EOCT Review. Class Requests by Standard

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1 EOCT Review Class Requests by Standard

2 Macromolecules (SB1) Polymer Monomer Examples Function Carbohydrates Monosaccharides (simple sugars) Sugars & starches Provide rapid energy Proteins Amino acids Meats, beans Structural components, enzymes Lipids Glycerol + fatty acids Fats, oils, waxes Long-term energy storage Nucleic Acids Nucleotides DNA, RNA Genetic information/code for building proteins

3 Organelles (SB1) Organelle Mitochondria Nucleus Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Vacuole Cell wall Cytoplasm Ribosome Chloroplast (in plants and algae only) Function Powerhouse of cell, provides ATP Control center, directs cell activities Packaging & distribution center of cell Breaks things down ( housekeepers ) Cellular highway for transporting materials Storage center Extra layer of support/protection for certain types of cells Jelly-like substance inside cell Assembles proteins Site of photosynthesis

4 Enzymes (SB1) Q: What are they? A: Biological catalysts. Q: What does that mean? A: They speed up reactions in living things. Q: How do they do that? A: By lowering the activation energy, which is the amount of energy needed for a reaction to start.

5 Transport Processes (SB1) Type Examples Definition Active transport Passive transport Endocytosis (taking material in) & exocytosis (removing material) Diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion Movement of materials against the concentration gradient, which requires energy Movement of materials from a region of high to low concentration (moves along a concentration gradient) & doesn t require energy

6 Important Terminology for Cellular Transport (SB1) Diffusion: movement of substances from high concentration to low concentration Osmosis: diffusion of water Isotonic: movement of solutes & solvents is equal Hypertonic: high concentration of solutes in comparison to solvents, solvent will move out of cell, causing it to shrink Hypotonic: low concentration of solutes in comparison to solvents, solvent will move into cell, causing it to swell (hypo makes the cell grow)

7 Mendel s Laws (SB2) Law of Dominance states that the dominant allele will prevent the recessive allele from being expressed. The recessive allele will appear when it is paired with another recessive allele in the offspring. Law of Segregation (separation) states that gene pairs separate when gametes are formed, so each gamete (sex cell) has only one allele of each pair. Law of Independent Assortment states that different pairs of genes separate independently of each other when gametes are formed.

8 Meiosis (SB2) Meiosis occurs only in the formation of sex cells. This process consists of two cell divisions but only one chromosome replication. The first meiotic division produces two cells containing half the number of double stranded chromosomes. These are called diploid (2n) cells. The second meiotic division results in the formation of four cells, each containing half the number of single-stranded chromosomes. These are called haploid (1n) cells.

9 DNA vs. RNA (SB2) Nucleic Acid Shape/Strands Sugar Bases DNA Double helix/2 Deoxyribose A, T, C, G RNA Single stranded Ribose A, U, C, G

10 Central Dogma (SB2) States that information flows from DNA to RNA to Protein. Processes involved in order: Replication- Transcription-Translation Replication: DNA is being copied Transcription: DNA is being changed into mrna Translation: The codes in mrna are translated to make amino acids that link together to form proteins

11 Mutations (SB2) Changes in the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule are known as gene mutations. Mutations may cause a change in the protein resulting from the genetic code for that gene. Some mutations are the result of exposure to agents such as ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation, free radicals, and substances in tobacco products and other chemical compounds. These agents that harm DNA are called mutagens. Regardless of the cause of the mutation, there are several types of changes that may result: base-pair substitution, base insertion, and base deletion.

12 Mutations (SB2) Base pair substitutions occur when one nucleotide base is replaced by another. This change may lead to the substitution of one amino acid for another during protein synthesis. An example of this is sickle-cell anemia, a genetic disorder that has structural and physiological consequences. A base insertion mutation is an addition of an extra nucleotide base into the DNA sequence. A base deletion mutation is the removal of a nucleotide base from the DNA sequence. In both base insertion mutations and base deletion mutations, a frame shift occurs. Remember that the nucleotide sequence is read as a triplet code. *A deletion or insertion in a gene region will shift this reading frame, causing an abnormal protein to be synthesized. Remember that not all mutations are harmful!

13 Biotechnology (SB2) New DNA technologies have resulted in advances in medicine, forensics, and agriculture. Certain genetic diseases may be cured by reinserting a corrected gene back into the patient to replace a damaged gene (known as gene therapy). Forensic labs use DNA technology to identify people through DNA fingerprinting. Crime scene evidence such as blood or hair samples can be used to connect suspects to the crime by looking for DNA sequence similarities. Today, researchers use recombinant DNA technology to analyze genetic changes. They cut, splice together, and insert modified DNA molecules from different species into bacteria or other types of cells that rapidly replicate and divide. The cells copy the foreign DNA right along with their own DNA. An example of this is the gene for human insulin, which can be mass produced for diabetics.

14 Biotechnology (SB2) Not only does genetic engineering have applications in medicine and the environment, it also has uses in industry and agriculture. Sheep and goats are used in developing treatments for human diseases. Scientists today have developed genetically altered bacteria to eat up oil spills, manufacture alcohol and other chemicals, and process minerals. Plant biologists have used DNA technology to produce plants with many desirable traits. These include increased disease resistance, herbicide resistance, and increased nutritional content.

15 Photosynthesis (SB3) Plants, algae, and other photosynthetic organisms are important to the maintenance and balance of life on Earth. They convert solar energy to chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. Photosynthetic organisms must also break down carbohydrates to form ATP. These carbohydrates are usually in the form of simple sugars, mainly glucose. The process of breaking down carbohydrates for ATP is called cellular respiration. Autotrophs are organisms that can manufacture their own energyproviding food molecules. Most autotrophic organisms trap energy from the Sun and use this energy to build carbohydrates in a process known as photosynthesis. This trapped energy is used to convert the inorganic raw materials CO 2 and H 2 O to carbohydrates and O 2. The key to this process is the pigment chlorophyll, which is the molecule in the chloroplasts of plants that absorbs energy from sunlight. The general equation for photosynthesis is as follows: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy from sunlight C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

16 Photosynthesis (SB3) Two Main Reactions of Photosynthesis: 1. Light reactions these reactions split water molecules, providing hydrogen and an energy source for the Calvin cycle. Oxygen is given off. 2. Calvin cycle the series of reactions that form simple sugars using carbon dioxide and hydrogen from water. The light reaction is the photo part of photosynthesis & takes place in the thylakoids. The Calvin cycle is the synthesis part of photosynthesis & takes place in the stroma.

17 Cellular Respiration (SB3) Organisms get energy from carbohydrates through the process of cellular respiration to make ATP. However, the carbohydrates must first be broken down by the process of glycolysis. The general equation for cellular respiration is as follows: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Glycolysis takes place in the cell s cytoplasm and is an anaerobic (without oxygen) process. First, glucose enters a cell by active transport. The glucose is broken down by enzymes into pyruvic acid. Glycolysis produces 2 molecules of ATP.

18 Cellular Respiration (SB3) Two Main Reactions of Cellular Respiration: 1. Krebs Cycle Breaks down the products of Glycolysis to produce molecules used in the electron transport chain. Takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. 2. Electron Transport Chain Consists of a series of proteins in the mitochondrial membranes that convert ADP to ATP by transferring electrons.

19 Classification (SB3) Levels from broadest to most specific: Domain (3 exist) Kingdom (6 exist) Phylum (numerous exist from P-S) Class Order Family Genus Species Mnemonic device for remembering the order: Dear King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda

20 Domains (SB3) Bacteria: includes kingdom Bacteria aka Eubacteria Archaea: includes kingdom Archaea aka Archaebacteria Eukarya: includes kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Fungi

21 Kingdom Overviews (SB3) Archaebacteria: bacteria found in extreme environments like hot springs, deep oceans, swamps Eubacteria: true bacteria, includes bacteria that are harmful or beneficial Plantae: multicellular eukaryotic producers who have cell walls made of cellulose Animalia: multicellular eukaryotic consumers who lack cell walls Protista: unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes that lack complex systems & live in moist environments Fungi: unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs that act as decomposers

22 Succession (SB4) 2 main types: Primary: is the gradual development of a new community where no organisms have lived before. An example is the changes that take place after a volcanic eruption and the lava flow cools, hardens, and weathers. Secondary: occurs when a natural disaster or human activity partially destroys a community. When secondary succession takes place, soil is already present.

23 Tropisms (SB4) What is a tropism? a plant s response to its environment Examples of Tropisms: Geotropism/Gravitropism a plant s response to gravity Phototropism a plant s response to light Thigmotropism a plant s response to touch *Paying attention to the prefixes will help you understand the tropism.

24 Cycles (SB4) Carbon (C): movement & transformation of carbon, includes processes such as photosynthesis, cellular respiration, burning of fossil fuels, decomposition of organisms Oxygen (O): involves oxygen being produced from photosynthesis & the release of CO 2 through respiration Nitrogen (N): Nitrogen gas in the atmosphere is changed into ammonia by N-fixing bacteria; ammonia becomes ammonium, which gets changed into nitrates; plants use nitrates to make essential macromolecules; denitrifying bacteria eventually change nitrates back into N gas, which gets released into the atmosphere. Phosphorous (P): most of this cycle takes place at ground level; phosphate is released by slow breakdown of rocks; plants take this up through roots; P moves through food web; and P gets released when dead organisms are broken down by decomposers Hydrologic (water-h 2 O): circular pathway of water on Earth; involves precipitation, seepage, evaporation, transpiration and condensation