TAC Meeting of APCAEM Hanoi, Vietnam, December 13-14, 2004

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "TAC Meeting of APCAEM Hanoi, Vietnam, December 13-14, 2004"


1 TAC Meeting of APCAEM Hanoi, Vietnam, December 13-14, 2004 Country Report Dr. S. K. Tandon Assistant Director General (Engg.) INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, NEW DELHI(INDIA)

2 INDIAN AGRICULTURE STRENGTH 47% of total land is cultivable as against 11 % in the world; All 15 major climates of the world. Snow bound Himalayas to hot humid Southern peninsula 20 agro-climatic regions; 46 soil types out of 60 in the world; Sunshine hrs and day length suited for round the year cultivation Ag. Contributes 24.2% to GDP, 15.2 % of total exports and provides employment to 58.4 % of country s work force; 16 % of the World s Population;

3 Contd. Mega centre for biodiversity in plants, animals, insects, microorganisms and accounts for 17 % animal, 12 % plants and 10 % fish genetic resources of the globe; Ranks first in production of pulses, tea, jute and allied fibres; Second largest producer of wheat, rice, groundnut, fruits and vegetables, sugarcane & third largest producer of mustard, potatoes, cotton lint, etc; Wide array of aromatic and medicinal plants(> 10,000 species)

4 Statistics of India Total Geographical Area 329 m. ha Net cropped area m. ha (Cultivable- 47 %, Non- Ag uses-7 %, Forest- 23 %, barren& uncultivable, waste land, permanent pasture & fallow land- 23 %) Grossed cropped area m. ha Net Area under irrigation m. ha(37 % ) Rainfed Area - 55 % of the cultivable land Total Population billion Rural Population- 742 million(70 %) Cropping Intensity- 134 % Production of Food grains- 212 m.t

5 Land Distribution Pattern Large > 10 ha % Medium ( 4-10 ha) % Semi medium (2-4 ha)-22.3 % Marginal ( 1-2 ha) % Small (< 1 ha) %

6 Infrastructure of Agricultural Engineering in India ICAR- CIAE, CIPHET, other 47 Commodities based Institutes, Cotton, Groundnut, Rice, Sugarcane, Dry land, Wheat, Plantation Crops etc. AICRPs on FIM, HESA, RES, UAE,PHT & APA SAUs -38 and 1 CAU Agricultural Engg. Graduates UG-858, PG-400 Dept. of Agril. & Cooperation- Machinery Division- Tractor Testing and Mechanization Ministry of Industries-Subsidy, Import and Export

7 Status of Farm Machinery Manufacturers Tractor - 19 Power Tiller - 15 Combines Agricultural Tools & Implements Reapers - 45 Tractor parts and accessories of Ag. Machinery Village Artisans - 1 m.

8 Year Total Farm Power (Kw/ ha) FARM POWER AVAILABILITY IN INDIA Source Wise, % Animate Mechanical Electrical Human Animal ** ** *

9 MECHANISATION OF AGRICULTURE STILL AT A LOW LEVEL IN THE COUNTRY Agricultural Operations/Machine No. in lakh 1992* 2004 (Estimated) Command in Percentage of Net Area Sown Tractors Iron Plough Animal Drawn Seed Drill (I) Tractor Drawn (II) Animal Drawn Thresher (I) Wheat (II) Paddy (III) Multicrop Plant Protection Equip

10 Variation in Level of Mechanisation in Different States India /States Total Power (kw/ha) India Andhra Pradesh Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

11 COMPARISON OF MECHANISATION WITH OTHER COUNTRIES, 2001 SL. No Country Farm Power. (kw/ha) No. of Tractors per 1000 ha No. of Combine Harvesters per 1000 ha India Japan UK France Italy Germany Argentina Brazil China Pakistan

12 Time series population of Tractors & Power tillers Year Tractors Power tillers ,76,000 13, ,94,000 15, ,04,000 34, ,59,936 93,884 Assuming average life of tractor as 1 5 years and Power t illers as 7 years.

13 Power Productivity Relationship Punjab Farm Grain Productivuty (kg/ha) Kerala Tamilnadu WB HP Bihar Ass am Karnataka Gujarat J&K Jharkhand Orissa MP Chhattisgarh Rajasthan Maharashtra AP Uttaranchal UP Haryana Punjab Farm Power(kW/ha) Food Grain Productivity (kg/ha) Linear (Food Grain Productivity (kg/ha))

14 POPULATION GROWTH TRENDS IN MECHANICAL FARM POWER SOURCES IN INDIA * Growth rate (%) Base year 1970 Tractive power (number in million) Tractor Power Tiller Stationary power (number in million) Electric pump Diesel pump Others (number in million) Power sprayer/ duster

15 EXPERIENCES OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION IN INDIA The experiences of about 4 decades of growth of agricultural mechanization in the country has disapproved many myths like: a) Tractors, combines and other heavy machinery will displace labour Punjab which is highly mechanized state in India employs 7.00 lakh labourers from adjoining states of U.P, Bihar, Rajasthan etc. out of which 3.5 lakh are employed on regular basis and others during the main cropping seasons. b) That the heavy machine are not suitable for small and medium farmers Custom hiring of high capacity equipment like ploughs, seed-cum-fertilizer drills, reapers, threshers and combines is becoming very popular and the demand is increasing day by day. The most beneficiary of such machines are small and medium category farmers. c) Small farmers will not adopt hi-tech technologies for production and processing of their agricultural produce The increasing population of micro irrigation system, green houses and surface covered cultivation and increasing demand for processed and value added ready to eat and ready to cook foods have shown tremendous scope for increasing agricultural mechanization.

16 Demand of tractors is increasing.- Present population lakhs - effectively control million ha (28.95% of cultivated area). Present population of Power Tillers - 1,17,200 which can effectively control about 5.61 lakh ha. Draught animal population going down. Present population - about 60 million which can effectively control about million ha. RECENT TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANISATION Do not have adequate farm power to do tillage operations in time. On an average a tractor is replacing 5 pairs of draught animals. For intensive cropping, farm power availability need to be increased from 1.35 kw/ha to 2 kw/ha by 2010, mainly through tractors and power tillers. By 2010 tractor population need to be increased from 2.76 to 4.13 million tractors. Need about 2.75 million additional tractors: 1.25 million for additional power and about 1.5 million for replacement. Average annual demand will be about 3.43 lakh tractors during next 8 years.

17 Cont. Demand of tractors of 35 hp and 45 hp range is more. Annual use of tractors between h/year. Mechanisation is high in Indo-Gangetic plains where Rice- Wheat cropping system is most predominant. Except tillage, mechanization taken place in crops- wheat, rice, potato and partially in groundnut, sugarcane & cotton.. Mechanisation has been selective in operations like tillage, harvesting, threshing where either drudgery involved is high or peak demand of labour is high than the supply. Annual investment in Agricultural machinery is about Rs. 50,000 crores: Rs. 30,000crores for production machinery and Rs. 20,000 crores for post harvest machinery. Annual investment in fertilizers is about Rs. 12,000 crores, certified seeds about Rs. 10,000 crores and plant protection chemicals about Rs. 2,000 crores


19 Land Preparation Equipment

20 Laser land leveler

21 ANGRAU Hydrotiller Field Capacity ha/h: 0.15 Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 280 Cost of Machine, Rs: 32000

22 Field Capacity ha/h: 0.26 Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 650 Cost of Machine, Rs: 60,000 Tractor Mounted Rotavator

23 Field Capacity ha/h: Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 290 Cost of Machine, Rs: 3500

24 Field Capacity ha/h: Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 380 Cost of Machine, Rs: 6500

25 Field Capacity ha/h: 0.4 Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 325 Cost of Machine, Rs: Hydraulically Controlled Wet Land Leveller

26 Tractor drawn ridger

27 Capacity pits/h: 150 Cost of Machine, Rs: Tractor Mounted Post Hole Digger

28 Sowing and planting devices

29 Field Capacity ha/h: Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 200 Cost of Machine, Rs: 1500

30 Field Capacity ha/h: 0.15 Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 975 Cost of Machine, Rs: Engine Operated Rice Seeder (ANGRAU)

31 CIAE Inclined Plate Planter for Cotton Field Capacity ha/h: Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 250 Cost of Machine, Rs: 6500

32 Field Capacity ha/h: 0.12 Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 1080 Cost of Machine, Rs: 135,000 Self Propelled 8-row Riding Type Rice Transplanter

33 NDUAT Till Plant Machine Field Capacity ha/h: 0.15 Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 720 Cost of Machine, Rs: 16,000

34 Field Capacity ha/h: Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 2700 Cost of Machine, Rs: 25,000 Tractor Mounted Two Row Vegetable Transplanter (PAU)

35 Field Capacity ha/h: Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 530 Cost of Machine, Rs: 48,000 Tractor Mounted Pneumatic Planter (CIAE)

36 Inclined Plate Planter Field Capacity ha/h: Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 740 Cost of Machine, Rs: 16,500

37 Zero Till Seed Fertilizer Drill Field Capacity ha/h: 0.4 Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 870 Cost of Machine, Rs: 13,000

38 BENEFITS OF WHEAT SOWING WITH TRACTOR MOUNTED ZERO TILL SEED FERTI DRILL IN VERTISOL OVER CONVENTIONAL METHOD Parameters Zero till drill Conventional sowing % benefit Time for sowing h/ha Fuel consumption l/ha Operational energy, MJ/ha Cost of Seeding operation, Rs/ha

39 Field Capacity ha/h: Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 825 Cost of Machine, Rs: 7500 Power Tiller Mounted Air Assisted Seed Drill (TNAU)

40 PAU Till Planter Field Capacity ha/h: 0.2 Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: Cost of Machine, Rs: 35,000

41 Field Capacity ha/h: Cost of Machine, Rs: 10,000 TNAU Multicrop Planter

42 Field Capacity ha/h: 0.36 Cost of Operation, Rs/ha: 670 Cost of Machine, Rs: PAU Raised Bed Planter