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1 Name Class Date 12 DNA Practice Test Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. What do bacteriophages infect? a. mice. c. viruses. b. humans. d. bacteria. 2. Which part of the bacteriophage in Figure 12 1 contains genetic material? a. A c. C b. B d. D 3. In which cells is the accurate transmission of information most important? a. nerve cells c. sex cells b. skin cells d. bone cells 4. Because of base pairing in DNA, the percentage of a. adenine molecules in DNA is about equal to the percentage of guanine molecules. b. thymine molecules in DNA is about equal to the percentage of adenine molecules c. adenine molecules in DNA is much greater than the percentage of thymine molecules. d. cytosine molecules in DNA is much greater than the percentage of guanine molecules. 5. What structural problem prevents adenine from pairing with guanine? a. The bases are both short. c. They lack the deoxyribose group. b. They lack phosphate groups. d. The bases are both long. 6. Which scientist made x-ray diffraction (crystallography) photos of DNA? a. Franklin c. Watson b. Chargaff d. Avery 7. DNA replication results in two DNA molecules, a. each with two new strands. b. one with two new strands and the other with two original strands. c. each with one new strand and one original strand. d. each with two original strands. 8. Which of the following include all the others? a. DNA molecules c. histones b. chromosomes d. nucleosomes 9. In eukaryotes, DNA a. is located in the nucleus. c. is located in the ribosomes. b. floats freely in the cytoplasm. d. is circular. Figure 12 1

2 10. In Figure 12-2, what is adding base pairs to the strand? a. histones c. DNA polymerase b. nucleosomes d. chromatin 11. What binds to the prokaryotic chromosome to start DNA replication? a. replication forks c. chromatids b. regulatory proteins d. telomeres 12. Why did Hershey and Chase label the viral DNA with radioactive phosphorous and not radioactive sulfur? a. DNA contains phosphorus and no sulfur. b. Proteins contain phosphorus and no sulfur. c. DNA contains sulfur and little phosphorous. d. Proteins acids contain sulfur and little phosphorous. Figure 12 2 Completion Complete each statement on the line provided. 13. The matching strand to the one in Figure 12 3, reading from the bottom up, would be. 14. are weak bonds that hold the two strands of DNA together, but also allow the DNA to separate and replicate. 15. Chromatin contains proteins called. 16. DNA replication is carried out by a series of. 17. The tips of chromosomes are known as. Short Answer In complete sentences, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided. 18. Identify the three main components in the nucleotides shown in Figure Figure Which molecule makes up the sides of the DNA? Figure Name and describe the type of bond that is between the nucleic acid bases. 21. During DNA replication, what two processes must occur before the two strands of a DNA molecule can separate? 22. Identify one difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication.

3 Using Science Skills Use the diagram below to answer the following questions on the lines provided.

4 Complete The Conversions: DNA to mrna to trna to Protein DNA mrna trna Protein 7. ATA 8. TAT 9. CGA 10. ATC 11. GGC 12. CAT Using the description of Transcription & Translation be able to answer these questions: 1. What is the first step in eukaryotic DNA replication? 2. Where does transcription take place? 3. Describe the complete process of transcription (see description below) 4. Where does translation take place? 5. Describe the complete process of translation (see description below) 6. What enzyme joins individual nucleotides to produce the new strand of DNA? 7. Describe the difference between translation and translation. (compare & contrast below)

5 Lab Analysis & DNA 1. What was the objective of the pglo lab? 2. Describe the process of transforming ecoli with a green fluorescent protein (GFP). 3. Describe what should happen in each of the petri dishes and why we see these results: LB pglo: o Why: LB AMP pglo: o Why: LB AMP +pglo: o Why: LB AMP ARA +pglo: o Why:

6 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Practice Test Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both DNA and RNA? a. ribose, phosphate groups, and adenine b. deoxyribose, phosphate groups, and guanine c. phosphate groups, guanine, and cytosine d. phosphate groups, guanine, and thymine 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. adenine 3. What is produced during transcription? a. RNA molecules c. RNA polymerase b. DNA molecules d. proteins 4. During eukaryotic transcription, the molecule that is formed is a. complementary to both strands of DNA. b. identical to an entire single strand of DNA. c. double-stranded and inside the nucleus. d. complementary to part of one strand of DNA. 5. There are 64 codons and 20 amino acids. Which of the following is true? a. Several different codons can specify the same amino acid. b. Each codon specifies a different amino acid. c. Some amino acids have no link to a codon. d. Each amino acid is specified by only one codon. 6. A promoter is a a. binding site for DNA polymerase. b. binding site for RNA polymerase. c. start signal for replication. d. stop signal for transcription. Figure During translation, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide depends on the a. codon on the mrna and the anticodon on the rrna. b. anticodon on the mrna and the anticodon on the trna. c. anticodon on the rrna and the codon on the mrna. d. codon on the mrna and the anticodon on the trna.

7 8. What is an exception to the central dogma of molecular biology? a. Viruses sometimes transfer information from RNA to DNA. b. Viruses sometimes transfer information from DNA to RNA. c. Viruses sometimes transfer information from proteins to DNA. d. Viruses can translate without RNA. 9. In eukaryotes a. Transcription takes place in the cytoplasm, and translation takes place in the nucleus. b. Transcription takes place in the nucleus, and translation takes place in the cytoplasm. c. Transcription and translation both take place in the nucleus. d. Transcription and translation both take place in the cytoplasm. 10. Which of the following is the name of a type of chromosomal mutation AND a type of gene mutation? a. substitution c. deletion b. insertion d. inversion 11. What are some characteristics of polyploidy plants? a. They tend to be weaker and smaller than diploid plants. b. They tend to be bigger and stronger than diploid plants. c. They tend to be weaker, but bigger than diploid plants. d. They tend to be smaller, but stronger than diploid plants. 12. A lac repressor turns OFF the lac genes by a. binding to the promoter. c. binding to the operator. b. DNA polymerase. d. binding to the lac genes. 13. Gene regulation in eukaryotes a. usually involves operons. b. is simpler than in prokaryotes. c. allows for cell specialization. d. includes the action of an operator region. 14. What regulates the expression of most eukaryotic genes? a. mirna c. dicer enzymes b. transcription factors d. silencing complexes 15. Hox genes a. determine when bacteria replicate their chromosome. b. determine where the flagellum is on a bacterium. c. determine when a dog s cells replicate their DNA. d. determine the location of a dog s ears. Completion Complete each statement on the line provided. 16. A eukaryotic gene consists of regulatory regions, a(n), and the nucleotide sequence that is transcribed. 17. Insertions and deletions that change the entire genetic message that comes after the mutation are called.

8 18. Mutant 1 in Figure 13 2 is the result of a(n) because part of the chromosome reverses direction. 19. The element bromine can cause a genetic change, so bromine is called a. 20. A mutation in a series of genes called can change the organs that develop in specific parts of an embryo. Short Answer In complete sentences, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided. 21. What might be the effect of a mutation in the promoter sequence of a gene? 22. According to Figure 13 3, what codons specify glycine? 23. How does microrna (mirna) function to help block gene expression? 24. How does epigenetics affect the human genome? Figure 13 3 RNA Synthesis in General For Questions 25-30, complete each statement by writing the correct word or words. 25. The process of using DNA to produce complementary RNA molecules is called. 26. The sequence of in mrna complements the sequence in the DNA template. 27. In eukaryotes, RNA is formed in the and then travels to the. 28. The enzyme binds to DNA during transcription. 29. RNA polymerase binds to regions of DNA called, which are start signals for transcription. 30. are portions of RNA that are cut out and discar

9 13.3 Effects of Mutations For Questions 9 17, write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left. 9. Small changes in genes A. disappear quickly. B. gradually accumulate over time. C. prevent the next generation from developing. D. do not affect future generations. 10. A possible mutagen is A. an anticodon. C. hemoglobin. B. translocation. D. ultraviolet light. 11. What happens when cells cannot repair the damage caused by a mutagen? A. The DNA base sequence changes permanently. B. The DNA base sequence is not affected. C. The organism is not affected. D. The organism is affected temporarily. 12. Which of the following most accurately summarizes the effects of mutations on living things? A. Most mutations are harmful, but some have little effect. B. Many mutations have little or no effect, but some can be harmful or beneficial. C. Most mutations are beneficial and a few are harmful. D. About half of mutations are beneficial and half are harmful.

10 13. Mutations are important to the evolution of a species because they A. happen over the long period of time that evolution requires. B. cut out and replace damaged or useless genes. C. are a source of genetic variability. D. accelerate the transcription rate of DNA. 14. Cancer is the product of a mutation that A. causes the uncontrolled growth of cells. B. changes the structure of hemoglobin in the blood. C. brings about stunted growth and severe pain. D. causes a translocation in a pair of chromosomes Genetic Control of Development Regulating gene expression is especially important in shaping the way a multicellular organism develops. Gene regulation helps cells undergo differentiation, becoming specialized in structure and function. Master control genes are like switches that trigger particular patterns of development and differentiation in cells and tissues. Homeotic genes are master control genes that regulate organs that develop in specific parts of the body. Homeobox genes share a similar 130-base DNA sequence called homeobox. They code for transcription factors that activate other genes that are important in cell development and differentiation in certain regions of the body. Hox genes are a group of homeobox genes that tell the cells of the body how to differentiate as the body grows. Environmental factors can also affect gene expression by turning on or off certain genes. This is called epigenetics. 13.4: Genetic Control of Development For Questions 16 23, write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left. 15. As an embryo develops, different sets of genes are regulated by A. mrna and lac repressors. C. transcription factors and repressors. B. operons and operators. D. promoters and operators. 16. The process through which cells become specialized in structure and function is A. transcription. C. differentiation. B. gene expression. D. RNA interference. 17. Homeotic genes are A. regulator genes that bind to operons in prokaryotes. B. master control genes that regulate organs that develop in specific parts of the body. C. parts of the silencing complex that regulates gene action through RNA interference. D. base sequences complementary to sequences in microrna. 18. What role do homeobox genes play in cell differentiation? A. They code for transcription factors that activate other genes important in cell development and differentiation. B. They block certain gene expression. C. They cut double-stranded loops into microrna. D. They attach to a cluster of proteins to form a silencing complex, which binds to and destroys certain RNA.

11 19. In flies, the group of homeobox genes that determines the identities of each segment of a fly s body is the group known as A. silencing complexes. C. operators. B. promoters. D. Hox genes. 20. Clusters of Hox genes are found in A. flies only. C. plants only. B. flies and frogs only. D. nearly all animals. 21. The switches that trigger particular patterns of development and differentiation in cells and tissues are A. mrna molecules. C. silencing complexes. B. master control genes. D. Dicer enzymes. 22. Metamorphosis is A. a series of transformations from one life stage to another. B. the master switch that triggers development and differentiation. C. the product of interactions among homeotic genes. D. the process by which genetic information is passed from one generation to the next. Gene Expression Simulation 23. Explain why gene need a promoter. 24. Describe how an embryo uses proteins to identify different sections of its body? What gene is responsible for these sections?

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