Bacteria. Bacteria. Chapter 27. Bacteria 7/18/2016

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1 Chapter 27 Prokaryotes Most numerous organisms on earth Earliest life forms (fossils: 2.5 billion years old) Contain ribosomes Surrounded by protective cell wall containing peptidoglycan (protein-carbohydrate) Found in most habitats Most bacteria grow best at a ph of 6.5 to 7.0 DNA is a single circular chromosome small extra rings of DNA called plasmids May have short, hairlike projections called pili on cell wall to attach to host or another bacteria when transferring genetic material Most are unicellular Main decomposers of dead organisms Some beneficial, most harmful Move by flagella, gliding over slime they secrete um in size Classified by: - structure - motility - molecular composition - reaction to Gram stain Once grouped together in the kingdom Monera Grouped into 2 kingdoms - Eubacteria (true bacteria) - Archaebacteria (ancient bacteria) 1

2 Classification- two main groups 1. Archaebacteria(Extremophiles) - ancient bacteria - live in very extreme environments (undersea volcanic vents, acidic hot springs, salty water) - no peptidoglycan in cell walls - Subdivided into 3 groups 1. methanogens 2. extreme thermophiles 3. extreme halophiles Methanogens - Live in anaerobic environments (no oxygen) - Obtain energy by changing H2 and CO2 gas into methane gas (CH4) - Found in swamps, marshes, sewage, treatment plants, digestive tracts of animals - Break down cellulose for herbivores (cows) - Produce marsh gas or intestinal gas (methane) Extreme Halophiles - Live in very salty water - Found in the Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake, etc. - Use salt to help generate ATP (energy) Extreme Thermophiles - Live in extremely hot (1100C) and acidic (ph 2) water - Found in - hot springs in Yellowstone Park - volcanic vents on land - cracks on the ocean floor that leak scalding acidic water Classification- two main groups 2. Eubacteria - most bacteria - some undergo photosynthesis - most heterotrophs - larger ribosomes, larger numbers of rrna nucleotides 1. Shape (morphology) cocci (spheres) bacilli (rods) spirilla/spirochetes (spirals) ex: cyanobacteria (blue green algae) 2

3 2. Cell wall - made of peptidoglycans (sugars cross linked by short polypeptides) and lipids - many surrounded by a sticky, protective coating of sugars called the capsule or glycocalyx - fimbriae: short hairlike projections that allow bacteria to attach to host or connect to each other or a host cell or - pili: longer hair-like projections - allow passage of genetic material between cells during 3. Motility (movement) - flagella, cilia - taxis: directed movement toward or away from a stimulus 4. Genome single circular strand of DNA haploid naked DNA (no histone proteins) 1/1000 DNA of eukaryotes Genome cont. No nuclear membrane chromosome in cytoplasm transcription & translation are coupled together no processing of mrna no introns - but Central Dogma still applies - use same genetic code 5. Endospores - thick coated internal resistant structure - reproductive structure, contains DNA - allows DNA to survive after bacteria dies - resistant to environmental conditions - gives rise to normal bacterial cell 6. Reaction to Gram stain - diagnostic identification techniques - gram positive: purple color - high peptidoglycan in cell wall - gram positive: pink/red color - high fat content in cell wall 3

4 7. Method of energy acquisition - Obligate aerobes: undergo cellular respiration must live in an environment with oxygen - Obligate anaerobes: undergo glycolysis/fermentation must live in an environment without O2 - Facultative anaerobes: use O2 if present, other wise undergo anaerobic respiration 8. Reproduction Asexual: Binary fission replication of bacterial chromosome offspring genetically identical to parent Sexual: Conjugation genetic recombination Sources of Genetic Variation 1. Rapid Reproduction: causes mutationsignificant source of variation and evolution 2. Transformation: uptake of foreign DNA from surroundings 3. Transduction: viruses transfer genes between prokaryotes 4. Conjugation: DNA transferred from one to another Transformation Observed by Griffith (bacteria & mice) Uptake of foreign DNA from surroundings - have surface transport proteins that are specialized for the uptake of naked DNA Plasmids small supplemental circles of DNA that carry extra genes (antibiotic resistance) self-replicating can be exchanged between bacteria - rapid evolution used frequently in genetic engineering for gene cloning Plasmids & antibiotic resistance 1 st recognized in 1950s in Japan resistant genes are on plasmids that are swapped between bacteria genes conferring resistance are carried by plasmids R plasmids encode for a sex pili and enable the bacteria to transfer it by conjugation. - MRSA is major problem 4

5 Biotechnology Used to insert new genes into bacteria Gene Cloning Transduction Phage viruses carry bacterial genes from one host to another Recombination of DNA of donor and recipient cells Conjugation sexual reproduction conjugation direct transfer of DNA between 2 bacterial cells that are temporarily joined results from presence of F plasmid with F factor (produces pilus) Conjugation bridge (sex pilus) allows transfer of DNA animation Ecological Interactions Mutualistic bacteria Pathogenic bacteria -Beneficial ex: gut bacteriadigest foods we cannot decomposersbreakdown waste and recycle nutreints -Harmful - exotoxins: released by bacteria - endotoxins: released by cell wall when bacteria dies 5

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