Advanced Placement Biology Semester 1 Exam Review Name Date Per

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1 Advanced Placement Biology Semester 1 Exam Review Name Date Per Unit 1: Biochemistry What are the unique properties of water? What are monomers and polymer, and how are they formed? What are the types of polymers, and what are the defining structures of each? What are the 4 levels of protein structure? What is the role of ATP within the cell? How is an enzyme regulated? Hydrogen bond Monomer Lipid Carbohydrate Protein Dehydration Rxn. Energy Coupling Allosteric Control Functional Groups Hydrolysis Rxn. Electronegativity Nucleotide 1. Draw a water molecule and label the partial positive and partial negative poles. 2. Draw two nucleotides, label all functional groups, and show which functional groups are involved in a dehydration synthesis reaction. 3. Draw a saturated and an unsaturated triglyceride. Label the carbon double bonds. 4. Write the reaction for the hydrolysis of an ATP molecule. 5. Draw an enzyme and substrate. Label the site where an allosteric inhibitor would bond. Label the site where a competitive inhibitor would bond. 1

2 Advanced Placement Biology Semester 2 Exam Review Name Date Per Unit 2: Cells and Cellular Energetics What are the primary differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Which organelles are part of the endomembrane system? What are the functions of each of the organelles found in a eukaryotic cell? What are the energy producing organelles? What are the key components of the cell membrane? What are the differences between simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport? What are the key steps in the process of photosynthesis? What are the key steps in the process of cellular respiration? What are the stages of the cell cycle? Plasma Membrane Autotroph Heterotroph Double Membrane Chemiosmosis Cytoskeleton Transmembrane Protein Oligosaccharide Entropy Enthalpy Pigment Carbon Fixation Anaerobic Aerobic Non-Disjunction Metaphase Plate Haploid Diploid 1. Draw a cell membrane and label the following parts: hydrophilic phosphate head, hydrophobic phosphate tails, transmembrane protein, glycoprotein, glycolipid. 2. Label each of the organelles in the photosynthetic eukaryote below:

3 Advanced Placement Biology Semester 1 Exam Review Name Date 3. Label the molecules in each step of cellular respiration diagram below: 4. Draw a simple diagram of the light reactions. Trace the pathway of an electron during non-cyclic electron flow in RED. Trace the pathway of an electron during cyclic electron flow in BLUE. 5. Label each stage in the meiosis diagram below. Label each stage as haploid (n) or diploid (2n). 3

4 Advanced Placement Biology Semester 1 Exam Review Name Date Unit 3: Genetics What processes in the cell cycle lead to genetic variation in organisms? How can Punnett squares be used to predict genetic outcomes of offspring? How can Hardy-Weinberg be used to predict allele frequencies in populations? How does the process of mitosis differ from the process of meiosis? Describe the structure of DNA and how this molecule can replicate itself. Explain the central dogma of biology. How does gene expression differ in prokaryotes verses eukaryotes? How do their controls differ? What are the processes used to create GMOs? Explain the biotechnology innovations, including gel electrophoresis, the use of restriction enzymes for transformations, and PCR. cell cycle mitosis apoptosis haploid diploid sister chromatids meiosis crossing over homologous chromosomes alleles dihybrid cross gametes gene loci dominant allele recessive allele homozygous heterozygous genotype phenotype incomplete dominance sex-linked epistasis karyotype helicase DNA polymerase DNA ligase Chargaff s rule Transcription Translation Missense mutation Nonsense mutation Frameshift mutation Silent mutation Central dogma mrna/trna codon lac operon trp operon restriction enzymes gel electrophoresis polymerase chain reaction 1. What information can you obtain from a karyotype? What diseases could you diagnose? 2. Describe the movement of chromosomes as a cell undergoes mitosis. 3. Explain the benefits of meiosis. 4. What enzymes are essential in DNA replication? 5. How does RNA differ from DNA? 6. Why are mrna and trna necessary for the synthesis of polypeptides? 7. How do the processes of transcription and translation differ? What products are created in each? 8. How does gene expression differ in prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes? What are the levels of gene control in a eukaryotic cell? 9. In a lac operon, if lac is present, what is going to happen? 10. Describe the following types of mutations: missense, nonsense, silent, frameshift. 11. Explain the steps of the bacterial transformation lab. What is the purpose of transforming bacteria? What is a practical application of this process? 4

5 Advanced Placement Biology Semester 1 Exam Review Name Date 12. When adding DNA to a gel electrophoresis apparatus, what can the resulting gel tell you about the DNA fragments that you ran? 13. If the DNA template reads TGCATTTAA, what would the mrna strand read? 14. What genes code for proteins that promote normal cell cycle growth? What happens if these genes go bad? What do they become? Unit 4: Evolution Describe the theory of evolution. What evidence exists for the theory of evolution? What is the difference between gene flow and genetic drift? How does a new species evolve? How did different scientists contribute to Darwin s theory of natural selection? How does the Hardy-Weinberg principle help analyze changes in a population? Homology Analogy Microevolution Macroevolution Divergent evolution Adaptive radiation Genetic drift Gene flow Geographic isolation Founder effect Convergent evolution Sympatric speciation Allopatric speciation Punctuated equilibrium Biogeography Comparative embryology Comparative biochemistry Fitness Hardy Weinberg Abiotic synthesis Habitat isolation Temporal isolation Behavioral isolation Gametic isolation Stabilizing selection Disruptive selection Directional selection 1. Explain what natural selection predicts about mimicry, camouflage, homologous structures, and vestigial structures. 2. Describe the evidence that Charles Darwin gathered that led to his theory of evolution. 3. Identify the four principles of natural selection and provide examples. 4. Infer the consequences for evolution if species did not vary. 5. Discuss why prokaryotic cells probably appeared before eukaryotic cells. 6. The bones in a bird wing share a number of features with the bones of a dinosaur arms. What does this say about their evolutionary relationship? 7. If two organisms look similar, live in similar environments, but are not closely related, what does this describe? 8. How is antibiotic resistance an example of evolution? 9. Identify the conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle. 10. Discuss factors that can lead to speciation. 11. How does the theory of punctuated equilibrium differ from the theory of gradualism. 12. What types of pre and post-zygotic barriers exist to separate species? 5

6 Physical Science Semester 1 Exam Review Name Date Per 13. The Hardy-Weinberg equation is useful for predicting the percent of a human population that may be heterozygous carriers of recessive alleles for certain genetic diseases. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a human metabolic disorder that results in mental retardation if it is untreated in infancy. In the United States, one out of approximately 10,000 babies is born with the disorder. Approximately what percent of the population are heterozygous carriers of the recessive PKU allele? 14. If you observe a population and find that 16% show the recessive trait, you know the frequency of the aa genotype. This means you know q 2. What is q for this population? 15. If 16% of the population is homozygous recessive (dd), according to the Hardy-Weinberg equation, what is the value of q 2? 6