Unit 6: Molecular Genetics & DNA Technology Guided Reading Questions (100 pts total)

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1 Name: AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 7th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Unit 6: Molecular Genetics & DNA Technology Guided Reading Questions (100 pts total) 1. Describe Griffith s experiment and the concept of transformation in detail. 2. What did Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty contribute to this line of investigation? 3. What is a bacteriophage? 4. Label the diagram below and explain the Hershey Chase experiment. Explanation: Page 1 of 28

2 5. Why was Rosalind s Franklin s work essential to the understanding of the structure of DNA? 6. Label the diagram below and answer the question that follows: Question: Based on your understanding of the diagram above, what is meant by the phrase DNA is antiparallel in arrangement? 7. What causes adenine to always pair with thymine and guanine with cytosine in DNA? 8. What are DNA polymerases? How are they involved in bacterial DNA replication? Page 2 of 28

3 9. Define the following terms: a. leading strand b. lagging strand c. Okazaki fragments d. DNA ligase e. primer Label the diagram to the right: 11. List the functions of the following enzymes: a. helicase b. single stranded binding protein c. topoisomerase d. primase e. DNA Polymerase III f. DNA Polymerase I g. DNA Ligase Page 3 of 28

4 12. Label the diagram of DNA replication and answer the question that follows. Question: What does it mean to say that DNA replication is semiconservative? 13. Identify and label the diagram below: Page 4 of 28

5 14. What are telomeres and why are they important? How does telomerase play a role? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 15. The spontaneous loss of amino groups from adenine results in hypoxanthine, an unnatural base, opposite thymine in DNA. What combination of molecules could repair such damage? A. nuclease, telomerase, primase B. telomerase, primase, DNA polymerase C. nuclease, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase D. telomerase, helicase, single-strand binding protein Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein 1. Use the figure below to note the flow of genetic information in a eukaryotic cell. Completely label the diagram with the appropriate term and provide a definition for each term in the space on the right. Terms and Definitions: 2. Why must the code of life exist in triplets and not singles or doubles? Page 5 of 28

6 3. Compare and contrast a codon with an anticodon. 4. What does the phrase reading frame refer to? 5. What conclusion can be drawn from the alarming similarities of the genetic code among living organisms? 6. Using the figure below, write an explanation of transcription. Define all terms used to label the diagram. Explanation: Terms and Definitions: Page 6 of 28

7 7. Use the figure below to demonstrate initiation of transcription at a eukaryotic promoter. Write the definition of each term used to label the diagram. Terms and Definitions: 8. Contrast termination of transcription for prokaryotic versus eukaryotic organisms. 9. Why is important that the promoter be upstream of the transcription unit? Page 7 of 28

8 10. Why is RNA processing necessary? 11. Define the following terms: a. RNA splicing b. introns c. exons d. spliceosome e. snrnps f. ribozymes g. UTR h. alternative RNA splicing i. domains Describe the structure and function of transfer RNA (trna). Draw a diagram to support your answer. Page 8 of 28

9 13. In the space below, describe the structure and function of ribosomal RNA or rrna. Label the diagram to the right in support of your description. 14. Summarize the steps of the initiation of translation. Page 9 of 28

10 15. Label the figure below to detail the elongation cycle of translation. 16. Label the diagram below to detail the termination of translation. Page 10 of 28

11 17. Label the figure below to highlight the signal mechanism for targeting proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. 18. Define the following terms: a. mutation b. point mutation c. base pair substitution d. missense e. nonsense f. insertion g. deletion h. frameshift mutation i. mutagen Page 11 of 28

12 19. Use the figure below to help you reflect on the whole picture of going from gene to protein to YOU! See if you can label the empty boxes with the correct terms and compose a summary without using the textbook or referring to previous questions in this reading guide. AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 20. Which component is not directly involved in translation? A. DNA B. trna C. mrna D. ribosomes Page 12 of 28

13 Chapter 18 The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria 1. Describe the structure and function of the major components of a typical virus. 2. List the full steps of the simplified viral reproductive cycle. 3. What is the phage reproductive cycle that culminates in the death of the host cell? What kind of phage only reproduces by this cycle? 4. What is the phage reproductive cycle that replicates the phage genome without destroying the host? What is a prophage? 5. How do bacteria defend themselves against phages? 6. What are retroviruses and how do they use reverse transcriptase? Briefly describe the reproductive cycle of HIV, a retrovirus. 7. How is the DNA arranged in the nucleoid region of the bacterial genome? Page 13 of 28

14 8. What is a plasmid? 9. Why do mutations make such a large contribution to bacterial genetic variation as compared to humans? 10. What is the process of alteration of a bacterial cell s genotype by the uptake of naked, foreign DNA from the surrounding environment? Explain the experiment and the results that demonstrated evidence of this process in bacteria. 11. Define transduction and list the generalized steps. 12. What is the name of the process of direct transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined? What structure joins them? 13. What is special about the F plasmid? What are R plasmids and why are these problems to humans? 14. Define transposable elements. Do transposable elements exist independently? Page 14 of 28

15 15. What is the name for the operator, promoter, and the genes they control? 16. What is the key advantage of grouping genes of related function into one transcription unit? 17. What are the two methods of negative gene regulation? How does a repressor work? 18. Compare and contrast an inducible operon with a repressible operon. 19. Negative feedback has an on/off switch and positive feedback can only amplify the response how does this statement connect with negative and positive gene regulation? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 20. Which of the following is descriptive of an R plasmid? A. It makes bacteria resistant to phage. B. Its transfer converts an F- cell into an F+ cell. C. It is transferred between bacteria by transduction. D. It has genes for antibiotic resistance and maybe for sex pili. Chapter 19 Eukaryotic Genomes: Organization, Regulation, and Evolution 1. Define the following terms: a. chromatin b. nucleosome - Page 15 of 28

16 2. Outline the levels of DNA packing in the eukaryotic nucleus by labeling the diagram. 3. What is the difference between heterochromatin and euchromatin? Which is transcribed? 4. What is cell differentiation? If cells carry all of the same genes, why then are different cell types so unique what is responsible for this? Page 16 of 28

17 5. In the diagram below label the potential locations for gene expression regulation in eukaryotic cells. How does this compare with prokaryotic cells? 6. What effect do the following have on gene expression? a. histone acetylation b. histone deacteylation c. DNA methylation - 7. Define epigenetic inheritance. Give an example. Page 17 of 28

18 8. How do the following control elements assist in regulation? a. transcription factors b. enhancers c. activators d. repressors 9. Label the diagram below to explain the interactions of enhancers and transcription activators. Page 18 of 28

19 10. Explain how RNA processing is a mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation. 11. What role do microrna s play in post-transcriptional regulation? Use the diagram below to supplement your explanation and then answer the question that follows. Explanation: Question: What is RNA interference? 12. How does translation provide another opportunity for control of gene expression? 13. What are the differences between oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes? Page 19 of 28

20 14. Label the diagram below that describes the signaling pathways that regulate cell division. 15. What are the types of DNA sequences in the human genome and what percentage of the genome are they? Page 20 of 28

21 16. What is the difference between transposons and retrotransposons. Label the diagram below to help you answer the question. Answer: 17. What are Alu elements? 18. What are multi-gene families? What are pseudogenes? 19. How can errors during meiosis lead to the duplication of genes? How can errors during DNA replication lead to the duplication of genes? Page 21 of 28

22 AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 20. How are transposable elements thought to have contributed to the evolution of the genome? A. Transposable elements that insert within regulatory sequences can affect protein production. B. During transposition, transposable elements can carry a gene or group to a new position in the genome. C. Transposable elements that jump into the coding sequence of a gene can prevent normal gene function. D. All of the above Chapter 20 DNA Technology and Genomics 1. Define the following terms: a. recombinant DNA b. genetic engineering c. biotechnology d. gene cloning - 2. What are the two basic purposes of cloned genes? 3. What is the other name for restriction enzymes and what do these enzymes do for bacteria in nature? 4. Define the following terms: a. restriction site b. restriction fragments c. sticky end - Page 22 of 28

23 5. Label the following diagram and briefly describe the process being illustrated. Description: 6. Study the diagram on page 387 that illustrates the steps to cloning a human gene in a bacterial plasmid. Once the procedure has been performed, how do researchers determine whether cell clones carry the recombinant plasmids? 7. What is the purpose of nucleic acid hybridization? Why is the word hybrid used to describe this process? 8. What is a complementary, short, single-stranded nucleic acid that can be either DNA or RNA? Page 23 of 28

24 9. Label the following steps of nucleic acid probe hybridization. Then answer the question that follows. Question: Why do scientists use a radioactive isotope tag for the probes? 10. Label the diagram of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and answer the question below. Question: Why is PCR important in biotechnology? Page 24 of 28

25 11. Why do molecular biologists use yeast as opposed to bacteria for expressing genes of interest? 12. Label the diagram of gel electrophoresis on the right and answer the question. Focus on the charge, molecule size and results. Question: What is the purpose of gel electrophoresis? Page 25 of 28

26 13. Label the diagram of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis below. Focus on identifying the fragments. 14. Define and explain the significance of RFLP s, restriction length polymorphisms. 15. What was the purpose of the Human Genome Project? Page 26 of 28

27 16. Label the diagram outlining the Southern Blotting of DNA Fragments. 17. What is the goal of DNA sequencing? 18. What is the basic concept of the whole-genome shotgun approach to sequencing? Page 27 of 28

28 19. Define genomics. Is there a direct correlation between size of the genome and the complexity of the organism? 20. Define single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). 21. Identify two the examples of the medical applications of biotechnology. 22. What is a DNA fingerprint? 23. What is a transgenic animal? 24. What are genetically modified foods and do you think that you have eaten any? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 25. Which of the following tools of recombinant DNA technology is incorrectly paired with its use? A. restriction enzyme-production of RFLPs B. electrophoresis-separation of DNA fragments C. reverse transcriptase-production of cdna from mrna D. DNA ligase-enzyme that cuts DNA, creating the sticky ends of restriction fragments Page 28 of 28

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