QUALITY EVALUATION OF OVEN DRIED AND FRESH OYSTER MUSHROOM STORE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

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1 Academy of Agriculture Journal 1:1 April (2016) Contents lists available at ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURE JOURNAL Available online at RESEARCH ARTICLE QUALITY EVALUATION OF OVEN DRIED AND FRESH OYSTER MUSHROOM STORE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE SHER HASSAN KHAN 1, SUMAYYA RANI 2, ABDUL SATTAR SHAH 2, SADAF JAVERIA 3, MUHAMMAD HASHAM 3, SOHAIL AMIN 2 1 Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar. 2 Department of Food science and technology, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Swabi.Kpk. 3 Department of Food science and technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University of D.I.Khan,Kpk. ARTICLE INFO Corresponding Author: Sher Hassan Khan, Department of Food science and technology, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Swabi.Kpk. ABSTRACT The experiment entitled oyster mushroom was conducted in the laboratory of Food Science at the Nuclear Institute for Food and agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar during the month of April, 2014.The objective of the research was to study the physic-chemical analysis (Moisture, Protein, Sensory Evaluation) in fresh and dried oyster mushroom. The maximum mean value of moisture was T 0 (88.5) and minimum mean value was T 1 (5.16). The maximum mean value of protein was T 1 (20.2) and minimum mean value was T 0 (3.43).Maximum mean value of color was T 1 (6.62) while the minimum mean value was T 0 (5.85). The maximum mean value of taste was T 1 (7.52), The maximum mean value of taste was T 1 (7.14) and The maximum mean value texture was T 1 (7.56) was noted in oven dried mushroom. While maximum T 0 (88.5) moisture content was recorded in fresh mushroom. Hence the statistically result was shown that the oven dried oyster mushroom more significant than fresh oyster mushroom. The maximum (88.5) moisture content was recorded in fresh mushroom, maximum (20.2) protein content was observed in oven dried mushroom, organolyptic result may be found more significant in oven dried oyster mushroom. INTRODUCTION Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) belonging to Class Basidiomycetes and Family Agaricaceae is popularly known as dhingri in India and grows naturally in the temperate and tropical forests on dead and decaying wooden logs or sometimes on dying trunks of deciduous or coniferous woods. It may also grow on decaying organic matter. The fruit bodies of this mushroom are distinctly shell or spatula shaped with different shades of white, cream, grey, yellow, pink or light brown depending upon the species. It is one of the most suitable fungal organisms for producing protein rich food from various agro-wastes or forest wastes without composting (Julitaet al.2007). Cultivation of different varieties of oyster mushroom was initiated in India in the early sixties. Commercial cultivation began in mid-seventies (Asaduzzamanet al.2008). The economic importance of the mushroom lies primarily in its use as food for human consumption. It is rich in Vitamin C and B complex and the protein content varies between 1.6 to 2.5 percent. It has most of the mineral salts required by the human body. The niacin 2016, AAJ, All Right Reserved content is about ten times higher than any other vegetables (Aliet al.2007). The folic acid present in oyster mushrooms helps to cure anemia. It is suitable for people with hypertension, obesity and diabetes due to its low sodium : potassium ratio, starch, fat and calorific value. Alkaline ash and high fibre content makes them suitable for consumption for those having hyperacidity and constipation. A polycyclic aromatic compound pleurotin has been isolated from P. griseus which possess antibiotic properties (Rosliet al.2011). The spent straw can be re-cycled for growing oyster mushroom after supplementing with wheat or rice % and also for preparing compost of white button mushroom after suitable supplementation with nitrogen rich horse or chicken manure (sun-dried before use). The spent straw can be used as cattle feed and also for bio-gas production, The slurry can be used as manure (Bhattilet al.2007). REVIEW OF LITERATURE Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License Page 18

2 Julita and Marek(2007) presented in literature potential health benefits of shiitake Lentinulaedodes (Berk.) Pegl. and oyster mushroom Pleurotusostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm,chemical composition as well as Fe, Cu and Zn ions sorption (in conditions related to human digestive tract) by dried shiitake and oyster were investigated. Both dried mushrooms had the high content of dietary fiber, Fe, Cu, Mg, K but low of fat, Na and Ca. Relatively low sorption of micronutrients was found in ph = 1.8, while the high sorption of Cu and Fe was observed in ph = 8.7. Dried mushrooms satisfied the maximum permissible level standards concerning toxic metals. The results of the research suggest that dried shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be used as additives in food products. Bhattil (2007) conducted a research on oyster mushroom, Pleurotusostreatus (Jacq. ex. Fr.) Kummer was cultivated on wheat straw in polythene bags (containing 500 g wheat straw on dry weight basis per bag) using sorghum grain spawn at different rates. The spawning was done followed by boiling of substrate and sterilization of bags. The bags were kept in mushroom growing room at 25 to 35oC with 80 to 100% humidity under regular white fluorescent light arranged by the tube lights in mushroom growing room (10'x14'x14'). The pinheads first appeared days after spawning by using 70 g spawn rate per kg on substrate dry weight basis. The minimum period of 4.66 days after pinhead formation for maturation of fruiting bodies was recorded by using 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 g spawn rate. The minimum period between flushes (6.33 days) was taken by using 20 g spawn rate. The maximum flushes (4.00) were harvested by using 70 g spawn rate. The maximum number of bunches per bag (7.66) were obtained by using 100 g spawn rate. The maximum number of fruiting bodies per bunch (7.30) was observed by using 70 g spawn rate. The maximum yield on fresh weight basis (45.4%) as well as on dry weight basis (4.63%) was also obtained by using 70 g of spawn rate per bag. The results were highly significant from each other. It is concluded that spawning at 70 g per kg on substrate dry weight basis found to be the best dose for obtaining early and high yielding crop of oyster mushroom, with minimum period for maturation of fruiting bodies, maximum number of flushes and fruiting bodies per bag. Tulek (2011) investigate the drying kinetics of oyster mushroom, PleurotusostreatusMushrooms were dried using a cabinet-type convective dryer. Air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 o C were used for the drying experiments. The experimental drying data were fitted to different theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to relate the parameters of the model with the drying conditions. The performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the correlation coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and the chi-square (_2) between the observed and the predicted moisture ratios. Among all the models, the model of Midilliet al. was found to have the best fit in this study. Effective moisture diffusivities (Deff), diffusivity constant (D0) and activation energy (Ea) were calculated. The Deff varied from x10-10 to 1.556x10-9 m2s-1 over the temperature range studied and Ea was kj mol -1. Ajonina and Tatah (2012) stated that mushrooms are increasingly becoming an important component of diets worldwide and it is of paramount importance to choose appropriate substrates in a given place to grow them. The experiment was conducted at the Cameroon Society for Sustainable Development of Natural Resources and Environmental Projection (CASSDNREP) mushroom department farm. The main goal was to evaluate the growth performance of oyster mushroom (Pleurotusostreatus) on some locally available substrate material compositions as well as to find out the best substrate for mushroom cultivation. Bags were sterilized in 1000 liters iron containers for 5h at 100ºC, cooled for 6 h and then inoculated with actively growing mushroom mother culture on rice grains obtained from Mushroom Cameroon, Bamenda. The bags were incubated until mycelium had fully colonized the substrate and then taken to the cropping house. The highest mycelium running rate was found on Corn cobs and palm cones (1:1) but the lowest in control. Completion of mycelium running time was lowest in (1:3, 3:1 and palm cones). Number of total primordia and effective primordia, found highest in control but the highest pileus thickness was measured from corn cobs. Highest biological yield (146.1 g and g) was obtained from corn cones which was much higher than control. Ali (2007) evaluate the influence of pasteurization methods on cotton waste substrate on yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotusspp. Cotton waste subjected to different methods of pasteurization, namely pasteurization with steam, hot-water treatment and chemical sterilization with formalin, which were compared with control (without pasteurization). Three species of Pleurotusi.e. Pleurotusflorida, Pleurotuspulmonarius and Pleurotusostreatuswere selected. Steam pasteurization produced the best results as for as the performances of individual species are concerned, Pleurotuspulmonariuscompleted the mycelial growth in the shortest time. Formalin treatment behaved poorly as the different Pleurotusspp, took maximum time to complete mycelial growth. Steam pasteurization technique produced more yield, whereas Pleurotusfloridabehaved better in all the treatments than other species. Substrate was analyzed chemically for N: P: K to determine their contents at different stages. N: P: K contents were increased after the completion of mycelial growth in all the treatments, but were decreased after fructification as the fruiting bodies consumed nutrients for their growth. MATERIAL AND METHODS The samples of Oyster mushroom was obtained from the Mushroom cultivation farm at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and brought to the lab for chemical analysis and preservation. Sample Collection: Samples of Oyster Mushroom were taken from Food Science Division, Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Peshawar. Preparation of Samples: The sample was cleaned of impurities. The samples were ground in stainless steel grinder to pass through a standard 40 mesh screen. The ground samples were kept in air light bottle, placed in a desicator and stored at 4 C from which the required quantities were taken for chemical determinations. Washing and blanching of mushrooms The fresh Oyster mushroom were washed with potable tape water and then with distilled water in order 19

3 to remove bedding material and contaminants. Then Mushroom was blanched in boiling water for 3-4 minutes to inactivate the enzymes in order to prevent flavor and weight loss, the mushrooms will be cooled. Oven Drying To successfully dehydrate mushrooms in an oven, the temperature was set to 150 degrees Fahrenheit or lower, if possible. Mushrooms were cutted in half or to 1/2-inch thickness and laid out on an oven tray without overlapping. Put the mushrooms in the oven with the door left slightly ajar to allow heat to escape. The mushrooms were checked and flipped every hour to avoid burning until they are completely dry. Proposal plain of Study: T 0 = Fresh mushroom T 1= Oven dried mushroom Data was recorded on the following parameters: 1) Moisture content 2) Protein 3) Sensory evaluation Chemical and organolyptic Analysis of Fresh and Dried Mushrooms The freshly harvested and preserved mushrooms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein after 15 days interval of storage period of 60 days. Moisture The nitrogen present in each sample was estimated by using oven drying method describe in AOAC (1984). Crude protein The nitrogen present in each sample was estimated by using Kjeldahlmethod describe in AOAC (2000). Sensory evaluation The samples were evaluated by the panel of trained judges for color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. Judges evaluated the samples using 9 point hedonic scale method as described by Larmond (1977) where 1 represents extremely disliked and 9 represent extremely liked. Procedure for determination of moisture: 1) Weight any empty flat silver dish. 2) Place the sample in the weighted dish. 3) Place the dish in an oven at 100 o C or vacuum oven at 70 o C. 4) Remove the dish after 4 hours, cool in a desiccators and weigh. 5) Place the dish again in the oven for another 2 hours and weigh again. 6) Repeat till constant reading is obtained. 7) Calculate the percent moisture by the following formula. % moisture = loss in weight of sample 100 Weight of the sample Procedure for determination of Crude protein: Reagents: 1. Boric Acid 4% Solution: - Weighed 40 g of Boric and poured it in a beaker. Dissolved it by stirring on a hot plate. The volume was made up to one litre with addition of 5 ml mixed indicator. 2. NaOH 40%: Weighed 400 g of NaOH in a beaker dissolved it and poured it in a flask making volume to 1 liter. 3. Digestion Mixture: The digestion mixture was made in the following ratios: 10g K 2SO 4, 1g CuSO 4 Weighed 0.5 g of Bromocresol green indicator and dissolved. It in 100 ml ethanol. Then weighed 0.1 g of Methyl Red indicator and dissolved. It in100 ml ethanol,the two solutions were mixed in a beaker and the ph wasadjusted to 4.5. Apparatus: 1. Macro Kjeldahl digestion and distillation units 2. Kjeldahl flasks. 3. Conical flasks. Procedure: Digestion: The sample was weighed (0.3 to 0.5g) on a filter paper and then put it in the digestion tube. Then 2-3 g of digestion mixture and 7 ml of concentration H 2SO 4 was added to each digestion tube. The samples were put in the Tecator digestion system at an initial temp. of 100 C for about one and a half hour. The temperature was increased to 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 C at regular intervals of minutes until the digested samples became clear. Distillation: After digestion, process of distillation was started. In which 4% boric acid and 40% NaOH are used. The sample was poured into the upper flask of distillation apparatus and some distilled water was added. NaOH 40 % was added into the upper flask to make the medium alkaline. The distillate was received in a conical flask containing 75 ml of 4% boric acid solution. The sample was distilled until the volume of the distillate in the flask reached to ml. The contents of this flask were titrated against standard H2SO4 solution i.e. (0.01 N), until the original colour of boric acid reappeared. Calculation for Nitrogen content of sample (%) = ml acid Normalité of standard acid Wt of sample Crudeprotein content (%) = nitrogen content 6.25 RESULT AND DISSCUSTION Moisture (%) Table show that the moisture content (%) of the oven dried oyster mushroom and fresh oyster mushroom, So the initial moisture content of oyster mushroom was T 0 (89) and T 1 (5.6),which was gradually decreased to 88 and 4.8 respectively during storage (Table 1). The mean values for intervals were decreased from 47.3a to 46.4c during storage. The maximum mean value T 0 (88.5) was noted in fresh mushroom, while the minimum value T 1 (5.16) was recorded in oven dried mushroom. During storage highest fall in moisture content was recorded 0ven dry mushroom (14.28%), in compare minimum fall was observed in fresh mushroom (1.123%) (Table 1). and storage intervals on the moisture content of oyster applying LSD test at 5% probability level (Table 1, Appendix I). Crude protein (%) Table show the crude protein content (%) in (T 0) fresh & (T 1) dried oyster mushroom. The initial protein content was T 0(3.45) & T 1 (20.6)which was gradually decreased to 3.41 and 19.8 respectively during storage (Table 2). The mean values for intervals were decreased from a to11.605cduring storage. The maximum mean value (20.2) was noted in oven dried mushroom, while the minimum value (3.43) was recorded in fresh mushroom. During storage highest fall was recorded 0ven 20

4 dry mushroom(3.88%), in compare minimum fall was observed in fresh mushroom (1.15%) (Table 2). and storage intervals on the crude protein of oyster applying LSD test at 5% probability level (Table 2, Appendix 3). Color The initial color value of fresh & oven dried oyster mushroom was T 0 (6) and T 1(7)which was gradually decreased to 5.5 and 6 respectively during storage (Table 3). The mean values for intervals were decreased from 6.5a to 5.75c during storage. The maximum mean value T 1 (6.62) was noted in oven dried mushroom, while the minimum value T 0(5.78) was recorded in fresh mushroom. During storage highest fall in color was recorded fresh mushroom (14.28%), in compare minimum fall was observed in oven dried mushroom (8.33%) (Table3). and storage intervals on the color value of oyster applying LSD test at 5% probability level (Table 3, Appendix 4). Taste The initial taste value of fresh & oven dried oyster mushroom was T 0 (7.5) and T 1(8)which was gradually decreased to 6.3 and 7 respectively during storage (Table 4). The mean values for intervals were decreased from 6.9a to 6.95c during storage. The maximum mean value T 1 (7.52) was noted in oven dried mushroom, while the minimum value T 0(7.14) was recorded in fresh mushroom. During storage highest fall in taste was recorded fresh mushroom (12.5%), in compare minimum fall was observed in oven dried mushroom (8%), (Table 4). and storage intervals on the taste value of oyster applying LSD test at 5% probability level (Table 4, Appendix 5). Texture The initial texture value of fresh & oven dried oyster mushroom was T 0 (8.1) and T 1 (8.2)which was gradually decreased to 6.9 and 7 respectively during storage (Table 5). The mean values for intervals were decreased from 8.15a to 6.95c during storage. The maximum mean value T 1 (7.56) was noted in oven dried mushroom, while the minimum value T 0(7.36) was recorded in fresh mushroom. During storage highest fall in texture was recorded fresh mushroom (14.81%), in compare minimum fall was observed in oven dried mushroom (14.63%) (Table5). and storage intervals on the texture value of oyster applying LSD test at 5% probability level (Table 5, Appendix 6). Overall acceptability The initial overall acceptability of fresh & oven dried oyster mushroom was T 0 (7.5) and T 1(8)which was gradually decreased to 6.5 and 7 respectively during storage (Table 6). The mean values for intervals were decreased from 7.75a to 6.75c during storage. The maximum mean value T 1 (7.36) was noted in oven dried mushroom, while the minimum value T 0 (7.08) was recorded in fresh mushroom. During storage highest fall in texture was recorded fresh mushroom (13.33%), in compare minimum fall was observed in oven dried mushroom (12.5%) (Table6). and storage intervals on the overall acceptability of oyster applying LSD test at 5% probability level (Table 5, Appendix 6). CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The experiment entitled oyster mushroom was conductedat the Nuclear Institute for Food and agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar during the month of june 2014.The result was shown that mushroom is very perishable commodity having high moisture content of about % which can be decrease through drying for the purpose of preservation. The method is found very cheap, easy and free from any material which causes health hazardous effect. The statistically result was shown that the oven dried oyster mushroom more significant than fresh oyster mushroom. The maximum (88.5) moisture content was recorded in fresh mushroom, maximum (20.2) protein content was observed in oven dried mushroom,organolyptic result may be found more significant in oven dried oyster mushroom. RECOMMENDATION To reduce the post harvest losses of oyster mushroom and make it fit for `human consumption for long time. To investigate easy and economic method of mushroom preservation. Same research work must be carried out with diverse technique of drying. Further research work should be done to determine the nutritive value of oyster mushroom during storage at intervals of time. LITERATURE CITED 1. Ajonina A. S., and T. L. Eugene. (2012). Growth Performance and Yield of Oyster Mushroom (PleurotusOstreatus) on Different Substrates Composition in Buea South West Cameroon.Sci.J. of Biochemistry. (6): Ali. A. M., M. I. Mehmood., R. Nawaz, M. A. Hanif and R. Wasim. (2007) Influence of substrate pasteurization methods on the yield of oyster mushroom (pleurotus species).pak. J. Agri. Sci., Vol. 44(2). 3. Asaduzzaman, K., S. M. Ruhul Amin., M. d. NazimUddin., T, Mousumi and A, Nuhu (2008)Comparative Study of the Nutritional Composition of Oyster Mushrooms Cultivated in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Mushroom.2(1): Bhatti, M, I., M. M. Jiskani., K. H. Wagan., M. A. Pathan and M. R. Magsi. (2007) Growth, development and yield of oyster mushroom, pleurotusostreatus(jacq. ex. fr.) kummer as affected by different spawn rates. Pak. J. Bot., 39(7): JulitaandMarekDried shiitake (Lentinullaedodes) and oyster (Pleurotusostreatus) mushroom as a source of nutrient.acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment. 6(4):

5 6. Rosli,W., W. I., Solihah, M. A., Aishah, M., NikFakurudin and Mohsin (2011) Colour, textural properties, cooking characteristics and fibre content of chicken patty added with oyster mushroom (Pleurotussajorcaju) Int. Food Res. J. 18: Tulek.Y., (2011) Drying Kinetics of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotusostreatus) in a Convective Hot Air Dryer. J. Agr. Sci. Tech. (13):

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