Impact of national food security mission-pulses on legumes production performance in Punjab, India

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1 Legume Research, 38 (5) 2015: Print ISSN: / Online ISSN: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION CENTRE Impact of national food security mission-pulses on legumes production performance in Punjab, India J.M. Singh* and D.K. Grover Agro-Economic Research Centre, Dept. of Economics & Sociology, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana , India. Received: Accepted: DOI: /lr.v38i ABSTRACT Punjab predominantly being an agrarian state contributes maximum of wheat and rice to the central pool. Renowned researchers are continuously emphasizing on the diversification of Punjab agriculture. In order to promote pulse production in the country, National Food Security Mission-Pulses programme was started in The present investigation was undertaken in district Ferozepur, selected under NFSM-pulses. The analysis of primary data revealed that the area and production of pulses increased on all the farm size categories with maximum increase in area on small farms. The study emphasized to develop efficient marketing mechanism for pulses to widen their production base. Key words: Crop diversification, Impact assessment, Legume production, NFSM- pulses. INTRODUCTION To build up the base of pulses and augment domestic pulses supplies, various pulses development programmes such as Centrally Sponsored Pulses Development Scheme, National Pulses Development Project, Technology Mission on Pulses, and Special Food Grain Production Programme on Pulses were initiated in the country from time to time. Despite all these development initiatives, projects and programmes, pulses production remained stagnant in the country for past decades resulting in the continuous decline in the per capita availability of pulses from 60 grams in 1951 to 28 grams in The National Development Council launched National Food Security Mission (NFSM) for Pulses along with rice and wheat in 171 selected districts of the country during with a view to raise pulses production by 2 million tonnes by the end of Eleventh Five Year Plan (Anonymous ) through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a sustainable manner by promoting improved technologies with respect to seed, integrated nutrient management, including micronutrients, soil amendments, integrated pest management and resource conservation technologies. In Punjab, initially NFSM-pulses was launched in Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ferozepur and Sangrur districts during During later years, it was extended to other districts too. Due to paddy - wheat monoculture various ecological and environmental constraints are faced at the farm level inhibiting or stagnation of the crop productivity. The scientists and planners in the state have been advocating crop diversification thereby shifting the area from paddy and wheat to other crops like oilseeds and pulses. While legumes play an important role by providing organic matter in the sustainability of the system, ironically, rice-wheat has replaced legumes over the period of time. Historically, pulses formed an important part of the farming system in Punjab, but the area, production and productivity of pulses in Punjab has declined significantly over the years (Grover et al, 2004). This has led to continuous decline in per capita availability of pulses in the state. Pulses, being rich source of protein and an integral part of the human diet are considered as one of the viable options for diversifying crop pattern in the state. Keeping in view the above factors, the present study was planned to see the impact of NFSM-pulses on the production performance of pulses in the state. MATERIALS AND METHODS This section gives an over view of the methodological framework of selection procedure to see the impact of NFSMpulses. To analyze the production pattern on the pulse growing farms, one NFSM district namely Ferozepur was selected randomly. A cluster of villages from NFSM district Ferozepur were selected due to non availability of required number of pulse growers in one village. A sample of 50 farmers was selected from the village cluster with probability proportional *Corresponding author

2 610 LEGUME RESEARCH to size. There were 3 marginal (<1 ha), 4 small (1-2 ha), 14 medium (2-5 ha) and 29 large (> 5 ha) category farmers, selected for the survey. The reference period for the primary data survey was to Simple mathematical tools such as percentages, averages etc. were used to analyze the results. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In order to evaluate the impact of NFSM- pulses programme w.r.t. change in area under pulses in Punjab and selected NFSM district, it was pre-requisite to examine the trends in area covered by the pulses selected for the present investigation. Besides, the response of sampled farmers was assessed with respect to their awareness of NFSM-pulses, assistance received and its usefulness, area allocation and production of pulses before and after initiation of the programme, acreage expansion and comparative profitability from pulses vis-à-vis their major competing crops. Area under pulses in Punjab: The National Food Security Mission- Pulses was started in the state during the year The area under selected pulse crops during the last decade have been depicted in Table 1. The area under moong in NFSM selected district Ferozepur increased from two thousand hectares in to 2.3 thousand hectares in Also at Punjab level, increase in area under this crop was witnessed which rose from 12.4 thousand hectares in to 14 thousand hectares in In case of gram, the area remained almost stagnant during the NFSMpulses implementation period in district Ferozepur while at Punjab level, initially it declined in first year of initiation of mission and thereafter, increased in the corresponding year. However, the area under total pulses declined over the years in the Punjab state due to better profitability from major competing crops of pulses. Farmers awareness of NFSM-pulses: The awareness of the respondents about the initiation of a programme and assistance received under it plays a significant role in its success or failure. The usefulness of the agriculture related programme is reflected in terms of either enhanced cultivable area under particular crop/ enterprise or increase in productivity level. The response of various categories of sampled farmers drawn from district Ferozepur in terms of their awareness about the NFSM- pulses programme have been given in Table 2. As far as awareness about the NFSM programme was concerned, no marginal and small farmers were aware about the initiation of this programme while nearly 36 per cent medium and 48 per cent large farmers were well aware about the programme. Thus, large category farmers were having better knowledge of this programme as compared to their medium category counterparts. It can be inferred that due to better links of the large and medium category farmers with the programme TABLE 1: Area under moong, gram and total pulses in district Ferozepur and Punjab. Year Moong Gram Total Pulses Ferozepur Punjab Ferozepur Punjab Punjab Source: (Anonymous ) Statistical Abstract of Punjab (Various issues) TABLE 2: Distribution of farmers awareness of NFSM- Pulses, Punjab, Farm Category No. of households aware Total no of households in the size group Percentage Marginal Small Medium Large Total (Th. ha)

3 Vol. 38 Issue 5, implementation agencies/ officials, they reaped benefits from the services/ inputs provided under this programme. Assistance received under NFSM-pulses: The assistance received is the major indicator of benefits reaching out to the beneficiaries. The assistance received under NFSM programmes have been depicted in Table 3. There were nearly 48 per cent large and 36 per cent medium category farmers who received some assistance under NFSM-pulses programme. Thus, the proportion of large category farmers receiving assistance under programme was more as compared to medium category farmers. This shows that medium and large category farmers reaped the benefits under the programme while small and marginal ones could not do so due to their less proximity with the programme implementing agency/ stakeholders. Type of assistance received under NFSM -pulses: The type of assistance received is the major factor which reveals whether the benefits are poring out to the beneficiaries or not. The assistance received under NFSM- pulses by the sampled farmers has been shown in Table 4. In medium farm size category, about 38 per cent farmers got new HYV seeds of various pulse crops, 31 per cent received some sort of training regarding new production and protection technology developed regarding pulses and 31 per cent got some assistance under integrated pest management (IPM). Similarly, on large farm size category, 40 per cent farmers received assistance in the form of new HYV seeds followed by 31 per cent getting integrated pest management (IPM) related technology while 29 per cent receiving training of latest technology developed regarding pulse crops. Therefore, in totality about 40 per cent of the farmers received assistance in the form of new HYV seeds, 31 per cent regarding IPM related technology and about 29 per cent received training on new farm technology developed regarding pulses under NFSM- pulses programme. Usefulness of NFSM-pulses: It is necessary to know the opinion of the beneficiary farmers regarding the usefulness of the programme to their ultimate benefits. The usefulness of NFSM-pulses has been depicted in Table 5. There were TABLE 3: Distribution of farmers receiving any assistance under NFSM-pulses, Punjab, Farm Category No of households who Total no of households in the Per cent of households received assistance size group assisted Marginal Small Medium Large Total TABLE 4: Distribution of farmers by type of assistance received under NFSM- pulses, Punjab, Farm category No. of households HYV Seeds Integrated Pest Management Training on Improved Technology Total Medium Large Total Per cent Distribution Medium Large Total TABLE 5: Distribution of farmers opining about the usefulness of NFSM-Pulses, Punjab, Farm category No of farmers who found useful Total no of farmers in the size group Per cent of farmers Marginal Small Medium Large Total

4 612 LEGUME RESEARCH about 48 per cent large and 35 per cent medium category farmers who found NFSM-pulses programme useful to them in terms of either input assistance or training regarding transfer of farm technology. Thus, the proportion of farmers informing about the usefulness of the programme was more from the large farm size category as compared to their medium category counterparts. Type of use by respondent farmers: The success of a programme is reflected either in terms of increased area or in terms of increased production or productivity. The type of the benefits of NFSM-pulses realized by the sample households has been shown in Table 6. The table reveals that on medium farm size category, 57 per cent farmers reported about the higher yield realization of the pulse crops grown and 43 per cent informed about increase in their knowledge by attending various trainings conducted under the programme. In case of large farmers, 56 per cent informed about the increase in yield of pulse crops sown on their farms, 44 per cent revealed about increase in their knowledge of various farming practices and 11 per cent reported reduction of pest attack on their pulse crop due to the trainings received under the programme. Thus, increase in yield was the major factor depicting benefit to the beneficiaries followed by change in knowledge regarding latest farm technology with major factor being reduction in pest attack on their crop. Production of pulses before and after NFSM-pulses: The benefits of the NFSM-pulses were judged by the change in production of pulse crops before and after the initiation of the programme. Production of pulses before and after NFSMpulses initiation has been depicted in Tables 7 and 8. The average production of the year and has been compared with year. Summer moong: Summer moong was taken as a third crop on the sample farms after harvesting of wheat in the month of April. This was the reason that small and marginal farmers also took up summer moong cultivation on their farms. The production of summer moong increased from qtls to qtls on marginal farms while on small farms; there was an increase in production from qtls to qtls. On medium and large farm categories also, there was increase in production from qtls to qtls and qtls to qtls, respectively. Therefore, there was net increase in the production of summer moong on all the sampled farms showing some positive impact of the programme NFSMpulses. In aggregate, total summer moong production increased from qtls to qtls on the sample farms. Kharif moong: Kharif moong was sown as main crop on the medium and large category farms only. As far as increase in production under kharif moong was concerned, it pushed up from qtls to qtls on medium farms category while TABLE 6: Distribution of farmers by type of use, NFSM- Pulses, Punjab, No of farmers by type of use Farmcategory Higher yield Reduced pest attacks Increased knowledge Total TABLE 7: Production of Pulses before and after NFSM- Pulses, Punjab, Farm category Summer Moong Kharif Moong Gram Medium Large Total Per cent Distribution Medium Large Total Average of Average of Average of and and and Marginal Small Medium Large Total (Qtls)

5 Vol. 38 Issue 5, Particulars TABLE 8: Production of Pulse crops before and after NFSM- Pulses, Punjab, Total Pulses Average of and Per cent increase Marginal Small Medium Large Total (Qtls) on large farms the quantum of increase in production was from qtls to qtls as revealed by the sample farmers. Thus, production under kharif moong increased exclusively because of the initiatives taken under the programme. Gram: Gram was the pulse crop sown during rabi season on medium and large farms only. Although this crop is highly sensitive to irrigation and vagaries of weather yet in gram too, the production increased from qtls to qtls on medium farms and from qtls to qtls on large farms, respectively. It was only due to the initiation of the programme that the production under gram also increased on the sample farms. Per cent increase in production of pulses before and after NFSM: Per cent increase in production was maximum i.e. nearly 49 per cent on small farms followed by 34 per cent increase on medium, 29 per cent on large and just 11 per cent increase in production was observed on the marginal farms. In overall, about 30 per cent increase in production was observed on the sample farms. Thus, on all farm size categories there was increase in production of pulses after the initiation of NFSM-Pulses. This increase was more on small farms followed by medium, large and marginal farms. The per cent increase in pulse production was more on the small farms as compared to other farms just because only summer moong was grown on these farms while other pulse crops was also grown on medium and large farm categories. Area under pulses before and after NFSM- pulses: The increase in area under a crop is also an indicator of better implementation of a programme.the area under various pulses sown on the sample farms, before and after initiation of the NFSM- pulses, has been given in Table 9. It is quite obvious from the table that under summer moong, after initiation of NFSM- pulses, area increased on all the farm size categories with maximum increase on large farms followed by medium, small and marginal farm categories. Although small and marginal farmers, as revealed by them, did not receive any assistance under the programme, yet area under summer moong increased because of demonstration effect of more area being brought under summer moong by the medium and large category farmers. In case of kharif moong and gram also, increase in area was observed on medium and large farms although this increase was not as sharp as in case of summer moong. In overall, on the sample farms, there was increase in area under pulses after initiation of NFSM- pulses in district Ferozepur. Per cent increases in area under pulses after NFSM- pulses: The increase in area under pulses has been depicted in Table 10. All the selected small category farmers reported increase in area while nearly 79 per cent large, 78 per cent medium and about 67 per cent marginal farmers reported about the increase in area under pulses on the sample farms. Therefore, there was increase in area on all the category of farms which shows the positive impact of the NFSM-pulses programme. Extent of increase in area under pulses after NFSMpulses: The extent of increase in area is very crucial factor in judging the successful implementation of an agricultural related programme. The category wise extent of increase in area has been given in Table 11. On marginal farms, the extent of increase in area as reported by the sample farmers TABLE 9: Area under Pulses before and after NFSM- Pulses, Punjab, Farm category Summer Moong Kharif Moong Gram (Hectares) Average of Average of Average of and and and Marginal Small Medium Large Total

6 614 LEGUME RESEARCH TABLE 10: Increase in area under Pulses after NFSM- pulses, Punjab, TABLE 11: Distribution by extent of increase, Punjab, No of households by type of use Farm category 1%-2% 2%-5% 5%-10% >10% Total Farm category No. of farmers reporting increase in area Total no. of farmers in the size group Per cent of farmers Marginal Small Medium Large Total Marginal Small Medium Large Total Per cent of households to total households in size group Farm category 1%-2% 2%-5% 5%-10% >10% Total Marginal Small Medium Large Total was between 5-10 per cent. The small farmers aired their views about increase in area to the extent of more than 10 per cent. Out of the medium category farmers, who reported about the increase in area under pulses, nearly 18 per cent told about extent of increase in area between 2-5 per cent, 27 per cent between 5-10 per cent and remaining 55 per cent more than 10 per cent. On large category farms, about 17 per cent informed about 1-2 per cent increase in area, 13 per cent between 2-5 per cent, 30 per cent between 5-10 per cent and 39 per cent more than 10 per cent. Therefore, on the sample farms there was increase in the area under pulses after initiation of NFSM-pulses programme. This increase was, however, more pronounced on the small and medium farm categories as compared to marginal and large farms. Comparative profitability from pulses and their competing crops: The comparative profitability from pulses and their major competing crops have been shown in Table 12. The study revealed that summer moong was promoted under the NFSM-pulses which was an additional crop taken after wheat harvesting and reaped before transplanting of paddy crop. This crop also increases the fertility of soil besides supplementing the farmer s income. The benefit - cost ratio for summer moong was found to be highly encouraging at When B:C ratio of kharif season moong and gram was compared with paddy and wheat crops, it revealed the hitherto known better comparative returns from competing crops. But pulses in aggregate, including summer moong, were found to be nearly at par as far as profitability from paddy and wheat crops was concerned. Thus, promoting pulses cultivation for crop diversification is the need of the hour, as advocated by various policy planners. Therefore, new programmes such as NFSM-pulses should be initiated TABLE 12: Benefit cost analysis of pulses and their competing crops on sample farms, Punjab, (averages of to ). (Rs /Ha) Particulars Zaid season Kharif Season Rabi Season Total Total competing Summer Moong Moong Paddy Gram Wheat pulses crops Gross returns Total variable cost Returns over variable costs Benefit cost Ratio

7 Vol. 38 Issue 5, and further strengthened for promotion of pulses as a better alternative to paddy and wheat crops for sustainability of Punjab agriculture. Suggestions and policy implications: The sampled farmers were asked to suggest measures to further increase the area and thereby production under the pulse crops. The major suggestion by the farmers was to supply High Yielding Varieties (HYV s) seed at subsidized rates, to ensure its timely availability, developing varieties resistant to various insectpest and diseases. Farmers also suggested supplying of fertilizers free of cost, plant protection equipment at subsidized rates. There was another suggestion for the extension functionaries of related departments to provide trainings on the latest technology regarding pulses developed by the Punjab Agricultural University. On marketing front, farmers suggested about the procurement of produce by the Govt. agencies, ensuring the minimum support price of pulses for better profitability and controlling the fluctuation in prices to stop the distress sale of produce by the pulses growers. In order to cover risk in the pulse production, insurance cover should be provided to the pulse growers for minimizing the loss due to natural calamities. The foregone analysis has brought out that there was impact of NFSM-pulses in terms of increase in area, productivity and thereby production of pulses on the sample farms. Therefore, there was a positive impact of this programme in the district under investigation. But this impact could be short lived due to various problems faced by the respondent growers in production as well as marketing of the pulses produced. It is well established fact that risk factor in pulses production is more vis-a-vis their competing crops such as paddy and wheat which are less risky and have excellent marketing mechanism in the state. Hence, for promotion of these crops, certified HYV seeds should be made available at subsidized rates to the farmers along with ensured price and insurance cover. The number of training programmes to update the knowledge of the farmers about the latest technology developed regarding pulses should be enhanced by overhauling the extension functionaries involved in agricultural extension. Keeping in view the cited corrective measures, production under legumes can be further increased which can also play a pivotal role in crop diversification and improving the fertility status of the Punjab soils. REFERENCES Anonymous ( ) Economic survey Ministry of Finance and Company Affairs, Government of India: S-23. Anonymous (2012) Statistical Abstract of Punjab. Economic and Statistical Organisation, Punjab, Chandigarh. Grover D K, Weinberger Katinka and Shanmugasundaram S (2004) Production and consumption status of Mungbean in India. Agric Situ. India 61: