1 1 MBP1133 Managerial Accounting Prepared by Dr Khairul Anuar L8 Activity-Based Costing: A Tool to Aid Decision Making
2 2 Activity Based Costing (ABC) ABC is designed to provide managers with cost information for strategic and other decisions that potentially affect capacity, and therefore, affect fixed as well as variable costs. ABC is a good supplement to our traditional cost system I agree!
3 3 Learning Objective 1 Understand activity-based costing and how it differs from a traditional costing system.
4 4 How Costs are Treated Under Activity Based Costing ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Manufacturing costs Nonmanufacturing costs Traditional product costing ABC product costing ABC assigns both types of costs to products.
5 All Some 5 How Costs are Treated Under Activity Based Costing ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Manufacturing costs Nonmanufacturing costs Traditional product costing ABC product costing ABC does not assign all manufacturing costs to products.
6 Level of complexity 6 How Costs are Treated Under Activity Based Costing ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Plantwide Overhead Rate Departmental Overhead Rates Number of cost pools ABC uses more cost pools. Activity Based Costing
7 7 How Costs are Treated Under Activity Based Costing ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Each ABC cost pool has its own unique measure of activity. Traditional cost systems usually rely on volume measures such as direct labor hours and/or machine hours to allocate all overhead costs to products. ABC uses more cost pools.
8 8 How Costs are Treated Under Activity Based Costing Activity Activity Cost Pool $ $ $ $ $ $ An event that causes the consumption of overhead resources. A cost bucket in which costs related to a single activity measure are accumulated.
9 9 How Costs are Treated Under Activity Based Costing Activity Measure The term cost driver is also used to refer to an activity measure. An allocation base in an activity-based costing system.
10 10 How Costs are Treated Under Activity Based Costing Two common types of activity measures: Transaction driver Simple count of the number of times an activity occurs. Duration driver A measure of the amount of time needed for an activity.
11 11 How Costs are Treated Under Activity Based Costing ABC defines five levels of activity that largely do not relate to the volume of units produced. Traditional cost systems usually rely on volume measures such as direct labor hours and/or machine hours to allocate all overhead costs to products.
12 12 How Costs are Treated Under Activity Based Costing Unit-Level Activity Batch-Level Activity Manufacturing companies typically combine their activities into five classifications. Product-Level Activity Organizationsustaining Activity Customer-Level Activity
13 13 Characteristics of Successful ABC Implementations Strong top management support Link to evaluations and rewards Cross-functional involvement
14 14 Baxter Battery An ABC Example Baxter Battery Company Income Statement Year Ended December 31, 2014 Sales $ 50,000,000 Cost of goods sold Direct materials $ 15,000,000 Direct labor 12,000,000 Manufacturing overhead 14,000,000 41,000,000 Gross margin 9,000,000 Selling and administrative expenses Shipping expenses 3,000,000 Marketing expenses 2,000,000 General administrative expenses 6,000,000 11,000,000 Net operating loss $ (2,000,000) Manufacturing overhead is allocated to products using a single plantwide overhead rate based on machine hours.
15 15 Define Activities, Activity Cost Pools, and Activity Measures At Baxter Battery, the ABC team selected the following activity cost pools and activity measures:
16 16 Define Activities, Activity Cost Pools, and Activity Measures Customer Orders - assigned all costs of resources that are consumed by taking and processing customer orders. Design Changes - assigned all costs of resources consumed by customer requested design changes. Order Size - assigned all costs of resources consumed as a consequence of the number of units produced. Customer Relations assigned all costs associated with maintaining relations with customers. Other assigned all organization-sustaining costs and unused capacity costs
17 17 Learning Objective 2 Assign costs to cost pools using a firststage allocation.
18 Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools 18
19 19 Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools Direct materials, direct labor, and shipping are excluded because Baxter Battery s existing cost system can directly trace these costs to products or customer orders.
20 20 Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools At Baxter Battery the following distribution of resource consumption across activity cost pools is determined.
21 21 Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools Indirect factory wages $6,000,000 Percent consumed by customer orders 30% $1,800,000
25 25 Calculate Activity Rates The ABC team determines that Baxter Battery will have these total activities for each activity cost pool: 10,000 customer orders, 4,000 design changes, 800,000 machine-hours, 2,000 customers served. Now the team can compute the individual activity rates by dividing the total cost for each activity by the total activity levels.
26 Calculate Activity Rates 26
27 27 Activity Based Costing at Baxter Battery Direct Materials Direct Labor Shipping Costs Overhead Costs Traced Traced Traced Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers
28 28 Activity Based Costing at Baxter Battery Direct Materials Direct Labor Shipping Costs Overhead Costs First-Stage Allocation Customer Orders Design Changes Order Size Customer Relations Other Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers
29 29 Activity Based Costing at Baxter Battery Direct Materials Direct Labor Shipping Costs Overhead Costs First-Stage Allocation Customer Orders Design Changes Order Size Customer Relations Other Second-Stage Allocations $/Order $/Change $/MH $/Customer Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers Unallocated
30 30 Learning Objective 4 Assign costs to a cost object using a second-stage allocation.
31 31 Assigning Overhead to Products Baxter Battery Information SureStart 1. Requires no new design resources ,000 batteries ordered with 4,000 separate orders. 3. Each SureStart requires 36 minutes of machine time for a total of 480,000 machine-hours. LongLife 1. Requires new design resources ,000 batteries ordered with 6,000 separate orders. 3. 4,000 custom designs prepared. 4. Each LongLife requires 48 minutes of machine time for a total of 320,000 machine-hours.
32 Assigning Overhead to Products 32
33 33 Assigning Overhead to Customers Let s take a look at how Baxter Battery s system works for just one of the 2,000 customers Acme Auto Parts who placed a total of twelve orders. Note that the four orders for LongLifes required a design change. Orders 1. Eight orders for 60 SureStarts per order. 2. Four orders for 50 LongLifes per order. Machine-hours 1. The 480 SureStarts required 288 machine-hours. 2. The 200 LongLifes required 160 machine hours.
34 Assigning Overhead to Customers 34
35 35 Learning Objective 5 Use activity-based costing to compute product and customer margins.
36 36 Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The first step in computing product margins is to gather each product s sales and direct cost data. SureStarts LongLifes Total Sales $ 31,300,000 $ 18,700,000 $ 50,000,000 Direct costs Direct material 9,000,000 6,000,000 15,000,000 Direct labor 7,000,000 5,000,000 12,000,000 Shipping 2,000,000 1,000,000 3,000,000
37 37 Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The second step in computing product margins is to incorporate the previously computed activity-based cost assignments pertaining to each product. SureStarts LongLifes Total Sales $ 31,300,000 $ 18,700,000 $ 50,000,000 Direct costs Direct material 9,000,000 6,000,000 15,000,000 Direct labor 7,000,000 5,000,000 12,000,000 Shipping 2,000,000 1,000,000 3,000,000 ABC cost assignments Customer orders 1,808,000 2,712,000 4,520,000 Design changes 3,040,000 3,040,000 Order size 3,120,000 2,080,000 5,200,000
38 38 Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The third step in computing product margins is to deduct each product s direct and indirect costs from sales. SureStarts LongLifes Sales $ 31,300,000 $ 18,700,000 Costs Direct material $ 9,000,000 $ 6,000,000 Direct labor 7,000,000 5,000,000 Shipping 2,000,000 1,000,000 Customer orders 1,808,000 2,712,000 Design changes 3,040,000 Order size 3,120,000 2,080,000 Total cost 22,928,000 19,832,000 Product margin $ 8,372,000 $ (1,132,000)
39 39 Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The product margins can be reconciled with the company s net operating income as follows: SureStarts LongLifes Total Sales $ 31,300,000 $ 18,700,000 $ 50,000,000 Total costs 22,928,000 19,832,000 42,760,000 Product margins $ 8,372,000 $ (1,132,000) $ 7,240,000 Less costs not assigned to products: Customer relations 3,080,000 Other 6,160,000 Total 9,240,000 Ne t operating loss $ (2,000,000)
40 40 Prepare Management Reports Customer Margin Analysis The first step in computing Acme Auto Parts customer margin is to gather its sales and direct cost data. Acme Auto Parts Sales $ 29,200 Direct costs Direct material 7,500 Direct labor 6,700 Shipping 1,700
41 41 Prepare Management Reports Customer Margin Analysis The second step is to incorporate Acme Auto Parts previously computed activity-based cost assignments. Acme Auto Parts Sales $ 29,200 Direct costs Direct material 7,500 Direct labor 6,700 Shipping 1,700 ABC cost assignments Customer orders 5,424 Product design 3,040 Order size 2,912 Customer relations 1,540
42 42 Prepare Management Reports Customer Margin Analysis The third step is to compute Acme Auto Parts customer margin of $384 by deducting all its direct and indirect costs from its sales. Acme Auto Parts Sales $ 29,200 Direct costs Direct material $ 7,500 Direct labor 6,700 Shipping 1,700 Customer orders 5,424 Product design 3,040 Order size 2,912 Customer relations 1,540 28,816 Customer margin $ 384
43 43 Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The first step in computing product margins is to gather each product s sales and direct cost data. SureStarts LongLifes Total Sales $ 31,300,000 $ 18,700,000 $ 50,000,000 Direct costs Direct material 9,000,000 6,000,000 15,000,000 Direct labor 7,000,000 5,000,000 12,000,000
44 44 Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The second step in computing product margins is to compute the plantwide overhead rate. Manufacturing Overhead Costs at Baxter Battery Production Department Indirect factory wages $ 6,000,000 Factory equipment depreciation 3,500,000 Factory utilities 2,500,000 Factory building lease 2,000,000 Total manufacturing overhead $ 14,000,000 Plantwide manufacturing overhead rate = $14,000, ,000 MH = $17.50 per machine-hour Machine-hours SureStarts 0.60 hours) 480,000 LongLifes 0.80 hours) 320,000 Total machine-hours 800,000
45 45 Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The third step in computing product margins is allocate manufacturing overhead to each product. Machine Overhead Overhead Hours Rate Allocated SureStarts 480,000 $ $ 8,400,000 LongLifes 320, ,600,000 Total overhead allocated to products $ 14,000, ,000 hours $17.50 per hour = $8,400,000
46 46 Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The fourth step is to actually compute the product margins. SureStarts LongLifes Total Sales $ 31,300,000 $ 18,700,000 $ 50,000,000 Cost of goods sold Direct materials $ 9,000,000 $ 6,000,000 $ 15,000,000 Direct labor 7,000,000 5,000,000 12,000,000 Manufacturing overhead 8,400,000 24,400,000 5,600,000 16,600,000 14,000,000 41,000,000 Product margin $ 6,900,000 2,100,000 9,000,000 Selling and administrative 11,000,000 Ne t operating loss $ (2,000,000) Shipping expenses $ 3,000,000 Marketing expenses 2,000,000 General administrative expenses $ 6,000,000 11,000,000
47 47 Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs SureStarts LongLifes Product margins traditional $ 6,900,000 $ 2,100,000 Product margins ABC 8,372,000 (1,132,000) Change in reported margins $ 1,472,000 $ (3,232,000) The traditional cost system overcosts the SureStarts and reports a lower product margin for this product. The traditional cost system undercosts the LongLifes and reports a higher product margin for this product.
48 48 Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs There are three reasons why the reported product margins for the two costing systems differ from one another. Traditional costing allocates all manufacturing overhead to products. ABC costing only assigns manufacturing overhead costs consumed by products to those products.
49 49 Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs There are three reasons why the reported product margins for the two costing systems differ from one another. Traditional costing allocates all manufacturing overhead costs using a volume-related allocation base. ABC costing also uses non-volume related allocation bases.
50 50 Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs There are three reasons why the reported product margins for the two costing systems differ from one another. Traditional costing disregards selling and administrative expenses because they are assumed to be period expenses. ABC costing directly traces shipping costs to products and includes nonmanufacturing overhead costs caused by products in the activity cost pools that are assigned to products.
51 51 Targeting Process Improvement Activity-based management is used in conjunction with ABC to identify areas that would benefit from process improvements by focusing on activities to eliminate waste, decrease processing time, and reduce defects. ABC activity rates can also provide valuable clues concerning where there is waste and the opportunity for improvement. Benchmarking can be used to compare activity cost information with standards of performance achieved by other organizations.
52 52 Activity-Based Costing and External Reporting Most companies do not use ABC for external reporting because External reports are less detailed than internal reports. 2. It may be difficult to make changes to the company s accounting system. 3. ABC does not conform to GAAP. 4. Auditors may be suspect of the subjective allocation process based on interviews with employees.
53 53 ABC Limitations Substantial resources required to implement and maintain. Resistance to unfamiliar numbers and reports. Desire to fully allocate all costs to products. Potential misinterpretation of unfamiliar numbers. Does not conform to GAAP. Two costing systems may be needed.
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Gatsby s Accounting System and Policies a Images used on the front cover and throughout this book were obtained under license from Shutterstock.com 2017, by Armond Dalton Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Chapter 13 Auditing the Inventory Management Process Copyright 2014 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1 Inventory Cost Accounting Tips and Tricks Nick Bergamo, Senior Manager Linda Pei, Senior Manager 2 Disclaimer The material appearing in this presentation is for informational purposes only and is not
Multiple Choice Questions 16. Indirect labor is a part of: A) Prime cost. B) Conversion cost. C) Period cost. D) Nonmanufacturing cost. Answer: B Level: Medium LO: 1,2 Source: CPA, adapted 17. The cost
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Introduction: - Product costing Systems are used to compute the product cost per unit. - Product cost per unit is needed for a variety of purpose: o In financial accounting; Used to value inventory and