Solar pumps for sustainable irrigation Supporting policymakers and enterprises to scale adoption and ensure sustainable use

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1 Solar pumps for sustainable irrigation Supporting policymakers and enterprises to scale adoption and ensure sustainable use Sasmita Patnaik Programme Lead Council on Energy, Environment and Water ISA, 19 July 2017 Council on Energy, Environment and Water, 2017

2 CEEW: one of South Asia s leading think-tanks Energy Access Renewables Low-Carbon Pathways Greenhouse Gases and Monitoring, Reporting, Verification Risks and Adaptation Technology 1

3 Why solar-based irrigation? 2

4 Strategising deployment of SPIS (for sustainability and scalability) Approach Identifying criteria Collecting data & Delphi process Estimating scores for districts Categorising districts 3

5 Tool for efficient deployment 4

6 Criteria 1: Access to affordable and reliable irrigation No. of cultivators using diesel pumps Proxy for lack of electric connections or poor power supply Data Source: Input Survey ( ) Un-irrigated Net Sown Area Lack of access to irrigation and opportunity to expand irrigation cover Data Source: Input Survey ( ) 5

7 Criteria 2: Economic viability of solar pumps Availability of ground water Determine initial capital cost and long term economic viability Water scarcity index- share of semi-critical, critical and overexploited blocks. Data Source: Central Ground Water Board (2011) Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area Higher revenues and capacity utilisation of solar pumps Data Source: Land use statistics ( ) 6

8 Criteria 3: Purchasing capacity of farmers Crop revenue per holding in a district Indicates typical revenues of farmers- higher revenues implying higher ability to invest Data source: Crop production statistics ( ), Farm Harvest Price ( ) and Input Survey (2011-1) Monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) of agriculture households Higher affluence and financial ability of farmers Data Source: 68 th round of NSS ( ) 7

9 Criteria 4: Access and subscription to institutional credit No of rural bank branches (per 10,000 cultivators) Indicate availability of banking infrastructure Data Source: Banking Branch Statistics, RBI (2015) Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year Higher likelihood of farmers taking loans for solar pumps Data Source: Input Survey ( ) 8

10 Criteria 5: Farmer s attitude towards new technologies Extent of farm mechanisation Measured as no of tractors, harvesters, threshers per unit cultivated area Data Source: Input Survey ( ) Calls made by farmers at Kisan Call Centres (KCC) Attitude towards learning new techniques and schemes Data Source: KCC Dashboard ( ) 9

11 Criteria and Parameters Approach Strategising deployment of SPIS (for sustainability and scalability) Identifying criteria Collecting data & Delphi process Estimating weights & scores Categorising districts Inadequate access to affordable and reliable irrigation Cultivators using diesel pumps [10] Un-irrigated net sown area [6] Economic viability of solar pumps Availability of ground water [19] Proportion of area under horticulture crops [12.5] Purchasing capacity of farmers Crop revenue per holding in a district [11.5] MPCE of agricultural households [15] Access and subscription to institutional credit # rural bank branches (per 10,000 operational holdings) [6] Medium and long-term credit disbursed in a year [9] Farmers attitude towards adoption of new technologies Extent of farm mechanization [5.5] # calls made of farmers to KCC [5.5] 10

12 Categorising Districts for SPIS deployment Four categorises Overall scores (O), water availability (W), and use of diesel pumps (D) Group A: High potential (O: top 30%; W: top 50%; D: top 50%) 108 districts, mainly concentrated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh Group B: Moderate potential (O: top 70%, W: top 50%; D: top 70%) 131 districts, predominant in Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha Group C: Moderate potential; water constrained (O: top 70%, W: bottom 50%; D: top 70%) 87 districts, mainly concentrated in North-western part of India: Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, as well as Tamil Nadu these districts would require mandatory use of micro-irrigation Group D: Low potential districts (remaining) 287 districts, limited potential due to several parameters 11

13 Supporting decision making The tool could be instrumental in: Prioritising regions for deployment effective resource allocation Customising deployment models- to suit a region s physical, social and economic profile Identifying the parameters lowering a region s potential and taking appropriate policy measures 12

14 Forthcoming version More robust to offer better insights Support different objectives for different stakeholders Analyse within the broader purview of sustainable agriculture and irrigation Link farmers issues and willingness to adopt SPIS with policy, finance and industry Shift from a desktop based version to a web based version 13

15 TOOL DEMONSTRATION 14

16 SPIS Needs strategic approach for sustainability and scalability Thank you (ceew.in) 15

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