1 Efficacy of Nimitz (Fluensulfone) Using Drip Irrigation in Tomato Production Monica Ozores-Hampton, Gilma Castillo and Pablo Navia
2 Introduction Florida leading fresh-market tomato in the USA with 33,200 acres harvested generating a production value of US$453 million in Previously, Florida tomato growers relied on methyl bromide as a broad spectrum soil fumigant against soil-borne diseases, weeds, and nematodes. Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., represent a restraining factor causing economic losses in production of fresh-market tomatoes in Florida
3 RKN Microscopic worm-like animals Five major species in Florida: 1. M. incognita 2. M. arenaria 3. M. javanica 4. M. enterolobii 5. M. floridensis Source:
6 Survey: Where we have more RKN? Myakka Fine Sand Soil Profile Play a fundamental role in movement, reproduction, and survival of RKN Surface layer: gray fine sand Subsurface layer: light gray fine Subsoil: dark reddish brown fine sand with organic particles Substratum: brown and yellowish brown fine sand
7 Drip Irrigation 3 ft 3 ft
8 Weather Conditions!! Optimal for RKN reproduction and survival: High temperatures (70 to 80 F) High rainfall which offered nematodes ideal conditions to achieve their life cycles since nematodes move easily in soils with high moisture content enhancing egg hatching. Fall and end of spring
10 Crop rotation Following Flooding Resistant varieties Soil amendments Solarization Anaerobic soil disinfestation Grafting Cultural Practices
12 Non-fumigant Nematicides Biopesticides and others products Brand name MeloCon Majestene Nemakill Active ingredient Certis Marrone Bio Innovations ExcelAg Chemical products Brand name Vydate L (Oxamyl) Nimitz Active ingredient DuPont Adama
13 Nimitz First new chemical nematicide to be developed in more than 20 years True nematicide - pest mortality within 24 to 48 hour Contact nematicide pre-plant application Signal word of Caution Less complicated personal protective equipment Re-entry interval (REI = 0 hours)
14 Nimitz First new chemical nematicide to be developed in more than 20 years. True nematicide - pest mortality within 24 to 48 hour. Contact nematicide pre-plant application. Signal word of Caution (no handling restrictions). Less complicated personal protective equipment. Re-entry interval (REI = 0 hours).
15 Nimitz: Biological Activity and Behavior in Soil True nematicidal activity as well as systematic activity in the plant (Kearn et al., 2014; Oka et al., 2009; Oka et al., 2011). With application via drip irrigation Nimitz migration occurred to deeper layers (~12 inches) in heavy clay soil (Rubin et al., 2011). Decline soil concentration over time - rapid dissipation from the soil within 10 days, but still providing management (Rubin et al., 2011).
16 Nimitz: RKN Management In most trials reduced galling on plant roots or lowered RNKs as compared with the untreated control (Dickson and Mendes, 2013). In tomato crop decreased root galling by 73%, compared to the untreated control (Morris et al., 2015). Sweet potato and carrot best yield increases, however in cucumber, tomato, eggplant, and squash slightly better or similar yields to the untreated control (Dickson and Mendes, 2013).
17 Objectives Evaluate the effectiveness of Nimitz against RKNs in tomato production using drip irrigation in sandy soils
18 Materials and Methods
20 Trial Information and Treatments Fall 2014 Randomized complete block design with 4 replications Treatment Control Nimitz Nimitz Fumigation (5 Aug.) Pic-Clor 60 at 250 lb/acre Pic-Clor 60 at 250 lb/acre Pic-Clor 60 at 250 lb/acre Nimitz application rate (2 Sept.) None Water application rate (6 Sept.) None 56 fl. oz/acre 650 GPA 80 fl. oz/acre 650 GPA
21 Cultural Practices Variety HM 1823 Plant population 3,630 plants/acre Plastic mulch Virtually impermeable film polyethylene mulch, white on black (Berry Plastics, Evansville, IN) 8-mm drip tape with 12.5-inch emitters spacing Drip tape and a flow rate of gpm (Model Jain Turbo Cascade ; Jain Irrigation, Inc., Jalgaon, India). Planting date 12 Sept Linear ft per acre 7,260 Bed spacing (center to center) 6 ft Bed height 9 inches Bed width 25 inches Plant spacing 24 inches Harvest date 25 Nov., 10 and 23 Dec. 2014
22 Nimitz Drip injection
23 Data Collection Rainfall and temperature (mean, min., and max.) - Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN). RKN soil count pre-treatment, at midseason, and final harvest- LLH Ag and Research Services, LLC, Tifton, GA. RKN galling evaluation - rating system (0-5). Plant vigor and health parameters at 21 days after transplant. Yield mature green-stage classified into marketable and unmarketable - USDA size category specifications (extra-large, large, and medium).
24 Statistical Analysis Analysis of variance with the ANOVA procedure. Mean separation with Tukey's honestly significant difference test (HSD) at 5% significance level.
25 Weather Conditions during Fall 2014 Period Temperature ( F) Total rainfall Average Min. Max. (inches) September October November December Average/Total year average
28 RKN Juveniles/100 cc Soil during Fall 2014 Treatment Nematodes/100 cc soil 16 July 31 Oct. 23 Dec. Pic-Clor ,265a Pic-Clor 60/Nimitz 56 fl. oz/acre b Pic-Clor 60/Nimitz 80 fl. oz/acre b P-value Significance - NS **
31 First harvest Marketable Tomato Yield Treatment X-Large Large Medium Total Marketable Unmarket able 25-lb boxes/acre Pic-Clor , Pic-Clor 60/Nimitz 56 fl. oz/acre Pic-Clor 60/Nimitz 80 fl. oz/acre P-value Significance NS NS NS NS NS
32 Second Harvest Marketable Tomato Yield Treatment X- Large Large Medium Total Marketable Unmarket able 25-lb boxes/acre Pic-Clor Pic-Clor 60/Nimitz 56 fl. oz/acre Pic-Clor 60/Nimitz 80 fl. oz/acre P-value Significance NS NS NS NS NS