Volume -1, Issue-4 (October-December), 2013 Available online at popularkheti.info. Organic Farming: Current Status in India

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1 Popular Kheti Volume -1, Issue-4 (October-December), 2013 Available online at popularkheti.info Organic Farming: Current Status in India Issue Special on Organic Farming ISSN: (4) 2013 U.N. Shukla 1*, Manju Lata Mishra 2 and K.C. Bairwa 3 1 Assistant Professor (Agronomy), College of Agriculture, Agriculture University, Jodhpur 2 Research Scholar, C.S.K.H.P.K.V., Palampur (Himachal Pradesh) , India 3 Assistant Professor (Agril. Econ.), College of Agriculture, Agriculture University, Jodhpur of corresponding author: Currently, India ranks 10 th among the top ten countries in terms of cultivable land under organic certification. The certified area includes 10% cultivable area with 0.50 million hectares and rest 90% (4.71 million hectare) is forest and wild area for collection of minor forest produces. The total area under organic certification is 5.21 million hectare. Introduction Organic farming is gaining gradual movement across the world. Growing awareness of health and environmental issues in Agriculture has demanded production of organic food which is emerging as an attractive source of rural income generation. While trends of rising consumer demands for organic are becoming discernible, sustainability in production of crop has become the prime concern in agriculture development. Organic products are grown under a system of agriculture without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides with an environmentally and socially responsible approach. This is a method of farming that works at grass root level preserving the reproductive and regenerative capacity of the soil, good plant nutrition, and sound soil management, produces nutritious food rich in vitality which has resistance to diseases. India is bestowed with lot of potential to produce all varieties of organic products due to its various agro climatic regions. In several parts of the country, the inherited tradition of organic farming is an added advantage. This holds promise for the organic producers to tap the market which is growing steadily in the domestic market related to the export market. The Government of India has implemented the National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP). The national programme involves the accreditation programme for Certification Bodies, standards for organic production, promotion of organic farming etc. The NPOP standards for production and accreditation system have been recognized by European Commission and Switzerland as equivalent to their country standards. Similarly, USDA has recognized NPOP conformity assessment procedures of accreditation as equivalent to that of Popular Kheti ISSN:

2 US. With these recognitions, Indian organic products duly certified by the accredited certification bodies of India are accepted by the importing countries. Trends in Organic farming Oceania has the largest share of organic agricultural land (37%), followed by Europe (24%) and Latin America (20%). The proportion of organically compared to conventionally managed land, however, is highest in Oceania and in Europe. In the European Union 4% of the land is under organic management. Most producers are in Latin America. The total organic area in Asia is 2.9 mha. This constitutes 9% of the world s organic agricultural land. The country with the largest organic area is Australia (12 million hectares). Currently, India ranks 10 th among the top ten countries in terms of cultivable land under organic certification. The certified area includes 10% cultivable area with 0.50 million hectares and rest 90% (4.71 million hectare) is forest and wild area for collection of minor forest produces. The total area under organic certification is 5.21 million hectare (APEDA, 2013). India produced around 1.34 million Mt of certified organic products which includes all varieties of food products namely Sugarcane, Cotton, Basmati rice, Pulses, Tea, Spices, Coffee, Oil Seeds, Fruits and their value added products. The production is not limited to the edible sector but also produces organic cotton fiber, functional food products etc (APEDA, 2013). Among all the states, Madhya Pradesh has covered largest area under organic certification followed by Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. In India, Madhya Pradesh has highest area under organic farming (1.1 mha or 52%), Maharashtra is at second (0.96 mha or 33.6%) and Orissa is at third (0.67 mha or 9.7%) while Uttrakhand and Sikkim are organic States. Table 1. Growth of area under organic management S. No. Years Area in ha under organic certification process Cultivated (organic+in-conversion) conversion) Wild harvest ,000 NA ,000 NA ,73,000 NA ,38,000 24,32, ,65,000 24,32, ,07,000 30,55, , ,96, ,77,517 36,50,000 Popular Kheti ISSN:

3 Table 2. 2 State-wise total areas under organic certification process during the year (March 2011) Name of State Organic Cultivated In-conversion cultivated (ha) (ha) Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Andman Bihar Chhattisgarh Damna & Diu Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh J&K Karnataka Kerala Lakshadweep Madhya Pradesh Jharkhand Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamilnadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Total (Source: Yadav, 2012, Organic Farming Newsletter 8(2): June 2012) Popular Kheti ISSN:

4 Table 3. 3 State-wise details of total area under organic certification process and total production of raw organic commodities (both cultivated and wild harvest) during the (as on March 2011) Exports State Name Total Area Under Certified Total Production Organic Cultivation (t) (ha) Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Andaman & Nicobar Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh J&K Karnataka Kerala Lakshadweep Madhya Pradesh Jharkhand Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya , Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Total (Source: Yadav, 2012, Organic Farming Newsletter 8(2): June 2012) India exported 135 products last year ( ) with the total volume of Mt including 4985 Mt organic textiles. The organic agri export realization was around 374 million US $ including 160 US $ organic textiles registering a 4.38% growth over the previous year. Popular Kheti ISSN:

5 Organic products are exported to EU, US, Switzerland, Canada, South East Asian countries and South Africa. Oil seeds - Soybean (41%) lead among the products exported followed by Cane Sugar (26%), processed food products (14%), Basmati Rice (5%), other cereals and millets (4%), Tea (2%), Spices (1%), Dry fruits (1%) and others. India is bestowed with lot of potential to produce all varieties of organic products due to its various agro climatic regions. An inherited tradition of organic farming in several states of the country is an added advantage. This holds the promise for organic producers to tap the market which is steadily growing (15 to 25 %) in the domestic market related to the export market. Farmers living in lands untainted by pollutants and away from the hassles of modernity and are rediscovering the benefits of traditional and holistic farming that maintains soil health and bio-diversity. India exported more than 300 organic products under 19 categories for a volume of Mt realizing value of USD 157 million ( ). The major products exported were cotton and textiles Mt (25 %), basmati (5243 Mt) and non basmati rice (1634 Mt) (10%), Oil crops Mt (26%) except sesame-2409 Mt (3%), Process foods Mt (13 %), tea-2928 Mt and coffee (5%), honey-2408 Mt (3%), dry fruits Mt (2%), spices, medicinal plants and their processed products, miscellaneous (13%). The other products categories (5%) are cereals, spices, medicinal and herbal plants, coffee, vegetables, aromatic oil and pulses. 44 % of the organic products were exported to Europe followed by Canada (22%), USA (19%) and Asia (13%). Export Destinations 1. EU : 44% by volume; 52% by value 2. Canada : 22% by volume ; 14% by value 3. US : 19% by volume ; 17% by value 4. Asia : 13% by volume ; 15% by value Table 4. 4 Certified Organic Products Produced and Exported from India Cereals Wheat, Rice (Basmati) Spices Cardamom, Black pepper, White pepper, Ginger, Turmeric, Vanilla, Mustard,Coriander, Tamarind, Clove, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Chilli Beverages Tea, Coffee Pulses Red gram, black gram Fruits Mango,Banana, Pineapple, Passion fruit Vegetables Okra, Brinjal, Garlic, Onion, Tomato, Potato Oil seeds Sesame, Castor, Sunflower, Groundnut Others Cotton, Cashew nut, herbal extracts Popular Kheti ISSN:

6 Table 5. 5 Data for Organic Products ( ) Total production 3.88 million Mt Total quantity exported Mt Value of total export USD million (Rs. 699 Crores) Share of Exports to total Production 4% approx. Increase in Export Value over previous year 33% approx. Source: APEDA, India s farmers are still mostly practicing organic methods, passed down for millennia. Organic fertilizer and natural pest control are the only tools available to most of these farmers, who have always lacked the financial resources to explore chemical solutions. But these farmers, whose produce is as organic as they come, cannot afford to pay the fees required to gain official certification. Oil Crops (exept Sesame) Cotton & Textiles Export Data in Mt Commodity Processed Food Basmati Rice Tea Sesame Honey Rice Dry Fruits Cereals Spices-Condiments Medicinal & Herbal Plants/Products Coffee Vegetables Aromatic Oil Fig.1: Commodities wise export data (APEDA, ) 12) Popular Kheti ISSN:

7 Shukla et al (2013), Pop. Kheti, 1(4):19-25 Sesame 4% Tea 5% Dry Fruits 2% Honey 4% Spices-Condiments 2% Cereals Rice 2% 3% Coffee 0% Vegetables 0% Medicinal & Aromatic Herbal Oil Plants/Products 0% 1% Oil Crops (exept Sesame) 28% Basmati Rice 8% Processed Food 14% Cotton & Textiles 27% Fig.2: Sharing of commodities in export (APEDA, ) 12) Conclusion Sustainable food production will be increasingly important in developing countries, as these will be home to most of the world s fast growing population. Organic farming can contribute to sustainable food security by improving nutrition intake, supporting livelihoods in rural areas and enhancing biodiversity, while simultaneously reducing vulnerability to climate change. This is because it uses 50 percent less fossil fuel energy than conventional farming and relies on practices like rotating crops, applying mulch to empty fields and maintaining perennial shrubs and trees on farms, which stabilize soils and improve water retention, thus reducing vulnerability to harsh weather patterns. On an average, organic farms sustain 30 percent higher biodiversity than conventional farms. References APEDA Organic production and current scenario in India. (Retrieved on 20 th Dec, 2013). APEDA Organic production and export scenario. (Retrieved on 20 th Dec, 2013). Yadav AK Status of organic agriculture in India Organic Farming Newsletter 8(2):10-14 Popular Kheti ISSN: