CHapter 14. From DNA to Protein

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1 CHapter 14 From DNA to Protein

2 How? DNA to RNA to Protein to Trait

3 Types of RNA 1. Messenger RNA: carries protein code or transcript 2. Ribosomal RNA: part of ribosomes 3. Transfer RNA: delivers amino acids to ribosomes

4 RNA ribonucleotides 5 carbon sugar phosphate group uracil replaces thymine

5 base pairing differences DNA RNA base pairing during transcription DNA DNA base pairing during DNA replication Fig. 14-2c, p.220

6 Transcription 1. part of DNA strand unwound, starting at a promoter region or start signal in DNA where RNA polymerase binds (initiation)

7 Promoter promoter region RNA polymerase, the enzyme that catalyzes transcription a RNA polymerase initiates transcription at a promoter region in DNA. It recognizes a base sequence located next to the promoter as a template. It will link the nucleotides adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil into a strand of RNA, in the order specified by DNA. Fig. 14-3a, p.220

8 Transcription 2. RNA polymerase adds ribonucleotides as DNA bases are exposed to growing RNA strand in 5 to 3 direction goes until stop signal reached in DNA (elongation)

9 Gene Transcription newly forming RNA transcript DNA template at selected transcription site DNA template winding up DNA template unwinding b All through transcription, the DNA double helix becomes unwound in front of the RNA polymerase. Short lengths of the newly forming RNA strand briefly wind up with its DNA template strand. New stretches of RNA unwind from the template (and the two DNA strands wind up again). Fig. 14-3b, p.220

10 Adding Nucleotides 3 direction of transcription growing RNA transcript c What happened at the assembly site? RNA polymerase catalyzed the assembly of ribonucleotides, one after another, into an RNA strand, using exposed bases on the DNA as a template. Many other proteins assist this process. Fig. 14-3c, p.221

11 Transcription 3. stop signal allows mrna to be released (termination) result is one free mrna strand

12 d At the end of the gene region, the last stretch of the new transcript is unwound and released from the DNA template. Shown below is a model for a transcribed strand of RNA. animation Fig. 14-3d, p.221

13 Finishing Touches mrna modified before leaving the nucleus introns snipped out guanine cap added poly A tail added

14 Transcript Modification unit of transcription in a DNA strand exon intron exon intron exon transcription into pre-mrna cap poly-a tail snipped out snipped out mature mrna transcript Fig. 14-4, p.221

15 The Genetic Code mrna attaches to a ribosome after leaving the nucleus bases are read 3 at a time, each triplet is called a codon each codon specifies an amino acid

16 Codons 64 codons 20 amino acids AUG = start codon, amino acid methionine stop codon does not call for an amino acid

17 Genetic Code DNA mrna mrna codons amino acids threonine proline glutamate glutamate lysine Fig. 14-5, p.222

18 trna cells keep supply of trna and amino acids in cytoplasm trna has attachment site for amino acids through an anticodon complementary to mrna codon anticodon attaches to codon on mrna, bringing amino acid specified by mrna

19 trna Structure codon in mrna anticodon in trna amino acid Fig. 14-7, p.223

20 rrna Ribosomes funnel small ribosomal subunit + large ribosomal subunit intact ribosome Fig. 14-8, p.223

21 Translation 1. Initiation 2. Elongation 3. Termination

22 Translation: Initiation mrna strand and trna carrying methionine or start codon, binds to small ribosomal subunit, then large subunit binds initiation complex created

23 Binding Sites binding site for mrna P (first binding site for trna) A (second binding site for trna)

24 Translation: Elongation polypeptide chain constructed mrna moves between the two ribosome subunits trna brings amino acids in order specified by mrna region of rrna catalyzes bonding between amino acids

25 Elongation Cont d chain of amino acids created trna gets shifted from A site to P site on ribosome to make way for next trna

26 Elongation

27 Translation: Termination Stop codon enters ribosome, no trna to match protein release factors bind to ribosome and detach mrna and amino acid chain many ribosomes can work on single mrna strand coding for more than one protein animation wikipedia

28 Review: Proteins amino acid sequence is primary structure secondary, tertiary, quaternary follow final protein stays in cytoplasm, others modified in ER or golgi for shipment out of cell

29 Overview Transcription mrna rrna trna Mature mrna transcripts ribosomal subunits mature trna Translation

30 Mutations: Base pair substitutions: an incorrect base is paired, which can cause a silent mutation (nothing happens, codes for same amino acid), missense mutation (an incorrect amino acid is coded for, alters protein structure) or a nonsense mutation (codes for STOP codon too early, protein structure compromised)

31 Mutations: Deletion or Insertion: causes a frameshift mutation in which the reading of the codon triplets is thrown off from the point of the mutation so an incorrect protein is made Transposons: A chunk of the chromosome is transferred to another (often they switch pieces), so this can interrupt a gene and alter any proteins that gene codes for

32 mutations can arise spontaneously during DNA replication and then missed during the proofreading process exposure to x-rays, radiation, carcinogens can disrupt the structure of DNA and make more vulnerable to mistakes in replication

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