2017/PPFS/WKSP1/009 Discussion Report: Food Security in Vietnam - Enforcing Policies and Responding to Climate Change from the Rice Sector

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1 2017/PPFS/WKSP1/009 Discussion Report: Food Security in Vietnam - Enforcing Policies and Responding to Climate Change from the Rice Sector Submitted by: Viet Nam Workshop on Strengthening APEC Cooperation on Food Security and Climate Change Ha Noi, Viet Nam April 2017

2 MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF VIETNAM DICUSSSION REPORT Food security in Vietnam- Enforcing policies and Responding to climate change from the rice sector Overview of the rice sector in Vietnam 1

3 Rice supply-demand balance in Vietnam and rice exports Tr. Ton Policy enforcement Before 2016 a. Policy on production development : + Support farmers to protect and develop rice land + Tax support, irrigation fee for rice farmers. + Support to overcome damage caused by natural disasters, epidemics + Policies on preferential credit, support rice production to ensure safety under VietGAP; Policy to support mechanization and reduce post-harvest losses. b. Policy on development of rice processing and by-products consumption + Support for new technology, trial production, and processing facilities. + Credit support to purchase machinery products, mechanical equipment, facilities for agricultural production and processing + Support the construction of raw material areas, to link production and consumption of paddy rice + The Decision 706/QD-TTg in 2015 approving the scheme on development of Vietnam's rice brand to 2020 with a vision to 2030 promulgated by the Prime Minister. c. Policy on trade development, import-export management : + Policyto buy rice for temporary storage and "orientation price + Business management, rice import and export management + Export control policy when market fluctuations + Credit for rice trade e. Policy on encouraging and developing linkages in rice production From 2016-present Decision No. 1898/QD-BNN- TT of 2016 approving the Project "Restructuring Vietnam Rice Sector to 2020 with a Vision to 2030" issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 2

4 Good practices in rice production in Vietnam Rice is approved by the governm ent as a domestic product; one of 4 domestic products of the agricultur al sector The Seed Science and Technology program invests in research and selection of new short-term varieties with resistance to pests, diseases, and surroundings; The new rice variety set contributes to raising average rice productivity of the whole Economy and reducing the risk of abnormal changes of climate. The results of a survey (DCP-MARD) showed that the whole economy cultivated 154 varieties of non-glutinous rice; 80 super hybrid rice varieties; 18 varieties of sticky rice. There are 4 varieties with an cultivated area of over 0.5 million hectares; 5 varieties from 0.2 to 0.5 million hectares; 5 varieties from 0.1 to 0.2 million hectares. There are 26 varieties with cultivated area of over 50,000 hectares, 13 varieties more than 100 thousand hectares. Many rice varieties produced by the Vietnam research institute have large areas in key rice-growing areas of the Mekong Delta such as OM4900, OM6976, OM 5451; Flower 9; Some rice varieties are resistant to salinity up to 4%, rice quality is good and suitable for market demand Appropriate farming solution Continuously invest in improving the active irrigation system in the key ricegrowing areas. The rice area with active irrigation in Vietnam accounted for over 94% (2013-TCTL survey ) compared to 60% in the late 1990s Synchronous research on rice cultivation: Mount to the ground, use appropriate fertilizer in each region, apply integrated pest management (IPM) and integrated crop management (ICM) Research on the transition from long-day bacterial blight resistant varieties and photosensitive varieties to short-day bacterial blight resistant varieties with intensive and collapse-resistance, and compact, dwarf shape; Continuously recommend management models, use good fertilizers such as: 3 drops, 3 raises, 1 must 5 drops, SRI 3

5 Appropriate farming solution Farming solution focuses on flexibility, natural fit, effective response in a coexistence way with disadvantag e (Living with flood, dam drought, soil salinity) instead of "against" Success and expansion of "RICE-SHRIMP" model in coastal provinces and Ca Mau Peninsula, Mekong Delta; 1 rice crop in rainy season when fresh water is available, 1 shrimp case harvest when saltwater intrusion brings prosperity for residents of this area. Inside field with the model: Rice-Fish (or blue shrimp) Duck is also a great success bringing economic effects; The model of rice production and cultivation in accordance with organic standards, not using chemical fertilizer, synthetic inorganic pesticides Rice cultivation aims to the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions Convert sticky and soft rice land in areas with difficult irrigation with upland plants consuming less water: maize, sweet corn, sticky rice, cucumber, chili, etc., increasing ten times the land use efficiency Application of smart technology Monitor closely the changes of weather, rain, flood, dam drought, soil salinity; Forecast and early warn to unify rationalization of crop seasons, minimizing possible damage as low as possible.; Initially apply Remote sensing technology, information technology into smart rice cultivation. The model connects the product to the consumer through application with access to product origin, information, production information to consumers through Smart phone 4

6 Promote chain-linked production organization Models that combine "big field" production in quality rice production: farmer groups, agricultural- local extension -enterprise - scientist Cooperative. Enterprises apply technique and inputs (fertilizer, pesticides); Organize land preparation, direct implementation of technical processes, appoint Ba cùng" (Three together works) technical staff to work with farmers throughout the production process; purchase, dry and keep it storage, warehouse storage in case of low price Gradually form products with the brand of enterprises and production associated with the market and customers - Loc Troi Group with a large field of hundreds of thousands of hectares; Produce brand rice such as "jade rice", rice germ, unpolished rice. - Angimex Company; Cong Binh Co. Ltd., Thinh Phat Company; Promote chain-linked production organization Many small and medium enterprises; Startups Organize production towards clean rice according to safety standards: Globlal GAP, Organic... meet the standards of technical barriers of partners; Transparency of production information Slogan: Delicious rice from the seed, clean rice from the heart" 5

7 Lessons Learned Engagement of the enterprises; Enterprises must be the core Ensure harmony between parties benefits Organize scientific, reasonable production,. Attach production to markets, forecast and share multilateral information Regulate institutional policy to be consistent and feasible Strongly apply science and technology, especially biotechnology, IoT technology. Production inevitably aims to standards on food safety and hygiene, environment, emission reduction and efficiency improvement. 6