WorldBank. Karnataka uses satellite imagery to develop land and water resources Over two-thirds of India s cultivation takes place on dry rain fed

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1 Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized VOL 10 / NO 1 I N S I D E Use of cutting edge technology for watershed development 1-4 Development Dialogue: India in a multipolar world 5-9 ICR Update: Rajasthan Second District Primary Education Project Recent Project Approvals/ Signings New Additions to the Public Information Center Contact Information 32 About the Photograph: A farmer from one of the districts under the Sujala Watershed Development Project Photograph by World Bank Photo Library THE WorldBank IN INDIA Karnataka uses satellite imagery to develop land and water resources Over two-thirds of India s cultivation takes place on dry rain fed lands which are prone to drought, soil erosion and depleting ground water. The state of Karnataka is no different. More than 70 JULY 2011 percent of the state s major agricultural area falls within the semi-arid zone. These lands are subject to periodic droughts, severe soil erosion, erratic rainfall, and depleting groundwater, eroding the natural resource base and significantly hindering agricultural productivity. To tackle these challenges, the World Bank supported Karnataka Watershed Development Project, known locally as Sujala, was initiated in 2001 as a community-driven watershed development project.

2 Remote sensing and GIS mapping A variety of thematic resource maps were used to prioritize areas to be treated and develop comprehensive integrated sustainable action plans for each microwatershed The Project, which closed in 2009, introduced cutting edge technology for interventions in over half a million hectares of land in seven predominantly rain-fed districts in Karnataka. Satellite images taken at regular intervals from a height of 900 kms provided data such as land use and land cover, ground water prospects and soil characteristics for large catchments as well as micro-watersheds. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) fused this spatial data with nonspatial data such as rainfall, literacy etc to help technical experts and communities to prioritize works and together develop comprehensive action plans for each micro-watershed. Promoting community participation Prior to Sujala, most watershed programs in India largely focused on engineering and civil works and were implemented by public agencies with very little community participation. This was the first time that high-resolution satellite images were placed before grassroots communities to help them plan interventions. Satellite images, with spatial resolutions of 23 meters, 6 meters, and 1 meter, generated a series of thematic resource maps for each micro-watershed. These maps depicted land use and land cover showing the area under agricultural land. Communities would take this mapping information and construct a small model of the watershed on the ground to help them see the bigger picture, understand the environmental problems and future potential, and mark areas for treatment. Priority was accorded to places that had a larger proportion of wasteland, a greater uncertainty of rainfall, drinking water shortages in summer, large out-migration, a predominance of vulnerable communities such as scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, and a large proportion of small and marginal farmers. Utilization of space technology for watershed planning and monitoring is one of the unique features of this project. Remote sensing and computer mapping technology has been taken to the doors of the farmers. Assessing the problems and prospects for the development of nearly half a million hectares of land in a scientific and cost-effective manner was undoubtedly a challenge, but made easier through the application of these new technologies. It also helped stakeholders better understand the complex relationships between soil and water management, selecting appropriate interventions, and in measuring impacts, said Grant Milne, Senior Natural Resource Management Specialist. The thematic resource maps helped communities, NGOs and technical specialists (experts in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry) to reach agreement on the priorities for soil and water conservation and the locations for treatments, resulting in sustainable action plans. Decisions were jointly taken regarding where to construct terraces or field bunds to reduce soil erosion from farm fields, locate a farm pond or small check dam to store excess surface water, or plant trees to stabilize steep hillsides. 12 The World Bank in India July 2011

3 Below: Satellite images show a silted tank without water in 2003, during the desilting process in 2006, and the desilted tank with water after treatment was complete in 2007 GIS technology also helped map nutrient deficiencies in the soil. Once GIS mapping helped pinpoint the locations of these deficiencies, all farmers were provided with soil health cards. The farmers, together with community organizations (usually women s groups), were then trained to procure and mix the correct micro-nutrients for their individual farms, rather than purchasing the more generic nitrogen/ phosphorus/potassium mixes that were not as effective. General rainfall patterns at the sub-district level were also generated from historic records. This enabled farmers to plant crops at the right time, reducing their risk of crop failure. Monitoring and evaluation Antrix Corporation developed a unique customized, computer-based MIS package, with special software for field NGOs, to create a systematic database that integrated large volumes of data, providing a flow of reliable and timely information that helped monitor the Project s physical and financial progress at all levels. The high-quality data and reports helped the project team to identify bottlenecks early on, undertake timely corrections, and shift the project s direction a number of times. For example, when it was found that a high proportion of project funds were flowing to large farmers for soil and water works, the small and marginal farmers had their beneficiaries contribution reduced leading to improved equity between the groups. When M&E data showed that landless and other vulnerable groups were not receiving a fair share of project benefits, the livelihoods component was expanded to include a The World Bank in India July

4 Above: Crop yields increased, higher value crops were grown, soil erosion reduced, and ground water was available for longer periods Huge potential exists to scale up the use of satellite imagery to improve degraded lands across India revolving fund for Self Help Groups, leading to improved access to credit by group members and the development of small businesses, said B.K. Ranganath, Project Director, Sujala. Project impact By the end of the Project, crop yields and cropping intensity in these rain fed areas increased significantly. These were also accompanied by a shift towards higher-value annual and permanent crops (especially horticultural crops such as mangoes). Crop yields, when compared with control groups, increased by about 25 percent, on average, across different crops. Runoff and soil erosion were reduced up to 21 cubic meters per hectare. The percentage of irrigated area increased between 6 percent and 14 percent across project sites, average milk yields rose by around 20 percent, and ground water was available for longer periods. Household incomes increased by about 40 percent for small and marginal farmers (less than 2 ha), more than 50 percent for landless, and close to 80 percent for larger farmers (more than 2 ha), compared to control groups. Overall, the Project improved the lives of 230,000 direct beneficiaries, contributing to a reduction of out-migration by about 70 percent. Spreading the Innovation With some 600,000 villages across India, there is huge potential to scale up the successful use of technology for the improvement of watershed lands and degraded ecosystems. Many of the project s approaches have already been incorporated into India s new national watershed policy guidelines. The project is also being replicated in other districts of Karnataka. Many of Sujala s methods have been adopted by forestry projects in Andhra Pradesh and Assam, as well as in livelihood projects in Tamil Nadu, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The model has also attracted significant international attention. Teams from India and abroad have visited the project to learn about the innovative approaches. Attempts are being made to replicate this approach in Malawi and Senegal in Africa. 124 The World Bank in India July 2011

5 Development Dialogue India in a multipolar world If India is to play a crucial role in the new multipolar world as an engine of growth, as a provider of knowledge, as an example of social and economic transformation under democratic auspices it will need to close the gap between the two realities of a rising India and a India where about one-third of the world s poor still live, says Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Managing Director of the World Bank. The economic crisis of 2008 will certainly power parity terms has risen from some 33 prove to be a landmark it belongs to percent in 1980 to 43 percent in In the category of events that separate before this, Asia s share alone stands at 21 percent. from after as were 1929, or After And Asia s stock markets now account for 1929 our understanding of the functioning of almost a third of global market capitalization, markets and role of governments was never ahead of those of the US and Europe. The the same. The world changed again in 1991 financial crisis also made it clear that emerging when the second world disappeared with economies need to be involved in decisions the fall of the Soviet Union and we ceased to affecting the global economy. In the think in terms of two competing economic formulation of a response to the economic and political systems. The 2008 economic crisis the G7 evolved into the G20. crisis will no doubt prove to be another such watershed. India and China, together with In this new multipolar world, India has clearly other East Asian countries and even Sub- emerged as a key player. While scenarios Saharan Africa, helped anchor the world s differ on whether India will overtake China in faltering economy. The crisis accelerated the terms of growth rates, there is no doubt that relative shift in power the developing India will be one of the powerhouses of this world s share of global GDP in purchasing century. The World Bank in India July

6 Two Indias India s global profile is rising from a slowgrowing poor country to a burgeoning economic power: India grew fast before the crisis 9 percent per year, and has resumed fast growth 8.6 percent in the fiscal year that ended in March. India is globally recognized as a key player in the IT revolution, and in sectors as diverse as pharmaceutical, cement, steel and space. Indian nationals hold key positions in corporations, academia and policy making worldwide. India has acquired a prominent voice in global fora; it is playing a historic role in fostering South-South exchanges and has an influential position in the BRICs. But there is also another India: India s GNI per capita ($1170) is lower than that of 161 other countries. World Bank s poverty numbers show 456 million people in India are poor about one-third of the world s poor, and more than in all of Sub-Saharan Africa. India lags significantly on health and nutrition targets: It is home to half of world s underweight children, and it accounts for 1 in 5 maternal and child deaths worldwide. Social exclusion remains a stark reality Scheduled Tribes lag twenty years behind the general population, Scheduled Castes ten years; gender norms can be quite restrictive and gender gap persists in realms such as child mortality and labor force participation. If India is to play a crucial role in the new multipolar world as an engine of growth, as a provider of knowledge, as an example of social and economic transformation under democratic auspices it will need to close the gap between these two realities. Closing the gap will require addressing some key challenges in the areas of infrastructure, agriculture, education, gender, and governance. Note that there are other challenges that are important, but I believe these are the most crucial. Infrastructure: Address institutional constraints to public provision Nine percent growth hides an infrastructure crisis. Innovation in the private sector has often got around this 60 percent of firms 126 The World Bank in India July 2011

7 and a large percentage of homes rely on back-up generation, and on an industry of logistical firms. But this has costs, and sooner or later infrastructure constraints will bite, and growth will slow, absent major change. This is especially true in urban areas. Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are often hailed as a solution. Private participation in infrastructure took off in the early 1990s in telecoms and power supply. Highway, port, and airport concessions began to emerge in the late 1990s, with water supply and solid waste management following. We have been here before. In the 1990s Latin America had major infrastructural gaps, and PPPs were thought to be the solution (including by the World Bank). But gaps were effectively closed only in telecoms (which was not an issue for India) and in Chile (a small country with by far the best governance to manage private sector involvement). Elsewhere, there was insufficient private involvement, or private involvement that was high cost, often corrupt, and with frequent renegotiation to extract better deals from the state and society. The lesson is that improving governance, and solving institutional problems, is unavoidable to improve infrastructure provision, and is necessary for effective private involvement. Agriculture: Feeding India and the world The challenge here is so well-known that I do not need to dwell on it much. India has enormous untapped potential productivity in Eastern states, for instance, is well below what it is in Punjab, and sustainability is an issue in states like Punjab. The policy reforms that are needed to increase agricultural productivity have been discussed extensively infrastructure provision; subsidy reform; marketing reforms, a more predictable regulatory environment to encourage private sector initiative, to name a few, and both the union government and some states have taken important steps, such as in building rural roads. But much more needs to be done. Higher productivity in India is essential to feed India and feed the world. Education: Focus on results, not inputs The two Indias are very visible in education: Graduates of India s famed Institutes of Technology literally drive growth. But basic and secondary educations are dismal. In fact, even in tertiary education quality is in islands of excellence, not widespread. The demographic dividend can turn into a demographic curse if the millions of young people entering the labor market every year are not equipped to take up the jobs that a fast-growing economy can create. There has been progress in enrollments, including of girls, and this should not be overlooked it is an impressive achievement. But the issue is quality. The evidence (for example from the Annual State of Education Report) is that quality remains extraordinarily low and has not improved in the last five years, despite big increases in the inputs going into the system. The Right to Education is a great aspiration but it only tackles part of the agenda. It is weak on the quality issue, and is primarily input-focused. Getting better school facilities is a good thing, but will have little or no impact on quality. Indeed requirements on meeting the curriculum may make it more difficult to improve quality, since teachers The World Bank in India July

8 may strive, not to raise competencies based on where children are, but to stick to the curriculum. The imposition of infrastructural and teaching norms on the burgeoning private system could also be highly costly, since it could make the low-cost private schools unviable or push them into illegality or resort to bribing school inspectors for licenses. The private sector is no panacea its quality is only slightly better than that of the public sector. But the answer should be to work out ways to support the quality agenda there too, not impose top-down input standards. The pedagogy for tackling basic education is known and tested in the field but the incentives now are not there. This is also an institutional problem. Gender: Growth alone is not enough Women have gained in India more girls going into school, benefiting from the progress in poverty reduction. Two women just ranked first and second in the Civil Services Exam. But historically-shaped gender disparities are still important, especially in Northern India, and are both a burden on girls and women and a lost resource for social and economic change. Three areas merit attention: As everyone here knows, the provisional 2011 Census report shows a sex ratio for children 0-6 at 914 females per 1,000 males, the lowest since Independence, and declining since 2001 in all but seven states. Rising prosperity doesn t deliver for girl children. This happened in China and Korea also sex ratios in highly patriarchal societies initially worsened with rising prosperity. This needs to be tackled head-on. There are also many missing women relative to what one observes in countries with low discrimination in older age groups, as observed in the forthcoming World Development Report on Gender Equality and Development. The main explanation appears to be that general institutional weaknesses in public health, water and sanitation and health systems hurt women more in countries where there is more subtle discrimination. Maternal mortality is part of this story Indian women have a 1 in 70 chance of dying during childbirth, compared to 1 in 280 for Vietnamese women and 1 in 1400 for Chinese women! Early marriage also contributes about 60 percent of Indian women are married by the time they turn 18 and almost 25 percent have had their first child by then, compared to only 4 percent in Vietnam. This has serious health implications. A major issue concerns the role of the political system in bringing about change. There are very few women in national politics. Yet evidence from reservations in panchayat finds (a) that women panchayat leaders lead to different local choices over public goods (against the view that they would be puppets of their husbands) and, even more significant, (b) men who experience women leaders significantly change their view and are more likely to vote for women when there is no reservation. Countries have experimented with various mechanisms to increase the representation of women in national politics, but seldom has this happened automatically. Governance: A domestic as well as international agenda Most issues come back to governance and institutions. Governance ranks as high on the international agenda, as it does on the political agenda in India. Governance is not only an issue to be left to law enforcement agencies; it is by itself a major development challenge and needs to be addressed as part of any development strategy. Not only because it affects primarily the poorest and most vulnerable but because misgovernance or corruption undermines the effectiveness of public policies, the proper targeting of social programs, the quality of service delivery, the exercise of fundamental rights, etc. India s public discourse is focused on these sets of issues at this time. Approaches and solutions that have been spelled out by senior policymakers are welcome and in the right direction The World Bank in India July 2011

9 The President of India has recently spelled out among the priorities of her government a set of reforms on governance. This includes initiatives to promote e-governance, which is potentially an effective tool for enhanced transparency, equity and accountability as well as hopefully for administrative reforms. I am impressed by the potential impact of the Unique ID scheme for service delivery more than 5 million Unique IDs have been issued since Sept 2010, providing people with a legal identity they probably did not have before. Innovative ICT tools such as this can be an effective mechanism to both supply information and services to citizens and receive feedback from citizens. And of course India has enacted a Right to Information legislation which is a model throughout the world. I understand that several states in India are also innovating on governance and that these innovations are often mainstreamed at the national level. I find this dynamic extremely promising. The Public Services Guarantee Act, recently enacted in Madhya Pradesh, by which civil servants are to be sanctioned for unwarranted delays in the provision of public services such as a power and water connections, or the granting of legal documents and social allowances, is a promising incentive mechanism towards improving service delivery. Of course governance reforms are not uncontroversial. I am aware of the vibrant debates on governance in India, the popular mobilization against corruption and red tape, and people s aspirations for better service delivery and more transparent and accountable public service. As much as India can contribute to the international agenda on governance, it can also benefit from it. Grand corruption is increasingly international, as it involves illicit international financial flows, sophisticated financial schemes, tax evasion, money laundering, and the theft of public assets. It can hardly be dealt with unilaterally and requires a high level of cooperation between defrauded countries and recipient ones for effective legal action. Grand corruption and security are also closely related which is why India recently joined the Financial Action Task Force on money laundering and combating terrorism. The Indian Prime Minister has also announced the completion of the process of ratification of the UN Convention Against Corruption, which is also an effective instrument to fight grand corruption. Conclusions India is playing a progressively larger role in the new multipolar world we inhabit. Other countries increasingly look at India as an engine of growth, a source of knowledge, and an example on how a pluralistic society evolves over time. Dealing with the challenges outlined here addressing institutional constraints to better deliver infrastructure and quality education, spur agricultural productivity increases, fully include women in the development process, and strengthen governance, which in the end will translate in a wealthier, more equitable India in 20 years calls for political will and commitment. But it can be done. India has shown itself to be capable of momentous transformations. The World Bank is honored to be a partner in this process and will continue to assist India by providing knowledge and funding. This includes substantial support for infrastructure, with a focus not just on physical investment but on strengthening institutions PowerGrid, is an example. In education, we are supporting efforts to strengthen vocational and technical education, in addition to primary and secondary. Knowledge complements lending, as exemplified in a recent study on groundwater management, which highlights possible solutions to overexploitation. Recent work on poverty and social exclusion documented the extent to which women lag behind in human development indicators. We have also supported a number of learning exchanges, such as a recent visit of farmers from Tanzania interested in replicating India s dairy policies and approaches for small farmers. India has so much to share with other developing countries and indeed the whole world can learn from India. I look forward to India taking an even larger role in the new multipolar world. Speech delivered at the India Habitat Centre, New Delhi on 13 May, 2011 The World Bank in India July

10 ICR Update This is a short summary of the Implementation Completion Report (ICR) of a recentlyclosed World Bank project. The full text of the ICR is available on the Bank s website. To access this document, go to and then opt for the Documents & Reports section. Rajasthan Second District Primary Education Project Context: The Rajasthan Second District Primary Education Project (DPEP II) was seventh in a series of DPEPs initiated in 1994 to improve education in low literacy districts across India, where female literacy was below the national average of 38 percent. The DPEP series were supported across 18 states in India, covering more than 270 districts with an investment of over $1.5 billion made by the World Bank and other partners. At the time of DPEP, state-wide female literacy was 20.8 percent in Rajasthan, a state with among the lowest social indicators in the country and with high levels of poverty. Rajasthan Second District Primary Education Project Approval Date: 21 June, 2001 Closing Date: 31 March, 2008 Total Project Cost: US$M Bank Financing: US$M 74.4 Implementing Agency: Outcome: Risk to Development Outcome: Department of School Education, Government of India, Rajasthan Council of Primary Education Moderately Satisfactory Moderate Project Development Objectives The objectives of the Project were to assist the Government of Rajasthan in providing access to primary education of appropriate Overall Bank Performance: Overall Borrower Performance: Satisfactory Satisfactory The World Bank in India July 2011

11 quality to all children between the ages of 6-11 in the Project s nine districts. Specifically, the Project was designed to: expand access, retention and enrollments; improve quality and achievement; build capacity to manage primary education at the state, district and local levels. Main beneficiaries The primary beneficiaries of this project were the 350,000 out-of-school children between the ages 6-11 in the nine Project districts. It was anticipated that of these 200,000 would be enrolled by Project end. Of the target population, over 60 percent were girls and the rest were children from disadvantaged groups such as Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST), working children and children with special needs (CWSN). The establishment of 400 Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centers was to benefit 12,000 children in age cohort 3-6 years. Other beneficiaries included the state and district level institutions such as the State Institute of Education Management & Training (SIEMAT), State Institute for Education Research and Training (SIERT), District Institutes for Education and Training (DIET), etc. which were expected to benefit from the capacity building efforts. Project components. 1. Increasing access to and retention in primary education, particularly for children in socially and economically disadvantaged groups; closing the staffing gap and providing para-teachers, conducting social mobilization; and awareness building through establishment of School Management Committees (SMCs), and construction and rehabilitation of schools and classrooms as per need. 2. Improve quality of classroom processes and enhance learning achievements in primary education. Teaching support included pedagogical support and textbooks and improvement of teaching aids. The component also provided for the establishment of distance learning programs and funding for school libraries. Funding was also provided to monitor student learning achievements and conduct periodic assessments. Missing facilities and physical upgradation of schools, particularly those for girls, was also accounted for. 3. Improve state, district and sub-district primary education management capacity, institutional reform at the state and district level to improve policy development, monitoring and evaluation, teacher training and School Management Committee (SMC) supervision. Achievements The project s biggest achievement has been in increasing access to education. Total enrollment increased by 27 percent for boys and 54 percent for girls between 2001/02 and 2007/08. The Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) increased from 95 percent to just below 120 percent during the project period. The number of out of school children decreased from 208,305 to 22,286. The majority of these remaining out-of-school children consisted of drop-outs (about 70 The World Bank in India July

12 and Terminal Assessment Surveys were conducted over the Project period to monitor learning of Grade II and Grade V in Language and Mathematics. There was considerable improvement in student performance indicators from Baseline to Terminal, for both Mathematics and Language over 25 percent for Grade V students and around 20 percent for Grade II. A Quality Assurance Program (QAP) was initiated in by the state to test competencies in Math and English in addition to the regular examinations done by the state. While evidence indicates that there has been improvement in levels of learning over time, improving quality still remains a major challenge. The Project has been successful in providing inputs such as teaching/learning material and systems for academic support at the local level. Lessons Learnt percent), and the number of never enrolled children significantly came down. The gender gap decreased considerably. The Gender Parity Index (GPI) at the beginning of the project was 13.3, which now came down to 6.3. However, only two out of nine districts have achieved below the target 5 percent gap. Reducing the gender gap in education in Rajasthan remains a major challenge, particularly among the SC children. Drop-out rates decreased from 60 percent to about 27 percent as per a cohort study carried out by the state. While access has improved considerably, retention and regular attendance of students continue to be a challenge. Both student absenteeism and drop outs are also linked to poor quality of teaching as well as teacher absenteeism. The Project made good progress in moving towards improvement of quality and student learning. One key objective was to improve learning achievement scores by at least 25 percent over the baseline, and to ensure equity in achievement. Baseline, Mid-term The experience of Rajasthan DPEP II provided important lessons for improving the elementary education system and for achieving education development objectives not only in Rajasthan, but also for other states. It is extremely challenging to expand access to the remaining out of school children, who are from among the hardest to reach marginalized groups, and require innovative interventions such as those piloted and implemented under DPEP, including the public private partnership initiatives. A strong and credible monitoring system is an essential requirement to allow for effective planning and targeting of programs if necessary. Such a system is best derived from internal monitoring systems and field monitoring, and supported by external validations and evaluation studies. Improvement in student learning requires all key quality ingredients such as Teacher Learning Material (TLM), improved school environment, strong community participation and ownership, trained teachers. Once these are in place, adequate support system needs to be put in place to ensure ongoing support to teachers for improving the classroom learning environment. 12 The World Bank in India July 2011

13 and capacity gaps can be made at the grassroots level rather than ex-post to enable the fiduciary processes and systems to be strengthened. Under the environment of supervision and joint review mission framework, this has been difficult to undertake. However, the lesson is for both Bank and Government to consider reviewing the enabling environment for stronger fiduciary monitoring and supervision. Monitoring of Financial Management and procurement processes should be based on careful review and understanding of how expenditures are incurred at the village School Development and Management Committees (SDMC) and school level, where the bulk of procurement and expenditures takes place. This way, early detection of issues Successful implementation and sustainability is largely dependent on capacity in the system and in the implementing agency. Continuity of staff and adequate staffing of key institutions (such as on the quality side and monitoring) need to be in place to ensure effectiveness of such programs. The parallel structure of project administration needs to be integrated with the elementary education department for efficiency. The World Bank in India July

14 Recent Project Approvals National Rural Livelihoods Project The World Bank has approved US$1 billion credit for the National Rural Livelihoods Project (NRLP) aimed at strengthening the implementation of the Government of India s newly launched National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), one of the world s largest poverty reduction initiative of approximately US$6.5 billion, aiming to reach 350 million people or almost a quarter of India s population. The NRLP will help scale up the successes of past livelihoods initiatives to other lagging regions of the country. Under the aegis of the NRLM, the NRLP will now support specific additional investments in 12 states with a high number of poor people. These states, namely Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal have the highest number of absolute poor and account for almost 85 percent of India s rural poor. Bank-supported state livelihood projects in several districts of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Rajasthan show that such projects have so far resulted in household savings in excess of US$1 billion. SHGs have leveraged nearly US$7.5 billion in credit from commercial banks, and achieved annual turnover of US$500 million through collective marketing of farm and non-farm produce. The Project will specifically support the formation of institutions of the poor in the poorest states of India. Key investments include investing in building people s institutions namely Self Help Groups (SHG) and Federation of SHGs at village, cluster, block and district levels; promoting thriftbased groups and promoting financial discipline; investing in financial literacy & business planning as a core activity of SHG formation; and helping SHGs address the livelihood needs including for consumption purposes (such as health emergency, child education) and income generating activities such as purchase of livestock, seeds, etc The World Bank in India July 2011

15 Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor Project The World Bank has approved a loan amounting to US$975 million to help Indian Railways set up the Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (a freight-only rail line) that will help faster and more efficient movement of raw materials and finished goods between the Northern and Eastern parts of India. The corridor will also allow Indian Railways to free up capacity and better-serve the large passenger market in this densely populated region. This is part of India s first Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) initiative being built on two main routes the Western and the Eastern Corridors. These corridors will help India make a quantum leap in increasing the railways transportation capacity by building high-capacity, higher-speed dedicated freight corridors along the Golden Quadrilateral the four rail routes that connect Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. Currently, these routes account for just 16 percent of the railway network s length, but carry more than 60 percent of India s total rail freight. The Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor Project (EDFC) will ease congestion choking the railway system and reduce travel-time for passenger trains on the arterial Ludhiana- Delhi-Mughal Sarai railway route. The corridor will add additional rail transport capacity, improve service quality and create higher freight capacity. It will also help to develop the institutional capacity of the Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation (DFCCIL) to build and maintain the DFC infrastructure network. Significant Green Impact A Carbon Footprint Analysis conducted by DFCCIL for the Eastern DFC Project shows the corridor is expected to cause 2.25 times less carbon emissions when compared to a scenario where the freight is transported through a non-dfc network of the Indian Railways. It also shows that the Eastern corridor is expected to generate about million tons of GHG emissions up to , as against millions of GHG emissions in the absence of EDFC a 55 percent reduction of GHG emissions. EDFC will also bring about a 15 percent reduction in carbon intensity as compared to using existing alternate routes of transport. Vishnugad Pipalkoti Project The World Bank has approved a US$648 million loan to THDC India Ltd for constructing the Vishnugad Pipalkoti Hydroelectric Plant on the River Alaknanda, which is expected to generate an estimated 1,665 million kilowatt-hours of electricity each year to help relieve India s chronic power shortage. As a hydropower project capable of starting up quickly, the Project will help meet the sharp daily spurts in demand from households and industries at peak electricity consumption time. This will represent a valuable addition of peaking power to India s Northern Grid, which faces severe power shortages at highconsumption times. The 444 Megawatt Vishnugad Pipalkoti Project will also help reduce India s greenhouse gas emissions by 1.6 million tons each year, compared to a thermal plant of the same capacity. The Project will build a 65-meter diversion dam near Helang village in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand to create a small reservoir in the Alaknanda River. A 13.4-kilometer headrace tunnel will carry the water to an underground powerhouse near Haat village to generate the power. All the diverted water will then be returned to the river. High minimum flow to be maintained in the river There will be negligible impact on downstream water quality and THDC will ensure that there is a minimum flow of cumecs of water in the Alaknanda at all The World Bank in India July

16 excavate the headrace tunnel with a Tunnel Boring Machine so that noise and dust emissions are reduced, and the nearby villages are not disturbed by vibrations from blasting. times to sustain the aquatic health of the river. This is equivalent to approximately 45 percent of the average lean season flow in the Alaknanda and represents one of the highest minimum flow standards maintained by any hydropower project in India. Located on a section of the Alaknanda where it flows through a deep, largely uninhabited gorge, the Project is expected to have minimal negative impacts on the local communities and the environment. Reducing local impacts THDC has put into place systems to see that construction of the project does not needlessly impinge upon the social and natural environment of the area. It has decided to THDC has also decided to insure all houses and structures in a defined corridor along the length of the tunnel so that the villagers living in the vicinity can be duly compensated in case any damage does occur as a consequence of the excavation. The company has also identified specific locations where debris generated by the Project will be disposed of. These areas will have strong retaining walls built so that no muck falls into the river. Sharing benefits Once the Project begins generation, each household affected by the Project will receive 100 kwh of free electricity every month for 10 years. THDC will also make available one percent of the annual revenue of the Project for the development of the local area and can be used to build hospitals, roads, water supply schemes etc. The Project will provide the state of Uttarakhand with a royalty of 12 percent of the power generated, which is estimated to be around Rs. 90 crore (Rs 900 million or around US$ 20 million at current exchange rates) each year at expected tariffs. Recent Project Signings The National Ganga River Basin Project The Government of India and the World Bank signed the US$1 billion loan and credit for the National Ganga River Basin Project as part of its long-term support for the government s Mission Clean Ganga that seeks to rejuvenate India s iconic river. The Ganga accounts for one-fourth of the country s water resources and its sprawling basin is home to more than 400 million Indians, many of whom revere it as a living goddess. Despite its iconic status and religious heritage, the Ganga today is facing extreme pollution pressures and associated threats to its biodiversity and environmental sustainability. The Government of India established the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) in February 2009, with the aim of cleaning and conserving the Ganga through a multi-sector program, with the mediumterm goal that that no untreated municipal or industrial wastewater will be allowed to flow into the mainstem of the river after The NGRBA Program will focus on the five mainstem states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The Project will help build the capacity of the NGRBA s new operational institutions to manage the Ganga clean-up and conservation program. The Project will also help fund priority investments critical for reducing pollution in the river The World Bank in India July 2011

17 information and knowledge relevant for the conservation of the river. The Project will also help build the capacity of existing agencies (like the city-level service providers) responsible for operating and managing pollution-control assets like wastewater and sewage treatment plants and sewer networks in cities and towns along the river. It will also help strengthen the Central and State Pollution Control Boards for better monitoring of pollution in the Ganga, by modernizing information systems and providing staff training. In addition to helping set up dedicated institutions at the Central and state level to plan, manage and implement the NGRBA Program, the Bank-financed Project will also help set up a state-of-the-art Ganga Knowledge Centre to act as a repository for A significant part of the Bank s support will go towards financing demonstrative investments for reducing pollution in a sustainable manner, in four key sectors: wastewater collection and treatment, industrial pollution control, solid waste management, and riverfront management. Kerala Local Government and Service Delivery Project The Government of India and the World Bank signed an IDA credit of US$ 200 million to strengthen the capacity of gram panchayats and municipalities (rural and urban local bodies respectively) in Kerala to deliver better services. The Kerala Local Government and Service Delivery Project will fund improvements in local infrastructure to help Kerala usher in second-generation reforms towards greater decentralization at the local level. The agreements for the Kerala Local Government and Service Delivery Project were signed by Mr. Venu Rajamony, Joint Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, on behalf of the Government of India; Mr. James Varghese, Principal Secretary, Department of Local Self Government on behalf of the Kerala Government; and Mr. Roland Lomme on behalf of World Bank. Since the 1990s, Kerala has devolved more responsibilities and resources to local governments and within the local government system, to the lowest levels of local government than any other Indian state. Despite the progress that Kerala has seen in the devolution of responsibilities to the local bodies, the State still faces a number of core challenges. While gram panchayats and municipalities in Kerala have benefitted from the increased resources flowing to them, use of these funds is still not fully under their discretion. Capacity of these local bodies particularly in an environment where their mandate is increasing rapidly is still limited in areas such as budgeting; planning; financial management; asset management; and in upgrading the skills of its staff. Some 978 gram panchayats and 60 municipalities in the State of Kerala will be the direct beneficiaries of the Project. Investments made by them will also indirectly benefit the entire State outside of the five city corporations areas. This Project will provide gram panchayats and municipalities with additional discretionary funds as performance grant for the creation and maintenance of its capital assets; provide inputs to strengthen the capacity of these local bodies; strengthen the system that monitors their performance; and provide overall support to the Project Management Unit within the local body. The World Bank in India July

18 New Additions to the Public Information Center This is a select listing of recent World Bank publications, working papers, operational documents and other information resources that are now available at the New Delhi Office Public Information Center. Policy Research Working Papers, Project Appraisal Documents, Project Information Documents and other reports can be downloaded in pdf format from Documents and Reports at Publications may be consulted and copies of unpriced items obtained from: The World Bank PIC 70 Lodi Estate New Delhi Tel: Fax: Internet: www-wds.worldbank.org To order priced publications Allied Publishers Ltd. 751 Mount Road Chennai Tel: Fax: Bookwell Head Office 2/72 Nirankari Colony Delhi Tel: Sales Office: 24/4800 Ansari Road, Darya Ganj New Delhi Tel: , Fax: Anand Associates 1219 Stock Exchange Tower 12th Floor Dalal Street Mumbai Tel: /66 Fax: Internet: All priced publications are available at 45% discount in Developing Countries India Publications Poverty and Social Exclusion in India By The World Bank Price: $25.00 Equity and development 188 pages ISBN: SKU: Despite India s record of rapid economic growth and poverty reduction over recent decades, rising inequality in the country has been a subject of concern among policy makers, academics, and activists alike. Poverty and Social Exclusion in India focuses on social exclusion, which has its roots in India s historical divisions along lines of caste, tribe, and women. These inequalities are more structural in nature and have kept entire groups trapped, unable to take advantage of opportunities that economic growth offers. Culturally rooted systems perpetuate inequality, and, rather than a culture of poverty that afflicts disadvantaged groups, it is, in fact, these inequality traps that prevent these groups from breaking out. Combining rigorous quantitative research with a discussion of these underlying processes, this book finds that exclusion can be explained by inequality in opportunities, inequality in access to markets, and inequality in voice and agency. Perspectives on Poverty in India: Stylized Facts from Survey Data By The World Bank Price: $30.00 Equity and development 290 pages ISBN: SKU: The book examines India s experience with poverty reduction in a period of rapid economic growth The World Bank in India July 2011

19 Marshalling evidence from multiple sources of survey data and drawing on new methods, the book asks how India s structural transformation from rural to urban and from agriculture to nonfarm sectors is impacting poverty. Our analysis suggests that since the early 1990s, urban growth has emerged as a much more important driver of poverty reduction than in the past. We focus in particular on the role of small and medium size conurbations in India, both as the urban sub-sector in which urban poverty is overwhelmingly concentrated, and as a sub-sector that could potentially stimulate rural-based poverty reduction. Second, in rural areas, we focus on the nature of intersectoral transformation out of agriculture into the nonfarm economy. Stagnation in agriculture has been accompanied by dynamism in the nonfarm sector, but there is much debate about whether the growth seen has been a symptom of agrarian distress or a source of poverty reduction. Finally, alongside the accelerating economic growth and the highly visible transformation that is occurring in India s major cities, inequality is on the rise. This is raising concern that economic growth in India has bypassed significant segments of the population. The third theme on social exclusion asks if, despite the dramatic growth, historically grounded inequalities along lines of caste, tribe and gender have persisted. Social Protection for a Changing India (2 Volumes) By World Bank Available: On-line 92 pages Published August 10, 2010 India s surge in growth and rapid expansion in public spending in the past decade has created new possibilities for its social protection system. The growing importance of social protection (SP) is reflected in the Government of India s (GoI) common minimum program and eleventh five year plan which commit to institutionalization of programs as legal rights (as in the case of public works, through the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), continued up-scaling of interventions (e.g., social pensions and midday meals), and proposals to expand new types of SP interventions to the large unorganized sector (e.g., social security). The report draws on existing and new data sources, including analysis of: (i) administrative data; (ii) several rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) data; (iii) a social protection survey (SPS) undertaken for this report in 2006 in rural areas of Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka; (iv) dedicated surveys on social pensions in Karnataka (KSPS) and Rajasthan (RSPS) in 2005 and 2006 respectively; and (v) a living standards survey conducted in Jharkhand in 2005 (JLSS). In addition, the report incorporates a rich body of secondary sources on SP program performance and impact by national researchers and government agencies. India: Policy Research Working Papers WPS 5641 Diagnosing development bottlenecks: China and India By Wei Li, Taye Mengistae and Ixin Colin Xu Although it had a lower income level than India in 1980, China s 2006 per capita gross domestic product stands more than twice that of India s. This paper investigates the role of the business environment in explaining China s productivity advantage using recent firm-level survey data. The analysis finds that China has better infrastructure, more skilled workers, and more laborhiring flexibility than India, but a worse access to finance and higher regulatory burden. Infrastructure appears to be a key constraint for India: it lags significantly behind China, yet it has important indirect effects for the effectiveness of labor flexibility. Labor flexibility is also likely a major constraint for India, as evident in the predominance of small firms, the importance of firm size in accounting for India s disadvantage in productivity, and the complementarity of proxies of labor flexibility with infrastructure and access to finance. Interestingly, regulatory uncertainty has adverse effects in India but not in China. The empirical analysis suggests that it is important to consider country-specific growth bottlenecks and the indirect effects of policy reforms. WPS 5640 Employability and skill set of newly graduated engineers in India By Andreas Blom and Hiroshi Saeki Skill shortage remains one of the major constraints to continued growth of the Indian economy. This employer survey seeks to address this knowledge-gap by answering three questions: (i) Which skills do employers consider important when hiring new engineering graduates? (ii) How satisfied are employers with the skills of engineering graduates? and The World Bank in India July

20 (iii) In which important skills are the engineers falling short? The results confirm a widespread dissatisfaction with the current graduates 64 percent of employers hiring fresh engineering graduates are only somewhat satisfied with the quality of the new hires or worse. After classifying all skills by factor analysis, the authors find that employers perceive Soft Skills (Core Employability Skills and Communication Skills) to be very important. Skill gaps are particularly severe in the higher-order thinking skills ranked according to Bloom s taxonomy. In contrast, communication in English has the smallest skill gap, but remains one of the most demanded skills by the employers. Although employers across India asks for the same set of soft skills, their skill demands differ for Professional Skills across economic sectors, company sizes, and regions. These findings suggest that engineering education institutions should: (i) seek to improve the skill set of graduates; (ii) recognize the importance of soft skills, (iii) refocus the assessments, teaching-learning process, and curricula away from lower-order thinking skills, such as remembering and understanding, toward higher-order skills, such as analyzing and solving engineering problems, as well as creativity; and (iv) interact more with employers to understand the particular demand for skills in that region and sector. WPS5623 Distributional implications of climate change in India By Hanan Jacoby, Mariano Rabassa and Emmanuel Skouas Global warming is expected to heavily impact agriculture, the dominant source of livelihood for the world s poor. Yet, little is known about the distributional implications of climate change at the sub-national level. Using a simple comparative statics framework, this paper analyzes how changes in the prices of land, labor, and food induced by modest temperature increases over the next three decades will affect household-level welfare in India. The authors predict a substantial fall in agricultural productivity, even allowing for farmer adaptation. Yet, this decline will not translate into a sharp drop in consumption for the majority of rural households, who derive their income largely from wage employment. Overall, the welfare costs of climate change fall disproportionately on the poor. This is true in urban as well as in rural areas, but, in the latter sector only after accounting for the effects of rising world cereal prices. Adaptation appears to primarily benefit the non-poor, since they own the lion s share of agricultural land. The results suggest that poverty in India will be roughly 3-4 percentage points higher after thirty years of rising temperatures than it would have been had this warming not occurred. Other Publications World Development Indicators 2011 By World Bank Price: $75.00 World Development Indicators 460 pages ISBN: SKU: This statistical reference book allows you to consult over 800 indicators for more than 150 economies and 14 country groups in more than 90 tables. It provides a current overview of the most recent data available as well as important regional data and income group analysis in six thematic sections: World View, People, Environment, Economy, States and Markets, and Global Links. World Development Indicators 2011 also shows the progress made toward meeting the Millennium Development Goals. These goals, which focus on development and the elimination of poverty, serve as the agenda for international development efforts. Global Monitoring Report 2011: Improving the Odds of Achieving the MDGs By World Bank, International Monetary Fund Price: $29.95 Global Monitoring Report 196 pages ISBN: SKU: How many countries are on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015? How many countries are off target, and how far are they from the goals? And what factors are essential for improving the odds that off-target countries can reach the goals? This year s Global Monitoring Report: Improving the Odds of Achieving the MDGs, examines these questions. It takes a closer look at the diversity of country progress, presents the challenges that remain, and assesses the role of growth, policy reforms, trade, and donor policies in meeting the MDGs. Global Monitoring Report 2011 is prepared jointly by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. It reviews progress toward the MDGs and sets out priorities for policy responses, both for developing countries and for the international community The World Bank in India July 2011

21 The Jobs Crisis: Household and Government Responses to the Great Recession in Eastern Europe and Central Asia By World Bank, M. Ihsan Ajwad Price: $ pages ISBN: SKU: The financial crisis, which began in the United States and Western Europe swiftly expanded into an economic crisis throughout developing countries. The Eastern Europe and Central Asia region was hit harder than any other region in the world. Deteriorating macroeconomic conditions led to deteriorating household welfare, as unemployment increased. Those workers who kept their jobs took home smaller paychecks. Men became more highly represented among the unemployed, and youth struggled to secure their first job. The report finds that governments in the region can improve their crisis responses by making automatic stabilizers more responsive and broad based; adjusting program parameters to the conditions on the ground; and starting new programs to fill coverage gaps that emerge. However, to enable an efficient and flexible crisis response, governments can benefit from fiscal discipline during good times and reliable and timely monitoring systems. Africa s Power Infrastructure: Investment, Integration, Efficiency By Anton Eberhard, Orvika Rosnes, Maria Shkaratan, Haakon Vennemo Price: $ pages ISBN: SKU: Africa s chronic power problems have escalated in recent years into a crisis affecting 30 countries, taking a heavy toll on economic growth and productivity. The region has inadequate generation capacity, limited electrification, low power consumption, unreliable services, and high costs. It also faces a power sector financing gap on the order of $21 billion a year. It spends only about a quarter of what it needs to spend on power, much of this on operating expenditure required to run the continent s high-cost power systems, leaving little for the huge investments needed to provide a long-term solution. This book is based on extensive data collection undertaken between 2006 and 2008 by the Africa Country Infrastructure Country Diagnostic, an initiative of the Infrastructure Consortium for Africa delegated to the World Bank under the guidance of the African Union, African Development Bank and other multilateral and bilateral development institutions. Atlas of Global Development: A Visual Guide to the World s Greatest Challenges, 3rd Edition By World Bank Price: $ pages ISBN: SKU: World Bank South Asia Economic Update 2010: Moving Up, Looking East By World Bank, Dipak Dasgupta Price: $ pages Published 2010 ISBN: SKU: The World Bank South Asia Economic Update 2010: Moving Up, Looking East is the World Bank s comprehensive annual report on the region s economies. In this first edition, the Bank finds that South Asia s strong rebound since March 2009 is comparable to that in East Asia. Government policy, external support, resumption of private spending and global recovery are driving the rebound. Robust and timely policy interventions were, and continue to be, a key to confidence and recovery. South Asia s particular strengths and forms of global integration-not the lack of it- were the main factors that allowed greater resilience. The World Bank s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment: An IEG Evaluation By The World Bank Price: $25.00 Independent Evaluation Group Studies 152 pages Published 2010 ISBN: SKU: The World Bank in India July

22 The evaluation finds that the content of the World Bank s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) is largely relevant for growth and poverty reduction in the sense that it maps well with the determinants of growth and poverty reduction identified in the economics literature. However, some CPIA criteria need to be revised (in particular trade and finance), and one needs to be added (assessment of disadvantaged socio-economic groups). Second, the evaluation finds that the CPIA ratings are in general reliable and correlate well with similar indicators. Results and Performance 2010: The World Bank Group By The World Bank Price: $25.00 Independent Evaluation Group Studies 132 pages ISBN: SKU: This review provides an independent assessment of the World Bank Group s performance in achieving key development objectives, with a special focus on support for environmentally sustainable development consistent with economic growth and poverty reduction. The response to the global financial crisis has continued to dominate development and the work of international institutions, including the World Bank Group. Following a pattern similar to previous crises, World Bank lending has seen a sharp, countercyclical expansion, and IFC investments as a whole have undergone a procyclical contraction. The World Bank Group s Response to the Global Economic Crisis: Phase I By The World Bank Price: $25.00 Independent Evaluation Group Studies 144 pages ISBN: SKU: The World Bank Group has responded to the global economic crisis with a strong countercyclical expansion of financing. Its disbursements of $80 billion in the past two fiscal years were the largest among the Multilateral Development Banks. There was notable variation across the WBG, with vastly increased IBRD lending, moderately higher IDA financing, and overall responses from IFC and MIGA that were not counter-cyclical. The differences reflected the interplay of financial capacities, business models, and available instruments. While the level of financial flows is one aspect of crisis response, the crucial aspect is the results achieved with such financing and the related knowledge work of the WBG. Managing Openness: Trade and Outward-Oriented Growth after the Crisis Edited by Mona Haddad, Ben Shepherd Price: $49.95 Trade and Development 348 pages ISBN: SKU: This book brings together recent empirical work on the trade collapse, its causes and consequences, and the broader trade policy agenda in the post-crisis environment. It addresses critical policy issues revolving around the topic of outward-oriented growth strategy, including policy instruments that help manage risks associated with outward-orientation, lessons learned from the crisis for particular countries and regions, and how emerging trade policy issues such as climate change, commodities, global production networking, and migration affect the prospects for recovery and outward-oriented growth. Growth and Productivity in Agriculture and Agribusiness: Evaluative Lessons from World Bank Group Experience By The World Bank Price: $25.00 Independent Evaluation Group Studies 190 pages ISBN: SKU: The report assesses the World Bank Group s support for growth and productivity in the agriculture sector. Enhancing agricultural growth and productivity is essential to meeting the worldwide demand for food and to reducing poverty, particularly in the poorest developing countries. Between 1998 and 2008, the period covered by this evaluation, the World Bank Group (WBG) provided $23.7 billion in financing for agriculture and agribusiness in 108 countries (roughly 8 percent of total WBG financing), spanning areas from irrigation and marketing to research and extension. However, this was a time of declining focus on agricultural growth and productivity by both countries and donors. The cost of inadequate attention to agriculture, The World Bank in India July 2011

23 especially in agriculture-based economies, came into focus with the food crisis of The crisis added momentum to an emerging renewal of attention and stepped-up financing to agriculture and agribusiness at the World Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC), as well as at several multilateral and bilateral agencies. World Bank financing rose two and a half times from 2008 to 2009, though that increase in lending seems to have been accompanied by a decline in analytical work, which this review finds valuable for results. This evaluation seeks to provide lessons from successes and failures to help improve the development impact of the renewed attention to the sector. Building Engines for Growth and Competitiveness in China: Experience with Special Economic Zones and Industrial Clusters Edited by Douglas Zhihua Zeng Price: $ pages Published 2010 ISBN: SKU: In the past 30 years, China has achieved an unprecedented development miracle in human history. How did China achieve this? What are the key drivers for such a rapid growth? And most importantly, what can be learned from China s success? While many factors could be identified to explain China s success, it is no doubt that the numerous and industrial clusters that emerged after the country s reforms are two important engines that have been driving China s rapid development. The volume reviews the development experiences of China s Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and industrial clusters through extensive research, field visits and case studies. The key experiences of China s SEZs and industrial clusters could be best summarized as: gradualism with experimental approach; strong commitment; and an active facilitating state with strong pragmatism. Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective Edited by Olivier Cattaneo, Gary Gereffi and Cornelia Staritz Price: $45.00 Trade and Development 416 pages Published 2010 ISBN: SKU: Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective analyzes business reactions to the crisis through the lens of global value chains (GVCs). After reviewing the mechanisms underpinning the transmission of economic shocks in a world economy where trade and GVCs play increasing roles, the book assesses the impact of the crisis on global trade, production, and demand in a variety of sectors, including apparel, automobiles, electronics, commodities, and off-shore services. Connecting Landlocked Developing Countries to Markets: Trade Corridors in the 21st Century By Jean-Francois Arvis, Graham Smith and Robin Carruther Price: $ pages, ISBN: SKU: This book aims to help the policymaker and development community in general to understand the nature of the problems and policy dilemmas that landlocked countries face to trade with the rest of the World. By recognizing that the main access problems for landlocked countries occur in the territory of the transit country, this volume provides a new approach to understand the set of incentives that drive the political economy and shape the institutions governing goods transit along corridors. What Can We Learn from Nutrition Impact Evaluations? Lessons from a Review of Interventions to Reduce Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries By The World Bank, Martha Ainsworth Price: $25.00 Independent Evaluation Group Studies 168 pages Published 2010 ISBN: SKU: High levels of child malnutrition in developing countries contribute to mortality and have long-term consequences. Recent impact evaluations show that many different interventions have had an impact on children s anthropometric outcomes (height, weight, and birth weight), but there is no simple answer to the question What works? to address the problem. Similar interventions have widely different results in different settings, owing to differences in local context, the The World Bank in India July

24 causes and severity of malnutrition, and the capacity for program implementation. Impact evaluations of programs supported by the Bank, which are generally large-scale, complex interventions in low-capacity settings, show equally variable results. The findings confirm that it should not be assumed that an intervention found effective in a randomized medical setting will have the same effects when implemented under field conditions. There are many robust experimental and quasi-experimental methods for assessing impact under difficult circumstances often found in field settings. Using Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys to Monitor Projects and Small-Scale Programs: A Guidebook By Courtney Tolmie Price: $ pages Published 2010 ISBN: SKU: Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS) are a tried and tested methodology to identify delays in financial and in-kind transfers, leakages, and other inefficiencies in government programs. This guidebook aims to provide a starting point for civil society groups and other organizations interested in taking a closer look at government spending processes, both on a small and a larger scale. It is designed to lead users from the definition of the appropriate Public Expenditure Tracking Survey to be used, to the dissemination of its findings, with an emphasis on using evidence effectively to influence policy decisions at any level. Based on the experience of the World Bank in measuring and improving the effectiveness of service delivery, this approach helps empower citizens to keep service providers accountable through better information, communication, and engagement. Skills for the Labor Market in Indonesia: Trends in Demand, Gaps, and Supply By Emanuela di Gropello, Aurelien Kruse and Prateek Tandon Price: $ pages ISBN: SKU: In Indonesia, the past two decades have been a time of great progress but also massive transformations and abrupt setbacks. In this context, this book reviews the main characteristics of--and trends in--demand for skills in Indonesia. It seeks to document the existence of a possible skills mismatch between employer demands and the available supply, the contribution of the education and training sector to this mismatch, and possible measures to improve the education and training system s responsiveness to what the labor market and the economy need. Human Rights and Climate Change: A Review of the International Legal Dimensions By Siobhan McInerney- Lankford, Mac Darrow and Lavanya Rajamani Price: $20.00 World Bank Studies 136 pages ISBN: SKU: This Study explores arguments about the impact of climate change on human rights, examining the international legal frameworks governing human rights and climate change and identifying the relevant synergies and tensions between them. It considers arguments about (i) the human rights impacts of climate change at a macro level and how these impacts are spread disparately across countries; (ii) how climate change impacts human rights enjoyment within states and the equity and discrimination dimensions of those disparate impacts; and (iii) the role of international legal frameworks and mechanisms, including human rights instruments, particularly in the context of supporting developing countries adaptation efforts. Outage: Investment shortfalls in the power sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia By Ani Balabanyan, Edon Vrenezi, Lauren Pierce and Danzel Hankinson Price: $ pages ISBN: SKU: This study analyzes the impacts of the financial crisis on power sectors in five countries in the region: Armenia, Kyrgyz Republic, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine. Before the financial crisis, these countries faced expected power shortages as a result of large The World Bank in India July 2011

25 investment gaps. With the financial crisis, GDP dropped, leading to a drop in demand for electricity. The drop in demand created a window of opportunity for meeting investment needs, but the crisis has limited the sources of financing available to the sector. In the post-crisis period, the study concludes that policymakers need to prioritize public spending and create a legal and regulatory environment more conducive to private investment. Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Mountain Hydrology: Development of a Methodology through a Case Study in the Andes of Peru By Walter Vergara, Alejandro Deeb, Irene Leino, Akio Kitoh, Marisa Escobar, Akio Kitoh and Marisa Escobar Price: $25.00 World Bank Studies 200 pages ISBN: SKU: Climate change is beginning to have effects on climate, weather and resource availability in ways that need to be anticipated when planning for the future. In particular, changes in rainfall patterns and temperature may impact the intensity or schedule of water availability. Also the retreat of tropical glaciers, the drying of unique Andean wetland ecosystems, as well as increased weather variability and weather extremes will affect water regulation. These changes have the potential to impact energy and other sectors, such as agriculture, and could have broader economic effects. This report presents a summary of the efforts to develop methodological tools for the assessment of climate impacts on surface hydrology in the Peruvian Andes. Diaspora for Development in Africa Edited by Sonia Plaza and Dilip Ratha Price: $ pages ISBN: SKU: Diaspora for Development in Africa consolidates research and evidence with a view to formulating policies in both sending and receiving countries. It discusses the importance of getting to know each country s diaspora; understand the role of embassies so that they can be equipped to provide services for promotion of trade and investment; analyze how the diaspora can contribute to the transfer of technology through peer reviewing; and conduct joint research, teaching, and mentoring. Leveraging Migration for Africa: Remittances, Skills, and Investments By Dilip Ratha, Sanket Mohapatra, Caglar Ozden, Sonia Plaza, William Shaw and Abede Shimeles Price: $ pages ISBN: SKU: A joint effort led by the African Development Bank and the World Bank, Leveraging Migration for Africa is the first comprehensive publication on harnessing migration, remittances, and other diaspora resources for the development of Africa. It comes at a time when countries in Africa and elsewhere are grappling with difficult choices on how to manage migration. Policy makers can help leverage the contributions of migrants to the development of Africa, reduce remittance costs, improve the efficiency of remittance markets in both origin and destination countries, and address the needs of the origin countries without restricting the emigration of high-skilled professionals. Innovative financing mechanisms such as issuance of diaspora bonds and securitization of future remittance flows can help finance big-ticket projects, such as railways, roads, power plants, and institutions of higher learning that will, step by step, help to transform Africa. Remittance Markets in Africa Edited by Sanket Mohapatra and Dilip Ratha Price: $39.95 Directions in Development 420 pages ISBN: SKU: Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries in the Sub-Saharan African region. In many African countries, these flows are larger than foreign direct investment and portfolio debt and equity flows. In some cases, they are similar in size to official aid from multilateral and bilateral donors. Remittance Markets in Africa presents findings of surveys of remittance service providers conducted in eight Sub-Saharan African countries and in three key destination countries. It looks at issues relating to costs, competition, innovation and regulation, and The World Bank in India July

26 discusses policy options for leveraging remittances for development in Africa. How Governments Can Engage the Private Sector to Improve Health in Africa: Healthy Partnerships By World Bank Price: $ pages ISBN: SKU: This Report presents newly collected data on how effectively each country in the Africa region is engaging the respective private health sectors and how the engagement compares across the region. While the approach taken by governments varies greatly between countries, there is much room for improvement in the Africa region overall to engage more effectively and room for exchange of ideas and good practices on how to do so. Influencing Change: Building Evaluation Capacity to Strengthen Governance By Ray C. Rist, Marie- Helene Boily and Frederic Martin Price: $30.00 World Bank Training Series English; Hardback; 302 pages ISBN: SKU: This book explores how evaluation can influence and interact with the change process in policy and institutional development and presents a variety of lessons learnt and good practices in Evaluation Capacity Building (ECB). Harnessing Quality for Global Competitiveness in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Edited by Jean-Louis Racine Price: $ pages ISBN: SKU: International Essay Competition The World Bank and its partners organize an International Essay Competition every year. The theme this year was Youth Migration which was launched on January 17, Arpitha Kodiveri, a student from Bangalore, India won the first prize in the 2011 Essay Competition Arpitha was invited to attend the ABCDE conference in Paris on June 1, 2011 to present her essay in front of the final jury which awarded her the first place prize. Read Arpitha s essay on The Internal Migration of Tribal Youth in India India Project Documents Financing Affordable Housing Project Date 6 July 2011 Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor Project Date 31 May 2011 Project ID P Project ID P Report No. AC5034 (Integrated Safeguards Data Report No (Summary of Discussion) Sheet) E2664 (Environmental Assessment AB5351 (Project Information Document) (Vol. 1 of 2) (Integrated Safeguards Data Sheet) (Project Appraisal Document) AC6161 (Integrated Safeguards Data Sheet) (Project Information Document) AB6424 (Project Information Document) The World Bank in India July 2011