?VIII VOLUME I IVHQNZI. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8th INTERNATIONAL WOOL TEXTILE RESEARCH CONFERENCE. 7-14th FEBRUARY 1990 CHRISTCHURCH NEW ZEALAND

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1 ?VIII PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8th INTERNATIONAL WOOL TEXTILE RESEARCH CONFERENCE VOLUME I Research Policy, Protein Chemistry and Fibre Physics 7-14th FEBRUARY 1990 CHRISTCHURCH NEW ZEALAND Editor: G.H.Crawshaw Published: July 1990 by IVHQNZI UB/TIB Hannover WOOL RESEARCH ORGANISATION OF NEW ZEALAND (INC.) Private Bag, Christchurch, New Zealand, r. UMIVERSlTAT 3T-i.!0Thl "N!',;/, t invi-, I

2 PROCEEDINGS OP THE 8TH INTERNATIONAL WOOL TEXTILE CONFERENCE GENERAL CONTENTS VOLUME I. RESEARCH POLICY, PROTEIN CHEMISTRY AND FIBRE PHYSICS Page Background and Policy II Protein Chemistry I 169 Fibre Physics I 469 VOLUME II. RAW MATERIAL SPECIFICATION. OTHER ANIMAL FIBRES Raw Material Specification II 1 Other Animal Fibres II ik\ VOLUME III. TEXTILE PROCESSING FROM RAV WOOL TO WOVEN FABRICS Raw Wool Scouring and Treatment of Effluents III 1 Carbonising and Drying III 175 Mechanical Processing III 256 Carding and Combing III 267 Yarn Production III A20 Production of Woven Fabrics III 504 VOLUME IV. DYEING, FINISHING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Dyeing IV 50 Yellowing and Bleaching IV 239 Finishing IV 360 Environmental Issues IV 533 VOLUME V. FIBRE ASSEMBLIES AND PRODUCT PROPERTIES Physics of Fibre Assemblies V 1 Fabric Testing V 159 Fabric Comfort and Appearance V 205 Carpets V 400 Wool Products V 498

3 CONTENTS VOLUME I. BACKGROUND AND POLICY Page Opening Address P.G. Morrison I 1 Historical Review of Wool Research in New Zealand W.S. Simpson I 9 Linking Vool Textile R&D to Market Needs J.R. McPhee I 41 Exploitation of Innovative Wool Technology L. Benisek I 67 Some Market Signals from the Spinning Industry S. Belleli I 77 Present and Future Environmental Legislation and Requirements Affecting Wool Processing and Vool Products in Germany H.G. Hebecker I 81 Quick Response Demands a New Research Approach R.C. Freeman I 98 Fine Apparel with Emphasis on R&D G. Grupallo I 105 Trends in the European Carpet Market and the Research Required to Follow these Trends A.H. Bogtstra I 110 Trends in Upholstery Products R.G. Watson I 115 The Japanese Market for Vool in Bedding. Products R. Umehara I 119 The Development of New Vool Products in Japan and Neighbouring Countries M. Hori I 122 Prospects for Vool Product Development in South East Asia G. Taylor I 124 Review and Discussion Period. Physics, Mechanical Processing, Raw Materials, and Other Animal Fibres G.A. Carnaby I 133, Review and Discussion Period. Chemistry and Vet Processing A.J. McKinnon I 144

4 Protein Closing Session W.S. Simpson I 166 Alfa-Laval Sheep Awards I 168 PROTEIN CHEMISTRY THEME LECTURE - and Fibre Chemistry of Vool R.C. Marshall I 169 Interactions of Fragments of Intermediate Filament Proteins from Vool J. Herrling, L.M. Dowling, and L.G. Sparrow I 186 Cross-reaction of Keratin Filaments and Intermediate Filament-associated Proteins from Various Tissues: Assembly of Macrofibrils B. Kuppers and H. Hocker I 196 The Protein Composition of Cells in the Vool Cortex L.M. Dowling, K.F. Ley, and A.M. Pearce I 205 A Novel Route to the Isolation of Ortho and Para Cortical Cells from Merino Vool K.F. Ley, L.M. Dowling, and R.D. Rossi I 215 The Use of Scanning Photometer Microscopy to Investigate Dyeing of Ortho and Para Cortical Cells K.F. Ley and K. Schaefer I 225 Recent Developments in Vool Microbiology B.J. McCarthy and D.S. Wales I 235 Elemental Distributions in Keratin Fibre/Follicle Sections L.N. Jones, H. Cholewa, I.J. Kaplin, G.E. Legge, and R.V. Ollerhead I 246 Human Hair: Normal Composition and Chemically Induced Changes R.C. Marshall and J.M. Gillespie I 256 An Investigation of the Relationship of Vool Textile Properties to Fibre Protein Composition R.C. Marshall, A. de Boos, J.M. Gillespie, J.W. Marler, P.J. Reis, I.M. Rogan, M.A. White, K.J. Whiteley and V.A. Williams I 266 Characterisation of SS Linkages in Hair: Electron Microscopic Studies of the Location of Grafted Polymer in the Cell Membrane Complex of Reduced Hair S. Naito, T. Takahashi, and K. Arai I 276 Characterisation of SS Linkages in Hair: Crosslinking Structure of Hair Keratin S. Naito, T. Takahashi, and K. Arai I 286

5 Electron An Electrochemical Consideration of the Keratinisation Process of Vool Fibre - Transfer Through the Intercellular Region Y. Nakamura, K. Hirota, T. Hori, and H. Hojo I 296 The Influence of Reducing Agents on the Dynamic Swelling Behaviour of Keratin Fibres J. Nothen, V. BSllert, G. Blankenburg, and H. Hocker I 307 Wool Fibre Treatments with Synthetic Amphophilic Disulphide Derivatives A. Pinazo, N. Gomez, P, Erra, and M.R. Infante I 317 The Preparation and Analysis of Disulphides as Model Compounds for Cystine in Vool F.J. Douthwaite, D.M. Lewis, and U. Schumacher-Hamedat I 326 Characterisation of the Formic Acid Soluble Proteins from Vool Cell Membrane Complex J. Herrling and R.C. Marshall I 336 Crosslinklng Structure and Mechanical Properties of Vool and Silk Treated with Ethylene Glycol Diglycidyl Ether Y. Kamiishi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Arai I 346 Physical Properties of Silk Modified with Dibasic Acid Anhydrides M. Tsukada and H. Shiozaki I 357 Fission of Specific Peptide Bonds in Wool by Treatment with Aqueous Amine Solutions H. Baumann, D. FOchtenbusch, and A. Bobrovski I 365 Moderate Semi-continuous Ultrasound Treatment for Vool: a Method for Estimating Morphological and Topochemical Changes of Vool Finished in Different Vays A. Bobrowski and H. Baumann I 376 The Influence of Solvent Extraction on Cell Membrane Lipids and Implications for Vool Fibre Properties A. Korner I 387 Studies on the Lipid Composition of the Vool Cuticle A. K6rner, U. Kalkbrenner, H. Hocker, and D.E. Rivett I 398 Morphological Changes in Vool Fibres After Solvent Extraction R.I. Logan, L.N. Jones, and D.E. Rivett I 408 The Characterisation of Destabilised and Stabilised Wools J.S. Crighton I 419 Analysis of Vool Protein and Chemical Residues by Pyrolysis-gas Chromatography W.N. Marmer and P. Magidman I 429

6 An Examination of the Thermomechanical Response of Synthetic and Vool Fibres under Processing Conditions W.C. Ingamells and V.L. Piatti I 439 Mechanical Properties of Regenerated Keratin Films Prepared from Thioglycollic Acid Solution of Vool Protein K. Arai, T. Kamada, and R. Ichikawa I 449 Effects of Alkali Treatment on the Diffusion of Fluorescent Dyes into Hair J.S. Kelson, L.N. Jones, R.C. Marshall, and I.H. Leaver I 459 FIBRE PHYSICS - THEME LECTURE Structures The Mechanics of Vool Fibres and R. Postle I 469 Helix Content of Extended and Annealed Keratins M. Spei and R. Holzem I 488 Non-Gaussian Elastic Property in Swollen Keratin Network K. Arai and T. Hirata I 498 Structural Changes in Vool Fibres Under Many-cycle Stretching in Pulsed Operations A.N. Boguslavsky and G. Ozolinsh I 508 The Mechanism of Set in Bending of a-keratln Fibres M. Feughelman I 517 The Fitch of the Superhelical Ropes in o-keratin Fibres M. Feughelman I 529 Anisotropy of the Keratin Fibre Composite X. Tao and R. Postle I 535 On the Composite Analysis of Vool Fibres J.I. Curiskis I 546 Variations in the Breaking Stress of Romney Vool Fibres J.L. Voods, D.F.G. Orwin, and W.G. Nelson I 557 Medullation, Fibre Diameter and Fibre Tenacity D.A. Ross I 569 Variation of Length Grovth Rate and Diameter of Merino Vool Fibres P.J. Reis, B.N. Nagorcka, D.A. Tunks, and S.G. Munro I 580 The Relationship Between Variation in Fibre Diameter Along Staples and Staple Strength K.A. Hansford and J.P. Kennedy I 590

7 Si The Effects of Curvature and Set on the Tensile Properties of Vool M.G. Huson I 599 Torsional Properties of Vool Fibres F.G. France and I.L. Weatherall I 609 Stress Relaxation Properties of Wool Fibres Exposed to Sunlight L.A. Dunn and I.L. Weatherall I 619