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1 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp , Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_084 Available online at ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed A REVIEW ON NANO TECHNOLOGY IN CONCRETE Professor, Department of Civil engineering, CMR College of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad, Telengana, India, ABSTRACT Now-a -days Nanotechnology is the advanced technology in Science and Research. In the field of Civil Engineering nano materials offers higher results than the micro materials. The particle size in nano materials ranges from 1nm to 100nm because of this vary the specific surface areas of various materials ranges like 200.1m 2 /kg and 321.6m 2 /kg. The applications of nano technology in Civil Engineering are many. The reduction of shrinkage and swelling in self compacting concrete are done through nano technology. The compressive strength were multiplied by the use of nano tubes and nano clay(nano metakaolin).nano sensors are utilized in construction part to understand early age properties of concrete. The subsequent are the review papers that give the use of nano technology in Civil Engineering constructions. Keyword head: Nano technology, Nano Materials, Strength and Durability Cite this Article:, a Review on Nano Technology in Concrete. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(04), 2019, pp INTRODUCTION Nanotechnology and nanomaterials provide attention-grabbing new opportunities within the the construction industry and design, for instance through the development of very durable, lasting and at the same time exceptionally lightweight construction materials. Nanomaterials which are utilized in construction are carbon nanotubes,silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, Iron oxide, Copper, Silver etc., The applications of nano materials are utilized in bridges, pipe joining materials and techniques, lighter and stronger structural composites, reservoirs, waste water management, roads, nanosensors etc., The advantages of nanomaterials are low maintenance, reduce the thermal transfer rate, increase the sound absorption of acoustic absorber, increase the reflectivity of glass, improve segregation resistance and fix micro cracking, corrosion resistance and low life-cycle cost. The disadvantages of nano materials are these require a lot of energy, they have high price, nano \ 796

2 tubes may cause respiratory organ issues and therefore the research is in its early stages nonetheless. The following are the studies done by a number of researchers on the nano technology: Hui-gang Xiao, et al. (2004) investigated the mechanical properties and self-monitoring capability of cement mortar containing nano-sio2 or nano-fe2o3 and compared therewith of plain cement paste. The results showed that the compressive and flexural strengths measured at the 28 th day of cement mortar containing nano-sio2 or nano-fe2o3 were both higher than that of plain cement mortar with constant water binder ratio (w/b). Furthermore, the selfmonitoring capability of cement mortar with nano-fe2o3 is also presented in this paper. Ji, Tao (2005) has done experiment in water porosity and microstructure of concrete with nano-sio2.he found that in water permeability test for concretes of similar 28-day strength, the absorption of nano-sio2 can develop the conflict of water penetration of concrete.the different tests which are conducted by Ji, Tao are water permeability test, concrete mixture test, ESEM test. From the analysis of mechanism he concluded (1) A great deal of Ca (OH)2 crystal is produced due to the hydration reaction between cement and water. (2) About 70% hydration products is C S H gel and long-term mechanical properties, durability of concrete are expected to be increased. Finally he ended that (1) Nano-SiO2 concrete is stickier than normal concrete because of the larger specific surface area. (2) The water permeability test shows that the nano- SiO2 concrete has better water permeability resistant behavior than the normal concrete (3) Nano-SiO2 can absorb the Ca (OH)2 crystals, and reduce the size and quantity of the Ca (OH)2 crystals. Jo, Byung-Wan, et al (2007) has investigated within the properties of cement mortars with nano-sio2. He aforementioned that amorphous or glassy silica, a major element of a pozzolan, reacts with calcium hydroxide to form calcium silicate hydration. His results supported on the compressive strength test, it is expected that nano-scale SiO2 behaves not solely as filler to improve mortar cement microstructure. To verify these mechanisms predicted, he analyzed the hydration process using three types of cement mortars. His results of these examinations showed that nanoscale SiO2 behaves not only as a filler to improve microstructure, but also as an activator to promote pozzolanic reaction. Maghsoudi and Dahooei (2009) investigated the different mix design of four types of Self- Compacting Concrete (SCC), 1.SCC consisted of only nanosilica, 2. SCC included only micro silica, 3. SCC of both micro silica and nanosilica 4. SCC without micro silica and nanosilica. The control mix hardened engineering properties such as compressive and flexural strength, shrinkage and swelling values were investigated for three curing conditions at short and long term. The results showed that the engineering properties of SCC mixes couldn't be improved by adding only nanosilica. However, Maghsoudi and Dahooei has completed that satisfactory behavior are often achieved using micro silica within the SCC mixes and by adding each micro silica and nanosilica to the SCC mixtures, the finest effect on the engineering properties was reported while comparing to the control mixes. Mondal, Paramita, et al (2010). compared the result of adding silica fume and nanosilica to concrete. Mechanical properties of cement pastes were found with 0% and 15% replacement of cement with silica fume. Moreover, replacement of 15% cement by silica fume enchanced the volume fraction of the high-stiffness calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) by a small percentage that was comparable within the volume fraction of calcium hydroxide. A parallel study of cement pastes with nanosilica showed that the volume fraction of the high-stiffness C-S-H gel enhanced considerably with addition of nanosilica. Nano indentation results of cement paste samples with similar percentages of silica fume and nanosilica were compared. Samples with nanosilica had nearby doubly the amount of high-stiffness C-S-H as the samples with silica

3 A Review on Nano Technology in Concrete fume. Moreover nanosilica significantly improves the durability of concrete compared to Silica fume concrete. Givi, Alireza Naji (2010) et al studied regarding the scale effects of SiO2 nano-particles on compressive, flexural and tensile strength of binary blended concrete. SiO2 nano-particles with two different sizes of 15 and 80 nm have been used as a partial cement replacement by0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % by weight. Researcher concluded that concrete specimens containing SiO2 particles with average diameter of 15 nm were harder than those containing 80 nm of SiO2 particles at the initial days of curing. His results showed that the SiO2 nano-particles blended concrete has higher compressive, flexural and tensile strength from his view point of free energy. It can be concluded that the SiO2 particles with average diameter of 15 nm can improve the early age strength of the concrete more than particles with 80 nm. However the researcher finally concluded that the strength of specimens made with 80 nm of SiO2 particles at 90 days of moist curing was relatively enhanced. Nazari, et al. (2010) studied the compressive strength and workability of concrete by partial replacement of cement with nano-phase Al2O3 particles. Al2O3 nanoparticles with the average diameter of 15 nm were used with four different contents of 0.5%, 0.1%, 1.5% and 2.0% by weight. The consequences show that the use of nano-al2o3 particles utmost replacement level of 2.0% produces concrete with enhanced strength. The workability of fresh concrete was decreased by increasing the content of Al2O3 nanoparticles. It is concluded that partial replacement of cement with nanophase Al2O3 particles improves the compressive strength of concrete but decreases its workability. Nazari et-al had proved that the nano-al2o3 particles blended concrete had drastically higher compressive strength compare to that of the concrete without nano-al2o3 particles. Partial replacement of cement by nano-al2o3 particles decreased the workability of fresh concrete; thus use of super plasticizer is substantial. Morsy,et al (2011) studied the physico-mechanical behavior of the nanomaterials multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs),nano-clays and normal portland cement (OPC).Authors used the nano-clay as nano-kaolin. The blended cement used in this investigation consists of ordinary Portland cement, carbon nanotubes and exfoliated nano metakaolin. The blended cement: sand ratio used in this investigation was 1:2.% of weight. The blended cement mortar was prepared using water/binder ratio of 0.5 wt. % of cement. The fresh mortar pastes were first cured at 100% relative humidity for 24 h and then cured in water for 28 days. Compressive strength, phase composition and microstructure of blended cement were investigated. The results showed that, the replacement of OPC by 6 wt.% NMK increases the compressive strength of blended mortar by 18% compared to control mix and the combination of 6 wt.% NMK and 0.02 wt.% CNTs increased the compressive strength by 29% than control. Nima,]et al. (2012) aimed that micro sized mineral admixtures such as silica fume, fly ash, rice husk ash, slag are in order to replace portland cement which is liable for almost 7% of carbon dioxide emission into atmosphere. Nima et al review regarding the improvement of different properties of nanomaterial concrete in cement composites. Incorporation of admixtures both chemical and mineral together with industrial byproducts and agro wastes such as silica fume, fly ash, rice husk ash, palm oil ash and etc., has been a breakthrough in rising the mechanical properties of concrete as well as durability issues such as impermeability and chemical attack resistance. Nano materials used for the development of strength in High Performance Concrete are Nano TiO2, Nano silica (ns), Carbon nanotubes (CNT), Nano clay. The result shows that by incorporation of nano particles Compressive strength, flexural strength as well as split tensile strength is improved. The effects of nano-silica (NS) on setting time and early strengths of high volume slag mortar and concrete are by experimentation studied (Zhang, et.al., 2012). Effects of NS

4 dosages, size and dispersion strategies on strength development of high volume slag mortars were also investigated. A constant water-to-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) 0.45 was used for all mixtures. The results indicate that the incorporation of a minute quantity of NS reduced setting times, and increased 3- and 7-day compressive strengths of high-volume slag concrete, considerably, in comparison to the reference slag concrete with no silica inclusion. Compressive strength of the slag mortars were increased with the increase in NS dosages from 0.5% to 2.0% by mass of cementitious materials at various ages up to 90 days. The strengths of the slag mortars were generally increased with the decrease in the particles size of silica inclusions at early age. Berra, Mario, et al., (2012) studied the impact of nano-size particles of amorphous silica (nanosilica) on the physical behavior and mechanical strength improvement of cementitious mixes. Mini-slump and rheumatic tests were carried out on cement pastes made with three dose levels of nanosilica at different water/binder ratios. The workability of cement paste significantly reduced for the mixes thus superplasticizers were added to the mixes to avoid the reduction of workability. The researcher concluded that the enhancement in compressive strength of cementitious mixes will be attributed once this nanosilica dose levels up to 3.8% of weight of blended cement with sodium hydroxide as stabilizing agent is added in the form of slurry. Quercia, George (2012), address the classification of six different amorphous silica samples that is employed for the purpose of cement paste. Particle morphological characteristics, Particle size distribution (PSD) specific surface area (SSA) of silica, water demand, void fraction and workability of cement/nano silica pastes are some of the experimental ways utilized by the Quercia. In the present work different correlations which express these values in terms of granulometric properties and silica concentrations, a linear relationship between the deformation coefficient and the specific surface area of ns/ms particles were confirmed. Ultimately the researcher accomplished that thickness of a constant water layer of 25 nm around the particles is computed and were verified. Aly M,et-al ( 2012) investigated on the impact of colloidal nano-silica on concrete incorporating single (ordinary cement) and binary (ordinary cement + Class F fly ash) binders. In addition to the mechanical properties, the experimental program included the test for adiabatic temperature, rapid chloride ion permeability, mercury intrusion porosymmetry, thermogravimetry and backscattered scanning electron microscopy in order to link macro- and micro-scale trends. He observed that the significant improvement in mixtures incorporating nano-silica in terms of reactivity, strength development, refinement of pore structure and densification of interfacial transition zone. This improvement is mainly attributed to the massive extent of nanosilica particles, that has pozzolanic and filler effects on the cementitious matrix. Micro-structural and thermal analyses indicated that the contribution of pozzolanic and filler effects to the pore structure refinement depended on the dose of nano-silica. Tobón, et-al (2012) investigated the mineralogical analysis on pastes of Spanish Portland cement Type I, blended with nanosilica was carried out by conventional and high-resolution thermo gravimetric analysis (TG-HRTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to determine the quantity of the different mineralogical phases obtained during the hydration process. Simultaneously, mortars with the same materials and replacement ratio were made in order to assess their compressive strength for up to 28 days of curing time. In this paper, the rate and quantity of each one of the main constituent phases of the cement during its hydration process (CASAH, portlandite,stratlingite, etc.) were determined. A correlation between the amount of CASAH and the development of compressive strength was established. Additionally, the

5 A Review on Nano Technology in Concrete pozzolanic activity of nanosilica was evaluated by quantifying the fixation of calcium hydroxide and its impact on the development of the compressive strength. Saloma,et al.(2013) experimentally investigated the influence of nanosilica as a partial substitution of cement in concrete. The existence of nanosilica in concrete is planned to hold the byproduct of the cement hydration making in the form of free hydroxide calcium. Nanosilica can react with C3S and C2S in the cement and produce CSH-2 which form a strong and solid bond of gel. They had proven that the addition of nanosilica as cement partial substitute material may improve the mechanical behavior of the concrete. Solama investigated the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and splitting tensile test of concrete by partial replacement of cement with nanosilica Nanosilica with the average diameter of 100 nm were used with four different contents of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% by weight. Nanosilica is competent to increase the density and concert of concrete. The resulting elasticity modulus ranged between and MPa. The moduli of elasticity of concrete tend to boost with the rise of compressive strength and density of concrete. The mix proportion used in this research investigation were solely NS 0%, NS 2.5%, NS 5%, NS 7.5% and NS 10%, with constant water/cement of 0.20 for all composition. Maheswaran, S., et al (2013) studied the influence of nano silica in concrete and its relevance for the expansion of sustainable materials in the construction and to study the pore filling effect and its pozzolanic activity with cement towards enhancement of mechanical properties and durability properties. Considerable improvement in the properties of permeability, pore filling effects, reduction of CH leaching, rheological behavior of cement pastes, heat of hydration, micro structure analysis, the pozzolanic activity or reactions and workability, strength and durability were confirmed. Hou, Pengkun, et al (2013) recognized the effects of colloidal nanosio2 (CNS) on cement hydration and gel properties.the mechanical properties which are recognized is hydration heat, calcium morphology, hydroxide content, non-evaporable water (NEW). Researcher exposed that the accelerating effect of CNS on hydration of cement dissolution and hydrate nucleation on reacted nano- SiO2 particles. Effects of nano-sio2 on the cement hydration process consequences showed that i) Pozzolanic activity of colloidal nanosio2 is higher than that of silica fume ii) Acceleration of cement hydration and maturation of gel structure in CNS-added iii) New content measurement is not suitable for monitoring the hydration process of CNSadded paste iv) A reduction in low-stiffness C S H gel and an increase in high-stiffness C S H gel can be the result of CNS addition. The results revealed that CNS modifies the gel structure to increase the high-stiffness C S H gel content. Oltulu, Meral (2013) studied the capillary water absorption and compressive strength of cement mortars containing fly ash (FA).Researcher showed that addition of any single type of oxide powders at 1.25% increased the compressive strength of the mortars much faster than the other proportions. From his study he concluded that [1] NS powder affected the specimens prepared with FA in a similar way with SF added specimens [2] the use of 1.25% NS + NA powders improved the compressive strength compared to the control specimen [3] For the mortars containing FA, the use of single type of nano powder is compared to that of binary combinations. Researchers also compared his results with those obtained from Oltulu and Sahin (2011). Nasution, et al. (2015) investigated the mechanisms of incorporation of nanomaterials in concrete enhances durability to sulfate attack. Nanotechnology is an effective way to reduce environment pollution and improve durability of concrete. He studied the compressive strength and resistance of nanomaterial concrete to sulfate attack of concrete by partial replacement of cement with nano silica. Nano silica used in this investigation has the size of nm with

6 a mixed composition of 10% of the cement weight. Nanosilica has able of improving the performance of the concrete. Based on the test results the authors accomplished the concrete compressive strength at 28 days is MPa. Zahedi (2015) investigated the influence of nanosilica hydrosols and rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength, chloride permeability, electrical resistivity and capillary absorption of single and binary blended mortars. Results showed that the incorporation of nanosilica improved mortar performance, while RHA did not have a significant influence and mainly attributed to lower strength and durability at early ages. It was found that the addition of RHA in mixes containing nanosilica, dramatically decreased the compressive strength at ages of 3 and 7 days. However, binary mixtures displayed the best results for strength development and durability at ages of 28 and 90 days. Sankaranarayannan, et al. (2016) investigated the experimental results on the effect of nano silica fume on compressive strength development of concretes containing high volume fly ash (HVFA). The nano silica fume content which exhibits the highest compressive strength is used in high volume fly ash concretes containing 30% and 50% class F fly ash. The results showed that among three different silica fume content, the addition of 1% increases the compressive strength of concrete. The addition of 1% of silica fume also increases the early age and 28 days compressive strength of HVFA concrete upto 62%. Khater (2016) studied Nano-SiO2 (NS) addition on properties of Geopolymer materials through measurement of physic mechanical and morphological characteristics of the hardened concrete. Alumino silicate materials are water-cooled slag, albite, kaolin, and metakaoline. Materials were prepared at water/binder ratios in a range of 0.244:0.320 for water-cooled slag based binders, whereas it inflated to 0.46 for albite-based mixes, whereas the used activator sodium hydroxide is ten in wt.%. The control geopolymer mix has been composed of watercooled slag, metakaoline, and kaolin in the ratio of (4:2:1). Albite used for comparison with slag to demonstrates the chance of manufacturing lightweight geopolymer binder. Nanosilica was added within in the vary from 0.3% from the overall weight with 0.5% increment. Results indicated that, compressive strength of geopolymer mixes incorporating NS were obviously higher than those of control one, specially at early ages as well as on using 2.5% NS with the lowest percentage of water absorption; also uses of albite instead of slag results in formation of light binder with promising mechanical characteristics. Fallahet et.al (2017) investigated the consequences of various amount of polypropylene (PP) and macro polymeric(mp) fibers on the mechanical properties and durability of highstrength concrete containing silica fume and nano-silica. In total, 280 concrete specimens were produced in 28 different test groups for which the parameters of compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and porosity were calculated. The macropolymeric fibers in volume fractions of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25%, and the polypropylene fibers in volume fractions of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% were used in this study. Furthermore, one set of specimens with the total fiber volume fraction of 1.0% of the concrete volume was tested in order to examine the effect of hybrid polypropylene-macro-polymeric fibers on the concrete properties. In addition, the nano-silica with the weight percentages of 1, 2, and 3%, and the silicafume with the weight percentages of 8, 10, and 12% were employed in the concrete mix design. In this paper, first the effects of macro-polymeric, polypropylene, and hybrid fibers on the physio mechanical properties were comparatively observed, and then the influence of using nano-silica and silica fume in the high-strength concrete with no included fiber was investigated. Finally, the optimum percentages of fibers and pozzolans corresponding to the most significant increases in the tensile strength were chosen, which were subsequently used as the optimum combination of the high strength concrete. The results of the experimental

7 A Review on Nano Technology in Concrete study suggest an improvement in the concrete mechanical properties and durability of nanosilica and silica fume. The influence of nano silica on performance of cementitious materials in acid rain condition was studied by (Mahdikhani.et.al.,2018).Four concrete mixtures were prepared containing 0 6% of nano silica. Mechanical properties and durability of concrete, such as weight losing, compressive strength, electrical resistance and water absorption in acid rain condition with various ph values were discussed. The results showed that nano silica has positive effects on mechanical properties and durability of concrete specimens. In addition, by increasing the ph value of acid rain, mechanical properties and durability of concrete specimens are improved. 2. CONCLUSION The nano technology has the potential to be the key to new world in building materials and construction. Replication of natural materials is the promising space of this technology. Scientists are still making an attempt to grasp their astonishing complexities. In future, nano technology is a rapidly expanding research, wherever properties of material manufactured on nano scale can be utilized for the benefit of construction infrastructure. REFERENCES [1] Maghsoudi, A.A. and ARABPOUR, D.F., Application of Nanotechnology in Self- Compacting Concrete Design, IJE Transactions B: Applications,22(3), 2009,pp [2] Berra, M., Carassiti, F., Mangialardi, T., Paolini, A.E. and Sebastiani, M., Effects of Nanosilica addition on Workability and Compressive Strength of Portland Cement Pastes. Construction and Building Materials, 35, 2012, pp [3] Khater, H.M., Effect of Nano-Silica on Microstructure Formation of Low-Cost Geopolymer Binder. Nanocomposites, 2(2), 2016, pp [4] Mondal, P., Shah, S.P., Marks, L.D. and Gaitero, J.J., Comparative Study of the Effects of Microsilica and Nanosilica in Concrete.Transportation Research Record, 2141(1), 2010, pp.6-9. [5] Mahdikhani, M., Bamshad, O. and Shirvani, M.F., Mechanical Properties and Durability of Concrete Specimens Containing Nano Silica in Sulfuric Acid Rain Condition. Construction and Building Materials, 167, 2018, pp [6] Zhang, M.H., Islam, J. and Peethamparan, S., Use of Nano-Silica to Increase Early Strength and Reduce Setting Time of Concretes with High Volumes of Slag. Cement and Concrete Composites, 34(5), 2012, pp [7] Quercia, G., Hüsken, G. and Brouwers, H.J.H., Water Demand of Amorphous Nano Silica and Its Impact on the Workability of Cement Paste. Cement and Concrete Research, 42(2), 2012, pp [8] Hou, P., Kawashima, S., Kong, D., Corr, D.J., Qian, J. and Shah, S.P., Modification Effects of Colloidal Nano Sio2 on Cement Hydration and its Gel Property. Composites Part B: Engineering, 45(1), 2013, pp [9] Ji, T.,Preliminary Study on the Water Permeability and Microstructure of Concrete Incorporating Nano-Sio 2.Cement and Concrete Research, 35(10), pp [10] Jo, B.W., Kim, C.H., Tae, G.H. and Park, J.B., Characteristics of Cement Mortar with Nano-SiO 2 Particles. Construction and Building Materials, 21(6), 2007, pp [11] Oltulu, M. and Şahin, R., Effect of Nano-Sio 2, Nano-Al2O 3 and Nano-Fe2O 3 Powders on Compressive Strengths and Capillary Water Absorption of Cement Mortar Containing Fly Ash: A Comparative Study. Energy and Buildings, 58, 2013, pp

8 [12] Givi, A.N., Rashid, S.A., Aziz, F.N.A. and Salleh, M.A.M., Experimental Investigation of the Size Effects of Sio 2 Nano-Particles on the Mechanical Properties of Binary Blended Concrete. Composites Part B: Engineering, 41(8), 2010, pp [13] Sankaranarayannan, S.S Jagadesan, J.R., Comparison of High Performance Fly Ash Concrete Using Nano Silica Fume on Different Mixes. Circuits and Systems, 7(08), 2016, pp [14] Nasution, A., Imran, I. and Abdullah, M., Improvement of concrete durability by nanomaterials. Procedia Engineering, 125, 2015, pp [15] Nazari, A., Riahi, S., Riahi, S., Shamekhi, S.F. and Khademno, A., Influence of Al 2O 3 Nanoparticles on the Compressive Strength and Workability of Blended Concrete. Journal of American Science, 6(5), 2010, pp.6-9. [16] Nima, F., Ali, A.A.A. and Demirboga, R., Development of Nanotechnology in High Performance Concrete. In Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publications, 364, 2012, pp [17] Saloma, A., Imran, I. and Abdullah, M., Experimental Investigation on Nanomaterial Concrete. Int. J. Civ. Environ. Eng, 13(3), 2013, pp [18] Maheswaran, S., Bhuvaneshwari, B., Palani, G.S., Nagesh, R. and Kalaiselvam, S., An Overview on the Influence of Nano Silica in Concrete and a Research Initiative. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 2,2013,pp [19] Morsy, M.S., Alsayed, S.H. and Aqel, M., Hybrid Effect of Carbon Nanotube and Nano- Clay on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar. Construction and Building Materials, 25(1), 2011, pp [20] Said, A.M., Zeidan, M.S., Bassuoni, M.T. and Tian, Y., Properties of Concrete Incorporating Nano-Silica. Construction and Building Materials,36, 2012, pp [21] Zahedi, M., Ramezanianpour, A.A. and Ramezanianpour, A.M., Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Cement Mortars Containing Nanosilica and Rice Husk Ash Under Chloride Ion Penetration. Construction and Building Materials, 78, 2015, pp [22] Fallah, S. and Nematzadeh, M., Mechanical Properties and Durability of High-Strength Concrete Containing Macro-Polymeric and Polypropylene Fibers with Nano-Silica and Silica Fume. Construction and building materials, 132, 2017, pp [23] Tobón, J.I., Payá, J.J., Borrachero, M.V. and Restrepo, O.J., Mineralogical Evolution of Portland Cement Blended with Silica Nanoparticles and its Effect on Mechanical Strength. Construction and Building Materials, 36, 2012, pp [24] Li, H., Xiao, H.G. and Ou, J.P., A Study on Mechanical and Pressure-Sensitive Properties of Cement Mortar with Nanophase Materials. Cement and Concrete research, 34(3), 2004, pp