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1 I. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES:- ITL Public School Social Science Hand Out ( ) Class VIII Subject: Geography Instructions For each questions value points are given from the content. Frame the sentences of your own Highlighted points are value points Note: In case of discrepancy, the content of the book should be considered final CHAPTER 4 : AGRICULTURE The transformation of a plant to a finished product is known as material processing. This process involves three types of economic activities; a. PRIMARY ACTIVITIES it includes all those related to extraction and production of natural resources. e.g. Agriculture, fishing etc. b. SECONDARY ACTIVITIES it involves the processing of these resources. Examples are Manufacturing steel, baking of bread etc. c. TERTIARY ACTIVITIES it provides support to the primary and secondary sectors through services. Examples are transport, trade, insurance etc. Q.1 Discuss the different activities involved in the transformation of a plant into finished product. Material processing Primary activities Secondary activities Tertiary activities II. AGRICULTURE:- 1. The practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products is known as agriculture. 2. Agriculture is a primary activity and more than 50% of the people in the world are engaged in it. Two third population of our country is dependent upon it for their livelihood. 3. Topography of soil and the climatic conditions are the most important for the production of crop. The land on which crops are grown is known as arable land. Q.2 What do you understand by the term agriculture? Cultivating crops and rearing animals Population dependent upon it for survival Required conditions Arable land III. FARMING SYSTEM:- Agriculture or farming can be looked at as a system: 1. The important inputs are seed, fertilizers, machinery and labour.

2 2. The processes involved in the agricultural operations are ploughing, soughing, irrigation, weeding and harvesting. 3. The outputs from the system include crops, wool, dairy and poultry products. Q.3 Why do we consider agriculture as a farm system? Inputs Processes involved Outputs IV. SUBSISTENCE FARMING :- Subsistence farming is practiced to meet the requirements of a farmer s family. The output obtained is less, low level technology and household labour are used to produce it. It can be further classified into: 1. INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE (i) In this type of agriculture farming system the farmer cultivates on a small plot of land using simple tools and small labour. (ii) Bright sunshine, favourable climatic conditions and fertile soil permit growing more than one crop annually on the same land. (iii) Major crops grown by this process are rice wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds etc. (iv) It is mostly practiced in thickly populated areas of monsoon regions of south, southeast, east Asia. 2. PRIMITIVE SUBSISTENCE FARMING (i) It includes shifting cultivation and nomadic herding. Shifting cultivation - It is practiced in areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation. Under this practice a small plot of land is cleared and the trees are cut that are found in this area these trees are burned and their ashes are mixed with the soil that provides nutrients to the soil. Further crops like maize, cassava and potatoes are grown on this plot of and cultivation is continued till the time the soil loses its fertility. When the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivators move to a new plot of land. This technique is also known as slash and burn and is majorly practiced in thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, southeast Asia and north east India. Nomadic herding It is a practice that entails moving from one place to another with cattle in search of pasture, food, fodder etc. Herders/ Pastoralists sell their animals to get products that they don't produce, and they also depend on the animals for food. This type of movement arises in response to climatic constrains and terrain. Some reared animals are sheep, camel, yak and goats. Some products obtained from rearing these animals are milk, meat, wool, hides etc. This type of herding is practiced in semi arid regions and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia, in India in Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir etc.

3 Q.4 What is subsistence farming? Classify it further to explain its significance. It is practiced to meet the basic requirements of one s family Technology level, count of labours Favourable climatic conditions. Major outputs obtained Places/Regions where it is practiced Ways in which it is practiced Size of plot of land required V. COMMERCIAL FARMING :- In commercial farming crops are gown and animals are reared for sale purposes in the market. It is practiced on large areas with the help of modern technology and large number of labours. It can be further classified into : 1. COMMERCIAL GRAIN FARMING Commercial grain farming is an extensive and mechanised form of agriculture. It is practiced on sparsely populated regions with farms spreading hundreds of hectares. During winters a single crop can be grown that is wheat. It is practiced in temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia. 2. MIXED FARMING It a system of farming which involves the growing of crops as well as the raising of livestock. It is mostly practiced in Europe, New Zealand, South Africa etc. 3. PLANTATIONS A plantation is a large piece of land where one crop is specifically planted for widespread commercial sale and usually tended by resident laborers. Single crops like tea, coffee, cotton, cashew, rubber, banana etc. are grown. The produce is either processed on the farms itself or is produced in the nearby factories and thus a transport network is essential at times. These type of plantations are mostly practiced in tropical regions like rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India etc. Q.5 Explain Commercial faring and also different ways to practice it. Why is it practiced. Level of technology Count of labours Major outputs obtained. Regions where they are produced. Ways in which it is practiced

4 VI. SUBSISTENCE AFRMING AND COMMERCIAL FARMING : A COMPARISON SUBSISTENCE FARMING It is practiced to meet the needs of farmer s family. The level of technology is low. Household labours is used to produce on a small output. It can be classified as intensive subsistence and primitive subsistence farming. COMMERCIAL FARMING In this type of farming, crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in markets. The level of technology is high. Most of the work is done by machines. Most of the work is done by machines to produce on a large scale. It can be classified as commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture Q.6 Differentiate between subsistence and commercial farming. Why is it practiced Level of technology Count of labours Output obtained. Further classification VII. MAJOR CROPS There are a large number of crops grown in the world to meet the growing demand of increasing population. These crops supply raw materials for the agro based industries. Some major crops are: CROP SOIL OTHER CONDITIONS DISTRIBUTION Rice Alluvial clayey soil High temperature, high humidity,less rainfall Wheat Well drained loamy soil Moderate temperature, moderate rainfall and bright sunshine Millets Less fertile and sandy Low rainfall and high to soil moderate temperature Maize Well drained fertile soil Moderate temperature and rainfall with lots of sunshine Cotton Black and alluvial soils High temperature, light rainfall an bright sunshine Jute (golden Alluvial soil Height temperature, heavy fiber) rainfall, humid climate China, India, Japan, Sri Lanka, Egypt USA, Canada, India, Russia, Argentina India, Nigeria, china, Niger North America, Brazil, China, Russia China, USA, India,Pakistan India and Bangladesh Coffee Well drained loamy soil Warm and wet climate Brazil, Columbia and India Tea Well drained loamy soil Cool climate and well disturbed high rainfall Kenya, India, China, Sri Lanka Q.7 What are major crops? Write names of some major crops and define them in a tabular form. What are major crops Why are they practiced Type of soil required Varied climatic conditions necessary Places where they are produced.

5 VIII. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT (i) Agricultural development refers to the efforts made to increase the farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population. (ii) It can be achieved in many ways: Increasing the crop area Increasing the number of crops grown Improving irrigation facilities Use of fertilizers Use of high yielding variety of seeds. Mechanization of agriculture should be implemented. Q.8 What is agricultural development? How can it be achieved? What is agricultural development. Why it is needed? Necessary conditions to achieve it. IX. FARMS IN INDIA AND USA : A COMPARATIVE STUDY FARMS IN INDIA ( DEVELOPING FARMS IN USA (DEVELOPED COUNTRY) COUNTRY) Generally the farms are small of about 1.5 Generally the farms are big as 250 hectares hectares House of the farmer is in the main village. The farmer generally lives in the farm Major crops grown are wheat, rice and pulses. Major crops grown are corn, soya bean, wheat, cotton etc. The farmer lacks in the storage facilities. The grains are stored in the storage tanks. They are forced to sell their products even when the market is not favourable to them. Their grains, if not stored, are directly dispatched to market agencies Bullocks and tube wells are used be the farmer for ploughing and irrigating. The farmer uses tractors, harvesters, combiners for agricultural operations. They practice intensive subsistence agriculture. They practice commercial farming. Farmers are not educated and take advise of friends and elders. Farmers are educated and have knowledge of modern equipments. Q.9 Give five points of difference between the agricultural practices of a developing country and a developed country. Size of farms Location of farms Major outputs obtained Availability of facilities Modern technology Type of farming practiced