1 David J Dunning Supervisor Virginia L. Ignatowski Town Clerk Town of Chili Building Department 3333 Chili Avenue, Rochester, NY (585) fax: (585) Decks: What You Need to Know Jordon I. Brown Mark L. DeCory Michael S. Slattery Mary C. Sperr Town Council Members Effective October 3, 2016, New York has new building code requirements for detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses not more than 3 stories in height, all of which are included in the new Residential Code of New York State. This applies to all new residential construction in New York. A building permit is required before you begin work. You need to provide us with some basic information: What you are going to build (overall dimensions and footprint) Where you are going to build it (location in relation to the house or other structures and to the property lines) How you are going to build it (framing diagram). The first two can be marked on a copy of a survey map. The framing diagram should be a separate drawing or drawings. The framing drawings shall include: Is the deck going to be attached to the house by a ledger board (if so, please provide information on flashing, fasteners and means of attachment), or is it going to be freestanding? What is the height above the surrounding grade? What is the depth of footings? What size posts are to be used? Size and location of beams to support the structure Size and spacing of joists Height and dimensions of railings and any steps, and how they are to be attached to the deck. We need all of this information to be able to review your application according to the code requirements and issue a permit. Decks are required to support a 40 psf load and should be built accordingly. We cannot design your project for you but will review your drawings to ensure your design meets current NYS Building Codes. Steps must not be less than 36 inches wide, with a maximum riser height of 8-1/4 and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches. Open risers, 4 inches and taller must be enclosed when located 30 inches above grade. Handrails must be provided on at least one side of each stairway with four or more risers. Handrail height must be between above the tread nosing. Guards (railings) must be provided for deck surfaces more than 30 above the floor or grade below. Openings in guards must be less than 4 inches. The triangular openings formed by stair treads, risers and guards must be less than 6 inches. Posts must extend a minimum of 42 inches below grade. All fasteners must be corrosion-resistant as appropriate for the particular type of pressure-treating used for the lumber. In general, decks are subject to the same setback requirements as the house to which they are attached. All of the above is just a summary of the basic requirements. Other requirements may apply. This office can require the stamp of a design professional. There are three (3) required inspections: Footing, Rough Frame (before decking goes down), and Final Inspection.
2 GUIDE TO OBTAINING BUILDING PERMITS IN THE TOWN OF CHILI BUILDING DEPARTMENT 3333 CHILI AVENUE ROCHESTER, NY (585) fax # (585) Note: Work cannot commence without first obtaining a building permit per Section and payment of a fee as required per Section of the Code of the Town of Chili. Fee is non-refundable (returnable) once permit is issued and paid for. PERMIT REQUIREMENTS To obtain a permit, the following information is required to be submitted to the Building Department for review: Where is the work to be done? Name, address, phone number of owner. Who will be doing the work contractor* or homeowner. Are there trusses involved with this project? If yes, fill out Truss Identification form and submit along with building permit application form. Name(s) of other contractors (plumber**, mason, architect). Description of what will be done (i.e., specific type of structure/construction and size). Estimated cost of the project. *The State of New York requires the Town to have on file a current certificate of insurance for general liability and workers compensation (if required) for the contractors, before we can issue the permit. ** A plumbing permit is also required for various alterations. The plumber must pick up this permit and must be licensed in the Town of Chili. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS The following information must also be submitted to the Building Department for review (submit 2 sets of plans): A cross-section diagram or cutaway specification sheet showing all components of the project (i.e., insulation, roof pitch, footings, joists). Floor plan showing dimensions of the structure, window location and sizes, doorways and openings and any other detail that might be included. The code official per New York State law may require construction documents be prepared and stamped by a licensed design professional. Exterior elevations. PLOT PLAN When an application for a permit is made, it must be accompanied by a tape location or instrument survey map which shows: Outline of the property. Location of all buildings or structures. Where the proposed structure will be constructed. Distances from the building to the front, rear, and side lot lines. INSPECTIONS Inspections are required during the building process. 24 HOURS NOTICE is necessary to schedule the required inspection. This can be accomplished by calling the day before: Footing Wall Underground Plumbing Wall Rough Plumbing Insulation Electrical By others Final
3 ELECTRICAL INSPECTIONS When there is any change in the electrical service (i.e. new service, new or relocated outlets, switches, etc.) an inspection is required for both the rough work and final. These inspections are made by one of the agencies listed below: Middle Department Inspection Agency 460 State Street Rochester, NY (585) New York Electrical Inspection Agency 2767 Dewey Avenue Rochester, NY (585) Commonwealth Electrical Inspection 1355 Pittsford Mendon Road Mendon, NY (585) Final electrical inspection certificates are required by the Building Department before a Certificate of Occupancy/Compliance can be issued. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The Building Permit Notice card (and Plumbing Permit Notice card if applicable) are to be posted in a conspicuous place on the building for which it is issued so that it may be seen from the road. Failure to schedule inspections will result in a $50.00 fine for each violation or re0inspection required. Items not previously inspected shall be uncovered or exposed for the inspector. Any additional information may be obtained at the Town of Chili offices at 3333 Chili Avenue between 9am and 5pm Monday thru Friday or by calling the office at (585) BUILDING PERMIT APPLICATION Location of work (address) Owner Address Phone Number Contractor Address Phone Number Plumber (if applicable) Address Phone Number Description of work Estimated cost/value of project $ Owner/Rep. signature/date PLEASE NOTE: All of the above information is required, along with all other documentation that is outlined in this pamphlet, before any permit can be issued.
4 Please review the deck guide prior to submitting any deck plans Required Information: 1. Completed building permit application 2. Survey map showing deck size & location 3. Liability & workers compensation insurance OR CE-200 if built by homeowner. 4. Deck plan showing: a. Ledger size and attachment b. Post size, locations and depth c. Beam size and separation distance d. Joist size and spacing e. Cross-sectional view showing: i. Deck height ii. Guard (railing) height iii. Baluster spacing I have completely reviewed the Residential Deck Guide & submitted all required information per the Town of Chili Building Department hand-out. I acknowledge lack of information for deck construction may result in my plan to be rejected or approval delayed. Property Owner Date
5 Residential Wood Deck Construction Guide Minimum Requirements & Limitations: R507.1 Decks. Wood framed decks shall be in accordance with this section or section R301 for materials and conditions not prescribed herein. Where supported by attachment to an exterior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary structure and designed for both vertical and lateral loads. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by the use of toenails of nails subject to withdrawal. Where positive connection to the primary building structure cannot be verified during inspection, decks shall be selfsupporting. R507.2 Deck ledger connection to band joist. Deck ledger connections to band joists shall be in accordance with this section, tables R507.2 and R , and figures R (1) and R (2). For other grades, species, connection details and loading conditions, deck ledger connections shall be designed in accordance with Section R301. R Ledger details. Deck ledgers installed in accordance with Section R507.2 shall be minimum 2- inch by 8-inch nominal, pressure treated southern pine, incised pressure-preservative-treated Hem-Fir, or approved, naturally durable, No. 2 grade or better lumber. Deck ledgers installed in accordance with Section R507.2 shall not support concentrated loads from beams or girders. Deck ledgers shall not be supported on a stone of masonry veneer.
6 R Band joist details. Bank joists attached by a ledger in accordance with Section R507.2 shall be a minimum 2-inch nominal, solid sawn, spruce-pine-fir lumber or a nominal 1-inch by 9-1/2 dimensional, Douglas fir, laminated veneer lumber. Band joists attached by a ledger in accordance with Section R507.2 shall be fully supported by a wall or sill plate below. R Ledger to band joist fastener details. Fasteners used in deck ledger connections in accordance with Table R507.2 shall be hot-dipped galvanized or stainless steel and shall be installed in accordance with Table R and Figures R (1) and R (2).
7 TABLE R507.2 DECK LEDGER CONNECTION TO BAND JOIST a,b (Deck live load = 40 psf, deck dead load 10 psf, sow load 40 psf) Joist Span CONNECTION DETAILS 6 and less 6 1 to to to to to to 18 On-center spacing of fasteners ½ diameter lag screw with ½ maximum sheathing c,d ½ diameter bolt with ½ maximum sheathing d ½ diameter bolt with 1 maximum sheathing e a. Ledgers shall be flashed in accordance with Section R703.4 to prevent water from contacting the house band joist b. Snow load shall not be assumed to act concurrently with live load c. The tip pf the lag screw shall fully extend beyond the inside face of the band joist d. Sheathing shall be wood structural panel or solid sawn lumber e. Sheathing shall be permitted to be wood structural panel, gypsum board, fiberboard, lumber or foam sheathing. Up to ½ thickness of stacked washers shall be permitted to substitute for up to ½ of allowable sheathing thickness where combined with wood structural panel or lumber sheathing. TABLE R PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN DECK LEDGERS AND BAND JOISTS MINIMUM END AND EDGE DISTANCES AND SPACING BETWEEN ROWS TOP EDGE BOTTOM EDGE ENDS ROW SPACING Ledger a 2 inches d ¾ Inch 2 inches b 1-5/8 inchs b Band Joist c ¾ inch 2 inches 2 inches b 1-5/8 inchs b a. Lag screws or bolts shall be staggered from the top to the bottom along the horizontal run of the deck ledger in accordance with Figure R (1) b. Maximum 5 inches c. For engineered rim joists, the manufacturer s recommendations shall govern d. The minimum distance from bottom row of lag screws or bolts to the top edge of the ledger shall be in accordance with Figure R (1)
8 FIGURE R (1) PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN LEDGERS FIGURE R (2) PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN BAND JOISTS R Deck lateral load connection. The lateral load connection required by section R507.1 shall be permitted to be in accordance with Figure R (1) or Figure R (2). Where lateral load connections is provided in accordance with Figure R (1), hold-down tension devices shall be installed in not less than two locations per deck, within 24 inches of each end of the deck. Each device shall have an allowable stress design capacity of not less than 1,500 pounds. Where the lateral load connections are provided in accordance with Figure R (2), the hold-down tension devices shall be installed in not less than four locations per deck, and each device shall have an allowable stress design capacity of not less than 750 pounds.
9 FIGURE (1) DECK ATTACHEMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS FIGURE R (2) DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS
10 R507.4 Decking. Maximum allowable spacing for joists supporting decking shall be in accordance with Table R Wood decking shall be attached to each supporting member with not less than (2) 8d threaded nails or (2) No. 8 wood screws. R507.5 Deck Joists. Maximum allowable spans for wood deck joist, as shown in Figure R507.5, shall be in accordance with Table R Deck joists shall be permitted to cantilever not greater than onefourth of the actual, adjacent joist span. R Lateral restraint at supports. Joist ends and bearing locations shall be provided with lateral restraint to prevent rotation. Where lateral restraint is provided by joist hangers or blocking between joists, their depth shall equal not less than 60 percent of the joist depth. Where lateral restraint is provided by rim joists, they shall be secured to the end of each joist with not less than (3) 10d (3-inch x inch) nails or (3) No. 10 x 3-inch long wood screws. TABLE R507.4 MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING MATERIAL TYPE AND MAXIMUM ON-CENTER JOIST SPACING NOMINAL SIZE Perpendicular to joist Diagonal to joist a 1-1/4 thick wood 16 inches 12 inches 2 thick wood 24 inches 16 inches Plastic composite In accordance with Section R507.3 In accordance with Section R507.3 a. Maximum angle of 45 degrees from perpendicular for wood deck boards FIGURE R507.5 TYPICAL DECK JOIST SPANS
11 SPECIES Southern Pine Douglas fir-larch d, hem-fir d, spruce-pine-fir Redwood, western cedars, ponderosa pine e, red pine e Table R507.5 DECK JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES f SPACING OF DECK JOISTS WITH SPACING OF DECK JOISTS WITH SIZE NO CANTILEVER b CANTILEVER c x x x x x x x x x x x x a. No. 2 grade with wet service factor b. Ground snow load, live load = 40psf, dead load = 10psf, L/Δ = 360 c. Ground snow load, live load = 40psf, dead load = 10psf, L/Δ = 360 at main span, L/Δ = 180 at cantilever with a 220- pound point load applied to end. d. Includes incising factor e. Northern species with no incising factor f. Cantilevered spans not exceeding the nominal depth of the joist are permitted JOIST TO BEAM DETAIL
12 SPECIES c Southern Pine Douglas fir-larch e hem-fir e spruce-pine-fir e redwood western cedars ponderosa pine f red pine f TABLE R507.6 DECK BEAM SPAN LENGTHS a,b SIZE d DECK JOIST SPAN LESS THEN OR EQUAL TO: x x x x x x x x x 6 or (2)2 x x 8 or (2)2 x x 10 or (2)2 x x 12 or (2)2 x x x x x x x x x a. Ground snow load, live load = 40psf, dead load = 10psf. L/Δ = 360 at main span, L/Δ = 180 at cantilever with a 220-pound point load applied at the end b. Beams supporting deck joist from one side only c. No. 2 grade, wet service factor d. Beam depth shall be greater than or equal to depth of joists with a flush beam condition e. Includes incising factor f. Northern species. Incising factor not included
13 FIGURE R507.6 TYPICAL DECK BEAM SPANS R507.6 Deck Beams. Maximum allowable spans for wood deck beams, as shown in Figure R507.6, shall be in accordance with Table R Beam plies shall be fastened with two rows of 10d (3-inch x inch) nails minimum at 16 inches on center along each edge. Beams shall be permitted to cantilever at each end up to one-fourth of the actual beam span. Splices of multiple beams shall be located at interior post locations. R Deck post to deck beam. Deck beams shall be attached to deck posts in accordance with Figure R or by other equivalent means capable to resist lateral displacement. Manufactured post-to-beam connections shall be sized for the post and beam sizes. All bolts shall have washers under the head and nut. Exception: Where deck beams bear directly on footings in accordance with Section R R507.8 Deck posts. For single-level wood-framed decks with beams sized in accordance with Table R507.6, deck post size shall be in accordance with table R R deck post to deck footing. Posts shall bear on footings in accordance with Section R403 and Figure R Posts shall be restrained to prevent lateral displacement at the bottom support. Such lateral restraint shall be provided by manufactured connections installed in accordance with Section R507 and the manufacturers instructions or a minimum post embedment of 12 inches in surrounding soils or concrete piers.
14 TABLE R507.8 DECK POST HEIGHT a DECK POST SIZE MAXIMUM HEIGHT 4 X X X 6 14 a. Measured to the underside of the beam FIGURE R DECK BEAM TO DECK POST NOTE: Support of beams with fasteners only is prohibited. Bearing is required
15 FIGURE R TYPICAL DECK POSTS TO DECK FOOTINGS STAIRS R Width. Stairways shall not be less than 36 R Vertical rise. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise larger than 147 between floor levels or landings. R Risers. The riser height shall not be more than 8-1/4. The riser shall be measured vertically between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8. Risers shall be vertical or sloped from the underside of the nosing of the tread above at an angle not more than 30 degrees from the vertical. Open risers are permitted provided that the openings located more than 30, as measured vertically, to the floor or grade below do not permit the passage of a 4-inch diameter sphere. R Treads. The tread depth shall not be less than 9. The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread s leading edge. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8. R Nosings. The radius or curvature at the nosing shall not be greater than 9/16. A nosing projection not less than ¾ and not more than 1-1/4 shall be provided on stairways with solid risers. The greatest nosing projection shall not exceed the smallest nosing projection by more than 3/8 between two stories, including the nosing at the level of floors and landings. Beveling of nosings shall not exceed ½ Exception: A nosing projection is not required where the tread depth is not less than 11 inches. R Landings for stairways. There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The width perpendicular to the direction of travel shall not be less than the width of the flight served Where the stairway has a straight run, the depth in the direction of travel shall not be less than 36 inches. R Stairway walking surface. The walking surface of treads and landings of stairways shall be sloped not steeper than one unit vertical in 48 inches horizontal (2-percent slope)
16 HANDRAILS R Handrails. Handrails shall be provided on not less than one side of each continuous run of treads or flight with four or more risers. R Height. Handrail height, measured vertically from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall not be less than 34 inches and not more than 38 inches. R Continuity. Handrails for stairways shall be continuous for the full length of the flight, from a point directly above the top riser of the flight to a point directly above the lowest riser of the flight. Handrails ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space not less than 1-1/2 between the wall and the handrails.
17 GUARDS (RAILINGS) R Where Required. Guards shall be located along open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, ramps and landings, that are located more than 30 inches measured vertically to the floor or grade below at any point within 36 inches horizontally to the edge of the open side. Insect screening shall not be considered a guard. R Height. Required guards at open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, porches, balconies or landings, shall be not less than 36 in height as measured vertically above the adjacent walking surface or the line connecting the leading edges of the treads. Exceptions: Guards on the open side of the stairs shall have a height of not less than 34 inches measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges if the treads. Exception: Where the top of the guard serves as a handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall be not less than 34 inches and not more than 38 inches as measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the tread. R Opening limitations. Required guards shall not have openings from the walking surface to the required guard height that allow the passage of a sphere 4 inches in diameter. Exception: The triangular openings at the open side of the stair, formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail of a guard, shall not allow the passage of a sphere 6 inches in diameter. Exception: Guards on the open side of stairs shall not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 4-3/8 in diameter.