3 Study Objectives 1. Recognize the difference between traditional costing and activity based costing. 2. Identify the steps in the development of an activity-based costing system. 3. Know how companies identify the activity cost pools used in activity-based costing.
4 Study Objectives 4. Know how companies identify and use cost drivers in activity-based costing. 5. Understand the benefits and limitations of activity-based costing. 6. Differentiate between value-added and non-value-added activities.
5 Study Objectives 7. Understand the value of using activity levels in activity-based costing. 8. Apply activity-based costing to service industries.
6 PREVIEW OF CHAPTER 4 Study Objectives Traditional Costing and Activity-Based Costing Traditional costing systems The need for a new approach Activity-based costing Illustration of Traditional Costing versus ABC Unit costs under traditional costing Unit costs under ABC Comparing unit costs
7 PREVIEW OF CHAPTER 4 Study Objectives Activity-Based Costing: A Closer Look Benefits/Limitations of ABC When to use ABC Value-added vs. Non-value-added activities Classification of activity levels Activity-Based Costing in Service Industries Traditional costing example Activity-based costing example Appendix: Just-in-time Processing Objective Elements - Benefits
8 Study Objectives ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING VERSUS TRADITIONAL COSTING Traditional Costing Systems Allocates overhead using a single predetermined rate. Job order costing: direct labor cost is assumed to be the relevant activity base. Process costing: machine hours is the relevant activity base. Assumption was satisfactory when direct labor was a major portion of total manufacturing costs. Wide acceptance of a high correlation between direct labor and overhead costs.
9 Traditional Costing Systems Study Objectives Direct labor is still often the appropriate basis for assigning overhead costs when: Direct labor constitutes a significant part of total product cost and High correlation exists between direct labor and changes in overhead costs Overhead Direct Labor Products Costs Hours/Dollars
10 Need for a New Approach Study Objectives Tremendous change in manufacturing and service industries. Decrease in amount of direct labor usage. Significant increase in total overhead costs. May be inappropriate to use plant-wide predetermined overhead rates based on direct labor or machine hours when a lack of correlation exists. Complex manufacturing processes may require multiple allocation bases; this approach is called Activity-Based Costing (ABC).
11 Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Study Objectives An overhead cost allocation system that allocates overhead to multiple activity cost pools and Assigns the activity cost pools to products or services by means of cost drivers that represent the activities used.
12 Activity-Based Study Objectives Costing (ABC) Terms Activity: any event, action, transaction, or work sequence that causes a cost to be incurred in producing a product or providing a service. Activity Cost Pool: a distinct type of activity. For example: ordering materials or setting up machines. Cost Drivers: any factors or activities that have a direct cause-effect relationship with the resources consumed.
13 The Logic Behind ABC Study Objectives Products consume activities, and activities consume resources.
14 Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Study Objectives ABC allocates overhead costs in two stages: Stage 1: Overhead costs are allocated to activity cost pools. Stage 2: The overhead costs allocated to the cost pools is assigned to products using cost drivers. The more complex a product s manufacturing operation, the more activities and cost drivers likely to be present.
15 Activities and Related Cost Drivers Study Objectives
16 ABC System Design Lift Jack Company Study Objectives
17 Traditional Study Objectives Costing vs. ABC ABC does not replace an existing job order/process cost system. ABC does segregate overhead into various cost pools to provide more accurate cost information. ABC, thus, supplements it does not replace the traditional cost system.
18 Traditional Study Objectives Costing vs. ABC An Illustration Atlas Company produces two automotive antitheft devices: The Boot: a high volume item with sales totaling 25,000 per year The Club: a low volume item with sales totaling 5,000 per year Each product requires 1 hour of direct labor Total annual direct labor hours (DLH) 30,000 (25, ) Direct labor cost $12 per unit for each product Expected annual manufacturing overhead costs $900,000 Direct materials cost: The Boot - $40 per unit The Club - $30 per unit
19 Unit Costs Under Traditional Costing Study Objectives Products Manufacturing Costs The Boot The Club Direct Materials $40 $30 Direct Labor Overhead 30* 30* Total unit cost $82 $72 * Predetermined overhead rate: $900,000/30,000 DLH = $30 per DLH Overhead = predetermined overhead rate times direct labor hours ($30 X 1 hr. = $30)
20 STEPS IN ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING SYSTEM 1. Identify and classify the major activities and allocate manufacturing overhead costs to the appropriate cost pools. 2. Identify the cost driver that has a strong correlation to the costs in the cost pool. 3. Compute the overhead rate for each pool. 4. Assign overhead costs for each costs to products using the overhead rates.
21 Study Unit Costs Objectives Under ABC: Step 1: Identify and Classify Activities and Allocate Overhead to Cost Pools Activity Cost Pools Estimated Overhead Setting up machines $300,000 Machining 500,000 Inspecting 100,000 Total $900,000
22 Unit Study Costs Objectives Under ABC: Step 2: Identify Cost Drivers Expected Use of Cost Drivers Activity Cost Pools Cost Drivers Per Activity Setting up machines Number of setups 1,500 Machining Machine hours 50,000 Inspecting Number of Inspections 2,000
23 Unit Study Costs Objectives Under ABC: Step 3: Compute Overhead Rates Formula for Computing Activity-Based Overhead Rate: Estimated Overhead Per Activity Expected Use of Cost Drivers Per Activity Activity-Based Overhead Rate Expected Use Estimated of Cost Drivers Activity-Based Activity Cost Pools Overhead Per Activity Overhead Rates Setting up machines $300,000 1,500 setups $200 per setup Machining 500,000 50,000 machine hrs. $ 10 per mach. hour Inspecting 100,000 2,000 inspections $ 50 per inspection Total $900,000
24 Unit Study Costs Objectives Under ABC: Step 4: Assign Overhead Costs to Products Part 1: Expected Use of Cost Driver Per Product Expected Use of Cost Drivers per Product Expected Use Activity Cost of Cost Drivers Pools Cost Driver Per Activity The Boot The Club Setting up Number of machines setups 1,500 setups 500 1,000 Machining Machine hours 50,000 hours 30,000 20,000 Inspecting Number of inspections 2,000 inspections 500 1,500
25 Unit Study Costs Objectives Under ABC: Step 4: Assign Overhead Costs to Products Part 2: Assign Cost Pools to Products The Boot Expected Use of Activity-Based Activity Cost Drivers X Overhead = Cost Cost Pools per Product Rates Assigned Setting up machines 500 $200 $100,000 Machining 30, ,000 Inspecting ,000 Total costs assigned $425,000 Units produced 25,000 Overhead cost per unit $17
26 Unit Costs Under ABC: Step 2: Assign Study Overhead Objectives Costs to Products Part 2: Assign Cost Pools to Products The Club Expected Use of Activity-Based Activity Cost Drivers X Overhead = Cost Cost Pools per Product Rates Assigned Setting up machines 1,000 $200 $200,000 Machining 20, ,000 Inspecting 1, ,000 Total costs assigned $475,000 Units produced 5,000 Overhead cost per unit $95
27 Comparison Study Objectives of Unit Costs Traditional vs. ABC The Boot The Club Traditional Traditional Manufacturing Costs Costing ABC Costing ABC Direct Materials $40 $40 $30 $30 Direct Labor Overhead Total Cost per Unit $82 $69 $72 $137 Overstated Understated $13 $65
28 Comparison Study Objectives of Unit Costs Traditional vs. ABC Note that under ABC, overhead costs are shifted from the high volume product (The Boot) to the low volume product (The Club) because: 1. Low volume products often require more special handling. 2. Assigning overhead using ABC will usually increase the cost per unit of low volume products.
29 Activity-Based Study Objectives Costing: A Closer Look More accurate product costing through: Use of more cost pools to assign overhead costs Enhanced control over overhead costs Better management decisions
30 Activity-Based Study Costing: Objectives A Closer Look Limitations of ABC Can be expensive to use Some arbitrary allocations continue
31 Activity-Based Costing: Study A Closer Objectives Look Use ABC When One or More of the Following Exist: Products differ greatly in volume/manufacturing complexity Products lines are Numerous Diverse Require different degrees of support services Overhead costs are a significant portion of total costs Significant change in manufacturing process or number of products Managers ignore data from existing system and instead use bootleg costing data
32 Let s Review Study Objectives Activity-based costing (ABC): a. Can be used only in a process cost system b. Focuses on units of production c. Focuses on activities performed to produce a product d. Uses only a single basis of allocation
33 Let s Review Study Objectives Activity-based costing (ABC): a. Can be used only in a process cost system b. Focuses on units of production c. Focuses on activities performed to produce a product d. Uses only a single basis of allocation
34 Study Value-Added Objectives vs. Non-Value-Added Activities Activity Based Management (ABM): An extension of ABC from a product costing system to a management function that focuses on reducing costs and improving processes and decision making A refinement of ABC used in ABM classifies activities as either value-added or non-valueadded.
35 Study Value-Added Objectives vs. Non-Value-Added Activities Value-Added Activity An activity that increases the worth of a product or service such as: Manufacturing Company engineering design machining assembly painting packaging Service Company performing surgery legal research services delivering packages
36 Value-Added vs. Non-Value-Added Study Objectives Activities Non-Value-Added Activities An activity that adds cost to, or increases the time spent on, a product/service without increasing its market value such as: Manufacturing Company Repair of machines Storage of inventory Moving of raw materials, assemblies, and finished goods Building maintenance Inspections Inventory Control Service Company Taking appointments Reception Bookkeeping/billing Traveling Ordering supplies
37 CLASSIFICATION Study Objectives OF ACTIVITY LEVELS Unit-level activities: Performed for each unit of production Batch-level activities: Performed for each batch of product Product-level activities: Performed in support of an entire product line, but not always performed every time a new unit or batch is produced Facility-level activities: Required to support or sustain an entire production process
38 Hierarchy of Activity Levels Study Objectives Four Levels Types of Activities Cost Drivers Unit-Level Activities Machine-related: Machine Hours Drilling, cutting, milling Labor-related Assembling, painting Direct labor hours/cost Batch-Level Activities Equipment setups Number of setups/setup time Purchase ordering Inspection Material handling Number of purchase orders Number of inspections or inspection time Number of material moves Product-Level Activities Product design Number of product designs Engineering changes Number of changes Facility-Level Activities Plant management Number of employees salaries managed Plant depreciation Property taxes Utilities Square footage Square footage Square footage
39 Activity-Based Costing in Service Industries Study Objectives Similarities with Manufacturing Firms Overall objective: Identify key cost-generation activities and keep track of quantity of activities performed for each service provided General approach is to identify activities, cost pools, and cost drivers Labeling of activities as value-added or non-valueadded Reduction of non-value-added activities
40 HEARTLAND MANUFACTURING COMPANY Study Activity Objectives Flowchart Activities NVA NVA NVA NVA VA VA NVA NVA VA NVA NVA NVA VA Remove Move and Move Materials Move Inspect Move Store Package and Inspect Store to Production Set-Up Machining Inspect and Assembly and to Finished and Materials Materials and Wait Machines Drill Lathe Wait Test Storage Goods Ship Current Days < Total Current Average Time = 44 days > Proposed Days < Total Proposed Average Time = 27 days >
41 Study Objectives Activity-Based Costing in Service Industries Major difficulty to implementing ABC: A larger proportion of overhead costs are company-wide costs that cannot be directly traced to specific services.
42 Activity-Based Study Costing Objectives in Service Industries: Traditional Costing Example CHECK AND DOUBLECHECK, CPAs Annual Budget Revenue $2,000,000 Direct labor $ 600,000 Overhead (expected) 1,200,000 Total Costs 1,800,000 Operating income $ 200,000 Estimated overhead Direct labor cost $1,200,000 $600,000 = Predetermined overhead rate = 200%
43 Activity-Based Study Costing Objectives in Service Industries: Traditional Costing Example CHECK AND DOUBLECHECK, CPAs Plano Molding Company Audit Revenue $260,000 Less: Direct professional labor $ 70,000 Applied Overhead (200% x $70,000) 140, ,000 Operating Income $ 50,000
44 Activity-Based Study Costing Objectives in Service Industries: ABC Costing Example Activity Cost CHECK AND DOUBLECHECK, CPAs Annual Overhead Budget Expected Use Estimated of Cost Drivers = Activity-Based Pools Cost Drivers Overhead Per Activity Overhead Rates Secretarial support Direct Prof. hours $ 210,000 30,000 $7 per hour Direct labor Fringe benefits Direct labor cost 240,000 $ 600,000 $0.40 per $1 labor Printing and photocopying Working paper pages 20,000 20,000 $1 per page Computer support CPU minutes 200,000 50,000 $4 per minute Telephone and postage None (traced directly) 71,000 N/A Based on usage Legal support Hours used 129, $150 per hour Insurance Revenue billed 120,000 $2,000,000 $0.06 per $1 rev. Recruiting and training Direct Prof. Hours 210,000 30,000 $7 per hour $1,200,000
45 Activity-Based Study Costing Objectives in Service Industries: ABC Costing Example CHECK AND DOUBLECHECK, CPAs Plano Molding Company Audit Activity- Based- Activity Cost Actual Use Overhead Pools Cost Drivers of Drivers Rates Cost Assigned Secretarial support Direct Professional hours 3,800 $ 7.00 $ 26,600 Direct labor Fringe benefits Direct labor cost $ 70,000 $ ,000 Printing and photocopying Working paper pages 1,800 $ ,800 Computer support CPU minutes 8,600 $ ,400 Telephone and postage None (traced directly) 8,700 Legal support Hours used 156 $ ,400 Insurance Revenue billed $260,000 $ ,600 Recruiting and training Direct Prof. Hours 3,800 $ ,600 $165,100
46 Activity-Based Study Costing Objectives in Service Industries: ABC Costing Example CHECK AND DOUBLECHECK, CPAs Plano Molding Company Audit Traditional Costing ABC Revenues $260,000 $260,000 Expenses Direct professional labor $ 70,000 $ 70,000 Applied overhead 140, ,100 Total expenses 210, ,100 Operating income $ 50,000 $ 24,900 Profit Margin 19.2% 9.6%
47 Summary of Study Objectives Study Objectives Recognize the difference between traditional and activity-based costing. Traditional system allocates overhead to products using predetermined unit-based output rate. ABC allocates overhead to activity cost pools and assigns cost to products using cost drivers. Identify the steps in the development of an activity-based costing system. Step 1: Identify the major activities and allocate the overhead costs to cost pools. Step 2: Identify the cost driver highly correlated to the cost pool. Step 3: Compute the overhead rate per cost driver. Step 4: Assign cost pools to products or services using the overhead rates.
48 Summary of Study Objectives Study Objectives Know how companies identify cost pools used in ABC. Analyze each operation or process, document and time every task, action, or transaction. Know how companies identify and use cost drivers in ABC. Cost drivers identified for assigning activity cost pools must: Accurately measure the consumption of the activity Have related data easily available. Understand the benefits and limitations of ABC Benefits: Enhanced control over overhead costs Better management decisions Limitations: Higher costs accompany multiple activity centers and cost drivers Some costs must still be allocated arbitrarily
49 Summary of Study Objectives Study Objectives Differentiate between value-added and non-value-added activities. Value-added activities increase the worth of a product or service. Non-value-added activities add cost to, or increase the time spent on, a product or service without increasing its market value. Understand the value of using activity levels in ABC Activities may be classified as: Unit-level Batch-level Product-level Facility-level Failure to recognize this classification can result in distorted product costing.
50 Summary of Study Objectives Study Objectives Apply ABC to service industries. Same objective improved costing of services provided. The general approach to costing is also the same: analyze operations identify activities accumulate overhead costs by activity cost pools identify and use cost drivers to assign cost to services
51 Study Appendix Objectives Just-In-Time Processing (JIT) A processing system dedicated to having the right amount of materials, products, or parts arrive as they are needed, thereby reducing the amount of inventory.
52 . Study Objectives JUST IN TIME PROCESSING 100 pairs of sneakers... got it! Send rubber and shoe laces directly to the factory. Sales Order Received Goods Manufactured
53 Study JIT Objectives Processing Objective of JIT: Eliminate all manufacturing inventories Elements of JIT: Dependable suppliers Multi-skilled work force Total quality control system Benefits of JIT: Reduced inventory Enhanced product quality Reduced rework and storage costs Savings from improved flow of goods
54 Let s Review Study Objectives An activity that adds costs to the product but does not increase market value is a a. Value-added activity b. Cost driver c. Cost-benefit activity d. Nonvalue-added activity
55 Let s Review Study Objectives An activity that adds costs to the product but does not increase market value is a a. Value-added activity b. Cost driver c. Cost-benefit activity d. Nonvalue-added activity
56 Study ALL ABOUT Objectives YOU
57 ALL ABOUT YOU Study Objectives
58 Study ALL ABOUT Objectives YOU
59 COPYRIGHT Study Objectives Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written consent of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.
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