1 Please take these notes carefully. You do not need to write anything in RED Introduction to pglo lab Bacteria Transformation
2 What is a plasmid? A plasmid is a small circular piece of DNA (about 2,000 to 10,000 base pairs) that contains important genetic information for the growth of bacteria.
3 Often plasmids contains a gene that codes for a protein that will make the bacteria resistant to an antibiotic. Bacteria can exchange plasmids with one another. Which helps more bacteria cells obtain the new plasmid
4 How do scientists use plasmids? A plasmid containing resistance to an antibiotic (usually ampicillin) is used as a vector. A vector is a vehicle for transferring foreign genetic information
5 What do you do with plasmids that are now recombinant DNA? After following the steps to combine a bacterial plasmid with foreign DNA, scientists need to place the recombinant DNA into a living organism. The recombinant DNA is inserted into a bacteria. Then the bacteria will express the new foreign DNA, and the bacteria will perform new functions.
6 What is transformation? The process of inserting recombinant plasmid DNA into a bacteria (or any other cell) GFP Bacterial chromosomal DNA Amp Resistance pglo plasmids
7 How scientists make sure a bacteria contains an altered plasmid? The transformed bacteria are then spread over an agar plate that contains ampicillin. only bacteria that have acquired the plasmid can grow on the plate. The ampicillin provides a selective pressure because Selective Pressure - The same as in evolution - only the organisms that have a particular trait (in this case antibiotic resistance) will survive. Therefore, as long as you grow the bacteria in ampicillin, it will need the plasmid to survive and it will continually replicate it, along with your gene of interest that has been inserted to the plasmid.
8 Our lab is performing transformation We will take a plasmid that has be recombined into a piece of recombinant DNA. This plasmid contains the original DNA as well as a gene from a jellyfish. When transformation is complete, and we insert the plasmid into a bacteria cell, the cell will express the jellyfish gene.
9 What jellyfish gene will we use? GFP is a green fluorescent protein that normally is found in jellyfish In 1987 Douglas Prasher thought that GFP from a jellyfish could be used to report when a protein was being made in a cell. Proteins are extremely small and cannot be seen, even under an electron microscope. However if one could somehow link GFP to a specific protein, for example hemoglobin, one would be able to see the green fluorescence of the GFP that is attached to the hemoglobin. It would be a bit like attaching a light bulb to the hemoglobin molecule.
11 Three 60 day old kittens. Two have been genetically modified to make red fluorescent protein. All three look similar under normal light, but when irradiated with blue light only the two genetically modified kittens glow red.
12 Are we going to make kittens glow? No, just bacteria. We are going to transform bacteria by making them take up a commercially prepared plasmid that contains three genes of interest, amp R, arac and GFP. Genetically modified organisms are transgenic
13 Genes of interest: amp, arac, GFP amp R this gene will give our transgenic bacteria resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin arac this gene will produce a protein in the presence of arabinose that will allow the bacteria to turn on the GFP gene GFP in the presence of arabinose, this gene will turn on and cause the transformed (transgenic) bacteria to glow green These three genes will work together to allow gene regulation to be on, and for GFP to be expressed.
14 Our Lab Bacterial Transformation should occur! We will use several different agar plates in order to see if the transformation was successful.
15 How will we transform the bacteria? 1. Suspend bacterial colonies in Transformation Solution, CaCl2 2. Add pglo plasmid DNA to +DNA tube 3. Place tubes on ice 4. Heat shock at 42 o C and place on ice 5. Incubate with LB broth. This process will make the bacteria take up the plasmid through its cell wall.
16 Explanation of agar plates E. coli starter plate This plate has the bacteria we will use growing in a luria broth (LB) agar plate. These bacteria are normal (have NOT been transformed)
17 Explanation of agar plates LB/-pGLO This is the control plate. These DNA bacteria are not transformed and are in normal (LB) agar. You should expect to see normal bacterial growth in this plate.
18 Explanation of agar plates LB/amp/+pGLO This plate will have E. coli bacteria on LB agar to which ampicillin has been added. The +pglo means that the bacteria may have been transformed (if your technique is good). If they have been transformed, they will now have a plasmid with an ampicillin resistant site so they will not be killed by the ampicillin that has been added to the agar.
19 Explanation of agar plates LB/amp/-pGLO These pglo bacteria have not received the plasmid. They have not been transformed, so they do not have resistance to the ampicillin that is in the agar.
20 Explanation of agar plates LB/amp/ara/+pGLO This plate will have transformed bacteria (+pglo) growing on agar that has both ampicillin and arabinose added to it. If your technique is good, you should expect to see green glowing bacteria in this plate.