Course Handbook MSc in Bioengineering Tissue Engineering Specialisation

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1 Course Handbook MSc in Bioengineering Tissue Engineering Specialisation 1

2 Course Objectives & Learning Outcomes This programme aims to give a sound and broad basis in tissue engineering. In particular, we aim to provide engineers and scientists with the education needed to practice tissue engineering in the international medical devices industry. Specific learning outcomes To give students a broad understanding of the key topics in tissue engineering To provide students with an understanding of stem cells and animal/human cell culture processes, and strategies to regenerate or repair damaged tissues To provide hands-on training in state of the art tissue engineering techniques To develop students ability to identify, formulate and adapt engineering solutions to unmet biological needs Develop students ability to critically analyse the scientific literature in the field of biomedical engineering through interactive discussion (including student presentations) and through grounding in the fundamentals of experimental techniques and data analysis To give students a sound understanding of how to apply the scientific method to research To give students a knowledge of how the biomedical industry is regulated and the route to market of for tissue engineered products 2

3 Course Structure MODULES ECTS Medical Sciences 5 Biomaterials 5 Biomechanics 5 Tissue Engineering 10 Laboratory Techniques in Cell & Tissue Engineering Cellular Biology & Cell Signaling Mechanisms 5 5 Research Project 55 3

4 Module Details Basic Medical Sciences The module aims to give an introduction to human biology and disease, such that students can appreciate the medical basis for scientific/technical procedures in diagnosis and treatment. A basic understanding of terminology and practice is emphasised. The lecture series will outline the physiology and anatomy of the main body systems and introduce the cellular basis of systems. Some principles of disease conditions are mentioned. The objective of the specialist lectures and hospital laboratory visits is to provide an insight into the role of various technologies in the diagnosis and management of patients. Additionally they will show the integration of basic sciences, technology and clinical medicine across the continuum of care. Biomaterials This module explores currently used materials in tissue replacement including metallic, ceramic, and natural/synthetic polymeric materials. Implant applications and design considerations for these materials as well as the associated problems with long term survival will be described so that the mechanical, chemical and physiological interactions between in vivo host environment and the implanted biomaterial can be better understood. Integration of biomaterial structure and function will be emphasized throughout the course. Advanced manufacturing and fabrication technologies to generate biomaterials with specialized structural and interfacial properties will also be introduced. At the end of this course, it is anticipated that students will have obtained a detailed understanding of the composition and properties of the major classes of biomaterial used in medical devices. The required functionality for a range of synthetic implantable biomaterials and how this relates to material choice for specific applications will also be covered. Associated failure modes are introduced through a series of real-life case studies. Sterilisation techniques, regulatory aspects and standards with relation to quality and safety will be introduced. Biomechanics This course explores the biomechanics of human cells, tissues and joints, how they change with age and disease and how implants can be used to either replace or repair tissues and joints following injury or degeneration. A strong focus is placed on understanding the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system. The course begins with an introduction to the forces and moments that act on the musculoskeletal system and goes on to explain how the mechanical properties of different tissues are derived from their structure and composition. Concepts of tissue remodelling and repair are explored. Next, the biomechanics of the main joints of the body are studied. Finally the student is introduced to the use of implants and medical devices for reconstruction and repair of human tissues and systems. Throughout the course students will use engineering principles to analyse tissues, organs and implants, from the use of solid mechanics theory to analyse bone-implant interfaces, to the use of fluid mechanics theory to model blood flow through the cardiovascular system. The course aims to promote independent and lifelong learning through the use of individualised assignments. 4

5 Module Details Tissue Engineering The objective of this module is to provide students with extensive knowledge on the fundamentals, enabling technologies and applications to generate new tissues through the combination of cells, biocompatible materials and suitable biochemical and biophysical factors to improve or replace biological functions that have been compromised through disease. An overview of contemporary approaches to tissue and cell engineering will be given, including tissue scaffold design, use of bioreactors in tissue engineering, and molecular surface modifications for integration of engineered tissues in situ. Ethical considerations related to clinical application of tissue and cell engineering technology will also be explored. Laboratory Techniques in Cell & Tissue Engineering The primary aim of this course is to familiarise students with the fundamentals and basics of cell and tissue culture and analysis of engineered cells and tissues. This module will consist of lectures on a number of key topics with associated laboratory bench work. Students will be introduced to a multitude of techniques and topics that are essential to the tissue engineer including lab biosafety, primary and mesencyhmal stem cell isolation from various tissues, cell culturing and characterisation, hydrogel encapsulation and scaffold seeding, gene expression, biochemical assays (cell viability, DNA, sgag, collagen) and histological techniques Cellular Biology & Cell Signalling Mechanisms The aim of this module is to give the student a broad overview of the structure and function of the mammalian cell and its organelles. It then explores the molecular basis for cellular mechanisms such as the cell cycle and the apoptotic process. Study of the cytoskeleton and associated proteins will allow an understanding of cell division and migration. The module then aims to describe the basic mechanisms of cell communication and intracellular signalling processes. The approach is to teach the mechanisms by which cells transmit extracellular signals from the surface receptors to the nucleus resulting in changes in gene expression. Having completed this module, students will be competent to expand their basic knowledge in cell biology, understand the current literature in the area and will be in a position to study the cellular and molecular basis of normal and pathogenic cellular processes. 5

6 Research Project Research Methods This module is designed to provide a foundation for and complement the project work. The course will be taught through a variety of approaches and by researchers from a range of disciplines at TCD (main campus and St. James's hospital) and the National College for Art and Design (NCAD). The course will be delivered through a series of lectures, seminars and assignments designed to provide a foundation for research methods in biomedical engineering. Project The project forms the final part of the course. Each project is supervised by an academic in the Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering and Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering. In some cases other academics (either within TCD or the other institutions affiliated to the course) may also have a substantial involvement. Furthermore, additional guidance may come from medical or healthcare professionals. In these cases, the project usually sets out to solve a problem experienced by these healthcare professionals in the use of a particular medical device. Project titles will be issued and students will be allocated their project during Michaelmas term. In Hilary term, there will be a meeting at which each student gives a 10-minute presentation to the External Examiner of the purpose of their work, and how they intend achieving their goals followed by a five minute question and answer session. This allows all candidates an overview of the work being carried out, and comments from staff and other candidates can help determine the project objectives more clearly. Example project titles: 1) Chitosan porous micro-carriers (PMCs) as an injectable biomaterial for regeneration of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. 2) Development of a bioreactor system to mimic physiological loading regimes of the intervertebral disc 3) Investigation of mesenchymal stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration strategies an in vitro model 4) Factors influencing the transport of oxygen, and the effect of cellular treatment methods in engineered tissues 5) Development of bioactive scaffolds as a template for tissue regeneration 6) Can mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) aid in the regeneration of the nucleus pulposus for repair of the intervertebral disc? 7) Effect of biophysical stimuli on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation for musculoskeletal repair 8) Shape memory scaffolds for minimal invasive tissue repair strategies 9) Shape memory bioactive scaffolds to repair ruptured annulus fibrosus tissue of the intervertebral disc 10) Minimal manipulation (MinMan) of mesenchymal stem cells using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) enrichment for single stage procedures 6

7 Contact Details Course Administrators: Contact Address: June O Reilly & Melanie Apied Trinity Centre for Bioengineering Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Pearse St., Dublin 2. Telephone: / Websites: Please direct all enquiries to Useful Websites at Trinity: Trinity Centre for Bioengineering: Neural Engineering: School of Engineering website: Mechanical Engineering website: Graduate Studies website: Sports: Student Counselling: International Office Trinity College Campus Map showing location of Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute SECURITY AT TCD 24 hour Security Centre contact number is and the emergency number is