2 THE FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION FROM DNA TO RNA TO PROTEIN Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
3 Genes are expressed as proteins A gene is a segment of DNA that contains the instructions for the synthesis of a specific protein It is these proteins that ultimately determine the phenotype of an organism The one gene one enzyme hypothesis was based on studies of inherited metabolic diseases The one gene one protein hypothesis expands the relationship to proteins other than enzymes The one gene one polypeptide hypothesis recognizes that some proteins are composed of multiple polypeptides Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
4 DNA Nucleus Cytoplasm DNA is transcribed into RNA RNA is translated into protein
5 DNA Strand to be transcribed
6 DNA Transcription RNA Nucleus Cytoplasm
7 Strand to be transcribed DNA Transcription RNA Start codon Stop codon
8 DNA Transcription RNA Nucleus Cytoplasm Translation Protein
9 Strand to be transcribed DNA Transcription RNA Start codon Translation Stop codon Polypeptide Met Lys Phe
10 DNA molecule Gene 1 The sequence of nucleotides in DNA provides a code for constructing a protein Gene 2 Gene 3 DNA strand Transcription RNA Translation Codon Polypeptide Amino acid
11 10.8 The genetic code is the Rosetta stone of life Characteristics of the genetic code Triplet: Three nucleotides specify one amino acid 61 codons correspond to amino acids AUG codes for methionine and signals the start of transcription 3 stop codons signal the end of translation Redundant: More than one codon for some amino acids Unambiguous: Any codon for one amino acid does not code for any other amino acid Does not contain spacers or punctuation: Codons are adjacent to each other with no gaps in between Nearly universal Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
12 First base Third base Second base
13 10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA Overview of transcription The two DNA strands separate One strand is used as a pattern to produce an RNA chain, using specific base pairing For A in DNA, U is placed in RNA RNA polymerase catalyzes the reaction Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
14 10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA Stages of transcription Initiation: RNA polymerase binds to a promoter, where the helix unwinds and transcription starts Elongation: RNA nucleotides are added to the chain Termination: RNA polymerase reaches a terminator sequence and detaches from the template Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
15 RNA polymerase RNA nucleotides Newly made RNA Direction of transcription Template strand of DNA
16 RNA polymerase DNA of gene Promoter DNA 1 Initiation Terminator DNA 2 Elongation Area shown in Figure 10.9A 3 Termination Growing RNA Completed RNA RNA polymerase
17 10.10 Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus Messenger RNA (mrna) contains codons for protein sequences Eukaryotic mrna has interrupting sequences called introns, separating the coding regions called exons Eukaryotic mrna undergoes processing before leaving the nucleus Cap added to 5 end: single guanine nucleotide Tail added to 3 end: Poly-A tail of adenines RNA splicing: removal of introns and joining of exons to produce a continuous coding sequence Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
18 DNA Cap Exon Intron Exon Intron Exon Transcription Addition of cap and tail RNA transcript with cap and tail Introns removed Tail mrna Exons spliced together Coding sequence Nucleus Cytoplasm
20 10.11 Transfer RNA molecules serve as interpreters during translation Transfer RNA (trna) molecules match an amino acid to its corresponding mrna codon trna structure allows it to convert one language to the other An amino acid attachment site allows each trna to carry a specific amino acid An anticodon allows the trna to bind to a specific mrna codon, complementary in sequence A pairs with U, G pairs with C Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
21 Amino acid attachment site Hydrogen bond RNA polynucleotide chain Anticodon
23 10.12 Ribosomes build polypeptides Translation occurs on the surface of the ribosome Ribosomes have two subunits: small and large Each subunit is composed of ribosomal RNAs and proteins Ribosomal subunits come together during translation Ribosomes have binding sites for mrna and trnas Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
24 trna molecules Growing polypeptide Large subunit mrna Small subunit
25 trna-binding sites Large subunit mrna binding site Small subunit
26 Next amino acid to be added to polypeptide Growing polypeptide trna mrna Codons
27 10.13 An initiation codon marks the start of an mrna message Initiation brings together the components needed to begin RNA synthesis Initiation occurs in two steps 1. mrna binds to a small ribosomal subunit, and the first trna binds to mrna at the start codon The start codon reads AUG and codes for methionine The first trna has the anticodon UAC 2. A large ribosomal subunit joins the small subunit, allowing the ribosome to function Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The first trna occupies the P site, which will hold the growing peptide chain The A site is available to receive the next trna
28 Start of genetic message End
29 Initiator trna P site Large ribosomal subunit A site mrna 1 Start codon Small ribosomal subunit 2
30 10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation Elongation is the addition of amino acids to the polypeptide chain Each cycle of elongation has three steps 1. Codon recognition: next trna binds to the mrna at the A site 2. Peptide bond formation: joining of the new amino acid to the chain Amino acids on the trna at the P site are attached by a covalent bond to the amino acid on the trna at the A site Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
31 10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation 3. Translocation: trna is released from the P site and the ribosome moves trna from the A site into the P site Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
32 10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until the stop codon Elongation continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon Applying Your Knowledge How many cycles of elongation are required to produce a protein with 100 amino acids? Termination The completed polypeptide is released The ribosomal subunits separate mrna is released and can be translated again Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
33 Polypeptide Amino acid mrna P site Codons A site Anticodon 1 Codon recognition
34 Polypeptide Amino acid mrna P site Codons A site Anticodon 1 Codon recognition 2 Peptide bond formation
35 Polypeptide Amino acid mrna P site Codons A site Anticodon 1 Codon recognition New peptide bond 2 Peptide bond formation 3 Translocation
36 Polypeptide Amino acid mrna P site Codons A site Anticodon 1 Codon recognition mrna movement Stop codon New peptide bond 2 Peptide bond formation 3 Translocation
37 10.15 Review: The flow of genetic information in the cell is DNA RNA protein Does translation represent: DNA RNA or RNA protein? Where does the information for producing a protein originate: DNA or RNA? Which one has a linear sequence of codons: rrna, mrna, or trna? Which one directly influences the phenotype: DNA, RNA, or protein? Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
38 DNA Transcription mrna Amino acid trna ATP Translation Enzyme RNA polymerase 1 mrna is transcribed from a DNA template. 2 Each amino acid attaches to its proper trna with the help of a specific enzyme and ATP. Anticodon Initiator trna mrna Start Codon Large ribosomal subunit Small ribosomal subunit 3 Initiation of polypeptide synthesis The mrna, the first trna, and the ribosomal sub-units come together. Growing polypeptide New peptide bond forming mrna Codons 4 Elongation A succession of trnas add their amino acids to the polypeptide chain as the mrna is moved through the ribosome, one codon at a time. Polypeptide Stop codon 5 Termination The ribosome recognizes a stop codon. The polypeptide is terminated and released.
39 DNA Transcription mrna RNA polymerase 1 mrna is transcribed from a DNA template. Amino acid trna ATP Translation Enzyme 2 Each amino acid attaches to its proper trna with the help of a specific enzyme and ATP. Anticodon Initiator trna mrna Start Codon Large ribosomal subunit Small ribosomal subunit 3 Initiation of polypeptide synthesis The mrna, the first trna, and the ribosomal sub-units come together.
40 Growing polypeptide New peptide bond forming mrna Codons 4 Elongation A succession of trnas add their amino acids to the polypeptide chain as the mrna is moved through the ribosome, one codon at a time. Polypeptide Stop codon 5 Termination The ribosome recognizes a stop codon. The polypeptide is terminated and released.
41 10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes A mutation is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA Base substitutions: replacement of one nucleotide with another Effect depends on whether there is an amino acid change that alters the function of the protein Deletions or insertions Alter the reading frame of the mrna, so that nucleotides are grouped into different codons Lead to significant changes in amino acid sequence downstream of mutation Cause a nonfunctional polypeptide to be produced Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
42 10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes Mutations can be Spontaneous: due to errors in DNA replication or recombination Induced by mutagens High-energy radiation Chemicals Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
43 Normal hemoglobin DNA Mutant hemoglobin DNA mrna mrna Normal hemoglobin Glu Sickle-cell hemoglobin Val
44 Normal gene mrna Protein Met Lys Phe Gly Ala Base substitution Met Lys Phe Ser Ala Base deletion Missing Met Lys Leu Ala His
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