM appication with N aone or with NPK to soybean increased the productivity of soybean and wheat. Organicay fertiized basmati rice pots showed ess bast score and stemborer incidence than chemicay fertiized ones. Resistant ines of rice and wheat Disease Resistant ine Rice Bast disease VSR 8 and VL 4049 Brown spot VSR 8, VSR 28 and VL 4015 Wheat Rusts VL 796, VL 802 and VL 803 Loose smut VL 826, VL 829 and VL 832 Karna bunt and VL 798 hi bunt tonnes/ha (fruit). The yied potentia was higher than that of best checks Pusa Ruby and Rupai. Its fruits are round, medium arge in size, deep red, thick skinned and free from fruit-cracking. The foowing promising ines were identified for reease in Uttarancha his. Two short-duration, bast-resistant strains of rice, viz VL (IET 16480) and VL (IET 16482), were recommended for on-farm trias in his of Uttarancha and Himacha Pradesh under rainfed upand conditions. Both the strains had geneticay diverse parenta ines in their parentage. An exotic ine VHC 12 was identified as one of the promising genotypes of capsicum, giving an average yied of tonnes/ha compared with best check Caifornia Wonder (17.08 tonnes/ha). Crop Production Low-cost poy-tunne (size 5 m 1 m 0.5 m) technoogy using 200 micron UV stabiized pastic fim and ocay avaiabe materia, i.e. bamboo, was deveoped for raising seedings of capsicum and tomato during winter month (January) under mid-hi conditions of N W Himaayas. It enabes advancement of production of these vegetabes by one month and thereby heps fetch higher prices. The construction cost of tunne was Rs ony. A comparison of 27 years average yied data of soybean and wheat from a ongterm fertiity experiment under NP and NPK treatments, showed significant response to appied potassium, resuting in 69.9% increase in average yied of soybean and 20.0% increase in residua wheat crop. Continuous appication of farmyard manure (FYM) in combination with N aone or NPK to soybean crop, aso showed increasing trend in productivity of both the crops. This coud be attributed to addition of 55.9 kg N, 15.4 kg P, 58.5 kg K, g Zn, 3,329.0 g Fe, g Mn, 22.7 g Cu, 40.6 g B and g Mo/ha from FYM to soi every year. The resuts of first year experiment showed advantage of organic farming over chemica fertiization. The rice crop responded we to appied organic manure and equivaent amount of NPK. With the appication of 5, 10, 15 and 20 tonnes FYM/ha, the yied of VL Basmati 2 rice increased from 3,000 kg/ha to 3,805; 4,083; 4,416

191 185 RESEARCH FOR TRIBAL AND HILL REGIONS and 4,722 kg/ha, respectivey, based on 6 m 2 net pot yieds. The corresponding yied of Basmati rice with chemica fertiizer (NPK) appied equivaent to 5, 10, 15 and 20 tonnes FYM/ha were 4,305; 4,694; 3,916 and 4,125 kg/ha respectivey. Harvest index was higher under organic manured pots ( %) than inorganic fertiized pots ( %). Bast score (6.5) and incidence of stem-borer (9.33/ pot) were higher under inorganic fertiized pots than bast score of 4 and stemborer incidence score of 7.13 in organicay fertiized pots. The compost appied in this experiment contained 0.73% N, 0.42% P and 0.63% K. Vivek Mandua/Madira thresher was designed, fabricated and deveoped for threshing and pearing grains of finger miet (mandua) and barnyard miet (madira) based on the physica and rheoogica properties of mandua/madira grains. Crop Protection In a-india co-ordinated trias, ines of rice and wheat showed resistance to major diseases at most of ocations. ICAR RESEARCH COMPLEX FOR NEH REGION, UMIAM Crop Improvement An attempt made over the period of ast 9 years cuminated in the deveopment and reease of 4 rice varieties, viz. Bhaum 1 (RCPL 1-29) and Bhaum 2 (RCPL 1-27) for upand; and Shah Sarang 1 (RCPL ) and Lum Pnah 1 (RCPL ) for owand. These varieties deveoped for both upand and owand of mid-atitude conditions showed about 65 70% higher yied potentia over the existing varieties. Rice varieties Bhaum 1 (RCPL 1-29) and Bhaum 2 (RCPL 1-27) deveoped for upand, gave 65 75% more yied than the existing cutivars Use of Bio-fertiizer A rich harvest of rice cv. RCPL (3.95 tonnes/ha) coud be obtained by curtaiing 25% of the recommended dose of N : P : K (80 : 60 : 40 kg/ha) through appication of azoa aong with 5 tonnes/ha. Conservation of Pant Genetic Resources The Institute had coected 1,645 crop germpasm, consisting of 492 rice, 271 maize, 92 other cereas, 343 egumes, 204 oiseeds, 60 fibre crops, 100 vegetabes, 38 fruits and 45 spices and sent to the NBPGR for medium- and ong-term storage in the Nationa Seed Bank. In addition, an arboretum of 50 important tree species was estabished at the regiona centre of the Institute at Basar, Arunacha Pradesh. Besides, 16 indigenous fruit species, 30 varieties of banana, 31 bamboo species and 26 citrus species were maintained at the regiona stations. Vegetabes The capsicum grown under protected environments showed much bigger size than the one grown under open condition. An advanced ine of tomato was deveoped, having toerance to both bacteria wit and ate bight diseases with high production potentia. The other advanced ines deveoped are expected to be reeased next year. Simiary, out of 7 seection ines of brinja 5 are in advanced stage of reease, of which 2 ines having resistance to bacteria wit are expected to be reeased next year. Fruits During the ast two decades, the existing orchards are seriousy affected by citrus decine. The Institute has deveoped not ony citrus-rejuvenation package in the form of fertiizer schedue, micro-nutrient requirement and disease pest management The entire north-eastern region has been known as mega-diversity areas for pant genetic resources. A tota of 1,645 crop germpasm was coected by the Institute, consisting of cereas, egumes, oiseeds, fibre crops, vegetabes and spices

192 186 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Caifornia Wonder capsicum deveoped bigger fruits when grown under protected condition than when grown under open condition Turmeric is one of the widey grown species throughout the northeastern region. Megha Turmeric 1 gave 196% higher yied than presenty cutivated variety Lakadong TURMERIC PERFORMANCE A variety of turmeric Megha Turmeric 1 was reeased. It gave yied of 27 tonnes/ha which was around 196% higher than the presenty cutivated Lakadong variety, with amost equa curcumin content. It has been accepted very we by the farming community and the State Department of Horticuture, particuary for its very high yied as we as its reative resistance to diseases and pests. BAMBOO Four rice varieties reeased (Bhaum 1 and Bhaum 2 for upand; Shah Sarang 1 and Lum Pnah 1 for owand) Coected 1,645 crop germpasm, incuding cereas, egumes, fibre crops, vegetabes, fruits, spices. A variety of turmeric Megha Turmeric 1 reeased. A high-yieding, advanced ine of tomato deveoped having toerance to bacteria wit and ate bight. A citrus-rejuvenation package deveoped and tissue-cutured, disease-free panting produced for farming community. Sun-drying, oven-drying and boiing coud reduce HCN content in bamboo eaves for feeding ivestock. Some farm impements deveoped at ICAR-RC-NEH accepted by farmers of Uttarancha state. DNA-based rapid diagnosis techniques deveoped for samonea and costridia diseases. Software deveoped for protozoa parasitic diseases affecting domestic animas and birds. Watershed-based technoogies coud check soi oss from 46 to 5 tonnes/ha Farmers from NEH region trained for using modified impements and manufacturing impements. A technoogy perfected for soybean processing into products ike soya mik, paneer and biscuits. Besides use of bamboo in the paper industry, its shoots are aso taken as ethnic food. Bamboo eaves can serve as a good fodder resource particuary during the ean season. However, feeding of bamboo eaves to ivestock is restricted due primariy to a higher eve of HCN content. The research work conducted at the Institute coud reduce the HCN content in bamboo up to 72.20% after sun-drying for 24 hr. Besides, boiing and oven-drying coud aso reduce the HCN content up to 100 and 82% respectivey. Higher HCN content in eaves of bamboo restricts its feeding to ivestock. Sun-drying, boiing and oven-drying of bamboo greaty reduces the HCN content but aso successfuy produced tissue-cutured, disease-free panting materias for the farming community. Agricutura Mechanization The Institute has designed and deveoped improvized toos and impements by bending the traditiona and modern technoogies. The toos ike ong hande weeder and motorized wireoop paddy thresher can save abour requirement by 60 80% over norma weeding and threshing. Some of the farm impements deveoped at the Institute have aso been accepted by the farmers of the Uttarancha state through the Institute ike the VPKAS, Amora. Rapid Diagnosis of Livestock and Poutry Diseases The Institute has deveoped DNA-based diagnosis techniques, particuary for samonea and costridia diseases. Presence of enterotoxic gene of samonea through PCR ampification was indicative of the presence of samonea. Such diagnosis coud be made within 3 6 hr. Software for Protozoa Parasitic Disease Diagnosis A software was deveoped, containing detais about morphoogy, ife-cyce, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of different protozoan parasites affecting domestic animas and birds. It aso covers different types of database for cestode, trematode, nematode etc. aong with the faciity to retrieve scientific names of different parasites.

193 187 RESEARCH FOR TRIBAL AND HILL REGIONS The incrementa capita-output ratio (ICOR) is ower in north-eastern states. In these states the additiona investment wi have arger impact on agricutura productivity. Now, specia emphasis is being given north-eastern states because of their higher capita-use efficiency, and higher concentration of rura poor. The stress is on proportiona rise in the investment and judicious use of the investment resources. Scheme-wise/activity-wise aocation/expenditure for North-eastern Region, ending November 2002 (Rs in miion) State Discipine (centre/ocation) Aocation for Expenditure/ NEH reease on Crop Sciences Meghaaya Regiona Station, NBPGR (Shiong) Assam Regiona Station, CRRI (Gerua) Assam Regiona Station, CRIJAF (Sorbhog) AICRPs Regiona Stations Assam Rapeseed and Mustard (Shiongani) Assam Rapeseed and Mustard (Impha) Manipur Groundnut (Impha) Assam Puses:MULLARP (Shiongani) Tripura Puses:MULLARP (Agartaa) Manipur Puses: MULLARP (Impha) Assam Soybean (AAU, Jorhat) Manipur Soybean (CAU, Impha) Assam Honeybee (AAU, Jorhat) Assam Bioogica Contro (AAU, Jorhat) Assam Rodent Contro (AAU, Jorhat) Assam Nematode (AAU, Jorhat) Assam Pesticide Residue (AAU, Jorhat) Assam Rice (Jorhat) Manipur Rice (Impha) Assam Rice (Karimganj) Meghaaya Rice (Upper Shiong) Tripura Rice (Agartaa) Nagaand Rice (Kohima) Manipur Wheat (Impha) Assam Wheat (Shiongani) Assam Maize (Jorhat) Sikkim Maize (Gangtok) Assam Forage Crops (AAU, Jorhat) Assam Sugarcane (AAU, Jorhat) Assam Jute (AAU, Jorhat) Assam Nationa Seed Project (Crops) (AAU, Jorhat) Assam AICRP Chickpea (Shiongani) Tota State Discipine (centre/ocation) Aocation for Expenditure/ NEH reease on Horticuture Assam AICRP Tuber Crops (Jorhat) Assam AICRP Vegetabes (Jorhat) Assam AICRP Potato (Jorhat) Assam AICRP Foricuture (Kahikuchi) Meghaaya AICRP Mushroom (Barapani) Assam AICRP Tropica Fruits (Jorhat) Assam AICRP Tropica Fruits (Tinsukia) Assam AICRP Betevine (Tinsukia) Assam AICRP Pams (Kahikuchi) Meghaaya Regiona Station, CPRI (Shiong) Sikkim NRC Orchids (Sikkim) Assam Regiona Station, CPCRI (Kahikuchi) Tota Natura Resource Management Meghaaya ICAR Res. Compex for NEH Region (Barapani) Assam Nationa Bureau of Soi Survey and Land-Use Panning (Jorhat) Assam AICRP Weed Contro (AAU, Jorhat) Assam AICRP Water Manage ment Res. (AAU, Jorhat) Assam AICRP Agrometeroogy (AAU, Jorhat) Assam AICRP Cropping Systems Research (AAU, Jorhat) Assam AICRP Agroforestry (AAU, Jorhat) Tota Agricutura Engineering Meghaaya AICRP on FIM (Barapani, Shiong) Assam AICRP on FIM (AAU,Jorhat) Assam AICRP on RES (AAU,Jorhat) Assam AICRP on UAE (AAU,Jorhat) Assam AICRP on PHT*(AAU,Jorhat)

194 188 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Tabe continued from prepage State Discipine (centre/ocation) Aocation for Expenditure/ NEH reease on Assam AICRP Jaggery and Khandsari (SRS, AAU, Jorhat) Meghaaya AICRP on APA (Barapani, Shiong) Tota Anima Sciences AICRP on FMD AICRP on ADMAS Network on Gastro intestina Network on HS AICRP Micronutrients NRC Mithun NRC Yak NRC Pig and AICRP Pig Network on AGR AICRP Poutry Research AICRP Buffao Tota Fisheries Assam CICFRI (Guwahati) Assam CIFE (Kokata) Assam NBFGR (Guwahati) Assam CFA Arunacha CIFA Pradesh Nagaand CIFA Meghaaya CIFA Tripura CIFA Arunacha NRC Cod Water Fisheries Pradesh, Manipur and Nagaand NEH CIFT Tota Agricutura Extension Meghaaya ZC Unit III (Barapani) Meghaaya TTC (Barapani) Arunacha KVKs (West Siang, Pradesh Basar) State Discipine (centre/ocation) Aocation for Expenditure/ NEH reease on Assam KVKs (Saonitpur, Napam) Assam KVKs (Kakrajhar) Assam KVKs (Goaghat) Assam KVKs (Cachar) Manipur KVKs (Impha) Manipur KVKs (Hengbung, Senapati)** Meghaaya KVKs (West Garo) Meghaaya KVKs (Ri-Bhoi)** Mizoram KVKs (Lungei) Mizoram KVKs (Koasib) Nagaand KVKs (Dimapur, Medziphema) Nagaand KVKs (Phek)** Sikkim KVKs (East Sikkim) Tripura KVKs (West Tripura) Tripura KVKs (South Tripura) Tota Agricutura Education Assam Deveopment and Strengthening of SAUs incuding RAWE*** (AAU, Jorhat) Assam AICRP Home Science (AAU, Jorhat) NATP (Arunacha Pradesh, Assam, Meghaaya, Nagaand, Sikkim and Mizoram) Assam Centra Agricutura University (Impha) Pipeine Projects Grand Tota Reported in the Expenditure review meeting hed on *AICRP on PHT, no funds reeased to the centre as the funds are avaiabe with the centre from the savings of the Ninth Pan and the expenditure shown has been made from the savings of the Ninth Pan funds **KVK estabished during the current financia year ( ) ***No funds reeased to AAU, Jorhat, on the ground that an unspent baance of Rs miion had accumuated with them as on Ornamenta Fishes The Institute coud coect 200 germpasm out of the 270 ornamenta fishes reported from the region. These fishes have further been grouped into cassified ornamenta fishes and non-cassified ornamenta fishes. Transfer of Technoogy The deveopment of watershed-based technoogies coud check the soi oss from 46 tonnes/ha to 5 tonnes/ha. Having achieved this, the Institute extended

195 189 RESEARCH FOR TRIBAL AND HILL REGIONS SUCCESS STORY HIGH-YIELDING RICE VARIETIES FOR MEGHALAYA The State of Meghaaya has been experiencing a tota foodgrain deficiency of miion tonnes and 82% of this deficiency coud be met through the intervention of high-yieding rice varieties. The Institute, having earier reeased 7 rice varieties for the region, has been successfu in reeasing 4 varieties for Meghaaya particuary for upand situation in the mid-his. These varieties having higher production record than the presenty grown cutivars, have occupied around 48% rice-growing areas in the midhi zones of the State. the technoogy to the nearby viages through the deveopment of watershed known as Shippra Watershed. Besides deveoping 3 fishery ponds in the area, soi-conservation measures were aso initiated by way of contour bunding, haf-moon terracing etc. Upper ridges were put under horticutura crops whie the ower ones were deveoped for agricutura purposes. Farmers from the NEH states have not ony been trained on the use of modified farm impements but aso were given ski-oriented training to manufacture the impements themseves. A technoogy was perfected for processing of soybean into products ike soya mik, soya paneer and soya biscuit. The technoogy has been transferred to the peope through the Departments of Agricuture of various states of the region. CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PORT BLAIR Fied Crops Quing Livan 1, Nanjing and Miyang 55 proved to be the most promising rice varieties as second crop in rice rice cropping sequence in Bay isands. A fied gene bank, comprising 150 medicina pantings indigenous to Bay isands, is being estabished at Garacharma farm of the CARI. Brinja somacones were deveoped and evauated for agro-morphoogica parameters and for toerance towards fruitborer/shoot-borer and bacteria wit. About 150 medicina pants used by the oca inhabitants were identified. Leaf and stem bark decoctions of Maotus petatus and Astonia macrophya possess substantia antimicrobia and anti-infammatory activities. The bark paste of Panchonia andamanica coud be used for treating funga infection. Natura Resource Management Nitrogen dynamics associated with earthworm casts of Dravida nepaensis in sois of different and-management systems of South Andaman was studied. A owcost earthern check dam was constructed on the naah in Boomsadae farm. Conjunctive use of much with irrigation increased the yied of okra by 65.8% over soe appication of much and 34% over soe appication of irrigation. Anima Science Growth rate of Quicken, sexuay fertie intergeneric hybrid deveoped through Staggered panting at 1-month intervas recommended for round-theyear avaiabiity of tuberose fowers Brinja somacones deveoped. Herba antimicrobia; anti-infammatory and anti-histaminic formuation; mouth wash; and vagina contraceptive deveoped and under processing for patent and marketing. Large-scae production of Quicken (fertie intergeneric hybrid) initiated in quai farming under deep itter system. Bark paste of Panchonia andamanica can be used for treating the funga infection

196 190 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT A ow-cost check dam with rectanguar weir constructed to measure run-off Large-scae production of Quicken, a sexuay fertie intergeneric hybrid, was initiated in quai farming under deep itter system An indigenous, heavy-weight goat germpasm Teressa found, showing tripets kidding and even quadrupe kidding occasionay. For the first time in India, cuturing of common cown Amphiprion percua standardized. Larva rearing of M. rosenbergii successfuy done and juvenies coud be produced. artificia insemination using Nicobari fow as mae and quai as femae, was found encouraging and its arge-scae production was initiated in quai farming under deep itter system. An indigenous heavy-weight goat germpasm Teressa of these isands, found in Teressa, Bambooka, Car Nicobar and Katcha isands, resembes Kambing Kachang of Indonesia and shows tripet kidding and even quadrupe kidding occasionay. Cuture of Marine Ornamenta Fishes (Amphiprion species) A study was carried out under aboratory conditions in Andaman and Nicobar Isands on symbiotic reationship (behavioura) of Amphiprion percua, A. carkii and A. sandarocinos. Entamaceia quadricoo, Macrodactya dorensis, Stoichodactya giganteum, S. haddoni, S. mertensii, Heteraetis aurora, H. cripsa, H. magnifica, H. mau and Crypteodentrum adhaesivum were coected from the wid conditions, and fishes were introduced to each anemones to find out the suitabe host. The fish TUBEROSE FROM ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS Tuberose coud be cutivated for both cutfowers as we as oose fowers throughout the year in Andaman and Nicobar Isands. The bubs were panted on raised beds of 30 cm 30 cm apart, which were prepared after thorough breaking of cods and incorporating 20 kg/m 2 in addition to 15 : 90 : 15 g/m 2 of N : P : K as basa dose. Staggered panting at monthy intervas in 100 m 2 pots each month has been recommended for round-the-year avaiabiity of tuberose fowers, and the farmers get a benefit : cost ratio of 2.40 : 1. Staggered panting at 1- month intervas in 100 m 2 pots makes roundthe-year avaiabiity of tuberose fowers in Andaman and Nicobar isands Marine ornamenta fish Amphiprion percua fanning the eggs. Its cuture has been standardized for the first time in India spawned between 6.00 hr and 9.00 hr and between hr and hr. Each femae spawned capsue-shaped eggs and deposited on the sides of the tank. The eggs showed mm ength and mm width. In each spawning 100% hatchabiity was obtained. For the first time in India, cuturing of common cown A. percua was standardized. Hatchery Seed Production of Marine She Fishes In tiger prawn, 987 individua spawnings coud be observed on an average of 1.2 times by each spawner in days of treatment of each batch. A tota of 120 miion tiger prawn naupii were harvested. Growth and Survivia of Andaman Borne P. monodon naupii to Stocking Seed Size The surviva was %, %, % and % during zoea, mysis, eary post-arva and ate post-arva stages, respectivey, of the initia stocking.

197 191 RESEARCH FOR TRIBAL AND HILL REGIONS Cuture of mikfish Chanos chanos The fattening of mikfish Chanos chanos was done in tide-fed brackish water ponds in Andamans for a period of 1 year and 4 months. The average weight at stocking and at harvest was 730 g and 1,207 g respectivey. The net production at harvest was 1,030 kg/ha. Breeding, Cuture and Larva Rearing of Freshwater Giant Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii A production of 450 kg prawn, 2,587 kg F 1 hybrid carp and 574 kg cata/ha was obtained in poycuture with stocking densities of 7,000 prawn and 11,000 carps/ha in Andaman. A sma unit was set up for breeding and arva rearing of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Gravid prawns weighing g with eggs of yeow to orange coour reeased 200/g body weight. The arva rearing was successfuy done and juvenies coud be produced. HERBAL PREPARATIONS Herba preparations, viz. herba antimicrobia; anti-infammatory and antihistaminic formuation (topica/ora); herba mouthwash: herba preparation for curing ora submucus fibrosis (OSF) a precancerous condition in ora cavity; herba vagina contraceptive, were deveoped and are under processing for patent and marketing. Partia harvest of prawn from poycuture systems with carps Socia Science An appication of pre-emergent herbicide Butachor controed the weed density by 3 6 times and significanty increased the net return at the farmer s fied. The sat-toerant BTS 24 rice recorded 30% more yied than the oca variety C Bacteria wit-toerant LE 3704 tomato gave 350% higher fruit yied and more net returns than BT 1, which was more susceptibe to wit. Krishi Vigyan Kendra The Krishi Vigyan Kendra has conducted 41 programmes on crop production, horticuture, ivestock, home science, fishery and front-ine demonstration. A tota of 471 men and 477 women got trained in agricuture and aied activities. NARDI 110, a new high-yieding rice, performed better in on-farm testing and showed toerance to stem-borer, gundhi bug attack and coud withstand odging. The yied was 4.75 tonnes/ha. In on-farm testing BWR ine LE 3704 of tomato yieded 25.3 tonnes/ha with 43.82% increase in yied, foowed by BT 1 (19.7 tonnes/ha) and oca check (17.5 tonnes/ha). On-farm tria on watermeon showed that variety Sugar Baby gave an yied of 20.5 tonnes/ha with 57.69% increase in yied, foowed by NS 1 (20.3 tonnes/ha). Kin-nu cucumber gave an yied of 9.7 tonnes/ha, showing 55% increase in yied. BTS 24 rice gave an yied of 3.0 tonnes/ha, compared with 2.01 tonnes/ha of oca cutivar C 14-8.

198 192 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Nationa Agricutura Technoogy Project A number of recommendations of committees constituted by O & M Task Force for reforms in the ICAR impemented. PME ces estabished, 13 in SAUs and 12 in ICAR institutes for PME institutionaization in the NARS. The NCAP and PME Ces taken up impact assessment of the NATP. Websites and made operationa for exchanging information and creating a primary-source dynamic database on Indian farming situation. DIPA brought eectronic version of Handbook of Horticuture, Vision 2020 and RPF Fies, Digita Photoibrary. The Nationa Agricutura Technoogy Project (NATP), a Word Bank-aided project, is being impemented by the ICAR and the Department of Agricuture and Cooperation (DAC) since November It has three major components, viz. Organization and Management (O&M) System, Research and Innovations in Technoogy Dissemination (ITD). The ICAR executes the O&M, Research and a part of ITD. The progress made during the year under different components in the NATP is presented here. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ICAR Reforms The Organization and Management (O & M) Task Force, the apex body for supervising and guiding the reforms process, constituted severa sub-committees and hired consutancies on various aspects of reforms. The key outcomes of recommendations of these are given beow. Recommendations were made on 17 wide-ranging issues of administration, management, personne poicies and decentraization of powers, and 16 of those have been accepted. Of the recommendations made to make the technoogy deivery system of the ICAR purposefu and efficient, 12 have been impemented by the Extension Division. A scheme was finaized for incentives and rewards on three aspects: (i) non-cash-based incentives and rewards, for the administrative and finance functionaries of the ICAR, (ii) sports, recreation and genera wefare support systems, and (iii) cash-based awards. Consutancy reports have been submitted by the Nationa Institute of Financia Management on Financia Management Reforms of ICAR and Purchase Manua for ICAR. A Task Force for Mainstreaming Gender Issues into NATP activities have been set up under the chairmanship of Dr M. S. Swaminathan. The Work pan for gender mainstreaming has been formuated in the first meeting of the committee. The main thrust of the Work pan is the empowerment of rura women through trainings. The major recommendations that emerged from the Modue II of the Retreat Programme for Top Executives of the ICAR are: the ICAR to have own rues and procedures; a matters of institutes to be deegated to SMDs; Governing Body to have fu authority in a matters and a its decisions to be binding; and compete deegation of powers down the ine and accountabiity thereafter. Institutionaization of Research Priority Setting, Monitoring and Evauation (PME), and Networking of Socia Scientists Two pubications, viz. Guideines for Monitoring and Concurrent Evauation of Sub-projects under NATP and Mechanism of Monitoring and Evauation under NATP, were brought out by the IASRI and the NCAP respectivey.

199 193 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROJECT In the process of institutionaization of PME in the Nationa Agricutura Research System (NARS), 25 PME ces have been estabished (13 in SAUs and 12 in ICAR institutes). The NCAP has seected three sub-projects of Production System Research (PSR), four of Team of Exceence (TOE), three of Mission Mode (MM) and three of Competitive Grants Programme (CGP) and the overa O&M process for impact assessment. The PME ces have identified 23 PSR, four Technoogy Assessment and Refinement/Institution-Viage Linkage Programme (TAR/IVLP), two MM, one CGP and one ATIC sub-projects for impact assessment. Nine sensitization-cum-trainings and workshops have been organized to sensitize the scientists regarding the PME phiosophy and methods. WEB-BASED NETWORKS Two web-based networks, one among agricutura economists ( and another among agricutura statisticians ( iasri.dehi.nic.in/asn/) were made operationa. They serve for exchanging information and creating a primary-source dynamic database of economic and socia information on the Indian farming situations. Human Resources Deveopment for Agricutura Research and Education Management Three computer-assisted instructiona modues have been deveoped. The instructiona resource materia in Gender has been deveoped on gender roes in agricuture, gender in time and abour use and, gender-specific knowedge and skis in agricuture. District-eve databases of agricutura resources and production, covering 369 districts, were integrated into a database management system. The maps of the States of India and the Agro-ecoogica Sub-regions have aso been digitized in Geomedia GIS. The maps of the States were inked to the a India state-eve database, and thematic maps of agricutura production, trends, etc. were generated. TRAINING MANUALS Five training manuas, viz. Creating databases in MS Access, Querying Geographic Databases in ARCVIEW, GIS Project in Geomedia, GIS Project in IDRISI, GIS Appication using MS Exce, with practica exercises were prepared. Information System Deveopment (ISD) Library Information System (LIS) For deveoping a LIS that wi make ibrary information avaiabe eectronicay, to every scientist in the NARS, a project invoving 18 Regiona Libraries (4 DUs, 3 ICAR Research Institutes and 11 State Agricutura Universities) as the hub and 98 ibraries as the sateite ibraries have been aunched. Scientific abstract databases have aready been made avaiabe to a those ibraries. In a training on Networking Agricutura Libraries conducted by a foreign consutant, 26 Libraries participated. Directorate of Information and Pubications of Agricuture (DIPA) In a pioneering effort the DIPA has brought out the eectronic version of: Handbook of Horticuture (e-book) ICAR Research Projects Information System a database on Research Projects Fies (RPF) Digita Photoibrary Vision 2020 Under the ICAR-CABI Work pan, the Director, Chief Production Officer and Technica Officer of the DIPA visited CABI for panning and acquiring technoogy for e-pubishing and database deveopment. The Agricutura Research Information Centre under the DIPA has deveoped the Nationa Agricutura Research Database (NARD), as a continuing effort, under the ICAR-CABI Work pan, under NATP. Database on 82 A-India Co-ordinated Research Projects (AICRPs) was aso deveoped.

200 194 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT RESEARCH Natura dye production technoogy deveoped from saffower petas, provides 60-70% additiona income to farmers. A package of practices deveoped which maintains afatoxin eve in groundnut within imits needed by importers. Sorghum harvesting at physioogica maturity, foowed by drying and pearing reduced its grain discooration and increased market vaue. Identified sweet sorghum genotypes for acoho production and standardized the fermentation technoogy up to piot eve. An intercropping of pigeonpea with finger miet in 2 : 8 ratio gives more gross returns than farmers practice of finger miet + akkadi PRODUCTION SYSTEM RESEARCH (PSR) MODE The wide-ranging resuts with potentia of deveopment into technoogies were obtained under 264 sub-projects in five agro-ecosystems (AES). Rainfed Agro-ecosystem Integrated pest management (IPM) comprising seed treatment with Trichoderma viride and soi appication mixed with FYM was effective in controing Aternaria eaf bight and white rust infesting mustard. A technoogy deveoped for natura dye production from saffower petas coud provide the saffower farmers 60 70% additiona income. A prototype saffower harvester has been deveoped, having harvesting and fied efficiency of 98 and 87% respectivey. A package of practices for cutivation and storage of groundnut deveoped coud maintain afatoxin eve in groundnut within the imits demanded by the importers. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technoogies for pigeonpea and chickpea, coud cut osses up to 15 20% and reduce the use of pesticides by 50%. In Rajasthan, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh the dua-purpose CSV 15 sorghum proved the most promising for producing both grain and fodder. Paired row panting of pear miet at 30/60 cm and opening of furrows 35 days after sowing aong with the integrated nutrient management practices (50% recommended dose of fertiizer + FYM + biofertiizer) resuted in the highest gross (Rs 11,715/ha) and net (Rs 14,914/ha) returns and benefit : cost ratio of 1.73 over farmers practice in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tami Nadu. Intercropping of pigeonpea with finger miet (2 : 8) gave higher gross returns of Rs 22,743/ha than farmers practice of finger miet + akkadi (Rs 14,844/ ha) in Karnataka. Suppementation with ocay avaiabe feed ingredients ike subabu, groundnut-cake, deoied rice bran, cotton seed-cake and copra-cake can improve digestibiity of pear miet, sorghum and finger miet straws up to 20%. Harvesting of sorghum at physioogica maturity, foowed by drying and pearing significanty reduced grain discooration and increased market vaue. Promising high biomass-producing genotypes of sweet sorghum coud be identified for acoho production. The fermentation technoogy has been standardized up to piot eve. Demonstration of harvesting at physioogica maturity of sorghum crop to famers to avoid spoiage of grains Improved technoogy packages deveoped for boro rice cutivation. A quaity protein maize hybrid CML 142 CML 150 yieded 25% more than Shaktiman 1. A prototype for cotton stick and burr remover fabricated to reduce farmers drudgery. Irrigated Agro-ecosystem For boro rice cutivation improved technoogy packages incuding better seeding raising, protecting seedings from cod injury, improved varieties and suitabe date of sowing have been deveoped for different states. Improved ines of basmati rice having odging resistance, high productivity and resistance to biotic stresses and grain quaity were found at par with Taraori basmati. An evaporativey cooed room (3 m 3 m 3 m interna size) of about tonne capacity was deveoped for on-farm storage of fruits and vegetabes. Suppementary pre-partum feeding, with urea moasses muti-nutrient bock (UMMNB) and urea moasses minera bock (UMMB) improved both production and reproduction in buffaoes. Benefit : cost ratio of UMMB suppementary feeding was 4: 1.

201 195 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROJECT Sugarcane genotypes CoS and CoLk 8102 were found resistant to iron chorosis. A quaity protein maize hybrid (CML 142 CML 150) yieded 25% more than check Shaktiman 1. A prototype of cotton stick and burr remover has been fabricated, which woud hep reduce drudgery of farmers and particuary of women. Intercropping of cotton, soybean, groundnut and backgram proved remunerative in citrus pre-bearing orchards at different ocations. Coasta Agro-ecosystem The use of bacuovirus for contro of Oryctes rhinoceros has been popuarized in the Andaman and Nicobar Isands, as the effect of virus is ong asting and eco-friendy and saves abour. The technoogy has been transferred to the State Department of Agricuture. A mode was deveoped integrating coconut-based farming system with high yieding forage grasses as intercrops and dairy wash for production of biogas and compost. Contro of O.rhinoceros by bacuovirus popuarized in Andaman and Nicobar Isands and the technoogy transferred to State Department of Agricuture. Banana, maize and chii identified for intercropping with juvenie oi pam. A prototype fabricated for sma-scae production of adhesives using sweet potato four. A technoogy standardized for broodstock deveopment and feed. A vaccine deveoped for contro of duck pasteuroosis. An intercropping of maize in coconut for getting higher returns A high-density cropping-mode demonstration pot with coconut, tissue cutured banana, pineappe and back pepper was estabished. Crops ike banana, maize and chii coud be identified for intercropping with juvenie oi pam. A prototype has been fabricated for sma-scae production of adhesives using sweet potato four. A technoogy has been standardized for broodstock deveopment and broodstock feed. A vaccine for the contro of duck pasteuroosis has been deveoped. Cage system and deep itter system for rearing ayer ducks has been standardized. Farmer-friendy PCR protocos for the diagnosis of white spot syndrome virus disease in shrimp have been deveoped. Demonstration of high-density cropping mode with banana, pineappe and back pepper Arid Agro-ecosystem Drought-toerant and yeow mosaic virus-resistant varieties of cowpea, mungbean and custerbean have been evoved. To suppement income and nutrition, backyard poutry have been introduced into 46 viages covering 750 farmers in Rajasthan.

202 196 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Backyard poutry introduced into 46 viages to increase income and nutrition. Geenhouses, designed and instaed, made vegetabe growing possibe in winter to cater to the need of peope and army personne stationed in cod desert regions. Came-mik fermentation process standardized for producing dahi of quaity matching to the IDFS. Backyard poutry can increase income and generate empoyment in arid region To generate aternate empoyment and income, a technoogy for cuturing brackish water shrimp and fishes in saine water, common in the arid region, has been introduced in four viages. In different cod desert regions, greenhouses designed and instaed have made growing of vegetabes possibe in winter which can meet demands of the oca peope and army personne stationed there. Vegetabe production in arch greenhouse at Lari (Leh) The standardized process of came-mik fermentation coud produce dahi with quaity matching to the Internationa Dairy Federation Standards. Goat mik paneer (soft, sighty saty with no goatee odour) was prepared by adding 0.1% citric acid in C hot mik. Caf hair (40%) bended with viscose stape fibre was found suitabe for buk processing.

203 197 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROJECT Hi and Mountain Agro-ecosystem In the Mussoori his, the soi oss of 4,000 tonnes/ha in and side-affected area of 7,200 m 2 became negigibe when the area was treated with coir geotextie and gabion structures. A rearing technoogy deveoped for Angora rabbit heped the oca farmers to generate an additiona annua income of Rs 1,500 2,000 with one pair of broier rabbit. In the Khasi his of Meghaaya, introduction of Indo-American hybrid tomato variety increased the production 2 times. About 200 genotypes of saffron have been coected from Kashmir and quaity-panting materia is being produced. Coection of saffron. About 200 genotypes of saffron coud be coected from Kashmir MISSION MODE (MM) RESEARCH About 800 Centres/Noda points are in pace for impementing 42 Mission Mode programmes. Saient achievements are as foows: Under Jai Vigyan Nationa Science and Technoogy Mission on Conservation of Agro-biodiversity, besides coection, conservation and documentation of huge germpasm, a few trait-specific germpasm ike scented types in rice, sainity-toerant types in wheat, high sweet type in matira, powdery midew-toerant ber and bae were coected. Genetic characterization of ivestock species/breeds incuding poutry has heped in conserving highvaue breeds and other breeds, which are in danger of extinction. Eight new species of fishes have been reported for the first time. In different crops, 28 hybrids (rice 3, maize 9, sunfower 5, pear miet 3, castor 2, cotton 5, sorghum 1) with improved quaity, high yied and disease resistance have been deveoped and reeased. In vegetabe crops 39 hybrids having mutipe-disease resistance (tomato 22, brinja 10 and chii 7) have aso been deveoped. Protected cutivation of vegetabes and fowers has improved the yied by 10% and proved very effective to protect against insects, pests and mites. IPM modues for cotton, pigeonpea, chickpea, groundnut, cabbage, tomato, appe and mango were vaidated. Production of cabbage, tomato and chickpea using IPM and without pesticida sprays is a success story. Eight new fish species reported for the first time. 28 hybrids of crops and 39 hybrids of vegetabes deveoped. Produced cabbage, tomato and chickpea using IPM and without pesticida sprays. A technoogy deveoped for packing ready-to-eat fish preparations. MISSION MODE PROJECT ON NUTRITIONAL SECURITY More than 6,000 farm famiies at 47 ocations in 15 states in triba, backward and hiy areas where benefits of Green Revoution did not reach, were brought under this mission mode project to improve their economic condition by suppying quaity seed of improved varieties of ifesupport crops, panting materia of fruit and vegetabe crops and improved breeds of poutry, pig and fish and, production training. This is resuting in increase in income, iving standards of peope and aso the empoyment opportunities and heath.

204 198 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT A nove process of producing neem oi micro-emusion (an environment friendy pesticide) without empoying a cosurfactant and acoho has been deveoped, and fied for patent. Diagnostic kits for the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus disease of sma ruminants have been deveoped. Linkages were aso deveoped with industries for commerciaization. A technoogy has been deveoped for packing ready-to-eat fish preparations in retortabe pouches. The sef-ife of the packaged products is one year. TEAM OF EXCELLENCE (TOE) MODE Info Crop, a user-friendy cropmodeing framework deveoped. Rust-resistant genes in wheat identified using moecuar markers. A hot water treatment pant deveoped and fabricated for mango fruits, and mango stone weevi-free zones identified to meet export demand. An eco-friendy vaue-addition method deveoped for use of saughter house by-products for protein recovery suitabe for feeding pets and ivestock. Immune-O-Check kit, deveoped for detection of faiure of passive transfer in buffao caves, woud be instrumenta in reducing neonata caf mortaity. A user-friendy crop-modeing framework, Info Crop, has been deveoped and is being evauated for potato, soybean, cotton, maize, sorghum, mustard, groundnut and sugarcane. A methodoogy for forecasting wheat yieds in India using modes, remote sensing and spatia databases has been deveoped, which is being used by the Space Appications Centre for reguar wheat forecasting. Methodoogy on samping and measurement of CH 4 and N 2 O fux from experimenta fieds has been deveoped and standardized. Appication method of Gucanoacetobacter for sugarcane in pot-cuture conditions and techniques for mass production of acid-toerant cyanobactera in sma tubs have been standardized. In wheat, cuture of F 1 ears of WL 711 C 306 cross produced viabe seeds to overcome the hybrid necrosis barrier. In wheat, rust-resistant genes were identified using moecuar markers. A quantum jump from 1.5 to 2.9 tonnes/ha in the production of hybrid seed of rice, eading to reduction of seed cost and better adoption of hybrid technoogy, has been achieved. Seed-enhancement technoogy in maize has been successfuy adopted. Compete sequencing and coning of the n-gene of tospo virus infecting tomato have been done. Tospo virus n-gene sequenced and poycona antibodies deveoped-wi ead to transgenics in tomato and banana for spotted virus Singe chain poycona antibodies of N-protein have been generated through phage dispay technique. A hot water treatment pant for mango fruits has been designed and fabricated. Mango stone weevi-free zones have been identified to meet export requirements

205 199 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROJECT A ow pressure irrigation device has been designed and deveoped, which works at a pressure of 4.4 kg/cm 2. Tractor-operated ti-pant machine has been deveoped and tested. A technoogy of sugar syrup feeding was deveoped for the management of Apis meifera during the period of dearth of nectar. A cost-effective aternative nucear materia deveoped for cuture of pears, comparabe to imported she bead nucei, wi prove to be an important import substitute. Pear musse resources in different agro-ecoogica regions of the country have been mapped. Singe serum diution ELISA protoco for detection of Egg Drop Syndrome virus antibodies has been vaidated and woud be an import substitute for the high-priced imported kit. Immune O Check kit for detection of faiure of passive transfer in buffao caves woud be instrumenta in reducing neonata caf mortaity. It can aso be used on bovines. An eco-friendy vaue-addition method for use of saughter house byproducts for recovery of protein that is suitabe for feeding pets and ivestock, has been deveoped. A patent has been fied for oigonuceotide primer sequences for rapid identification of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tubercuosis by a singe-tube mutipex poymerase chain reaction. Under different sub-projects, 37 promising technoogies were deveoped which wi be taken to TAR-IVLP for assessment, refinement and adoption. Human Resource Deveopment Forty-eight trainings were conducted in which 857 scientists of the NARS participated. In the fied of biotechnoogy, 26 trainings were organized in which 353 scientists were trained. In six sub-projects, CDs and manuas have been deveoped. Nine scientists have been honoured for their scientific achievements. Seven scientists were deputed to reputed aboratories abroad for enhancing their scientific skis/interaction with peer workers. One foreign consutant was invited to share his expertise on veterinary hybridoma and moecuar viroogy with the scientists of Madras Veterinary Coege, Chennai, and group training was organized in which scientists from different ICAR institutes, SAUs and other organizations participated and got benefited. Each TOE group has been asked to conduct at east two training programmes per year in its fied of exceence. COMPETITIVE GRANTS PROGRAMME (CGP) Ti date, 443 projects have been sanctioned in three rounds, covering 10 thematic areas and 15% of the projects are in institutions outside the ICAR/SAU. This is the first time that such a arge proportion of projects have been given to this Section. Major achievements of the first two rounds of projects are given here. Agricutura Biotechnoogy To deveop transgenic papaya resistant to papaya ring spot virus, the vira cdna has been produced. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) genome has been coned and characterized. Repicas (AC1), a gene of ICMV, was aso coned and sequenced competey. RAPD anaysis of 36 pepper species and 24 major cutivars and reeased varieties of back pepper showed a wide diversity at DNA eve. Mapping popuation has been deveoped for moecuar tagging of gene for resistance against Phytophthora. Generated vira c DNA to deveop transgenic papaya resistant to ring spot virus. Coned and characterized Indian cassava mosaic virus. Identified microsateite moecuar marker (RM 258) to be inked with fertiity-restorer genes for use in basmati rice breeding.

206 200 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT In wheat, out of 450 sequence tagged microsateite (STMS) primers used, 56, 77 and 77 primers identified were poymorphic for grain protein content (GPC), grain weight (GW) and pre-harvest sprouting (PHST) respectivey. Anaysis of five SAMPL primer combinations reveaed 222, 178 and 168 poymorphic bands for GPC, GW and PHST, respectivey, which wi be usefu for markers-aided seection for quaity traits. Two antivira gycoproteins (CCP-25 and CCP-27) isoated from Ceosia cristata, exhibited more than 90% inhibition of oca esions on test host pants against tobacco mosaic virus and sunnhemp rosette virus. A microsatteite moecuar marker (RM 258) has been identified to be inked with fertiity-restorer genes for use in basmati restorer breeding and testing the genetic purity of hybrid seed ot of the first superfine grain aromatic rice hybrid Pusa RH 10. Putative transgenic groundnut pants with gycoprotein gene have been generated. Integrated Pests and Disease Management Three isoates of arbuscuar mycorrhiza fungi proved effective in reducing popuation of parasitic nematodes of vegetabe crops. Effuents of cassava-based starch factory showed nematicida property against root-knot nematode. Maximum seed germination was observed when seeds of sunfower were treated with T. viride 4 g/1 kg seed, foowed by T. harzianum and P. fourescens. Two sites of phytopasma-free budwood banks of peaches in Himacha Pradesh have been deveoped at the University campuses, i.e. Soan and Hamirpur. Three isoates of arbuscuar mycorrhiza fungi were found effective in reducing the popuation of pant parasitic nematodes of brinja, tomato, chii, coeus and amorphophaus. The effuent of cassava-based starch factory showed nematicida property against root-knot nematode and high repeent action against Bihar hairy caterpiar. An entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis indica coud be observed on the natura enemies of Cyas formicarius in sweet potato fieds. To deveop transgenic potato cutivars toerant to potato tuber moth CRY IAB and fused (CRY IAB + CRY IB) genes under the contro of constructive promoter Ca MV 35s have been deveoped. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarrhizium anisopiae was as effective as chemica pesticide on sugarcane root grub and as efficient as Bt and Ha- NPV on chickpea borer. Horticuture Large-scae production protocos for Chorophytum boriviianum and Rauvofia serpentina standardized. The two-node repetitive micro-cutting technique has been devised for rapid mutipication of grapes. The arecanut hybrids Hirechai Dwarf (HD) Sumangaa, Mohitnagar HD and HD Mohitnagar were found superior for dried kerne yied and desirabe owest height. Large-scae production protocos for Chorophytum boriviianum and Rauvofia serpentina have been tested and standardized. Storage of safed musi roots with sand in mud pastering minimized the weight oss by 49%, spoiage oss by 5.4% and enhanced the sprouting after storage by 60% and recovery of heathy roots by 45%. Natura Resources Management Appication of 8 kg/ha and 5 itres/ha through irrigation water improved sucrose content in sugarcane and that of Dithiocarbamate-based 8 10 ppm on cane at pre-fibrizor stage minimized sucrose osses.

207 201 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROJECT Soi soarization with a transparent poyethyene sheet (125 m thick) for 8 and 10 weeks resuted in compete burning of the weeds incuding the underground portion of the weeds. Enhanced effectiveness of dried eaf powder of Coeus amboinicus on water hyacinth was observed with the introduction of the biocontro agent Neochetina bruchi. Extension Expert system of extension, an inteigent computer program, has been deveoped and a website created a first attempt in the fied of extension to work on web-based expert system of extension in India. Forecasting modes have been deveoped from the data coected on different aspects of jute. Soi soarization with 125 mm thick transparent poythyene sheet for 8 and 10 weeks competey burnt weeds incuding their underground portions. Neochetina bruchi enhanced effectiveness of dried eaf powder of Coeus on water hyacinth. Post-harvest and Vaue Addition Increased ongevity of anthurium fowers was observed by covering with poyphone seeves/covers and packing in cardboard cartons. Addition of ethyene absorbent, potassium permanganate in cartons, further extend the post-harvest ongevity. Processing methods to preserve coconut inforescence sap as honey, jam and toffee have been deveoped. Hard-sheed (katha) wanuts having ow kerne yied were found suitabe for oi-extraction purposes. A technoogy has been deveoped for the production of various types of fish cakes and fish sausages using meat of different fish species. Two instruments (consistometer and geometer) have been designed and fabricated for the textura measurement of fish paste and paste products. A very simpe picking force-measuring device for tomato has been fabricated. A tomato harvester has been designed that can harvest times more than manua harvesting. A teescopic adder attached to a traier power tier has been designed for the convenience of harvesting oi pam nuts from different heights. Processing methods deveoped to preserve coconut inforescence sap as honey, jam and toffee. A technoogy deveoped for production of fish cakes and sausages. Designed a tomato harvester that harvests times more than manua harvesting. Large diameter pit digger deveoped for panting of tree sapings. Agricutura Engineering Large diameter pit digger has been deveoped for panting sapings of trees. A power-operated tier-mounted basin ister for the coconut pantations and a 10-kg-capacity pneumatic pressure parboier have been designed and fabricated. Anima Sciences Protoco for isoation and purification of immunoprotective antigens (gutathione S-transferase, cysteine proteinase) has been standardized. The database on fecundity gene markers of sheep has been created by in siico search. The pedigreed genomic DNA repository of Garoe and Back Benga goat, up to F 1 generation, has been estabished. Nicobari fow showed resistance to many diseases of poutry. Standardized protoco for isoation and purification of immunoprotective antigens. Estabished pedigreed genomic DNA repository of Garoe and Back Benga goats,up to F 1 germination. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT (TAR) THROUGH INSTITUTION-VILLAGE LINKAGE PROGRAMME (IVLP) The important technoogies deveoped for adoption in a partnership mode with the farmers, are given here.

208 202 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Crossing desi goats with improved buck (Beeta) increased number of kids by 50%, generating additiona benefit: cost ratio 5 : 1. Deep tiage at >45 cm depth increased groundnut pod yied 18% and decreased coar, stem and root rots 50, 45 and 80% respectivey. IVLP/TAR PROGRAMME Through 70 IVLP/TAR programmes 1,450 interventions were assessed in 151 viages, covering 4,000 farmers fieds spread in a five agro-ecosystems. It has brought in not ony visibiity of the impact of new technoogies but has aso buit in farmer-scientist- extension inkages. Since seeing is beieving, the TAR/IVLP programmes are having cascading effect on adoption of new technoogy/ interventions, which have brought economic benefits to the adopted farmers. Large-scae adoption of new technoogies by non-targeted farmers in adopted viages is reaization of success of the new technoogy. The adoption of triba, sma and margina farmers has enabed to meet one of our major deveopmenta objectives of bringing benefits of science and technoogy to disadvantaged groups. The integrated approach in various programmes besides generating gainfu empoyment opportunities has aso brought higher economic benefits. The scientists have aso benefited from interaction with farmers and the refinement in about 50 technoogies as a resut of this interaction. This is a success and the reaization that farmers have aso major contribution to make. Eephant foot yam intercropped with banana gave additiona net returns of Rs 15,992. Introduction of cate, rohu, mrigaa in 20 : 70 : 10 ratio increased net returns from Rs 18,000 to Rs 37,440 in freshwater aquacuture. Rainfed Agro-ecosystem Paira cropping of inseed (T 397) in rice (IR 64) with moderate doses of nutrients (40 : 20 : 20 kg/ha) at Ranchi, coriander rice and athyrus rice sequences at Raipur, and intercropping of rice and pigeonpea (4 : 1) at Cuttack enhanced the net income by Rs 4,500 5,000/ha compared to soe rice crop. Coverage of area under these systems in respective regions increased by 15% compared to the previous year. Crossing of desi goats with improved buck (Beeta) increased the number of kids by 50% and generated additiona benefit : cost ratio of 5.0. Deep tiage at a depth > 45 cm increased the pod yied of groundnut by 18% over the farmer s practice and decreased the incidence of coar rot, stem rot and root rot by 50, 45 and 80% respectivey. IPM in hybrid cotton, consisting of okra as trap crop, nucear poyhedrosis virus (NPV), recommended insecticide based on economic threshod eve and pheromone traps, resuted in 30% increase in yied. Use of mustard as trap crop and spraying neem-seed-kerne extract were effective in controing diamond back moth in cauifower, with a benefit: cost ratio of compared with farmer s practice. Rearing of improved Itaian bees at Koraput, fish and duck cuture at Ranchi and mushroom cuture at Raipur and improved methods of cutivation of fruits and vegetabes provided empoyment opportunities for rura women during the off-season and increased the income by Rs 30/day/person. Contour cutivation in rainfed wheat at Bhopa, aternate furrow opening and sowing across the sope in cotton at Akoa, formation of conservation furrows and appication of 10 kg N/ha after the reief of drought spe in sorghum + pigeonpea (3 : 1), pigeonpea + mungbean (2: 1), castor and sunfower crops at Hyderabad were effective in conservation of rain-water and enhanced the productivity of crops by 15 30%. Improved farm impements (MB pough and Birsa ridge pough) increased the coverage (21%) and productivity gain (6 8%) compared to desi pough. Irrigated Agro-ecosystem Wheat sown by zero-tiage machine gave higher net returns (Rs 20,600/ha) than conventiona sowing (Rs 17,000/ha). Paddy transpanted through engine-operated transpanter proved very effective in maintaining proper pant popuation. Feeding of urea (4%)-enriched wheat straw increased the paatabiity of the straw (30 35%), mik production (average 0.8 kg/day in cows and 0.6 kg in buffaoes) and improved the body condition ( point). This technique can save up to 1 kg/anima/day of concentrates. Treatment of dairy animas with 20 mg/30 kg body weight for the contro of endoparasites, increased the mik production consideraby. The dairy animas treated with 50 m/anima repeated 3 times at 10-day intervas controed the ticks, significanty improved the mik production and anima heath. Honey yied by Itaian bees was 40 kg/box, compared with 15 kg/box in oca strains. The use of an indigenous technica knowedge of growing pointed gourd on scaffod with or without appication of Mancozeb coud protect the crop from fruit and vine rot disease caused by Phytophthora sp. for days after panting. A % increase in yied compared to the farmer s practice of growing the crop on soi was obtained. Coasta Agro-ecosystem Eephant foot yam when intercropped with banana, gave an additiona net returns of Rs 15,992 without affecting the growth and yied of banana.

209 203 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROJECT The farmwomen were immensey benefited with the interventions ike rearing Rhode Isand Red (RIR) and Nandanam poutry birds in backyard, and preparation of picke from ocay avaiabe fish and prawn for vaue addition and income generation at Chennai. Another successfu intervention was the assessment of freshwater aquacuture in the community ponds by introducing cata, rohu and mrigaa in the ratio of 20 : 70 : 10 respectivey. Net returns were increased from Rs 18, 000 to Rs 37,440. Arid Agro-ecosystem In mustard, adoption of variety Bio 902 resuted in 43.38% increase in yied over the oca. The addition of 1 tonne neem-cake/ha aong with 20 kg S/ha further enhanced yied 29.7%. Seed treatment of pear miet with Apron (Metaaxy) + Mancozeb (Dithane M-45) decreased the downy midew incidence by 26% and with Trichoderma by 18%. Licking of muti-nutrient bock (MNB) by catte and buffaoes resuted increased food uptake (16.7%), showing higher mik yied and body weight gain. The daiy mik yied increased by itres/anima/day. Dry matter and water intake of catte and buffaoes increased by 20 25% when fed with urea-enriched fodder. Suppementing the feed of sheep and goat with minera 5 10 g/ anima/day increased their grazing period by 20% and as a resut increased mik yied by 19.2% and woo yied by 18%. Hi and Mountain Agro-ecosystem Appication of 2 kg + ammonium 120 g as soi appication and foiar spray of boric 0.1% + ammonium 0.05% in cauifower seed production pots doubed the farmer s income. Cowpea as a cover crop in exposed terrace ridges of rice fied checked soi erosion consideraby at Kaimpong. Integrated Pant Nutrient System (IPNS) in orange orchard increased the fruit yied by about 150% at Kaimpong. To reduce drudgery of women, manua paddy thresher was introduced which saved 200% time over manua threshing of paddy at Srinagar. Introduction of income-generating interventions ike bee-keeping and button mushroom cutivation have made significant impact and more andess viagers are coming forward to take it up. Bio 902 mustard showed 43.38% increase in yied over oca. Mik yied increased by itres/ anima/day on icking of muti-nutrient bock by catte and buffaoes. Soi appication of borax 2 kg + ammonium moybdate 120 g and foiar spray of boric acid 0.1% + ammonium moybdate 5% in cauifower seed production pots doubed the farmer s income. IPNS in orange orchard increased 150% fruit yied. Interventions ike bee-keeping and button mushroom cutivation made significant impact, and more andess viagers are coming forward to take it up. INNOVATIONS IN TECHNOLOGY DISSEMINATION: ICAR COMPONENT The Innovations in Technoogy Dissemination ICAR Component, having four subprojects, has made significant contribution in terms of empowerment of farmers and stakehoders, on-farm trias, preparation of extension iterature both in printed and eectronic form and distribution/sae of quaity agro-inputs and panting materias. To empower the farmers, rura women, unempoyed youths and other stakehoders, 1,367 innovative training programmes based on their needs were organized, benefiting 33,342 farmers. To enhance the extension deivery system, 287 training programmes were organized in which 6,753 extension personne participated. A cose coaboration and co-operation with government departments, NGOs, research institutes, rura groups etc. were ensured. Teephone hep-ines instaed in eight ATICs. Through ATICs farmers were greaty benefited by the suppy of quaity agroinputs and panting materias. ATICs generated gross revenue of Rs 53 miion. 33,342 farmers benefited from various trainings.

210 204 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT WORLD BANK REVIEW The Word Bank has reviewed the NATP during 30 September 11 October The progress of the project was found satisfactory. The Supervision Mission found that, a steady stream of usabe technoogies has begun to emanate from different modes of research and it appreciated... the substantia progress in project impementation and reporting.... The ongoing thrust is now to document the success stories, proper monitoring and assessing the impact of the NATP. ZONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH STATION Number of trainings 2,181 Farmers trained 55,000 Training of extension workers 287 Number of extension workers 6,753 trained In tota 741 front-ine demonstrations in an area of 440 ha and 71 on-farm trias were conducted at farmers fieds. More than 0.2 miion copies of information materia have been suppied to farmers and other stakehoders. Success stories in diverse fieds have been documented and widey disseminated throughout the districts. In eight Agricutura Technoogy Information Centres (ATICs) teephone hep-ines were instaed to sove ocation-specific probems of the farmers. Through ATICs farmers were greaty benefited in terms of suppy of quaity agro-inputs and panting materias. During the year, 260 tonnes of quaity seeds, 0.45 miion nursery pants and 1.35 miion packets of biofertiizers and biopesticides were sod. About 9,600 soi sampes were tested and 12,200 diseased pants were diagnosed. In veterinary cinics 39,638 animas were treated, benefiting 61, 438 farmers. The ATICs generated a gross revenue of Rs 53 miion.

211 5. Organization and Management DARE The Department of Agricutura Research and Education (DARE) was estabished in the Ministry of Agricuture in December, Subjects aotted to the DARE as per the Government of India (Aocation of Rues) are specified in Appendix I of DARE. The Indian Counci of Agricutura Research (ICAR) is an autonomous body under the Department of Agricutura Research and Education. The Secretary to the Government of India in the DARE functions as the Director-Genera of the ICAR. The Financia Adviser of the DARE is the Financia Adviser of the ICAR. Generay singe-fie system is foowed between DARE and ICAR. The DARE has 14 Group A, 10 Group B, 14 Group C and 6 group D empoyees. The recruitment to the post in the Groups A, B, C is being made centray, either through the Department of Personne and Training or through the Department of Agricuture and Co-operation, depending on the eve of the post. The DARE makes direct recruitment ony to Group D posts. Such recruitments are being made in accordance with the orders of the Government of India regarding reservations for Schedued Castes, Schedued Tribes and Other Backward Casses. Presenty, DARE has 7 Schedued Caste empoyees. A detaied break up of the posts and names of the important functionaries is given in Appendix II of DARE. The financia requirement (Grant No. 2) incudes budget estimates (BE) and revised estimates (RE) of DARE and ICAR (Pan and Non-Pan) respectivey. The detaied break up of these financia figures is given in Appendix III of DARE. Dr Mangaa Rai, [DG (ICAR), second from right] is attending maiden Press Conference after becoming DG, ICAR ICAR The Indian Counci of Agricutura Research is the apex organization at the nationa eve for promoting science and technoogy programmes in the agricutura research and education. The ICAR was set up on the 16 Juy 1929 as the Registered Society under the Societies Registration Act 1860, on the recommendations of the Roya Commission on Agricuture. It was reorganized twice, in 1965 and in The headquarters of the ICAR is ocated at the Krishi Bhavan, and its other buidings Krishi Anusandhan Bhavans I and II, New Dehi. The Minister for Agricuture is the President of the ICAR, and the State Minister for Agricuture is the Vice-President. The principa executive officer of the ICAR is Director-Genera, who is aso the Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Agricutura Research and Education. The Genera Body of the ICAR Society is the supreme authority of the ICAR, and the Minister for Agricuture, Governments representatives of India, heads it. The members for this are the Ministers for Agricuture, Anima Husbandry and Fisheries, and the senior officers of various state governments, representatives of Pariament, industry, education institutes, scientific organizations and farmers (Appendix 1). The Governing Body (Appendix 2) is the chief executive and decision-making authority of the ICAR. It is headed by the Director-Genera. It consists of eminent agricutura scientists, educationists, egisators and representatives of the farmers. It is assisted by the Standing Finance Committee, Accreditation Board, Regiona Committees, Poicy and Panning Committee, severa Scientific Panes and The Screening Committee was constituted for the first time for finaization of the Annua Recruitment Pan of the ICAR system. The ICAR has fied up 96 posts of the Gazetted Officers out of 154, and 936 posts of non-gazetted officias out of 746. The Mehta Committee Recommendations were sent to a Head, Subject Matter Divisions to process them for operationaization/impementation in the ICAR with the approva of the Competent Authority. The Nationa Institute of Financia Management revised the report and ICAR officias woud visit the NIFM for updating/making further corrections of the Report.

212 206 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Media persons highy appreciated the meeting with new DG, ICAR-Dr Mangaa Rai Pubications Committee. In the scientific matters, the Director-Genera is assisted by 8 Deputy Director-Genera, one each for (i) Crop Science, (ii) Horticuture, (iii) Natura Resource Management, (iv) Agricutura Engineering, (v) Anima Sciences, (vi) Fisheries, (vii) Agricutura Education, and (viii) Agricutura Extension. The DDGs are responsibe for the Institutes, Nationa Research Centres and Project Directorates in their respective fieds. The members of Standing Finance Committee are DG (ICAR), Secretary (Agricuture), Scientists, Senior Officers, Farmers, and Members of Pariament (Appendix 3). The senior officers posted at the ICAR (headquarters) are isted in Appendix 4 of the ICAR. The ICAR receives funds from the Government of India and from the proceeds of the Agricutura Produce Cess. The ICAR deveops technoogies and disseminates knowedge to farming community not ony for increasing yieds of crops and maintaining natura resources but aso for eevating community s economic status. The Directorate of Information and Pubications of Agricuture is working independenty with the approva of the competent authority and brings out 1 tite on every third day. The Research set up of the ICAR incudes 47 Centra Institutes (Appendix 5), 5 Nationa Bureaux (Appendix 6), 12 Project Directorates (Appendix 7), 33 Nationa Research Centres (Appendix 8), and 82 A-India Co-ordinated Research Projects (Appendix 9). Besides ICAR finances research scheme; and 12 externay-aided projects are aso in operation through the United States-India Fund. The ICAR promotes research, education and extension education in 40 state agricutura universities, 5 deemed-to-be-universities and 1 Centra Agricutura University for the North-Eastern His Region by giving financia assistance in different forms (Appendix 10). For effective communication of research findings among farmers, the ICAR maintains an effective network of Krishi Vigyan Kendras, and Trainers Training Centres aong with Zona Co-ordinating Units. The tota sanctioned as we as existing strength of the empoyees of the ICAR system, incuding Schedued Castes, Schedued Tribes and Other Backward Casses, is given in Appendix 11. Thus with an extensive network of research infrastructure, backed by the exceent teams of scientists and other empoyees, the ICAR is making rapid strides in agricutura research, and provides support to the nationa efforts towards achieving food security and sef-sufficiency. ADMINISTRATION The constitution of the VIII Task Force was recommended during Xth meeting of the Standing Poicy and Panning Committee of the Governing Body under the Chairmanship of Dr M S Swaminathan. Seventy-seven officers were notified in the Gazettes of the Government of India. ICAR (Hq.) and its Institutes ceebrated Hindi Chetna Mass since 14 September The Budget Estimates and Revised Estimates of DARE and ICAR (Pan and Non-Pan) was Rs 14,045.5 miion for A new Chaudhary Devi La Outstanding AICRP award is being given away for the first time. Recruitment rues Recruitment Rues for the post of Director (OL), LDC, Record Keeper (Group C), Studio Attendant (Group D), and Franking Machine Operator (Group D) ICAR were framed. Fiing up of vacant posts Many vacant posts ike Senior Administrative Officers, Administrative Officers, Senior Finance and Accounts Officers, Finance and Accounts Officers, Section Officers, Assistants, UDCs, Persona Assistants, LDCs and Supporting Staff Grades etc. were fied up. For fiing up the various posts under LDE quota for Assistants/ Section Officers competitive examinations were hed by the Agricutura Scientists Recruitment Board. As per the Government of India instructions, the Screening Committee was constituted for the first time for finaization of the Annua Recruitment Pan of the ICAR system. Probation/Confirmation Cases of Cearance of Production Period/Confirmation of Administrative Officers, Finance and Account Officers/Assistants/PAs/LDCs were taken up/during the year.

213 207 ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT Gazetted posts sanctioned/fied/vacant in the ICAR as on Posts Scae of pay No. of posts Fied Vacant No. of No. of No. of Remarks sanctioned posts posts SC ST OBC Director (P) 14, ,300 Director (F) 14, ,300 Director (OL) 12, ,500 Deputy Secretary 12, ,500 Deputy Director (P) 12, ,500 Deputy Director (F) * *excudes one post of 16,500 DD (F) at NATP as the same has been temporariy shifted from IVRI, Izatnagar Deputy Director (OL) 12, ,500 Controer of Examination 12, ,500 Under-Secretary 10, ,200 SA to Chairman, ASRB 10, ,200 Senior Finance and 10, * *excudes one post of Accounts Officer 15,200 SF & AO at NATP as the same has been temporariy shifted from CPRI, Shima Lega Adviser 10, ,200 Finance and 8, Accounts Officer 13,500 Assistant Lega Adviser 6, ,500 Assistant Director (OL) 6, ,500 Junior Anayst 6, ,500 + Sp. Aowances Desk Officer 6, ,500 Protoco Officer 6, * 01 10,500 (continued to next page)

214 208 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT (continued from previous page) Posts Scae of pay No. of posts Fied Vacant No. of No. of No. of Remarks sanctioned posts posts SC ST OBC Assistant Finance 6, *incudes one AF & AO and Accounts Officer 10,500 who is presenty on deputation with Deputy Speaker (Lok Sabha) on Co-terminus basis Section Officer 6, *= *2 posts kept in 10,500 abeyance for creation of posts under NATP Private Secretary 6, * *excudes one post as 10,500 its incumbent is presenty on deputation with NCA, Indore *Incuding ad hoc appointment. Non-Gazetted Posts (Groups C and D) sanctioned/fied/vacant in ICAR as on Posts Scae of pay No. of posts Fied Vacant No. of No. of No. of Remarks sanctioned posts posts SC ST OBC Assistant 5, * UDCs working as 9,000 Assistants on ad hoc basis against these 34 posts Persona Assistant 5, , * Steno. Grade III working as PA on ad hoc basis Senior Research Assistant 5, Junior Law Officer 5, , Junior Accounts Officer 5, , Data Coector and 4, Assessor 7,000 Steno Grade III 4, , UDC 4, , Sports Assistant , Kept in abeyance Confidentia Assistant 5, , Kept in abeyance (Awards) Programme Officer 5, , Kept in abeyance Senior Saes Assistant 5, , Kept in abeyance Junior Saes Assistant 4, , Kept in abeyance Confidentia Assistant 5, , (AM) Language PA with AM 5, , (continued to next page)

215 209 ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT (continued from previous page) Posts Scae of pay No. of posts Fied Vacant No. of No. of No. of Remarks sanctioned posts posts SC ST OBC LDC 3, , ,590 Peon 2, , ,200 Farash 2, , ,200 Chowkidar 2, , ,200 Mai 2, , ,200 Packer 2, , ,200 Studio Attendant 2, ,200 Store Attendant 2, , ,200 Safaiwaa 2, , ,200 Daftry 2, , , ,000 Jamadar 2, , , ,000 Head Packer 2, , ,000 Junior Gestner Operator 2, , , ,000 Franking Machine 2, , Operator 65 3, ,000 Record Keeper 2, , ,400 Library Attendant 2, , ,400 Fie Attendant 2, , ,400 Despatch Rider 3, , ,590 Senior Gestetner 3, , operator 80 4,590 *Incuding ad hoc appointment

216 210 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT POLICY AND PERSPECTIVE PLANNING ICAR has taken a number of initiative for O & M reforms to improve the working environment and for making research need-based, effective, efficient and reevant. Under the Nationa Agricutura Technoogy Project (NATP), Organization and Management (O & M) reforms constitute an important component. The important activities organized under O & M component of NATP are given here. Operationaization of the recommendations of the O and M Task Force Sub-committee on Administrative Matters: The recommendations of the Sub- Committee on Administrative Matters of the O & M Task Force, popuary known as Mehta Committee, were sent to a the Heads of the concerned Subject Matter Divisions of the Counci with the request to them for feed back for operationaization/ impementation in the ICAR with the approva of the competent authority. The report is thus under examination. Operationaization of the recommendations of O and M Task Force Sub-Committee on Agricutura Extension of ICAR: The Extension Division has accepted a the recommendations of the sub-committee for its impementation by the Krishi Vigyan Kendras but for the recommendation which states the Trainers Training Centres (TTCs) have ost their reevance and be aboished and their work shoud be entrusted to the ICAR/State Agricutura Universities. The Extension Division has communicated the acceptance of the recommendations to a the Zona Co-ordinators for impementation and transmission to a the Krishi Vigyan Kendras for improving their effectiveness. Report of the Review of the ICAR Institutes: The recommendations of the Consutants are mutidiscipinary in nature and reate to various Heads of the Subject Matter Divisions of the Counci. The key recommendations and action points arising out of the report of the consutants have been sorted out and put up for the approva of the competent authority. The report is thus under examination. Report on the Finance and Audit, Budget and Procurement System Reforms: Nationa Institute of Financia Management (NIFM) had revised the report after a foow up of the meeting hed on 29 Apri, The revised report was again discussed in a meeting hed on 25 October, 2002 under the Chairmanship of Additiona Secretary, DARE and Financia Adviser DARE wherein an officer of NIFM aso participated. During the course of deiberations it was emerged that the revision in the report was however, ony margina and fe quite short of expectations. It was pointed out that the revision did not re-structure the report as desired, so as to make it specific to activities reating to items of expenditure. After considerabe deiberations, it was agreed that the NIFM woud further revise the report to incorporate the Sub-Sections/Sections as suggested in the meeting. It was aso agreed that once the NIFM had brought out the Report as indicated above, the ICAR officias woud visit the NIFM for updating/making further correction of the Report. Training: Keeping in view the importance of the Human Resource Deveopment, various training programmes were conducted in various training institutions of repute for 18 officias from Scientific, Technica, Administrative and Finance categories during the reported period. The ICAR aso organized a Modue-II Retreat programme for Senior Executives of the Counci at the Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad from 6 to 8 September, Standing Poicy and Panning Committee The ICAR organized Xth meeting of the Standing Poicy and Panning Committee (SPPC) of the Governing Body on 30th September, 2002 under the Chairmanship of Dr M S Swaminathan. This Committee recommended the constitution of the Eight Task Forces viz. a task force each on the Farming System Diversification and Vaue Addition, deveoping action pans for acceerating agricutura progress in areas with considerabe untapped production potentia, enhancing factor productivity with specia reference to irrigation water, mobiizing frontier technoogies for the

217 211 ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT technoogica upgrading of farm famiies during the production and post-production phases of farming, IARI in the 21st century, home and Internationa trade, cimate change, and agricuture and commerciaization of technoogies. RESERVATION OF POSTS FOR SCHEDULED CASTES, SCHEDULED TRIBES AND OBCs Direct recruitment on the A-India basis SCs STs OBCs (a) By open competition (i.e. through the 15% 7.5% 27% UPSC or by means of open competitive test hed by any other authority) (b) Other than at (a) above 16.66% 7.5% 25.84% These reservations were made appicabe to the ICAR (Hq) and its Research Institutes/Centres. The position regarding the percentage of Schedued Castes/ Schedued Tribes and Other Backward Casses in the ICAR (headquarters) and its Research Institutes/Nationa Research Centres/Project Directorates during is as given here. Category (%) SCs (%) STs (%) OBCs Scientific Posts Technica Posts Administrative Posts Supporting Staff (excuding Safaiwaa) Supporting Staff (Safaiwaa) Auxiiary Posts DARE PROGRESSIVE USE OF HINDI Department of Agricutura Research and Education has an Officia Languages Section for the compiance and impementation of the Officia Language Poicy of the Government of India. It consists of one post each of Assistant Director (Officia Language), Junior Hindi transator, Hindi steno and Hindi typist. Besides the Hindi Transation of the Budget, Annua Report of the Department etc. The functioning of this section aso incudes to hod Hindi workshops, meetings, reports, organizing Hindi week to encourage the empoyees for doing their officia work in Hindi. ICAR There are 250 offices under ICAR and out of these 72 are main Institutes whie remaining 178 are regiona stations of the Institutes/Project Directorates/Nationa Research Centres/Bureaux etc. Out of these offices tota 77 offices of the Counci were notified as Hindi offices in the Gazette of the Government of India under rue 10 (4) of the Officia Language Rue Joint Officia Language Impementation Committee of the DARE and the ICAR working under the Chairmanship of the Additiona Secretary, DARE/Secretary, ICAR met reguary. Simiary, Officia Language Impementation Committees constituted at 86 ICAR Institutes/Centers etc. hed their meetings reguary. Remaining institutes Dr Panjab Singh is giving away fower bouquet to our guest on Hindi award ceremony

218 212 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Mr Ramesh Kumar, UDC, DIPA, secured second position in Hindi typing test etc. were instructed to constitute such committees immediatey. Proceedings of the Officia Language Impementation Committee meetings hed by the Institutes etc. as we as the quartery progress reports regarding use of Officia Language Hindi received from various institutes at the ICAR (headquarter) were reviewed, and remedia steps were suggested to overcome the shortcomings found in the proceedings and the reports. Rosters were maintained for imparting training in Hindi, Hindi typing and Hindi Stenography and officias were accordingy deputed for training and 12 stenographers and 9 typists were nominated for Hindi Stenography and Typing during the reported year. ICAR (headquarter) and its institutes ceebrated Hindi Chetna Mass since 14 September, Prizes were given away on 12 November The messages of Hon be Minister of Agricuture, and Secretary, ICAR were issued in which they appeaed to do maximum officia work in Hindi. During 2002 Hindi Workshops (3) were organized for officers/staff members. During cash awards were given to 10 officias at the ICAR (headquarters) for doing their maximum officia work in Hindi. Under the Rajarshri Tandon Rajbhasha Purskar scheme aunched in , Indian Agricutura Research Institute, Pusa, New Dehi received first prize; Nationa Dairy Research Institute, Karna received second prize under the category of Large Institutes. Under Category of Sma Institutes, Centra Institute for Sub-tropica Horticuture, Lucknow got first prize and the Nationa Research Centre for Soybean, Indore received second prize. Under Category of C region Centra Institute for Fisheries Technoogy, Cochin received first prize and Nationa Academy of Agricutura Research, Hyderabad received second prize. In accordance with the recommendations made by Department of Officia Language and Pariamentary Committee on Officia Language, to assess the progress of use of Hindi at the Counci (headquarter) as we as its institutes, during 2002 fifteen offices were inspected and suggestions were given to improve the shortcomings. The RAJBHASH ALOK (5th issue) was pubished which gives a brief description of progress made in Hindi work at the Counci and its institutes. Other institutes aso brought out Hindi pubicatios. Most of the computers at the ICAR (headquarter) are biingua and some of them work cent per cent in Hindi ony. The Counci and its institutes are organizing reguar training programmes for farmers in Hindi and in other regiona anguages and remarkabe progress was observed in Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Hindi speaking region and in the other regiona anguages in their day to day officia work. During 2002 Town Officia Language Impementation Committee, Hyderabad awarded Roing Shief to Nationa Academy of Agricutura Research Management, Hyderabad for the best performance in Impementation of the Officia Language Poicy of the Union among the Centra Government Offices and for origina writing in Hindi on technica subjects, whie Centra Research Institute for Dryand Agricuture, Hyderabad was awarded with Research Laboratory Roing Shief for being the best research aboratory of the town using Hindi in their day to day officia work during the reported year. Simiary Centra Agricutura Research Institute, Port Bair was awarded with Cha Bajayanti Shieds for doing maximum work in Hindi during Besides a the materia regarding Pariament, Annua Report, Xth Five-Year Pan, Report, Review of demands for grants, Genera Body, Standing Finance Committee, Pariamentary Standing Committee on Agricuture, Annua Genera Meeting of ICAR society and many other meetings were prepared biingua. The Hon be Agricuture Minister and other higher officias deivered their speeches in Hindi. The draft of speeches of Hon be Union Agricuture Minister and other higher officias of ICAR were prepared originay in Hindi aso.

219 213 ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT FINANCE AND AUDIT The Budget Estimates (BE) and Revised Estimates (RE) of DARE and ICAR (Pan and Non-Pan) for are Rs 14,045.5 miion and Rs 1,325 miion respectivey and BE for (Pan and Non-Pan) is Rs 14,980.5 miion. The detaied break-up of these financia figures are given here. The detais of Department of Agricutura Research and Education (DARE) are given in respect of BE and RE for and BE for This excudes the payment to the ICAR. Budget Estimates and Revised Estimates of DARE and ICAR (Rupees in miion) Item Budget Estimates Revised Estimates Budget Estimates Pan Non-Pan Pan Non-Pan Pan Non-Pan Major Head Secretariat Major Head Genera 798 Internationa Co-operation India s membership contribution to Commonweath Agricutura Bureau Internationa India s membership contribution to Consutative Group on Internationa Agricutura Research Other Programmes India s contribution to Asia Pacific Association of Agricutura Institutions India s contribution to NACA India s contribution to CGPRT India s contribution to Seed, and Seed Testing Association ISHS, Begium CAU, Impha 2.30 ICAR AWARDS CEREMONY 2002 The ICAR, over the years, has instituted a number of awards recognizing that an appropriate incentive and reward system in an organization makes the performance of its empoyees proficient, productive and satisfying. There coud be no greater satisfaction to a scientist, extension worker, farmer and deveopment officia than to witness him or her sincere efforts being recognized at nationa eve. A new award, Chaudhary Devi La Outstanding A-India Co-ordinated Research Project award, which was instituted ast year, is being given for the first time to the two A- India Co-ordinated Research Projects as joint award for their meritorious contributions. This year, the awardees incuded 27 scientists and their 46 associates from the ICAR Institutes, 18 scientists/teachers and their 13 associates from State Agricutura Universities. Out of the tota 112 awardees, approximatey 15% were women

220 214 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Dr M P Yadav, Director (IVRI, Izatnagar), is receiving Sardar Pate Outstanding ICAR Institution award 2001 NG Ranga Farmer Award for Diversified Agricuture 2001 is being given away by MoA, Shri Ajit Singh scientists. Nine awards were given away to the Scientists of the Defence Research Deveopment Organization, Fied Research Laboratory, Leh, Ladakh; Mumbai Veterinary Coege, Mumbai; and Shri Venketeshwar University, Triputhy. There were a outside the Nationa Agricutura Research System comprising ICAR Institutions and State Agricutura Universities. A book written by a farmer on Indigenous Traditiona Knowedge and farming practices was aso been rewarded. One agricutura university, one Nationa Institute and one Nationa Research Centre/ Project Directorate received Best Institution Awards for their exceent contribution to agricutura research and education. There are 18 Jawahara Nehru Awards for doctora thesis incuding one Joint Award. The research work done by the young scientists has broken severa new grounds in the fied of Crop Science, Anima Sciences, Fisheries, Natura Resource Management, and Post-harvest Technoogy and Agricutura Engineering. Distinguished contribution of the awardees has been in isoation of RIL and APR gene for achieving durabe resistance in wheat, heat toerance in wheat, estabishing protopast regeneration system from indica, japonica, wid abortive cytopasmic mae sterie and maintainer ine of rice, and RT-PCR and nuceic acid hybridization assays for detection of bue-tongue virus in sheep, identification of casua agent of steriity mosaic disease of pigeon pea, insect toerance to Bt toxins/straints, sustainabiity of rice-wheat cropping system and groundwater management for sunfower cutivation after rice. The other candidates made significant contributions in breeding bananas for resistance to nematodes and Sigatoka eaf sport in vitro screening of genotypes against Fusarium yeow disease resuting in insensitive cones to the disease; research on modeing of sainization and nitrogen osses under sub-surface drainage system; deveopment of process for ong-ife and instant mix of the mik product kheer; diagnosis and management of seenium toxicity in animas; various aspects of the IBD disease; deveopment of therma processing for buffao meat products to be preserved in retort pouches; pathoogy of afatoxin toxicity in Indian major carp; impact of tannery effuent poution on agricuture and socioeconomic conditions of the farming community, and study of iron deficiency in chidren and its management through nutrition education in Sirsi Tauk of Karnataka. Punjabrao Deshmukh Women Agricutura Scientist Awards were given for the deveopment and patenting of a nove, superfast and powerfu hyper-spectra data anayzing method and a software for natura resource monitoring from sateite or aircraft patform. Another candidate made improvement of the nutritive vaue of poor quaity roughages evoving suitabe treatment with akai, ammonia and impregnation with urea. The Vasantrao Naik Award for Research Appications in Agricuture for 2001 was given away for the deveopment of a comprehensive technoogy for water harvesting and rainwater management for providing fu irrigation to transpanted rice-based two crop rotation system. Adoption of technoogy offers potentia to transform the agricuture from subsistence to occupationa eve in the drought prone areas of Orissa. Fakhruddin Ai Ahmed Award was given away for the efforts made on standardization, patent and subsequent transfer of technoogy for commercia production of herba beverage from fruits of seabuckthron widy grown in Leh, Ladakh, and mud carb cuture in brackishwater of Andaman and Nicobar Isands. The ICAR Team Awards were given away for wheat improvement, pear miet improvement and production technoogy; sivipastro system; deveoping techniques for vaue addition and environment safety in rice miing industries; conservation and characterization of coconut germpasm; fish products technoogy; ivestock feed management; and determination of technica needs of the farmers in wettemperate high his and sub-temperate sub-humid mid-his of the Himacha Pradesh based on farming system approach. Eight teachers were honoured for their significant teaching contribution in Pant Breeding and Genetics, Crop Physioogy, Horticuture, Natura Resource Management, Fisheries, Avian Diseases and Home Science.

221 215 ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT In the area of technoogy assessment, refinement and transfer, the roe of Krishi Vigyan Kendras were widey recognized. This year, out of the two awards, one each goes to the ICAR Institute and State Agricutura University for their distinguished contributions under Institute-Viage Linkage Programme for hoistic deveopment of farming community, and integrated pest management in cotton. The Jagjivan Ram Kisan Puruskar was given away to a farmer from viage Kaiar, District Soan, Himacha Pradesh for his outstanding contribution in innovative farming practices. The N.G. Ranga Farmer Award was conferred for Diversified Agricuture to a farmer from Tripura for deveoping a technique of using groundwater for aquacuture, estabishment of a feed mi, deveoping the farming system in diversified agricuture and transfer of management practices. The Rajendra Prasad Puruskar was given away to 8 technica books in Hindi on Integrated Pest Management, Beekeeping, Soi Conservation and Water Management, Hydroogy, Poutry Management, Livestock Diseases in Humans, Indian fisheries, and Indigenous Traditiona Knowedge and Practices. The Chaudhary Charan Singh Award for Exceence in Agricutura journaism has gone to a Stawart who has a distinction of serving the cause of Indian Agricuture for more than 29 years through the audabe anaytica contribution. Hon be Union Agricuture Minsiter, Shri Ajit Singh, gave away the prizes to the Awardees (Appendix 12). TECHNICAL CO-ORDINATION Financia support to scientific societies With the approva, the Standing Committee financia assistance was provided to 48 scientific societies for pubication of journas, to 26 societies and academic universities for hoding Nationa Seminars/Symposia/Conferences and to 8 societies for hoding Internationa Seminars/Symposia/Conferences. Assistance and monitoring DARE/ICAR Annua Report and Highights of Achievements of A.P. Cess Fund Supported Schemes Manuscripts pertaining to DARE/ICAR Annua Report and significant achievements of A.P. Cess Fund Supported Schemes were co-ordinated between the corresponding Heads, Subject Matter Divisions and the Directorate of Information and Pubications of Agricuture. Monthy summary Compied monthy summary on major research achievements, exports, import and other reated matters of a the Institutes/Project Directorates was submitted to Cabinet, Government of India, and other reated departments. Support to DSIR Evauated, processed and provided comments on various proposas submitted by the private and pubic funded organizations reated to agricuture for recognition of their Research and Deveopment Units to the Department of Scientific and Industria Research (DSIR), Government of India. Best Annua Report Awards Appications for the Best Annua Report Awards for to the ICAR Institutes have been processed. ICAR Internationa Training Programme Materia for ICAR s Internationa Training Programmes 2003 document was

222 216 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT coected from a the ICAR Institutes and State Agricutura Universities, compied, coated and co-ordination is being done with the Directorate of Information and Pubications of Agricuture for its pubication. Technica Backstopping Provided technica input ike co-ordination and preparation of Memoranda of Understandings and Work Pans, preparation of technica briefs, attending to reated querries and monitoring deputation reports. Pariament questions, VIP references and materia for papers/taks/repies and preparation of technica notes: Coected and compied information for repy of pariament questions and VIP references, and prepared papers/tak/repies and technica notes on various issues which concerned more than one Head, Subject Matter Division of the ICAR.

223 6. Partnership and Linkages The Partnership and Linkages is an important wing of the DARE/ICAR in which DARE and ICAR have Internationa coaborations through Memoranda of Understandings/Work Pans, Projects, Training Courses, exchange visits etc. During the the major breakthrough incudes organizing a meeting of Pan Poicy Diaogue on Forward Thinking Poicies for Groundwater Management Energy Water Resources and Economic Approaches between the Indian Counci of Agricutura Research (ICAR), India, and Internationa Water Management Institute, Coombo. Further DARE/ICAR have organized a meeting of the Counseors-in-charge of Agricuture in the Embassies/High Commissions/Honorary Consuates Genera/Honorary Consuates in Dehi on 3 October 2002 to inform them about the training faciities avaiabe within the Nationa Agricutura Research System. DARE has sent 82 scientists abroad to attend conferences/meetings/seminars/workshops and has got signed 2 Projects in 2002; and has concuded workshops (4), meetings (4), and Training Courses (2) organized by CGIAR centres in India. H E (Dr) Ephrain Kabaija, Minister of Agricuture, Anima Resources and Forestry, Government of Rwanda Repubic with H E Shri Ajit Singh (MoA) Internationa Co-operation The Internationa Co-operation in the ICAR/DARE has been operating through the MoUs/Work Pans signed with various countries/internationa organizations with ICAR/DARE as the Noda Department and through participation of ICAR/ DARE in the MoUs/Work Pans signed by the Department of Agricuture and Cooperation as Noda Department. In addition, Ministry of Science and Technoogy has deveoped Programmes of co-operation with various countries and Internationa organizations in which ICAR/DARE is the participating agency in agricutura research. The Joint Commissions/Working Groups constituted by the Ministry of Externa Affairs and the Ministry of Commerce have the component of agricuture/ agricutura research in which DARE participates directy or through the Department of Agricuture and Co-operation. MoUs/Work Pans ICAR/DARE agreed on Minutes of the meeting of the Committee on Agricuture and Rura Deveopment under the 12th Session of the Indo- Iran Joint Commission that was signed on 20 May An agreement between Department of Agricutura Research and Education, Government of the Repubic of India and Ministry of Agricuture, Water and Rura Deveopment of the Repubic of Namibia was signed on 29 Apri 2002 to extend the vaidity of existing Work Pan up to 31 December A Protoco was signed on 11th Juy, 2002 during the 14th session of Indo- Bugarian Joint Commission hed in Sofia, Bugaria from 11 to 13 Juy, At Jhansi in provenances tria, provenance Bhopa was found outstanding for growth parameters. DARE has sent 82 scientists to attend conferences/seminars/workshops/ meetings in different countries of the word. MoUs/Workshops were signed with Iran, Namibia and Bugaria. Five foreign aided research projects were signed during with the United Kingdom, Austraia, Indonesia, Thaiand and China.

224 218 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Foreign deegations (more than 8) came to India during the reported period. Indian deegations (more than 65) visited to foreign countries. DARE/ICAR have conducted 4 workshops, 4 meetings, 2 training courses organized by the CGIAR centers in India. The short-term and ong-term courses were arranged for foreign nationas of Nepa, Bhutan, ITEC Programmes, FAO etc. Dr Panjab Singh signed on a work pan between ICAR, India and IRRI, Mania, Phiipines 2002 for extension of the Work Pan between ICAR and Bugarian Nationa Centre for Agrarian Sciences, Bugaria up to 31 December Research Projects Coaborative Impementation of the research project, Strategies and Options for Sustaining Fisheries and Aquacuture Production to benefit poor househod in Asia was signed between ICAR and IC&ARM, Maasiya on 1st March Coaborative Impementation of the research project Deveoping Sustainabe Coconut based income generating Technoogies in poor rura communities in India was signed between ICAR and IPGRI on 8 August Internationa inkages A number of foreign aided research projects were received in this Department during and the foowing projects were approved. DARE conveyed no objection for participation of Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi in the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Project viz. Impacts of Cimate Change on Agricuture with the UKwas signed for 3 years and is commencing from January The aim of the project is to assess effect of inter-and intra-seasona cimatic variabiity on yied of major crops. ICAR-Natura Resource Internationa (NRI), the UK signed on a coaborative project viz. Integrated Management of Fruit Fies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The project is for 3 years and is commencing from 1 January The aim of the project is to deveop integrated pest management methods to reduce the probems of fruit fies Diptera: Tephritidae for sma farmers in the country. ICAR-Austraian Centre for Internationa Agricutura Research (ACIAR) project viz. Permanent beds for irrigated Rice-Wheat and aternative cropping systems in North-West India and South-East Austraia was signed for 5 years and is to be impemented by the Punjab Agricutura University, Ludhiana. The objectives of the project are to increase the sustainabiity, yied, resource use efficiency and profitabiity of Rice-Wheat systems of the Indo-Gangatic Pain (IGP) and of the cropping systems in the rice growing areas of Austraia, through improves soi, water and nutrient management using permanent beds. Internationa Foundation for Science (IFS) Project, Stockhom, Sweden viz. Deveopment of rhizome disinfection technoogy for management of bacteria wit of ginger was approved on 5 September 2002 for 3 years. The objective of the project is to deveop a simpe disinfection technoogy for rhizome Rhizobium soanacearum using renewabe soar energy. The project is to be impemented by the Indian Institute of Spices Research, Caicut. The Project viz. Deveopment of ocayadapted, mutipe disease-resistant, high-yieding chii (Capsicum annuum L.) cutivars for targeted countries in Asia was approved on 16 September 2002 w.e.f. 1 March 2002 for 3 years. The project is to be impemented in 4 coaborating countries viz. India, Indonesia, Thaiand and China. The project was prepared in consutation with South Asian Vegetabe Research Network and Asian Vegetabe Network partners and is being funded by them.

225 219 PARTNERSHIP AND LINKAGES PROTOCOL ACTIVITIES Foreign deegations to India The Indonesian experts were trained in the fied of Pathoogy and Wheat Breeding at Directorate of Wheat Research, Karna for 1 month w.e.f. 1 March H E Mr Dato Choo Sew Kioh, High Commissioner of Maaysia ed 9-member-deegation and visited Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi on 2 May H E Mr C J Mesang (Member of Pariament, Indonesia), Dr Haryono and Mr. Suwarna from Secretariat Agency for Agricutura Research and Deveopment, Indonesia visited India from 5 to 8 May H E Mr Bungaran Saragih, Minister of Agricuture and Forestry, Indonesia, visited Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi; Directorate of Wheat Research, and Nationa Dairy Research Institute, Karna from 13 to 14 May Dr Stein W Bie, Director-Genera, Internationa Service for Nationa Agricutura Research (ISNAR), Netherands, and Dr Wiem Janssen (Director, ISNAR) visited to India from 26 to 29 May Dr Patrick Durand (Director of Externa Affairs, CIRAD), Dr Roberto Bacieri (Secretary Genera, Externa Department., INRA), and Dr S Kaushik (Director, Hydrobioogy Lab, INRA) from France visited India from 17 to 25 Juy, 2002 and hed discussions for promoting joint coaboration among the ICAR, CIRAD and INRA. H E Professor Mostata Moeen, Hon be Minister of Science, Research and Technoogy, Isamic Repubic of Iran and accompanied senior eve deegation visited Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi on 23 October Dr Panjab Singh (Ex-DG, ICAR) is attending an Ethopian deegation on 10 Juy Dr Mangaa Rai (extreme right), present DG, ICAR, (since 9 January 2003) is aso ooking into the matter H E Dr Ephraim Kabaija, (Minister of Agricuture, Anima Resources and Forestry, Rwanda) ed 15- member deegation and visited Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi on 30 October A two-member deegation from France namey Dr Patrick Durand, Director of Externa Affairs, CIRAD and Dr Robert Bacieri, Secretary Genera, Externa Department, INRA visited India from 21 to 22 November 2002 to discuss formuation of MoU/ Work Pan between ICAR, INRAQ URAD. Two experts namey Mr. Matomoa Brendan, Bagari Research Station and Ms. Otti Lie Shivoo, Masharo Research Station from Namibia visited IIHR, Bangaore for training in the fied of indigenous fruits, vegetabes etc. for 16 days from 22 November to 7 December Training of 5 Sri Lankan Scientists namey Ms. W. Iangantiake, Ms. N. Hettiarachchi, Ms. I. Mudannayake, Ms. I.I.I.Pieris and Ms. Sumetra Herath in Library Sciences from 7 to 6th June, 2002 at Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi under ICAR-CARP Work Pan for (extended up to ) Indian deegations to foreign countries Dr V M Reddy (Principa Scientist, Nationa Research Centre for Oipam, Pedavegi, Andhra Pradesh) visited Maaysia from 3 to 4 June 2002 to study the Programme of Oipam Pantation. Dr Panjab Singh, (Secretary, DARE, and Director- Genera, ICAR) visited Ohio State University, USA from 19 to 22 Juy 2002 to study future coaborative programmes and formuation of Work Pan between the ICAR and OSU, USA in the agricutura research. Dr B M C Reddy [Project Coordinator (Tropica Fruits)] and Dr V V Suadmath, (Scientist, Indian Institute of Horticutura Research, Bangaore)] visited Sri Lankan Counci for Agricutura Research Poicy (CARP), Sri Lanka in the fied of Nursery Production and Management of Rambutan Mangosteen and Durain from 5 to 17 August Dr S H Jaikop (Senior Scientist, Indian Institute of Horticutura Research, Bangaore) visited Sri Lankan Counci for Agricutura Research Poicy (CARP), Sri Lanka during 5 to 17 August 2002 in the fied of Joint exporation of germpasms for mangosteen and jackfruit. Dr D K Tandon (Senior Scientist, Centra Institute for Subtropica Horticuture, Lucknow) and Dr R B Tewari (Scientist, Indian Institute of Horticutura Research, Bangaore) visited Sri Lanka Counci for Agricutura Research Poicy (CARP), Sri Lanka in the fied of Post-harvest Management of Tropica Fruits from 5 to 18 August 2002.

226 220 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Dr G Kaoo, DDG (Hort.), and Dr R C Maheshwari, ADG (TC), ICAR visited Sri Lanka Counci for Agricutura Research Poicy (CARP), Sri Lanka to review the Work Pan for and for finaization of the Work Pan for between the ICAR and CARP from 19 to 23 August Dr O P Joshi (Principa Scientist, Nationa Research Centre on Soybean, Indore) visited Indonesia to study the Production Technoogy of Soybean under Work Pan for 10 days w.e.f. 21 August Dr Mangaa Rai, DDG (Crop Science), ICAR (hqrs), New Dehi visited South Africa as member of the deegation ed by Agricuture Minister during 16 to 20 October Dr D K Pau, [Principa Scientist (IWM), ICAR (hqrs) visited Sri Lankan Counci for Agricutura Research Poicy (CARP), Sri Lanka from 21 to 26 October, 2002 for On-Farm Irrigation Management in Mahawei Area under the Work Pan between the ICAR and CARP, Sri Lanka. Dr S Ghosh, Sr. Scientist, IVRI, Izatnagar, visited Cuba for training in the fied of newer generation vaccine and diagnosis incuding tick contro at the CENSA biocontro Institute, Cuba under the Work Pan for 6 days w.e.f. 24 to 29th November Dr M R Dinesh, Sr. Scientist, IIHR, Bangaore visited CARP, Sri Lanka from 16 to 28 December 2002 for Joint exporation of germpasm for mango. Dr S N Shuka, ADG (FFC), was deputed to Hanoi, Vietnam for participation in the 4th Internationa Symposium on Hybrid Rice under the United Nations Deveopment Project on Deveopment of Hybrid Rice Technoogy for arge-scae adoption in India for 4 days w.e.f. 14 May, Dr B S Dhankar, ADG (Vegetabe Crops), was deputed to Bangkok, Thaiand for participation in the Panning Workshop under the German Government funded Project viz., Deveopment of ocay-adapted, mutipe disease-resistant, high-yieding chii cutivars for targeted countries in Asia for 7 days w.e.f. 9 May Dr C D Mayee (Director, Centra Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur) was deputed to the United Kingdom for attending the project coordinating committee meeting under ICAR-NRI, the UK coaborative project on Sustainabe contro of the cotton boworm Heicoverpa armigera in sma-scae cotton production systems for 3 days w.e.f. 10 June, Dr N K Tyagi (Director, Centra Soi Sainity Research Institute, Karna) was deputed to Beijing (China) for participation in the concuding workshop under Indo- European Commission (EC) Project, Poicies for Water savings in Yeow River Basin; A DSS appied to Ningxia and Shandong for 5 days w.e.f. 24 June Dr H P Singh (Director, Centra Research Institute of Dryand Agricuture, Hyderabad) was deputed to the United Kingdom for attending the meeting for preparation of DFID-CRIDA project Better iveihoods through improved natura resources management in SAT India on 27 June Dr Partap Narain (Director, Centra Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur) was deputed to Damascus, Syria for participation in the 5th Session Foca Point Meeting for 5 days w.e.f. 8 Juy Dr A K Shikka (Director, ICAR Research Compex for Eastern Region, Patna) was deputed to the United Kingdom under DFID projects Integrated Management of Land and Water Resources for enhancing productivity in Bihar and Eastern UP and Liveihoods improved through improved crop and soi management for 9 days w.e.f. 5 September Dr J S Samra, DDG (NRM), was deputed to Austraia for attending Annua Meeting of ACIAR-ICAR Projects on Physioogica and genetic approaches for the deveopment of waterogging toerance in wheat on sodic/akaine and natura sois in India and Austraia for 2 days w.e.f. 9 September Dr S Edison (Director, Centra Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram) was deputed to Beagio, Itay for participation in the Goba Cassava Pan Strategic Meeting under USAID Programme for 5 days, w.e.f. 1 October, Dr N B Singh, ADG (OP), was deputed to Rothamsted, the United Kingdom for interaction meeting with scientists of the United Kingdom and monitoring and reviewing the progress of Indo-UK Project on Oiseeds Crops for 11 days w.e.f. 20 September Dr M K Praharaj (Sr. Scientist, Project Directorate of Poutry, Hyderabad) visited at INRA, France for 1 year w.e.f. December 2001 for avaiing Post-doctora Feowship. Dr R Madhusudhana (Scientist, NRCS, Hyderabad) visited at Institute of Grassand and Environmenta Research, Aberystwyth, UK for 1 year w.e.f. 26 June 2002 for avaiing BOYSCAST Feowship. Dr A Sarangi (Scientist, Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi) visited at Mc Gi University, Canada for 2 years w.e.f. 03 January 2002 for avaiing Post-doctora Feowship. Dr Dheer Singh (Scientist, Nationa Research Centre on Came, Bikaner) visited at University of South Carnia, USA for 1 year w.e.f. January, 2002 for avaiing BOYSCAST Feowship. Sh. Gorakh Ma, (Scientist, Nationa Research Centre on Came, Bikaner) visited at the University of Sheffied, the UK for 3 years w.e.f. January, 2002 for avaiing higher studies eading to award of Ph.D. Dr Suresh Gurduru (Scientist, Indian Grassand and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi) visited at Wageningen, the Netherands w.e.f. 14 January to 25 Juy 2002 for avaiing 2002 Angophone ICRA Feowship. Dr V N Waghmare (Scientist, Centra Institute of

227 221 PARTNERSHIP AND LINKAGES Cotton Research, Nagpur) visited at the University of Georgia, USA for 1 year w.e.f. 27 March 2002 for avaiing BOYSCAT Feowship award. Dr P H Zaidi (Scientist, Directorate of Maize Research, IARI, New Dehi) visited at CIMMYT, Mexico for 1 year w.e.f. 20 February 2002 for avaiing BOYSCAST Feowship. Dr Ashok Santra (Scientist, Centra Sheep and Woo Research Institute, Avikanagar) visited Austraia for 1 year w.e.f. 2 September 2002 for avaiing BOYSCAT Feowship. Sh. P G Pati (Incharge, Ginning Training Centre, CIRCOT, Mumbai) visited at M/S LUMMUS Corporation, Savannah, USA for 1 week to attend spot Technica Training w.e.f. 28 January Dr R K Sharma (Scientist, Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi) visited to Germany for 3 months w.e.f. 1 February 2002 to attend training under INSA s Internationa Scientific Coaboration and Exchange of Scientists Programme. Dr K S Shivashankara (Scientist, Indian Institute of Horticutura Research, Bangaore) visited at Nationa Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, for avaiing Post-doctora Feowship for1 year and 14 days w.e.f. 1 Apri Dr S Chakraborthy (Scientist, Indian Institute of Vegetabe Research, Varanasi) visited University of Missouri, St. Louis, USA for 12 months w.e.f. 7 May 2002 for avaiing BOYSCAST Feowship award. Dr (Mrs) Sunita Grover (Scientist, Nationa Dairy Research Institute, Karna) visited at Nationa Food Research Institute, Japan for avaiing UNU Postdoctora Feowship for 1 year w.e.f. 1st week of Apri Dr C D Singh (Scientist, Centra Institute of Agricutura, Bhopa) visited for 2 years w.e.f. 1st week of Apri 2002 for persuing Ph.D. Degree under Japanese Government Schoarship, Sh. Sanjeev Kumar Srivastava (Scientist, Nationa Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow) visited Canberra, Austraia for 3 years w.e.f. 31 March 2002 for persuing Ph.D. Study. Sh. H K Barman, (Scientist, Centra Institute of Fisheries Aquacuture, Bhubaneshwar) visited the Kasgoshima University, Japan for persuing higher studies in Biotechnoogy for 2 years w.e.f. 1 Apri Dr Himanshu Pathak (Sr. Scientist, Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi) visited at IWNI, Sri Lanka to attend an interview for the post of Sr. Soi Scientist for 2 days w.e.f. 4 Apri Dr N Kanna Babu (Scientist, Nationa Research Centre for Sorghum, Hyderabad) and Dr Sanjay Gupta (Scientist, Indian Institute of Puses Research, Kanpur), visited at IAC, Wageningen, The Netherands w.e.f. 29 Apri 2002 for 10 weeks to attend an I.C. on Seed Production and Seed Technoogy. Sh. Ravi Chandran (Scientist, CPRS, Muthorai, Tami Nadu) visited at IAC, Wageningen, The Netherands for 10 weeks w.e.f. 22 Apri 2002 to attend an I.C. on Potato, Production Storage and Seed Technoogy. Dr A Mohan Rao (Assistant Professor, University of Agricutura Sciences, Bangaore) visited IAC, Wageningen, The Netherands for 10 weeks w.e.f. 20 Apri 2002 to attend an I.C on Appied Pant Breeding. Dr (Mrs) M Sujatha (Sr. Scientist, Directorate of Oiseeds Research, Hyderabad) visted at IAC, Wageningen, The Netherands for 12 days w.e.f May 2002 to attend course on Pant Biotechnoogy. Dr Prikhshyat Singh (Principa Scientist, Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi) visted Germany for 6 months w.e.f. 26 Juy 2002 under INSA s Biatera Exchange of Scientists Programme. Sh S P Singh (Technica Assistant, NRCIPM, New Dehi) visited the Netherands w.e.f. 13 May to 28 June 2002 to attend training course on Integrated Pest Management. Dr (Mrs) Nisha Pate (Senior Scientist, Centra Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur) visited Israe for 4 weeks w.e.f. 21 May to 18 June 2002 to attend training course on Research and Deveopment of New Concepts in Integrated Bioogica Pest Management. Dr J S Bentur (Principa Scientist, Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad) visited at Internationa Rice Research Institute, Mania to attend an interview for the post of Entomoogist for 6 days w.e.f. 20 May Dr Jagdev Sharma (Scientist, Nationa Research Centre on Garic, Pune) visited Israe to attend Internationa course on Pressurized Irrigation Systems for 3 weeks w.e.f. 28 May Dr S P Trehan [Principa Scientist, CPRS, Jaandhar (Punjab) ] visited Germany for under INSA s Biatera Exchange of Science Programme. Dr C K Beura (Scientist, Centra Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar) visited Israe to attend training course on Poutry Management, Nutrition Physioogica and Veterinary aspects for 4 weeks w.e.f. 25 June Dr O P Yadav (Sr. Scientist, Centra Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur) visited UK for 3 months w.e.f. 5 August 2002 under INSA s Programme to attend training course on Moecuar mapping marker assisted seection and anaysis drought toerance in pearmiet. Dr (Mrs) B Meenakumar (HOD TT, Centra Institute of Fisheries Technoogy, Kochi) visited Canada for 3 months w.e.f. 15 Juy 2002 for avaiing Post-doctora feowship at the University of Davis, USA. Dr (Mrs) Anita Grover (Senior Scientist, Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi) visited USA for 2 years w.e.f. 1 August 2002 for avaiing postdoctora feowship at the University of Davis, USA. Dr S S Giri (Scientist, Centra Institute for Fish

228 222 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Aquacuture, Bhubaneshwar) visited Germany for undergoing speciaized research at Institute for Tierrnahring, University of Boon, Germany under INSA s Biatera Exchange Programme for 3 months w.e.f. August Dr Samadhan J Jadhao (Scientist, HSADL, Bhopa) visited USA for avaiing Post-doctora Feowship at Washington, USA for 1 year w.e.f.12 August Dr B Venkateswaru (Principa Scientist, Centra Research Institute of Dryand Agricuture, Hyderabad) visited China to attend an Internationa course on Bioogica Fertiizer Technoogy at Hebei, China for 1 months w.e.f. 28 August Dr S K Chakrabarty (Senior Scientist, Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi) visited Japan to attend a training course on Protection of Pant Breeder s Right in Japan for 8 and haf week w.e.f.19 August Dr R S Chande (Assistant Scientist, Dr YSPUH&F, Soan) and Dr S K Lavania (Assistant Professor, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, Uttarancha) visited Germany to attend training course on Improvement of the Training Quaity in Coeges of Agricuture and Forestry in Germany for 5 week w.e.f. 7 October Dr S K Chakrabarty (Scientist, Centra Potato Research Institute, Shima) visited USA for avaiing Biotechnoogy Overseas Association award at the State University of New Jersey, USA for 6 months w.e.f. 30 November Dr Jagdish Singh (Senior Scientist, Indian Institute of Vegetabe Research, Varanasi) visited to Israe to attend training on Biotechnoogy in Agricuture Pant Microorganisms for 19 days w.e.f. 29 October Dr B P Mishra (Senior Scientist, Nationa Bureau of Anima Genetic Resources, Karna) visited USA for avaiing Biotechnoogy Overseas Association (ongterm) award in USA for 12 months w.e.f. 2 November Dr K V Ravishankar (Senior Scientist, Indian Institute of Horticutura Research, Bangaore) visited USA for avaiing Biotechnoogy Overseas Association (ongterm) award in USA for12 months w.e.f. 6 December Dr U K Behera (Scientist, Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi) visited UK to attend training in the areas of Farming Systems Research at the Roya Society of London, UK for 3 months w.e.f. 15 October Sh. Murtaza Husan (Scientist, Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi) visited Israe to attend a training course on Research and Deveopment in Irrigation and Fertigation in Controed Environment for 40 days w.e.f. 5 November Dr Mam Chand Singh (Scientist, Indian Agricutura Research Institute, New Dehi) visited Israe to attend training on Sustainabe horticutura crops production undercimatic constraints from 8 October to 25 November Dr K P Jithendran (Senior Scientist, Centra Institute of Fish Aquacuture, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa) visited Phiippines to attend in the fied of Diagnostic for viro Diseases in Shrimps and Marine Fisheries at SEAFDEC for 15 days w.e.f. 6 November Shri A Chakravarty, Director, DIPA of ICAR visited at CAB Internationa, UK, from 9-13 December 2002 to attend a detaied programme of panning meetings for Eectronic Pubishing. Shri V K Bharti, Chief Production Officer, DIPA of ICAR visited at CAB Internationa, UK, from 9-13 December 2002 to attend a Professiona training in Advance Production Techniques for Eectronic Pubishing. Dr S M Vidyasekhar, Technica Officer, DIPA of ICAR visited at CAB Internationa, UK, from 9-13 December 2002 to attend a Professiona training in database deveopement for Eectronic Pubishing.

229 7. Agricutura Scientists Recruitment Board The anaytica information on the major initiatives and accompishments of the Agricutura Scientists Recruitment Board (ASRB) from 1 Apri 2001 to 31 March 2002 is given here. RECRUITMENT BY EXAMINATION Examination hed during The Board hed examination for Agricutura Research Service (ARS)/Nationa Eigibiity Test (NET)/Senior Research Feow (SRF) in October Candidate Genera SC ST OBCs Tota Appied 11,593 2, ,338 18,796 Appeared 7,365 1, ,783 11,927 The ARS Examination 2001 in respect of Specia Recruitment Drive for the North-eastern His Region and Andaman and Nicobar Isands was hed in December The Limited Departmenta Examination for Stenographers (Grade II) at the ICAR headquarters was notified on 25 Juy 2001 for 8 posts. The examination was hed on 3 October 2001 and ski test on 4 February The Limited Departmenta Examination for Section Officers/Assistants at the ICAR headquarters was notified on 21 February 2002 for 10 posts (Section Officers 1 and Assistants 9). RECRUITMENT BY INTERVIEW Quantum of Work The Board received requisitions for 190 posts during the year and requisitions for 155 posts were carried-over from the previous year. Against a tota number of 345 posts, action to advertise coud not be taken for 40 posts as the same were received at the end of the year. The Board issued 5 advertisements for 305 posts during the year. Besides the 305 advertised posts during the year, earier year advertised posts (176) were aso taken for action during the year. Accordingy 481 posts were taken up during the year for recruitment. Requisitions for 6 posts were withdrawn by the ICAR. Hence out of 475 posts, in 60 cases, no candidate was found eigibe after interview, in 11 cases no candidate appeared for the interview, in 104 cases no candidate was found eigibe to be caed for interview as screened by the expert committees, and for 1 post no candidate had appied. The recommendations were communicated to the Counci for 299 posts. Limited Department Examination for Stenographers (Grade II) Candidates appied for the 41 examination Candidates appeared in the 35 examination Candidates caed for ski test 30 Interview and Seection For the 474 posts (excuding six posts for which no appication received), for which recruitment process was competed, 3,944 appications were received. Of the 2,423 candidates caed for interview, 1,367 appeared.

230 224 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT USE OF HINDI Adequate arrangements were made to promote progressive use of Hindi in the office of the Board. To ensure compiance of Officia Language Poicy of the Centra Government/ICAR and to fufi the target fixed in the annua officia anguage programme, a Hindi Transator is excusivey attending to the reated work. About 65% of Officers and 80.2% staff working in the Board have acquired working knowedge of Hindi. Representative of the Board participates in the quartery meeting of the Officia Language Impementation Committee of the ICAR headquarters where the progress made in the use of Hindi in the officia work of the Board is reviewed. Examination rues, notice, syabi, instructions to candidates, admission certificate, test bookets, answer sheets, appication forms, attendance sheets and attendance ists, etc. were printed both in Engish and Hindi simutaneousy. A the advertisements issued by the Board were prepared and pubished both in Hindi and Engish in the eading newspapers of the country incuding Rozgar Samachar. Hindi version of this annua report of the Board is aso being pubished. Category-wise break-up of 305 posts is as foows: (i) Deputy Director-Genera and Directors of Nationa 4 Institutes (ii) Assistant Directors-Genera, Directors of Institutes, 58 Project Directors and Joint Directors of Nationa Institutes (iii) Project Co-ordinators and Zona Co-ordinators/Joint 12 Directors of Institutes (iv) Heads of Divisions/Regiona Stations 62 (v) Principa Scientists 15 (vi) Senior Scientists 154 Tota 305 Category-wise break-up of 481 posts for which recruitment action taken/ recommended for re-advertisement Scientific (i) Deputy Director-Genera and Directors of Nationa 4 Institutes (ii) Assistant Directors-Genera, Directors of Institutes, 35 Project Directors and Joint Directors of Nationa Institutes (iii) Project Co-ordinators and Zona Co-ordinators/Joint 12 Directors of Institutes (iv) Heads of Divisions/Regiona Stations 75 (v) Principa Scientists 49 (vi) Senior Scientists 200 Technica 2 Posts recommended for re-advertisement 104 Tota 481 Reforms With a view to sharp focus during interview and to gauge the candidates in their areas of strength, the concept of asking Work Pan for next 5 years has been further strengthened and revised, and the candidate is asked to submit: (a) A brief note (not more than one page) reviewing the work done by the candidate during the ast 10 years, highighting the achievements and accompishments during the period incuding technoogy deveoped, project competed, contributions to physica and infrastructure deveopment, interdiscipinary programme formuation and participation in research activities, mobiization of externa funding for projects etc. (b) A Work Pan (not more than three pages) on how the candidate proposes to organize the activities of the post for which he/she is an appicant. The information provided may incude new research projects/thrust areas of work that he or she proposes to introduce, physica and infrastructure faciities proposed to be deveoped, inkages with other research units and deveopment departments proposed, as we as the expected outcomes from these changes. The pan shoud be practica and reaistic in nature and shoud be achievabe within in 5 years and feasibe within the avaiabe resources of the institute. In preparing these pans, the past and present achievements, as we as technoogy deveopment may be criticay reviewed and the critica gaps identified. The annua report, department as we as project reports, may be consuted for deveoping this pan.

231 225 AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS RECRUITMENT BOARD To bring tota objectivity and transparency in the seection process, a score card system has been deveoped by appointing a committee of experts and sent for approva of the competent authority. ASSESSMENT, REVIEW OF ASSESSMENT AND INDUCTION INTO THE ARS Three proposas for assessment under ARS Rues were considered during the year reating to Scientists Grade S-1 and S-2. Two cases of induction reating to Research Management Positions were considered during the year and recommendations were sent to the ICAR. No proposa for review of assessment resut was received during the year. Scientists Pacement Scheme One case was referred to the Board during the period and the Board has recommended the same. Assessment cases under carrier advancement scheme of ICAR during Assessment cases received 1,768 in the ASRB Senior Scientists found 1,688 eigibe to be assessed for Principa Scientists Number of absentees 63 Scientists recommended 1,518 (93.4%) for promotion to Principa Scientists Scientists not recommended 107 (6.6%) for promotion

232 226 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Pubications and Information Shri Ajit Singh, Union Agricuture Minister, reeasing four CDs deveoped by DIPA on eectronic pubishing. Shri Hukumdeo Narayan Yadav, MoS, Dr Panjab Singh, DG, ICAR and Ms Shashi Misra, Secretary ICAR are aso seen standing by his side whie Shri Chakravarty, Director, DIPA expaining a point to the minister ICAR pubications brought out by the Directorate of Information and Pubications of Agricuture both in Engish and Hindi The Indian Counci of Agricutura Research, through a network of institutes and State Agricutura Universities, spread a over the country, conducts and coordinates research, education and training activities on agricuture, anima husbandry and fisheries. Dissemination of the resuts of research, conducted at these institutes, to the end-users is the prime task of the Counci. Keeping this in view, the ICAR, through the Directorate of Pubications and Information brings out a number of periodicas i.e., magazines, newsetters, buetins, brochures, and reports, matching with internationa standards, both in Engish and Hindi for the benefit of progressive farmers, scientists, extension workers, students and the genera pubic. Now, the DIPA has made inroads into e-pubishing in a big way and has recenty reeased four CDs. Engish Editoria Unit PUBLICATIONS During , the Indian Counci of Agricutura Research brought out 50 pubications in Engish incuding Handbook of Anima Husbandry, Textbook of Pant Nematoogy, Fish Processing, Fied Crop Production and Vegetabes, Tubercrops and Spices. Besides DARE/ICAR Annua Report , a number of misceaneous and ad hoc pubications ike Drought Management Strategies, Inventory of Indigenous Technica Knowedge in Agricuture I, ICAR Handbook of Discipinary Matters etc. were aso brought out cearing the backog. In addition to books, the DIPA aso brings out four periodicas reguary. The Indian Journa of Anima Sciences, The Indian Journa of Agricutura Sciences, Indian Farming and Indian Horticuture and three quartery newsetters, viz. ICAR News, ICAR Reporter and ARIS News. The two monthy scientific journas The Indian Journa of Agricutura Sciences and The Indian Journa of Anima Sciences, which are indexed and abstracted internationay continued to maintain the standard both in quaity and content. Indian Farming, a popuar monthy magazine, brought out two specia issues, one on the occasion of Word Food Day (16 October) and another for Internationa Agronomy Congress (26-30 November 2002), Indian Horticuture, a semi-technica quartery, brought out a specia issue on Foricuture (Jan-Mar 2002). ICAR News, a quartery newsetter disseminates research information pertaining to innovations made and new technoogies deveoped both at the institutes and the headquarters. It aso covers profies of the institutes to get a first hand information about their activities. It has a wide readership and is circuated both in India and abroad. ICAR Reporter, a inhouse quartery newsetter covers a important activities of the Counci such as meetings, seminars, conferences and workshops and pubishes reports. It aso covers reforms, personne, internationa inkages etc at the ICAR headquarters and the institutes. The Counci brought out ARIC News, a quartery magazine on information and communication technoogy reguary. Hindi Editoria Unit During the year under report, Hindi Editoria Unit brought out 11 pubications incuding books, buetins and reports, besides its reguar periodicas, viz. Kheti

233 227 PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION (monthy), Pha-Phoo (quartery), Krishi Chayanika (quartery) and ICAR Reporter (quartery). Kheti and Pha-Phoo are popuar magazines, which mainy cater to the needs of farmers and students. Kheti pubishes artices reating to agricuture and aied vocations such as fisheries, anima husbandry, and beekeeping etc., whie Pha- Phoo pubishes artices pertaining to fruits, vegetabes, spices and medicina pants. Kheti brought out five specia/accent issues on Environment (June), ICAR Foundation Day (Juy), Word Food Day (October) and Internationa Agronomy Congress (November) and Fisheries (February). New coumns were started in Kheti for the benefit of farmers. Pha-Phoo pubished its 100th issue (Jan-March) as a specia number on Fruit King, mango. Krishi Chayanika, an informative agricuture digest reports atest achievements/ researches carried out in the fied of agricuture and aied sciences. It presented the synopsis of atest research findings carried out in India and abroad in its coumns. In addition to DARE/ICAR Annua Report ( ), the Hindi Editoria Unit brought out some important books, such as Bharat Mein Dugdh Utpadan, Phaon Ke Rog Sutra, Bher Evam Bakri Nas Sudhar, Papita and Madhu Makhi Paan. The book Phaon ke Rog Sutra, presents usefu information in poetry form whereas Madhu Makhi Paan, a pocket book, provides information in user-friendy format. Some books which were in great demand were aso reprinted. Production Unit The Production Unit, being responsibe for technica management of a the administrative aspects of printing and pubishing books and journas, incuding time-bound pubications for the headquarters of the Counci, continued to pay an important roe in the functioning of the DIPA. A the monthy journas (3 in Engish and 1 in Hindi) were printed we in time maintaining the desired print quaity. Counci s prestigious quartery newsetters ICAR News, ICAR Reporter and ARIS News were printed we in time using the best paper, and the state-of-art print technoogy to achieve the desired print quaity, keeping in view their nationa and internationa readership. Besides, 50 pubications in Engish and 4 in Hindi were printed maintaining the high cass print standards. Specia care is taken for the printing of annua pubications of the Counci required for AGM of ICAR Society such as DARE/ICAR Annua Report in Engish and Hindi, Agenda Notes, Speeches of Agricuture Minister and DG, ICAR, ICAR Budget Book, etc. The time-bound pubications/certificates/citations/invitation cards meant for ICAR Awards Ceremony were aso produced nicey within a short-time during the reported period. The seected important pubications brought out in Engish were Handbook of Anima Husbandry, Textbook of Pant Nematoogy, Fish Processing Technoogy, Fied Crop Production and Vegetabes, Tubercrops and Species. Some other misceaneous pubications brought out in Engish were Drought Management Strategies, Inventory of Indigenous Technica Knowedge in Agricuture-I, ICAR Handbook of Discipinary Matters, Internationa Training Programme. Some Hindi pubications, Phaon ke Rog Sutra, Bhed avem Bakri Nas Sudhar, Papita, Madhu Makhi Paan, Poster for Hindi Week, etc., were printed. Assistance was provided to NATP in production of various pubications brought out by them during the year. Education Division was aso assisted in the production of various curricua. For Hindi Section of the Counci, various certificates and citations were designed and produced in Hindi. Production Unit is consistenty providing support in the production of eectronic pubications for DIPA. Chief of the Production Unit was sent to CABI, UK for training on Advanced Production Techniques in Eectronic Pubishing which wi further refine the production processes. Dr Panjab Singh, DG, ICAR and Secretary, DARE meeting Dr Steniw Y Bie of ISNAR, Netherands. Ms Shashi Misra, Secretary, ICAR was aso present in the meeting Art and Photo Unit The get-up and design pay an important roe in enhancing the beauty and attractiveness of any pubication and thereby increases its sae vaue. Keeping this

234 228 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT in view, the Art Unit has been striving hard to improve the quaity of designs and iustrations of pubications and pubicity materia incuding books, newsetters, reports etc. brought out by the DIPA by adopting newer techniques in conformity with the deveopment in printing industry. During the year under report, the art unit adopted Digita Designing process for a its pubications. The art unit has been successfu in digitizing with database a the photographs on web page of ICAR. The unit is aso making on-ine deivery of photographic materias to internationa organizations ike FAO as per their requirement. In addition to the reguar job, the art unit was responsibe for making designs aestheticay keeping in view the reevance of the subject for some important specia numbers of magazines brought out on the occasion of nationa and internationa conferences, which received much appreciation from one and a. The Photography Unit provides photographs, coour transparencies for various pubications of the ICAR. It covered other activities of the ICAR incuding visits of dignitaries from other countries and press conferences of the Union Minister of Agricuture and the State Minister of Agricuture and the Director-Genera, ICAR. The photo ibrary has provided visua support to the pubications brought out by the DIPA and during the year 1,500 photographs were added to the ibrary. Business Unit Business Unit ooks after the advertisement, distribution and marketing of ICAR pubications, both priced and unpriced. This unit generates revenue for ICAR by marketing the pubications through its arge network among farmers, agricutura scientists, research schoars and students. This unit aso distributes the important pubications ike ICAR/DARE Annua Report, ICAR News, ICAR Reporter, ICAR Budget Book and Teephone Directory etc. to Pariament and other dignitaries reguary. During the period under report, it earned a tota revenue of Rs 40 akh approximatey from saes and advertisements. Out of this amount, Rs 32 akh have been received from sae of pubications, Rs 6.15 akh from books pubished under Revoving Fund and Rs 1.75 akh from advertisements. It is noteworthy that out of Rs 25 akh received from ICAR Revoving Fund for pubication of books, an amount of Rs 11 akh has aready been refunded to ICAR headquarters. To augment the saes of ICAR pubications, vigorous efforts were made by participating in Kisan Meas and organizing Book Exhibitions at a number of paces throughout the country. During the year, the Business Unit participated in seven agricutura fairs/exhibitions incuding India Internationa Trade Fair, New Dehi and Agri-Index, Coimbatore. It has aso made tie-up with ICAR institutes and agricutura universities for sae of ICAR pubications through Agricutura Technoogy Information Centre (ATIC). Steps have aso been taken to renovate and modernize the Business Section. The pubications sae counter, which is functioning at the ground foor of KAB-I, has been renovated and the entire biing system has been computerized. Agricutura Research Information Centre (ARIC) Agricutura Research Information Centre (ARIC) is the centra source of research information of the Counci. It coected and processed information on AP Cess Fund Schemes, Research Projects of ICAR Institutes (RPFs), Indian agricutura periodicas, AICRPs, retired ICAR scientists, crop varieties reeased by ICAR and Nationa Agricutura Research Database (NARD). ARIC, as the Nationa input centre for AGRIS database of FAO, submitted AGRIS Inputs. SDI and document deivery services were provided to about 200 scientists, research schoars and students. ARIC brought out the biennia pubication Directory of Conferences, Seminars, Symposia, Workshops in Agricuture and Aied Sciences and the ICAR Teephone Directory (2002 and 2003).

235 229 PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION Major achievements during are: Nationa Agricutura Research Database (NARD) The Indian Nationa Agricutura Research Database (NARD) was conceptuaized and deveoped by ARIC as a part of the ICAR-CABI workpan under NATP programme. ARIC wi be the coordinating centre of a activities reating to deveopment of the database and a ICAR institutes and SAUs wi act as data acquiring centres. The database covers the bibiographica detais of a Indian research information pubished in India or outside in the fieds of agricuture and aied sciences. Staff of different ibraries wi be required for acquisition and management of documents, preparing bibiographic input worksheets. One thousand six hundred input records were procured and added to the database. A database of 800 agricutura periodicas received by the ICAR institutes was deveoped for aotment to the sub-centres for indexing of information into the database. As an outcome of the database, two quartery abstracting journas, viz. Indian Agricutura Sciences Abstracts and Indian Anima Sciences Abstracts were started. As an HRD activity under the database, trainings were organized for the staff of data acquisition centres and persons from professiona/scientific societies in indexing, document acquisition and management, input worksheet preparation, use of NARD indexing toos etc. NARD toos incude Training Manua, AGROVOC Thesaurus, Subject Categorization Scheme. First too was prepared at ARIC and the remaining two were reproduced ocay with due permission from the FAO. ICAR Research Projects Information Research Project Fies Database (RPF) Database on ongoing Research Projects of ICAR institutes was deveoped which contains information on 2000 Research Projects covering 62 ICAR institutes and it was reeased in eectronic format on CD. The database contains information on the tite, objectives, ocation, P.I., co-workers, technica programme, major achievements, abstract and keywords on each project. The information is easiy searchabe through internet exporer. The CD was reeased by the Union Agricuture Minister in the Award Ceremony of the Counci. Handbook of Horticuture (e-book) ARIC brought out the eectronic book (e-book) based on the Handbook of Horticuture. An easy navigation through a the sections and chapters of the e- book has been made possibe by incorporating a user-friendy software. This is the first-e-book of its kind in ICAR system which paves the way for the eectronic pubishing of its pubications by the ICAR. Low cost technoogy, with no compromise on quaity, has been adopted for bringing out this e-book. The e-book was reeased by the Union Agricuture Minister in the Award Ceremony of the Counci on 16 Juy Database of Photographic Materia of ICAR ARIC was associated in creating a database on a the photographic materia avaiabe with Photo Unit and its digitaization. A user-friendy software was deveoped for easy searching and seecting of the photographs. The database CD was reeased in the Award Ceremony of the Counci. It wi be usefu to the scientists, editors and others invoved in pubishing work and it wi be a permanent repository of photo ibrary. ICAR Vision 2020 Document ARIC was associated with the conversion of ICAR Vision 2020 poicy document into an eectronic format that makes navigation through a the chapters an easy task for the user. This is the first CD on poicy document deveoped in the ICAR system.

236 230 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT A-India Coordinated Research Projects Database (AICRP) ARIC deveoped database on 82 AICRPs, covering information on tite, code number, PC name centres, objectives, date of start, date of competion, budget, manpower, research achievements, AGROVOC keywords, technoogies deveoped, QRT recommendations, pubications, abstract of each project. A CD, with search faciities, wi be reeased soon on this database which wi be usefu for monitoring the AICRPs at the Counci s headquarters and act as a nationa information source. Internationa Cooperation The information pubished in Indian journas on agricutura and aied sciences was documented, processed and suppied to FAO for incusion in the goba database i.e. AGRIS. One thousand six hundred pubished artices were documented and sent for this purpose. Checking Dupication of Research Efforts With a view to avoid wastefu dupication of research efforts, ARIC scrutinized about six hundred ad hoc research scheme proposas, received from different Divisions of ICAR and Project Coordinators. These proposas were compared with the research schemes aready sanctioned for financia support from the Counci s AP Cess Fund. The comparison was made on the basis of project tite, its objectives and assigned keywords to each of the proposas. Web Page of DIPA Web page of DIPA was modified and upgraded with free text search faciities for books, journas, adhoc schemes and ICAR Teephone Directory. Information about 150 Engish and Hindi books was updated. Aso the information about tite, author and abstract of artices of a ICAR Engish journas pubished from 2000 onwards, was incorporated in the web page. A the issues of ICAR News and ICAR Reporter from 2000 onwards were aso incuded. DIPA Library Activities DIPA Library was equipped with a coection of about 3,017 books, 1,100 annua reports of ICAR institutes and SAUs, 5,500 issues of different periodicas and newsetters. The Library procured about 1,100 books, 65 annua reports and 360 journas during the reporting period. It provided services to the scientists, students and DIPA staff. ICAR Library The ICAR Library added 1,800 pubications to its coection during the year. About 14,000 readers visited the ibrary and consuted 20,000 pubications for reference and information searches. Against specific request, information support was extended for consuting the database of the centre for Agricuture and Biosciences Internationa (formery the Commonweath Agricutura Bureaux Internationa). The document-deivery service was extended to individuas and ibraries against specific requests for suppy of Indian documents from AGRIS database. The Hindi Library at the headquarters purchased 261 books and subscribed to mutipe copies of Hindi magazines. It issued 5,000 books to its 750 members. Since Juy 1994, the ICAR Library has been arranging payment of newspaper bis to the ICAR officers who are eigibe for getting newspapers at their residence. Pubicity and Pubic Reations Unit The Pubicity and Pubic Reations Unit pays a pivota roe in dissemination of information pertaining to agricuture and aied subjects, poicy decisions and

237 231 PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION achievements of the research set-up of the ICAR, i.e. Centra Institutes, Nationa Bureaux, Project Directorates, Nationa Research Centres and A-India Co-ordinated Research Projects, etc. to the print and eectronic media. For effective communication of research findings among the farmers and pubic, the PR Unit maintains an effective iaison with the media persons. It is responsibe for pubicizing the achievements of ICAR in the country and abroad. It aso organizes press conferences/briefings addressed by the Union Agricuture Minister, Minister of State for Agricuture, DG, ICAR, DDG s and Directors of various research institutes and projects. The PR Unit broady performs the foowing functions: Liaison with print and eectronic media: The unit issued materia of immediate vaue to various newspapers, agricutura and current affairs magazines and eectronic media from time to time to give a wide pubicity to the events. Such materia received adequate coverage in the media at nationa and internationa eve. This unit aso runs a feedback service for senior officias of the ICAR. The unit keeps eyes on the print media and provides reevant newspaper cippings to the DG, ICAR and other senior officers of the Counci on daiy basis. Pubicity through print and eectronic media: This incudes issuing of press ICAR PARTICIPATED IN THE FOLLOWING EXHIBITIONS Exhibition Venue Period Agri-Intex 2001 Coimbatore 1-7 August, 2002 Nationa Science and Cuture Kokata September 2002 Expo-2002 Agro Tech India Gramin Shipa Kokata 29 September to Mea November 2002 Internationa Goba Meet on Asoka Hote, 27 October to Cimatic Change New Dehi 1 November 2002 India Internationa Pragati Maidan, November 2002 Trade Fair 2002 New Dehi Internationa Harihar New Dehi 18 November to Kshetra Mea 12 December 2002 Internationa Conference on New Dehi November 2002 Agronomy, Food and Environment Kisan Mea-cum- CIRG, Makhdoom, 4 January 2001 Awareness Campaign Uttar Pradesh Kisan Fair Pune, Maharashtra December 2002 Rura Market Exhibition and Saharanpur, February 2003 Farmers Workshop Uttar Pradesh Rura Market Exhibition and Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh February 2003 Farmers Workshop Rura Market Exhibition and Meerut, Uttar Pradesh February 2003 Farmers Workshop Rura Market Exhibition and Agra, Uttar Pradesh 5-6 March 2003 Farmers Workshop Krishi Expo 2002 Pragati Maidan, 8-16 March 2003 New Dehi Dr Panjab Singh, DG, ICAR addressing a Press Conference on the occasion of Internationa Agronomy Congress in New Dehi *ICAR institutes aso participated in various Kisan Mea-cum-Awareness Campaigns during the period.

238 232 DARE/ICAR ANNUAL REPORT Shri Hukumdeo Narayan Yadav, Minister of State for Agricuture, inaugurating the Internationa AgronomyCongress exhibition hed from November 2002 in New Dehi reeases and artices, organizing press conferences and conducting press tours to various ICAR projects and institutes to disseminate information reating to their activities and achievements. This unit aso undertakes deveopment of video fims on the activities and achievements of ICAR as a whoe and on important issues pertaining to agricuture of immediate concern to farmers. These fims are distributed to various ICAR institutes, KVKs, Extension Directorates of SAUs for dissemination of information to farmers. Visits of media persons: PR Unit arranged visits of media persons to various ICAR institutes to highight the achievements and to make success stories. Various internationa and nationa eve press conferences and visits of media persons were organized during the period. Participation in exhibitions at regiona, nationa and internationa eve: Organizing exhibitions is another foca point of pubicity activities of the PR Unit. The Unit organized exhibitions and dispayed important items reating to agricutura deveopment in an interesting manner to spread awareness of new ideas, varieties, technoogies, etc. and aso advised the institutes on exhibition-reated issues. Neary 20 ICAR institutes took part in the 14-day IITF 2002 exhibition at New Dehi (November 14-27, 2002). Aso, ICAR organized impressive exhibitions of the ICAR institutes on the occasion of 2nd Internationa Agronomy Congress during November 26-30, 2002 and Kisan Samman Saptah during December 21-23, Reception and Monitoring of Pubic Grievances: The CP&PRO functions as Staff Grievances Officer under the direct supervision of Secretary, ICAR. Necessary instructions are issued from time to time to a the concerned officias for speedy disposa of the grievances. To cater to the in-house grievances of the empoyees, the ICAR has an Interna Grievances Committee. NICNET-based Pubic Information and Faciitation Centre: In pursuance of Government s commitment to bring greater transparency through better access to information, a NICNET-based Pubic Information and Faciitation Centre has been estabished jointy by the three departments of the Ministry of Agricuture DARE/ICAR, Department of Ministry of Agricuture and Cooperation and Department of Anima Husbandry and Dairying at Krishi Bhavan (Room No. 19 A). The centre provides information of state and centra government agencies, economists, consutants, scientists, farmers and genera pubic. CP&PRO is the noda officer coordinating with the centre. Nationa Agricutura Science Museum: This is a new and prestigious activity of the PR Unit. A Nationa Agricutura Science Museum is being estabished at the Chaudhary Devi La Agricutura Science Centre in IARI, Pusa Campus. The work of first phase is amost competed. The work is being carried out by the Nationa Counci of Science Museums, Kokata in consutation with PR Unit. After competion of the second phase, this wi be opened to farmers, genera pubic, scientists and various deegations a over the country.

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