An Overview of the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Sector (AFOLU)

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1 UN Office for Sustainable Development Greenhouse Gas Inventory System Training Workshop September 2018, Bangkok, Thailand 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories An Overview of the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Sector (AFOLU) Patthra Pengthamkeerati Kasetsart University, Thailand

2 Background Energy Industrial Processes Solvent and Other Product Use Agriculture Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Waste IPCC 1996 GLs Energy Industrial Processes and Product Use Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Waste IPCC 2006 GLs Main greenhouse gas emission sources/removals and processes in managed ecosystems IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

3 Background IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

4 IPCC 2006 GLs IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Source: IPCC (2008)

5 AFOLU General Equations GHG emissions = Activity data X Emission factor GHG emissions and removals Livestock populations Amounts of lime/urea Harvested area Land monitoring Enteric CH 4 EF Manure CH 4 and N 2 O EFs Soil N 2 O EF Carbon inventory Allometric equation IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

6 3A1 Enteric fermentation Tier 1 ENTERIC FERMENTATION EMISSION FACTORS FOR TIER 1 METHOD (KG CH 4 HEAD -1 YR -1 ) Livestock Developed countries Developing countries Factor Means Unit Emissions methane emissions from Enteric Fermentation Gg CH 4 head -1 EF(T) emission factor for the defined livestock population kg CH 4 head -1 yr -1 N(T) T Total CH4Enteric E i the number of head of livestock species / category T in the country species/category of livestock total methane emissions from Enteric Fermentation Gg CH 4 yr -1 the emissions for the i th livestock categories and subcategories IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Buffalo Sheep 8 5 Goats 5 5 Camels Hourses Mules and Asses Deer Alpacas 8 8 Swine Poultry Insufficient data for calculation Insufficient data for calculation Other To be determined 1 To be determined 1 1 One approach for developing the approximate emission factors is to use the Tier 1 emissions factor for an animal with a similar digestive system and to scale the emissions factor using the ratio of the weights of the animals raised to the 0.75 power. Liveweight values have been included for this purpose. Emission factors should be derived on the basis of characteristics of the livestock and feed of interest and should not be restricted solely to within regional characteristics

7 3A1 Enteric fermentation ENTERIC FERMENTATION EMISSION FACTORS FOR CATTLE 1 (KG CH 4 HEAD -1 YR -1 ) Regional characteristics Emission factor (KG CH 4 HEAD -1 YR -1 ) Dairy Other cattle North America Western Europe Eastern Europe Oceania Latin America Asia Africa and Middle East Indian Subcontinent Emission factors should be derived on the basis of the characteristics of the cattle and feed of interest and need not be restricted solely to within regional characteristics IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

8 3A2 Manure management Methane Tier 1 MANURE MANAGEMENT METHANE EMISSION FACTORS (KG CH 4 HEAD -1 YR -1 ) Livestock Methane emission factors (KG CH 4 HEAD -1 YR -1 ) Factor Means Unit CH 4 Manure EF (T) N (T) T CH 4 emissions from Manure Management, for a defined population emission factor for the defined livestock population the number of head of livestock species/category T in the country species/category of livestock Gg CH 4 yr -1 kg CH 4 head -1 yr -1 Dairy a 31 Cattle a 1 Buffalo a 2 Swine a 7 Goats b 0.20 Sheep b 0.22 Poultry b 0.02 a Default EF for Asia in warm temperature (>28 C) b Default EF for developing countries in warm temperature (>25 C) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

9 3A2 Manure management Nitrous oxide Tier 1 Factor Means Unit N 2 O D(MM) direct N 2 O emissions from Manure Management in the country kg N 2 O yr-1 N (T) number of head of livestock species/category T in the country N ex(t) annual average N excretion per head of species/category T in the country kg N animal -1 yr -1 MS (T, S) fraction of total annual nitrogen excretion for each livestock species/category T that is managed in manure management system S in the country EF 3(S) emission factor for direct N 2 O emissions from manure management system S in the country conversion of (N 2 O-N) emissions to N 2 O emissions IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories kg N 2 O -N/kg N in manure management system S N rate(t) default N excretion rate kg N (1000 kg animal mass) -1 day -1 TAM typical animal mass for livestock category T kg animal -1

10 3A2 Manure management DEFAULT EMISSION FACTORS FOR DIRECT N 2 O EMISSIONS FROM MANURE MANAGEMENT System EF 3 [kg N 2 O-N (kg Nitrogen excreted) -1 ] Pasture/Range/Paddock 0.02 Daily spread 0 Solid storage Dry lot 0.02 Liquid/Slurry With natural crust cover Without natural crust cover 0 Uncovered anaerobic lagoon 0 Pit storage below animal confinements Anaerobic digester 0 The dung is excreted on fields. The sun dried dung cakes are The emissions associated with the burning of the dung are to be reported under the IPCC category 'Fuel Combustion' if the dung is used as fuel and burned for fuel. under the IPCC category 'Waste Incineration' if the dung is burned without Burned for fuel energy recovery Burned for fuel Direct and indirect N Urine N deposited on pasture and paddock 2 O emissions associated with the urine deposited on agricultural soils and pasture, range, paddock systems are treated in Chapter 11, Section 11.2, N 2 O emissions from managed soils Cattle and Swine deep bedding No mixing 0.01 Active mixing 0.07 Composting - In-vessel Composting - Static pile Composting - Intensive windrow 0.1 Composting Passive windrow 0.01 Poultry manure with litter Poultry manure without litter Natural aeration Systems 0.01 Aerobic treatment Forced aeration systems IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

11 3A2 Manure management DEFAULT VALUES FOR NITROGEN EXCRETION RATE Region DEFAULT VALUES FOR NITROGEN EXCRETION RATE (KG N (1000 KG ANIMAL MASS) -1 DAY -1 ) Other cattle Dairy cattle Buffalo Poultry Swine Goat Sheep Asia North America Western Europe Eastern Europe Oceania Latin America Africa Middle East IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

12 3B Land ANNUAL CARBON STOCK CHANGES FOR THE ENTIRE AFOLU SECTOR ESTIMATED AS THE SUM OF CHANGES IN ALL LAND-USE CATEGORIES IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Factor Means Unit ΔC AFOLU Carbon stock change land-use categories: AFOLU FL Forest Land CL Cropland GL Grassland WL Wetlands SL Settlements OL Other Land ΔC LU carbon stock changes for a land-use (LU) ΔC annual carbon stock change in the pool tonnes C yr -1 ΔC G annual gain of carbon tonnes C yr -1 ΔC L annual loss of carbon tonnes C yr -1

13 3B Land ANNUAL CARBON STOCK CHANGES FOR A LAND-USE CATEGORY AS A SUM OF CHANGES IN EACH STRATUM WITHIN THE CATEGORY IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Factor ΔC LUi AB BB DW LI SO HWP Means Carbon stock changes for a stratum of a land-use category Above-ground biomass Below-ground biomass Deadwood Litter Soils Harvested wood products

14 3B Land Change in biomass carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass) ANNUAL CHANGE IN CARBON STOCKS IN BIOMASS IN LAND REMAINING IN A PARTICULAR LAND-USE CATEGORY (GAIN-LOSS METHOD) Factor Means Unit ΔC B Annual change in carbon stocks in biomass tonnes C yr -1 ΔC G Annual increase in carbon stocks due to biomass growth for each land sub-category, tonnes C yr -1 considering the total area ΔC L Annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass loss for each land sub-category, tonnes C yr -1 considering the total area IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

15 3B Land Change in biomass carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass) ANNUAL INCREASE IN BIOMASS CARBON STOCKS DUE TO BIOMASS INCREMENT IN LAND REMAINING IN THE SAME LAND-USE CATEGORY (TIER1) 15 Factor Means Unit ΔC G Annual increase in biomass carbon stocks due to biomass growth in land remaining in the same land-use category by vegetation type and climatic zone tonnes C yr -1 A Area of land remaining in the same land-use category ha G TOTAL Mean annual biomass growth tonnes d.m. ha -1 CF Carbon fraction of dry matter tonne C (tonnes d.m.) -1 i and j Ecological zone and climate domain (respectively) G W Average annual above-ground biomass growth for a specific woody vegetation type tonnes d.m. ha -1 yr -1 R Ratio of below-ground biomass to above-ground biomass for a specific vegetation type tonne d.m. below-ground biomass (tonne d.m. aboveground biomass) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

16 3B Land Change in biomass carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass) ANNUAL DECREASE IN CARBON STOCKS DUE TO BIOMASS LOSSES IN LAND REMAINING IN THE SAME LAND-USE CATEGORY ΔC L Factor Means Unit annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass loss in land remaining in the same land-use category tonnes C yr -1 L wood-removals annual carbon loss due to wood removals tonnes C yr -1 L fuelwood annual biomass carbon loss due to fuelwood removals tonnes C yr -1 L disturbance annual biomass carbon losses due to disturbances tonnes C yr IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

17 3B Land Change in biomass carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass) DEFAULT COEFFICIENTS FOR ABOVE-GROUND WOODY BIOMASS AND HARVEST CYCLES IN CROPPING SYSTEMS CONTAINING PERENNIAL SPECIES Climate region Above-ground biomass carbon stock at harvest (tonnes C ha -1 ) Harvest/Maturity cycle (yr) Biomass accumulation rate (G) (tonnes C ha -1 yr -1 ) Biomass carbon loss (L) (tonnes C ha -1 yr -1 ) Error range 1 Temperate (all moisture regimes) % Tropical, dry % Tropical, moist % Tropical, wet % Note: Values are derived from the literature survey and synthesis published by Schroeder (1994). 1 Represents a nominal estimate of error, equivalent to two times standard deviation, as a percentage of the mean IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

18 3B Land Change in biomass carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass) ANNUAL CARBON LOSS IN BIOMASS OF WOOD REMOVALS ANNUAL CARBON LOSS IN BIOMASS OF FUELWOOD REMOVAL ANNUAL CARBON LOSSES IN BIOMASS DUE TO DISTURBANCES Factor Means Unit L wood-removals annual carbon loss due to wood removals tonnes C yr -1 H annual wood removals roundwood, m 3 yr -1 R ratio of below-ground biomass to above-ground biomass tonne d.m. below-ground biomass (tonne d.m. above-ground biomass) -1 CF carbon fraction of dry matter tonne C (tonne d.m.) -1 BCER F biomass conversion and expansion factor for conversion of removals in merchantable volume to total biomass removals (including bark) tonnes biomass removal (m 3 of removals) -1 L fuelwood annual biomass carbon loss due to fuelwood removals tonnes C yr -1 FGtrees annual volume of fuelwood removal of whole trees m 3 yr -1 FGpart annual volume of fuelwood removal as tree parts m 3 yr -1 D basic wood density tonnes d.m. m -3 L disturbance annual biomass carbon losses due to disturbances tonnes C yr -1 A disturbance area affected by disturbances ha yr -1 B W average above-ground biomass of land areas affected by disturbances tonnes d.m. ha -1 fd fraction of biomass lost in disturbance IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

19 3B Land DEFAULT BIOMASS CONVERSION AND EXPANSION FACTORS (BCEF) TONNES BIOMASS (M 3 OF WOOD VOLUME) -1 BCEF for econifersxpansion of merchantable growing stock volume to above-ground biomass (BCEF S ), for conversion of net annual increment (BCEF I ) and for conversion of wood and fuelwood removal volume to above-ground biomass removal (BCEF R ) Climate zone Forest type BCEF Temperate Hardwoods Pines Other conifers BCEF S BCEF I BCEF R BCEF S BCEF I BCEF R BCEF S BCEF I BCEF R Growing stock level (m 3 ) < > ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

20 3B Land Change in biomass carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass) ANNUAL CHANGE IN BIOMASS CARBON STOCKS ON LAND CONVERTED TO OTHER LAND-USE CATEGORY (TIER 2) (GAIN-LOSS METHOD) Factor Means Unit ΔC B Annual change in carbon stocks in biomass on land converted to other land-use category tonnes C yr -1 ΔC G Annual increase in carbon stocks in biomass due to growth on land converted to another tonnes C yr -1 land-use category ΔC CONVERSION Initial change in carbon stocks in biomass on land converted to other land-use category tonnes C yr -1 ΔC G Annual increase in carbon stocks in biomass due to growth on land converted to another land-use category tonnes C yr IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

21 3B Land Change in biomass carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass) INITIAL CHANGE IN BIOMASS CARBON STOCKS LAND CONVERTED TO OTHER LAND-USE CATEGORY (TIER 2) (GAIN-LOSS METHOD) Factor Means Unit ΔC CONVERSION Initial change in carbon stocks in biomass on land converted to other land-use category tonnes C yr -1 B AFTER,I and B BEFORE,i Biomass stocks on land type i immediately after the conversion and before the tonnes d.m. ha -1 conversion, respectively. ΔA TO_OTHERS Area of land use i converted to another land-use category in a certain year ha yr -1 CF Carbon fraction of dry matter tonnes C (tonnes d.m.) -1 i type of land use converted to another land-use category IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

22 3B Land Change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter ANNUAL CHANGE IN CARBON STOCKS IN DEAD ORGANIC MATTER (LAND REMAINING IN A LAND-USE CATEGORY) ANNUAL CHANGE IN CARBON STOCKS IN DEAD WOOD AND LITTER DUE TO LAND CONVERSION Factor Means Unit ΔC DOM annual change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter (includes dead wood and litter) tonnes C yr -1 ΔC DW change in carbon stocks in dead wood tonnes C yr -1 ΔC LT change in carbon stocks in litter tonnes C yr -1 Factor Means Unit ΔC DOM annual change in carbon stocks in dead wood or litter tonnes C yr -1 C O dead wood/litter stock, under the old land-use category tonnes C yr -1 C N dead wood/litter stock, under the new land-use category tonnes C yr -1 A area undergoing conversion from old to new land-use ON category ha T time period of the transition from old to new land-use ON category yr IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

23 3B Land Climate DEFAULT VALUES FOR LITTER AND DEAD WOOD CARBON STOCKS Growing stock level (m 3 ) Broadleaf deciduous Needleleaf evergreen Broadleaf deciduous Needleleaf evergreen Litter carbon stocks of mature forests (tonnes C yr -1 ) Dead wood carbon stocks of mature forests (tonnes C yr -1 ) Boreal, dry 25 (10-58) 31 (6-86) n.a. b n.a Boreal, moist 39 (11-117) 55 (7-123) n.a n.a Cold Temperate, dry 28 (23-33) a 27 (17-42) a n.a n.a Cold Temperate, moist 16 (5-31) a 26 (10-48) a n.a n.a Warm Temperate, dry 28.2 ( ) a 20.3 ( ) a n.a n.a Warm Temperate, moist 13 (2-31) a 22 (6-42) a n.a n.a Subtropical 2.8 (2-3) 4.1 n.a n.a Tropical 2.1 (1-3) 5.2 n.a n.a Source: Litter: Note that these values do not include fine woody debris. Siltanen et al., 1997; and Smith and Heath, 2001; Tremblay et al., 2002; and Vogt et al.,1996, converted from mass to carbon by multiplying by conversion factor of 0.37 (Smith and Heath, 2001). Dead Wood: No regional estimates of dead wood pools are currently available see text for further comments a Values in parentheses marked by superscript a are the 5th and 95th percentiles from simulations of inventory plots, while those without superscript a indicate the entire range. b n.a. denotes not available IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

24 3B Land Change in carbon stocks in soils ANNUAL CHANGE IN ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS IN SOILS Factor Means Unit ΔC Soils annual change in carbon stocks in soils tonnes C yr -1 ΔC Mineral annual change in organic carbon stocks in mineral soils tonnes C yr -1 L Organic annual loss of carbon from drained organic soils tonnes C yr -1 ΔC Inorganic annual change in inorganic carbon stocks from soils (assumed to be 0 unless using a Tier 3 approach) tonnes C yr IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

25 3B Land Change in carbon stocks in soils ANNUAL CHANGE IN ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS IN MINERAL SOILS ANNUAL CARBON LOSS FROM DRAINED ORGANIC SOILS (CO 2 ) Factor Means Unit ΔC Mineral annual change in organic carbon stocks in mineral soils tonnes C yr -1 SOC 0 soil organic carbon stock in the last year of an inventory time period tonnes C SOC (0-T) soil organic carbon stock at the beginning of the inventory time period tonnes C T number of years over a single inventory time period yr D time dependence of stock change factors which is the default time period for transition between equilibrium SOC values yr c represents the climate zones, s the soil types, and i the set of management systems that are present in a country. SOC REP the reference carbon stock tonnes C ha -1 F LU stock change factor for land-use systems or sub-system for a particular land-use F MG stock change factor for management regime F I stock change factor for input of organic matter A land area of the stratum being estimated, ha. All land in the stratum should have common biophysical conditions IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Factor Means Unit L Organic annual loss of carbon from drained organic soils tonnes C yr -1 A land area of drained organic soils in climate type c ha EF emission factor for climate type c tonnes C ha -1 yr -1

26 3B Land DEFAULT REFERENCE (UNDER NATIVE VEGETATION) SOIL ORGANIC C STOCKS (SOCREF) FOR MINERAL SOILS (TONNES C HA-1 IN 0-30 CM DEPTH) Climate HAC soils 1 LAC soils 2 Sandy soils 3 Spodic soils 4 Volcanic soils 5 Wetland soils 6 Boreal 68 NA 10 # Cold Temperate, dry NA 20 Cold Temperate, moist Warm Temperate, dry NA 70 Warm Temperate, moist NA Tropical, dry NA 50 Tropical, moist NA 70 Tropical, wet NA Tropical montane 88 * 63 * 34 NA 80 Note: Data are derived from soil databases described by Jobbagy and Jackson (2000) and Bernoux et al. (2002). Mean stocks are shown. A nominal error estimate of ±90% (expressed as 2x standard deviations as percent of the mean) are assumed for soil-climate types. NA denotes not applicable because these soils do not normally occur in some climate zones. # Indicates where no data were available and default values from 1996 IPCC Guidelines were retained. * Data were not available to directly estimate reference C stocks for these soil types in the tropical montane climate so the stocks were based on estimates derived for the warm temperate, moist region, which has similar mean annual temperatures and precipitation. 1 Soils with high activity clay (HAC) minerals are lightly to moderately weathered soils, which are dominated by 2:1 silicate clay minerals (in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) classification these include Leptosols, Vertisols, Kastanozems, Chernozems, Phaeozems, Luvisols, Alisols, Albeluvisols, Solonetz, Calcisols, Gypsisols, Umbrisols, Cambisols, Regosols; in USDA classification includes Mollisols, Vertisols, high-base status Alfisols, Aridisols, Inceptisols). 2 Soils with low activity clay (LAC) minerals are highly weathered soils, dominated by 1:1 clay minerals and amorphous iron and aluminium oxides (in WRB classification includes Acrisols, Lixisols, Nitisols, Ferralsols, Durisols; in USDA classification includes Ultisols, Oxisols, acidic Alfisols). 3 Includes all soils (regardless of taxonomic classification) having > 70% sand and < 8% clay, based on standard textural analyses (in WRB classification includes Arenosols; in USDA classification includes Psamments). 4 Soils exhibiting strong podzolization (in WRB classification includes Podzols; in USDA classification Spodosols) 5 Soils derived from volcanic ash with allophanic mineralogy (in WRB classification Andosols; in USDA classification Andisols) 6 Soils with restricted drainage leading to periodic flooding and anaerobic conditions (in WRB classification Gleysols; in USDA classification Aquic suborders) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

27 3B Land and 3C1 Biomass burning Non-CO 2 emissions Factor Means Unit L fire amount of greenhouse gas emissions from fire tonnes of each GHG e.g., CH 4, N 2 O, etc A area burnt ha mass of fuel available for combustion, tonnes ha -1. This includes biomass, ground litter and M B dead wood. When Tier 1 methods are used then litter and dead wood pools are assumed zero, except where there is a land-use change C f combustion factor G ef emission factor g kg -1 dry matter burnt IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories FUEL (DEAD ORGANIC MATTER PLUS LIVE BIOMASS) BIOMASS CONSUMPTION VALUES (TONNES DRY MATTER HA -1 ) Agriculture residues M B C f (TONNES DRY MATTER HA -1 ) Wheat 4.0 Maize 10.0 Rice 5.5 Sugarcane 6.5

28 3B Land Non-CO 2 emissions EMISSION FACTORS (g kg -1 DRY MATTER BURNT) Category CO 2 CO CH 4 N 2 O NO X Savanna and grassland 1613 ± ± ± ± ± 2.4 Agricultural residues 1515 ± ± ± 1.0 Tropical forest 1580 ± ± ± ± 0.7 Extra tropical forest 1569 ± ± ± ± ± 1.4 Biofuel burning 1550 ± ± ± ± 0.6 COMBUSTION FACTOR VALUES Agriculture residues C f Wheat 0.9 Maize 0.8 Rice 0.8 Sugarcane IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

29 3C2 Liming Tier 1 and Tier 2 Factor Means Unit CO 2 -C Emission annual C emissions from lime application tonnes C yr -1 M annual amount of calcic limestone (CaCO 3 ) or dolomite (CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ) tonnes yr -1 Emission factor tonne of C (tonne of limestone EF EF for limestone = 0.12 and EF for dolomite = 0.13 or dolomite) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

30 3C3 Urea Fertilisation Tier1 and Tier 2 Factor Means Unit CO 2 -C Emission annual C emissions from urea application tonnes C yr -1 M annual amount of urea fertilisation, tonnes urea yr -1 EF Emission factor EF for urea fertilization = 0.20 tonne of C (tonne of urea) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

31 Sources and pathways of N: direct and indirect N 2 O emissions from soils and waters IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Note: Sources of N applied to, or deposited on, soils are represented with arrows on the left-hand side of the graphic. Emission pathways are also shown with arrows including the various pathways of volatilisation of NH 3 and NOx from agricultural and non-agricultural sources, deposition of these gases and their products NH4+ and NO 3-, and consequent indirect emissions of N 2 O are also illustrated. Applied Organic N Fertilisers include animal manure, all compost, sewage sludge, tankage, etc. Crop Residues include above- and below-ground residues for all crops (non-n and N fixing) and from perennial forage crops and pastures following renewal. On the lower right-hand side is a cut-away view of a representative sections of managed land; Histosol cultivation is represented here.

32 3C4 Direct N 2 O Emission from Managed Soils Tier1 and Tier IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

33 3C4 Direct N 2 O Emission from Managed Soils Factor Means Unit N 2 O Direct -N annual direct N 2 O N emissions produced from managed soils kg N 2 O N yr -1 N 2 O-N N inputs annual direct N 2 O N emissions from N inputs to managed soils kg N 2 O N yr -1 N 2 O-N OS annual direct N 2 O N emissions from urine and dung inputs to grazed soils kg N 2 O N yr -1 N 2 O-N PRP annual direct N 2 O N emissions from urine and dung inputs to grazed soils kg N 2 O N yr -1 F SN annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils kg N yr -1 F ON annual amount of animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils kg N yr -1 F CR annual amount of N in crop residues (above-ground and below-ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, kg N yr -1 returned to soils F SOM annual amount of N in mineral soils that is mineralised, in association with loss of soil C from soil organic matter as a result of kg N yr -1 changes to land use or management F OS annual area of managed/drained organic soils, ha (Note: the subscripts CG, F, Temp, Trop, NR and NP refer to Cropland and kg N yr -1 Grassland, Forest Land, Temperate, Tropical, Nutrient Rich, and Nutrient Poor, respectively) F PRP annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals on pasture, range and paddock, kg N yr-1 (Note: the subscripts CPP and SO refer to Cattle, Poultry and Pigs, and Sheep and Other animals, respectively) EF 1 emission factor for N 2 O emissions from N inputs kg N 2 O N (kg N input) -1 EF 1FR emission factor for N 2 O emissions from N inputs to flooded rice kg N 2 O N (kg N input) -1 EF 2 emission factor for N 2 O emissions from drained/managed organic soils (Note: the subscripts CG, F, Temp, Trop, NR and NP refer to Cropland and Grassland, Forest Land, Temperate, Tropical, Nutrient Rich, and Nutrient Poor, respectively) kg N 2 O N ha-1 yr -1 emission factor for N 2 O emissions from urine and dung N deposited on pasture, range and paddock by grazing animals, (Note: the kg N 2 O N (kg N input) -1 subscripts CPP and SO refer to Cattle, Poultry and Pigs, and Sheep and Other animals, respectively) EF 3PRP IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories kg N yr -1

34 3C4 Direct N 2 O Emission from Managed Soils DEFAULT EMISSION FACTORS TO ESTIMATE DIRECT N 2 O EMISSIONS FROM MANAGED SOILS Emission factor Default value EF 1 for N additions from mineral fertilisers, organic amendments and crop residues, and N mineralised from mineral soil as a result of loss of soil carbon [kg N 2 O N (kg N) -1 ] 0.01 EF 1FR for flooded rice fields [kg N 2 O N (kg N) -1 ] EF 2 CG, Temp for temperate organic crop and grassland soils (kg N 2 O N ha -1 ) 8 EF 2 CG, Trop for tropical organic crop and grassland soils (kg N 2 O N ha -1 ) 16 EF 2F, Temp, Org, R for temperate and boreal organic nutrient rich forest soils (kg N 2 O N ha -1 ) 0.6 EF 2F, Temp, Org, P for temperate and boreal organic nutrient poor forest soils (kg N 2 O N ha -1 ) 0.1 EF 2F, Trop for tropical organic forest soils (kg N 2 O N ha -1 ) 8 EF 3PRP, CPP for cattle (dairy, non-dairy and buffalo), poultry and pigs [kg N 2 O N (kg N) -1 ] 0.02 EF 3PRP, SO for sheep and other animals [kg N 2 O N (kg N) -1 ] IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

35 3C4 Direct N 2 O Emission from Managed Soils Crop DEFAULT FACTORS FOR ESTIMATION OF N ADDED TO SOILS FROM CROP RESIDUES Dry matter fraction of Harvested product (DRY) N content of above-ground residues (N AG ) Ratio of belowground residues to above-ground biomass (R BG-BIO ) N content of below-ground residues Slope (N BG ) Grains Beans & pulses Tubers Root crops, other N-fixing forages Non-N-fixing forages Maize Wheat Winter wheat Rice NA Barley Oats Millet NA NA Sorghum NA IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

36 3C5 Indirect N 2 O Emission from Managed Soils N 2 O FROM ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF N VOLATILISED FROM MANAGED SOILS (Tier1) Factor Means Unit N 2 O (ATD) - N annual amount of N2O N produced from atmospheric deposition of N volatilised from managed soils kg N 2 O N yr -1 F SN annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils kg N yr -1 Frac GASF fraction of synthetic fertiliser N that volatilises as NH 3 and NO X kg N volatilised (kg of N applied) -1 F ON annual amount of managed animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions kg N yr -1 applied to soils F PRP annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals on pasture, range and paddock kg N yr -1 Frac GASM fraction of applied organic N fertiliser materials (FON) and of urine and dung N deposited by kg N volatilised (kg of N applied or grazing animals (FPRP) that volatilises as NH 3 and NO X deposited) -1 EF 4 emission factor for N 2 O emissions from atmospheric deposition of N on soils and water surfaces [kg N N 2 O (kg NH3 N + NOx N volatilised) -1 ] IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

37 3C5 Indirect N 2 O Emission from Managed Soils N 2 O FROM N LEACHING/RUNOFF FROM MANAGED SOILS IN REGIONS WHERE LEACHING/RUNOFF OCCURS (Tier1) Factor Means Unit N 2 O (L) N annual amount of N2O N produced from leaching and runoff of N additions to managed soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs kg N 2 O N yr -1 F SN annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs kg N yr -1 F ON annual amount of managed animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils in regions where kg N yr -1 leaching/runoff occurs F PRP annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals in regions where leaching/runoff occurs kg N yr -1 F CR F SOM Frac LEACH- amount of N in crop residues (above- and below-ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, returned to soils kg N yr -1 annually in regions where leaching/runoff occurs annual amount of N mineralised in mineral soils associated with loss of soil C from soil organic matter as a result of changes to land use kg N yr -1 or management in regions where leaching/runoff occurs fraction of all N added to/mineralised in managed soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs that is lost through leaching and runoff kg N (kg of N additions) -1 (H) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories EF 5 emission factor for N2O emissions from N leaching and runoff kg N2O N (kg N leached and runoff) - 1

38 3C5 Indirect N 2 O Emission from Managed Soils DEFAULT EMISSION, VOLATILISATION AND LEACHING FACTORS FOR INDIRECT SOIL N 2 O EMISSIONS Factor Default value Uncertainty range EF 4 [N volatilisation and re-deposition], kg N 2 O N (kg NH 3 N + NO x N volatilised) EF 5 [leaching/runoff], kg N 2 O N (kg N leaching/runoff) Frac GASF [Volatilisation from synthetic fertiliser], (kg NH 3 N + NO x N) (kg N applied) Frac GASM [Volatilisation from all organic N fertilisers applied, and dung and urine deposited by grazing animals], (kg NH 3 N + NO x N) (kg N applied or deposited) Frac LEACH-(H) [N losses by leaching/runoff for regions where Σ(rain in rainy season) - Σ (PE in same period) > soil water holding capacity, OR where irrigation (except drip irrigation) is employed], kg N (kg N additions or deposition by grazing animals) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

39 3C6 Indirect N 2 O Emission from Manure Management Tier1 Factor Means Unit N 2 O G(mm) indirect N2O emissions due to volatilization of N from Manure Management in the country kg N 2 O N yr -1 N volatization-mms amount of manure nitrogen that is lost due to volatilisation of NH 3 and NO X kg N yr -1 N (T) number of head of livestock species/category T in the country N ex(t) annual average N excretion per head of species/category T in the country kg N animal -1 yr -1 MS (T, S) fraction of total annual nitrogen excretion for each livestock species/category T that is managed in manure management system S in the country Frac GasMS percent of managed manure nitrogen for livestock category T that volatilises as NH 3 and NO X in % the manure management system S EF 4 emission factor for N 2 O emissions from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on soils and water kg N 2 O-N (kg NH 3 -N + surfaces NO X -N volatilised) conversion of (N 2 O-N)(mm) emissions to N 2 O(mm) emissions IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

40 3C6 Indirect N 2 O Emission from Manure Management DEFAULT VALUES FOR NITROGEN LOSS DUE TO VOLATILISATION OF NH 3 AND NO X FROM MANURE MANAGEMENT Swine Daily cow Poultry Other cattle Other Animal type Manure management system (MMS) a N loss from MMS due to volatilisation of N-NH 3 and N-NO X (%) b Frac GasMS (Range of Frac GasMS ) Anaerobic lagoon 40 (25-75) Pit storage 25 (15-30) Deep bedding 40 (10-60) Liquid/slurry 48 (15-60) Solid storage 45 (10-65) Anaerobic lagoon 35 (20-80) Liquid/slurry 40 (15-45) Pit storage 28 (10-40) Dry lot 20 (10-35) Solid storage 30 (10-40) Daily spread 7 (5-60) Pou;try without litter 55 (40-70) Anaerobic lagoon 40 (25-75) Poultry with litter 40 (10-60) Dry lot 30 (20-50) Solid storage 45 (10-65) Deep bedding 30 (20-40) Deep bedding 25 (10-30) Solid storage 12 (5-20) a Manure Management System here includes associated N losses at housing and final storage system. b Volatilization rates based on judgement of IPCC Expert Group and following sources: Rotz ( 2003), Hutchings et al.(2001), and U.S EPA (2004). c Other includes sheep, horses, and fur-bearing animals IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

41 3C7 Rice Cultivation Tier1 and Tier2 Factor Means Unit CH 4 Rice annual methane emissions from rice cultivation Gg CH 4 yr -1 EF ijk a daily emission factor for i, j, and k conditions kg CH 4 ha -1 day -1 t ijk cultivation period of rice for i, j, and k conditions day A ijk annual harvested area of rice for i, j, and k conditions ha yr -1 EF i adjusted daily emission factor for a particular harvested area EF c baseline emission factor for continuously flooded fields without organic amendments SF w scaling factor to account for the differences in water regime during the cultivation period SF p scaling factor to account for the differences in water regime in the pre-season before the cultivation period SF s,r scaling factor for soil type, rice cultivar, etc., if available SF o scaling factor should vary for both type and amount of organic amendment applied 0.59 SFo 1 ROA i i CFOA i ROA i application rate of organic amendment i, in dry weight for straw and fresh weight for others tonne ha -1 CFOA i conversion factor for organic amendment i IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories =

42 3C7 Rice Cultivation DEFAULT CH 4 EMISSION SCALING FACTORS FOR WATER REGIMES DURING THE CULTIVATION PERIOD RELATIVE TO CONTINUOUSLY FLOODED FIELDS IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Water regime Aggregated case Scaling factor (SF w ) Error range Disaggregated case Scaling factor (SF w ) Upland Irrigated Rainfed and deep water Continuously flooded Error Range Intermittently flooded single aeration Intermittently flooded multiple aeration Regular rainfed Drought prone Deep water 0.31 ND

43 3C7 Rice Cultivation DEFAULT CH 4 EMISSION SCALING FACTORS FOR WATER REGIMES BEFORE THE CULTIVATION PERIOD Water regime prior to rice cultivation (schematic presentation showing flooded periods as shaded) Non flooded preseason <180 d Aggregated case Scaling factor (SF w ) Error range Disaggregated case Scaling factor (SF w ) Error range Non flooded preseason >180 d Flooded preseason (>30 d) DEFAULT CONVERSION FACTOR FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORGANIC AMENDMENT Organic amendment Straw incorporated shortly (<30 days) before cultivation Straw incorporated long (>30 days) before cultivation Conversion factor (CFOA) Error range Compost Farm yard manure Green manure IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

44 Examples for GHG estimation in AFOLU sector T Number of animals (head) N (T) Dairy Cows Other Cattle Buffalo Sheep Question: Species/Livestock category Goats Camels Horses Mules and Asses Swine Poultry Based on the given data, please estimate the CH 4 emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management. Sector Category Category code Sheet Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Methane Emissions from Enteric Fermentation and Manure Management 3A1 and 3A2 1 of 1 Equation Equation Eq and Equation Number of animals Emission factor for Enteric CH 4 emissions from Enteric Emission factor for Manure CH 4 emissions from Manure Species/Livestock Fermentation Fermentation Management Management category (head) (kg head -1 yr -1 ) (Gg CH 4 yr -1 ) (kg head -1 yr -1 ) (Gg CH 4 yr -1 ) Tables and CH 4 Enteric = N (T) * Tables EF (T) * CH 4 Manure = N (T) * EF (T) * 10-6 T N (T) EF (T) CH 4 Enteric EF (T) CH 4 Manure Dairy Cows Other Cattle Buffalo Sheep 0 0 Goats Camels 0 0 Horses 0 0 Mules and Asses 0 0 Swine Poultry Other 1 Total Other 1 Total IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 1 Specify livestock categories as needed using additional lines (e.g. llamas, alpacas, reindeers, rabbits, fur-bearing animals etc.)

45 Examples for GHG estimation in AFOLU sector Question: Equation Eq. 2.2 Rice Ecosystem Subcate-gories for reporting year 1 Based on the given data, please estimate the CH 4 emissions from rice cultivation. Annual harvested area (ha yr -1 ) Irrigated A Equati ion 5.1 Equation 5.2 Equation 5.3 Cultivation period of rice Baseline emission factor for continuously flooded fields without organic amendments Scaling factor to account for the differences in water regime during the cultivation period Scaling factor to account for the differences in water regime in the preseason before the cultivation period Application rate of organic amendment in fresh weight Conversion factor for organic amendment Scaling factor for both types and amount of organic amendment applied (day) kg CH 4 ha -1 day -1 (-) (-) (tonnes ha -1 ) (-) (-) Table 5.11 Table 5.12 Table 5.13 Table 5.14 SF o = (1+ROA i * CFOA i ) 0.59 t EF c SF W SF p ROA i CFOA i SF o Sub-total Rainfed and deep water rainfed deepwater Sub-total Upland Sub-total Total Rice ecosystem can be stratified according to water regimes, type and amount of organic amendments, and other conditions under which CH 4 emissions from rice may vary IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

46 Examples for GHG estimation in AFOLU sector Question: Based on the given data, please estimate the CH 4 emissions from rice cultivation. Equation Equation 2.2 Equation 5.2 Equation 5.1 Rice Ecosystem Subcategories for reporting year 1 Scaling factor for soil type, rice cultivar, etc., if available Adjusted daily emission factor for a particular harvested area Annual CH 4 emission from Rice Cultivation (-) (kg CH 4 ha -1 day -1 ) Gg CH 4 yr -1 EF i = EF c * SF w * CH 4Rice = A * t * EF i * SF p * SF o * SF s,r 10-6 SF s,r EF i CH 4Rice Irrigated Sub-total Rainfed and deep water rainfed deepwater Sub-total Upland Sub-total 0.00 Total IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories