1 Distribution: limited FR/TA/CONSULTANT f.. Proposals for Restoration Work at Srirangam Temple by G.R.H. Wright /BMS. RD/CLT Paris, May 1969
2 TABLE OFCONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEMS CONCERNING SRIRANGAM TEMPLE...,... 3 Page. II. CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION OF MONUMENTS A. The background to its application in the present connexion... 7 B. Some general principles and their relevance in this connexion... 9 APPENDIX 1. PREVENTION OF GROWTH OF VEGETATION ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS I APPENDIX 2. GROUTING.....*...*...*...* 18 III. THE TEMPLE OF SRIRANGAM - PROPOSED CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION..., A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. J. K. L. M. N. 0. P. Q. General programme Present disposition of temple Approach and surround Walls Terrace roofs Flooring Painting Sculpture Gopuras The Venugopala (Sri Krishna) Temple The 1968 repainting of Sri Chakrathalwar Sannidhi The Museum The Horsemen Macdapa The Thousand Pillar Mandapa The inner areas of the temple The RangaVlmanaShikhara... 41
3 -2- R. Summary of recommendations...*...* * Page APPENDIX - REPORT ON TEST OPEF!!TIONS CARRIED OUT IN DECEMBER *...* Cleaning pillars in Horsemen Mandapa Removing cement "false pointing" and other disfigurements on walls...e.a...* Cleaning external plaster-work * IV. NOTICES OF OTHER SOUTH INDIAN MONUMENPS A. B. c. D. E. F. G. H. J. Report on Palaiya Sivaram and Thirumakudal Temples Brief note on the Temple of Gangsikonda Cholapuram, near lower Anicut and the Dharasurem Temple.....*.* **..*...* Report on treatment of sculptured pillars in Ramaswamy Temple at Kumbakonam ~ Short report on the Temple of Aruna Jogeswara at Thirupanandal Short report on Muvar Koil (near Kodambalur)... 5? Short report on Muchu Kunde&&a (Mudukundrum) Temple* Short report on Alagar Koil a Report of inspection of the Sundaraja Perumal Temple, Thiruvellarai *...* Repzt on the Institute of Religious Art, Mshabalipuram... 54
4 -3 - I. INTRODUCTION TO THE PRO3LEMS CONCERNING SRIRANGAM TEMPLE. To report on the mise en valeur of the Temple City of Srirangam is not basically to report on the fabric of a complex of buildings. It is to report on a situation. The monunant is a living temple, one of the great centres of Vaishnavite worship in India. Its structure is of architectural and historical interest. Part of its confines has become a township under separate municipal control. Little reflection is required to realize that conflicts may emerge between these different interests. In this situation not only are historical considerations of art and architecture involved, but equally directly are involved religious, ethnic, social and political considerations. Municipalities cannot be induced readily to vacate built-up housing in an over-populated, overcrowded land. Foreign 'experts" expect to apply automatically practices and ideas concerning the restoration of monuments which sre current in Western Europe. A devout philanthropist seeks the moral regeneration of his fellows by reviving traditional religion in its full spiritual development at a great traditional shrine. A community of common men wish to continue their round of devotion in the surroundings and manner familiar to them since birth, Archaeologist scholars and officials are anxious to demonstrate that they are the responsible inheritors of the countryls monuments. Some authorities hope to real&e to the utmost the potentialities of ancient. temples for attracting foreign currency to the country. Not only do such Interests as these conflict, but the actual exercising of authority to ensure execution of mise en valeur measures is by no means predetermined matter of routine in a land where society has assumed a very new and popular complexion. In the face of these circumstances the real difficulties confronting a programme of work at Srirangam are almost everything but architectural. Thus is it difficult to &ntroduce a report except by something like a social study. Resisting this temptation, a few vignettes only may be drawn which will show the reality of the factors mentioned. These may be kept in mind as a background to the technical body of the report. Hopefully they may serve in some measure to explain why it Is not the simple, straightforward programme which could be desired The huge "Rcrya Gopura", constituting the main entrance way to the temple city, was begun by the ViJayanagar King, Achyuta Raya, probably to commemmorate a victory, and it was abandoned unfinished because of a crushing defeat. Because of the pregnant historical association of this monument for the present-day people of Tamilnad, they may well consider that they will be "discharging a saored duty by completing the Gopuram". Such a project may be advisable and meritorious from the ethnic and social point of view; it is inadvisable from the aesthetic/ archaeological point of view. From thelatter point of view it is most desirable that tho magnificent masonry of the gopuram be brought fully into view. However, simply to permit observation requires the demolition and clearance of modern premises which abut directly on the ancient masonry. These premises include not only houses, shops, offices, but also a popular modern temple built 40 years ago!
5 -4- An elcmi;ntary example may crystallize the clash arising between reflgions considerations and those which, for ccnvenience, are calicd arzhaeologir:al/ aest:hetic considerations. Take one of the excellent Hoysola figurti sculptures which stand out from the walls of the Venugopala shrine. This figure is of immediately recognizable artistic quality. It Is weathered somewhat and has the cachet of age. Nothing can be done to it which can possibly improve its aesthetic,' archaeologicai appal. Pert of one limb or the like has been brokr?n aww. If a new member were dowelled in, in a ccngruous manner, it would not greatly diminish the aesthetic appeal. It ce.rtainly would not increase ita Such a measure would certainly not be considered advisable if this figure were being exhibited in a l?arcpean Museum. However, this figure is a representation of the Deity. And in certain circumstances it Is religiously unbecoming to allow the Deity to be manifested in spoiled and broken images. Sacred writings contain provisions on this score. Such images should be removed and replaced by new ones. Again consider the TollowIng rather "human" and "everyday" matters. Within the temple complex, there are numerous individual shrines - each oi which has a community of local worshippers. Such a shrine may be of intellectual interest to a few scholars, it may become a curiosdty interest for foreign tourists, to the community it is simply their parish church, the focus of a part of their lives as it was of their parents' lives. Without much knowledge of the Shastras or Agamas, and certainly without any knowledge of architectural history, they desire to show their reverence for the Deity by the adornment of his house. This they do in the vernacular manner which has meaning for them. How else 3 Otherwise it could barely be said to be their offering. Any frustration of this offering by the intervention of esoteric concepts of artistic worth will be to them a grief and annoyance which they will resist. However, to many educated Europeans religion is conceived of as a sort of perva sive spirituality inevitably Involving refined artistic taste. This IS partly baaed on the fact that in previous epocha the master-works of art have been created in service of religion. It Is also baaed on the fact that with the decline of traditional religion in the West reverence for art has become in itself a substltute religion. That God can be properly venerated in a milieu of acultural, commercial decoration is unpalatable to this outlook. Such a conflict of considerations as these last has often been noted, but generally the considerations apply to developments (or decadence) within one cultural tradition - Le. where the religious and the artistic sentiment are of the same formation. The circumstances at Srlrangam are further complicated by the fact that here the religious sentiment and the artistic sentiment applied are of two different cultural formations. It may be useful to conclude these introductory remark3 with an observation of basic significance. It is the wi3hful assumption of modern Western 'progressiviam" that "good" worka, ideas eta. (i.e. those of which it approves) are due to the commendable efforts of good people. Whereas "bad" works etc. come about by accidents, Inadvertence or perhaps as the result of the fault of otherwise good people is not helping or Instructing others auffiaiently to recognize the "good things".
6 -5-. This is, of course, a "grotesquerie". What from one point of view are undesirable things come into being just as Intentionally as desirable ones. They represent something sufficiently deslrable from some other point of view to be wortn the troubic of execution. Some interest was responsible for their creation; and if they are to be expunged, forbidden or altered, some interest will consider that it has suffered. This interest will consider Itself as valid as any other interest and consider It has a right to maintain itself. Failure to recognize this obvious fact leads to the familiar cycle of expensively worded plans, little result, and much subsequent recrimination.
7 II. CONSERVATION AND RCSTORATION OF MONUMENTS A. THE BACKGROUND TO ITS APPLICATION IN THE PRESENT CONNEXION In executing missions such as at Srirangam, the writer has enjoyed on occasions the benefit of frank, cordial and illuminating conversations with able men in positions of great official and financial responsibility. Men who, in various capacities, have found themselves confronted with the question of the conservation and restoration of ancient monuments. The sincere earnest interest these people have in the question is patent. These conversations often bring into focus very basic considerations uoncerning such work which, in everyday routine, would not be noticed. As an attempt to pass on some of the benefit derived from these discussions and the reflection thereby engendered, some preliminary consideration Is offered of the principles of conservation and restoration as they are relevant to work in the region concerned. A3 modern Western art and arohitecture has become less and less traditional in essence, it has been found impossible to retain an organic unit of development with the past. Accordingly the expression of,and even the formal train5ng in, art and architecture has split into two. One part Is concerned with "Modern Art and Architecture" and the other part is concerned with "Traditional Art and Archltecture" and Its "Conservation and Restoration". The conservation and restoration of monuments is thus one branch of contemporary Western European Architecture. It is an art (perhaps a minor one on most analyses) and it must be approached In the same way as any other art. It Is a manifestation of a spiritual awareness - an awareness derived from all the clroumstances of the age, and one which changes with the age itself. An awareness limited in any one age to a certain community of spiritual possessions, 30 that those standing outside this community do not share in the awareness. Thus any small detail of simple, operative work to be effected on fabric of an ancient monument In the name of "conservation and restoration" is an expression of the total cultural development of Western Europe,centering in its highly peculiar attitude towards the past. An attitude which is markedly different from its former attitudes and an attitude which will change markedly In the future. Manifestly an attitude which ha3 no real meaning for those formed by another cultural tradition. Such a person simply will not of his own understanding effect the detail in the obvious manner. That is, "obvious" If viewed from the totality of the conception of this art of restoration. This experience is one met with in praotice over and over again. All the important steps of the work have been completed while some small finishing operation remains. If this is done spont3neously by someona not trained in these procedures, It will be done in a manner utterly at verianoe with the artistic aim of the work. For that aim simply has no reality to the person concerned. Here Is a simple illustration. A fznely jointed "dry stone" wall is in danger of collapse. It is decided to restore it on the beat principles of 'Conservation and Restoration of Monuments". It is agreed that the masonry cannot be
8 -8- strengthened in situ. A5cordingly the blocks are numbered, the wall dismantled, and then re-erected. In theory correct. But the theory has an aim - to restore a structurally strengthened wall to its original appearance. This meana each block must be set back In position with its face unchanged (what happens to its inner parts is immaterial as they wili not be visible); and also that the jointing of the rna3onry Is reproduced in exactly the same manner as the original. In practice what happens Is that large numbers are pa%nted on the visible face of the blocks to remain after re-erection, and the fine dry jointing is concealed by a non-functional,auperfluous mortar point%. Whatever may have been the under- Standing of those responsible, the numbering and pointing (a laborious work) is in reality directed towards one aim only - to change the original appearance of the wall. In terms of the professionally conceived aim of the operation it would be more sensible and less laborious to demolfsh the wall and build a new one, say, of concrete. The explanation of these somewhat unlooked for results is only a restatement of basic facts. A Twentieth century Western European interested in the past is aware of the "spiritual emptiness" of his age and w%shes on>y to express himself through the mouth of the more significant past. However, someone of another development does not breathe this same spiritual air. He, for example, may be amazed at the new resources and wealth at his disposal and automatically endeavours by the details of his work to advertise that it was done by him in the "good new days". Make no mistake. The details of execution of any work of "re5toration" carried out by someone standing outside the present Western European concept of this work will be directed to one end only, consciously or sub-consciously. To renovate, to make the work look new, incorporating all those features which he has experienced about him since birth - the only features which are real to him. For example "real" masonry always has mortared pointing and therefore mortared pointing must be introduced on ancient masonry to make it "real". There I.3 no question as to the reason for this - it is a part of the fabric of his experience which is accepted automatically. Now it must be golnted obvious question of value" out that to which the above analysis is of fact only. The these facts lead cannot be anmvered here; nor is the writer able to answer it in any connexion. The question, of course, is "Whether the canons of the contemporary Western European art of conservation and restoration of monuments should be applied automatically to the conservation and restoration of a monument of another culture carried out (presumably) fn the interests of a people who may share to some degree this culture rather than that of Western Europe". All this notwithstanding, in recent years the European concept of conaervation and restoration has become of world-wide currency. Many extraneous factors have been at work to produce this result - often econompc ones such as "the development of tourism" etc. The upshot is that there is 3 general awareness among non-professional people in all region3 of the "Conservn.tion and Restoration of Monuments", 'There is,.ho~ovar,:l9t~le-~owle~e of Its currently accepted aims. Consequently, there is even less consideration as to whether these same aims are automatically applicable to cultural areas other than Europe. This gives risa to a bewildering situation and, potentially, a very mischievous one. People become conscious that old buildings should be conserved and restored. Therefore under the influence of this new realization, it is accepted
9 -9- that "conservation and restoration" is a treatment which should be applied to old buildings, and that the fabric of old buildings cannot be expected to survive without "conservation and restoration", and that it is very wrong and ignorant not to apply "conservation and restoration" to the fabric of old buildings. Thus it Is that attention may be drawn to a granite wall built of blocks each of the order of a cubic metre. Here several blocks may evidence superficial scarring caused by percussion or weathering end the anxious question is posed: "What shall we do to preserve this stone?" This question is unexpected and bewildering, and the answer 'See that no one interferes with it", appears equally unexpected and bewildering. With this new concern for 'conservation and restoration" goes a lack of understanding of their real, practical limitations. These words do not mean magic. All that Is material is subject to decay - stones and men alike. By intelligent research, methods may be discovered to stay or slow down this decay: but these results are limited in time, they are all more or less temporary. Just because Twentieth century man is scientifically concerning himself with conservation and restoration of ancient structures, it does not mean that he can bring the state of <any material back to its condition when set in place and that he can keep It in this condition indefinitely. Not no more than he can work like miracles with his own body and days. Sometimes results can be achieved which will last for a more or less limited time. Results cannot always be achieved. And no results can be guaranteed for ever. B. SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND THEIR FUZLEVANCE IN THIS CONNEXION A programme of conservation end restoration is like any other building prow-e, and one of consequence can no more be tackled hand over fist than can the building of a temple. Conservation and restoration are not some-thing which can be applied out of a tin or a book. A new architectural composl.tion is being created and this depends on the harmonious ordering of many separate, Individual decisions and solutions. In short conservation and restoration are a branch of architecture. One which, since Its purposes to display to the best advantage what is of historic value In 3 building, demands 3 specialized knowledge of the history of architecture. Obviously the first stage in a project of conservation and restoration of an ancient monument is to establish the programme. This must be clearly written out, specifying what the operation is designed to produce. There can be no rational building unless it is clear what is to be built - i.e., what is the soci3l function of the proposed building. Similarly with the proposed work on an ancient monument - Is its subject a living building (I.e., a building still performing the social function for which it was designed), or Is it what may be called "a ruin"?(i.e., in essence a museum piece, its significance for society being primarily its historical or aesthetic qualities) This distinction is so basic as to condition most of the particular operations on the fabric. Indeed for greater clarity of hypothesis it might be advisable to use different terms in describing operations on the fabric of the two different classes of buildings. For example "conservation and restoration" may be more properly reserved for "ruins" and "maintenance and repairs" might be applied to "living buildings'. With many monuments the two concepts may overlap somewhat, but for any particular portion of the work it should be clear in which of these interests the work is being carried out.
10 Since work of restor3tion and conservation is designed to perpetuate 3n existing structure in a certain interest, the next stage is a craial one. It must be clearly defined and written out exactly what is unsrltisfacto~y ii1 the present condition of the structure with respect to the interest to be served. If +here is nothing whtch can be pointed out specificslly as unsatisfactory, why then, nothing need be done! F'inally when the unsatisfactory aspects of the structure have been detailed, then the proposed remedial operations must be specified in corresponding detail. Statemsnts like "This has to be renovated completely" or "This m3y be renovated to the extent necessary" are ussless and potentially mischievous. Such is 811 indication of the vital planning stages, i.e. the programme nnd specifications of 3 work of conservation and restoration. Next follows the execution of the scheme. All the foregoing has served to show that there is no system of conservation ;ilnd restoration which is reudily available for instant application. Therefore it is quite impossible to give a brief outline of practice which could be drawn on directly to cover the work under review. However, solely as a means of informing those concerned with the scope and possibilities of v~ious operations, the following practical notes are provided. I repeat, they do not in any way claim to be a systematic guide or manual of the subject. Practical notes on treatment of ancient masonry The first step in any proposed work on ancient masonry is that the areas concerned must be carefully examined for any archaeological, epigraphic, and architectural evidence they may afford (particularly evidence concerning the original condition of the masonry), and this evidence must be properly recorded. Interference of eny sort with ancient masonry c8n be Justified only on ono or both of the following grounds: (a) Its appearance is no longer befitting. (b) Its structure is no longer sound. In any other circumstance tampering with ancient masonry will constitute "destruction". The appaarance of ancient masonry may demand attention because the surface: (a) has been spoiled by l&,er painting, plastering, pointing, writing, etc., (b) has become soiled by soot, chemical deposits, bat droppings, etc., or is covered by vegetation, (c) is wholly, or in part broken, weathered or decayed, (d) has wholly or In psrt disappeared. The structure of ancient masonry may demand attention because of: (3) bodily movement due to failure of foundations or to other stresses,
11 (b) 1 oss of cohesion due to failure of the mortar or other binding device, (4 organic disease of the stone, (d) displacement, datatchment cr destruction of some particular elet,ents of the structure. The causes which give rise to these conditions can be seen to resolve themselves into human and natural ones. Men persistently interfere with ancient masonry by painting on it, cutting or quarrying it away, performing industrial operations on it etc. The natural causes of the deterioration of ancient masonry are those which are of general application in the physical world. Masonry works are broken down in the same way as mountains are broken down, viz,, by seismic disturbances and weathering procsssas like insolation, erosion by wind and water and the agents they bear including the seeds of plants. Of the two types of causes it is readily seen that it Is, In general, by human agency that most damage accrues to ancient masonry. Once having built a monumental structure, if men depart and leave it abandoned in a desert place it will survive in very good condition indeed for a very long time. Before any act of conservation and restoration Is carried out on masonry it must be clearly established: (a) What is the unsatisfactory condition; (b) How this came about; (c) What is the probable agent of causation. If there is nothing unsatisfactory in the condition of the masonry, then it must be left alone. There is no such thing as general reconditioning or preservation of ancient masonry (or none known to me). If the condition of the ancient masonry is recognized as unsatisfactory in one or more respects, a specific effort must be made to improve the situation. Further, if the cause of the condition is seen to be continuing or likely to rezur, then if in any way practical, some effort should be made to Inhibit the operation of the cause. But this is by no means always reasonable or possible. The operations designed to improve unsatisfactory conditions In ancient masonry may be grouped as follows: (1) Removing or cleaning away dirt, markings, coatings or extraneous applications or accretions to the surface. (2) Repositioning elements of the original masonry which have become detatched. (3) Introduction of new material into the ancient fabric. r8) Dismantling and re-erection of the original fabric.
12 These operations.3re given in the crder of advisability. If +here is nothing specifically unsatisfactory E;Dout the masonry, leave it completely alone. If the unsatisfactory condition can be remedied by removing extraneous additions to the ancient masonry, do this and nothing else. If the original element is available for replacement do net use nelv matarial. If the masonry can be dealt with --- in situ do not take it down. In short the best solution to any problem of the conservation 3nd restoration of ancient m3sonry, other things being equal, is that which involves the least interference with the original fabric. Some clursory outline as may be thought to apply to local circumstances is now gi;jen of these operations. 1. Removing and clening away superficial disfigurements In the local sphere by far the greatest bulk come under this heading. There 3re two reasons for this. The religious Institution has outlasted the artistic tradition which produced its monuments, and "foik art" has been and IS being applied universally to this ancient masonry. As far as is possible this mortaring 3Ild p3iiltiilg etc., should be removed mech3nic&ly by chipping, flaking and brushing followed by scrubbing with soap and water. Chemical cleaners and removers are to be used only where necessary and under expert advice. Secondly there is the rapid growth of vegetation in all crannied walls (and even sheer ones). This is, of course, the characteristic problem of the care of masonry in Southern India. In this connexion it must be clearly noticed that a reasonable amount of occasional verdure does no harm to the appearance of the masonry. If it likewise did no h3rm to the structure it could well be left alone. But alasl the forces exerted by plant growth are very great and most damaging to the structure. Thus every effort must be made to eradicate plant growth from the face of ancient masonry. Application of chemicals assist in this process, but fundamentally it can only be properly done by regular m3nuai effort. The superficial mortaring over or "pointing-up" of the hair line Jointing of fine masonry In this interest is an abomin3tion. It is much more destructive to the appearance of the m3sonry than the plant growth, and it is ineffective - the mortaring flakes away and even provides better 'lodgment pockets" for the seeds. This practice should be penalised by a fine. 2. Repositioning of displaced or fallen mesonry This is a vital and elementary work in the crire of ancient masonry. It Is one, however, which in the nature of things is never carried out, except by someone trained in this core. This is clecly demonstrated by experience. Some "scholarship" Is necessary to recognize -where a detached block belongs, 3nd the replacing of it is an expression of scholarly self-effacement 3nd respect for the past, which comes only with "scholarship". In the absence of this scholarship, when 3 missing element is to be replaced convenience of handling is the only criterion governing the choice among various units of original mater&al trvailable. Indeed fer more likely thnn the resetting of any origin31 elements (even in wrong places) is the removal of original elements, on the ground that "hey hava become defective or unsuitable, to be replnced by new work. For example, stone beams may be removed and replaced by reinforced concrete ones. These are the unpleasant facts of life which must be recognized.
13 Introduction of new material into ancient masonry There are two aspects to this type of operation; where the new materiel is to be exposed to view and where It will be hidden within the thickness of the wall. That Is, depending on whether the operation is being performed because of defective appearance or defective structure of the ancient masonry. Very often the one treatment may Involve both aspects. The insertion of new material In or on the face of ancient masonry for aesthetic reasons, precisely because It is the most evident act of conservation and restoration, Is the most generally adverted to by laymen and Is most subject to controversy of a popular nature. Here, above all, must the "restorer" have a clear Idea of his subject and aim. At one extreme his subject is a fully functional living building. At the other it is a ruin, fallen and fragmentary, which by reason of the handiwork of time may be far more picturesque than St-ever was as a living building. In the former instance any gaps or damage to face work will be made good so as to be fndistlnguishable from the original, for the gaps etc., constitute a blemish. This Is "repair" rather than "restoration". In the latter Instance the evidence of decay Is the charm and is not to be diminished - i.e., even where it may be structurally necessary to plug cavities, the surface must be permitted to retain its broken appearance. A useful broad distinction can be drawn between what has been called "reparation" and "restoration". With repairs the aim may be legitimately to match up the new work with the old, i.e. to use the same stone dressed In the same manner and if necessary artificially patinated to give the same appearance. With "restoration", it is a commonly accepted rule that "new work" must always be distinguishable from the original on a reasonably close inspection. However, in no way should it be of a quality strikingly discordant with the original. The distinction is afforded by the use of different material, i.e. brick or mortar instead of stone; or by presenting the same material differently, Le. different setting, different dressing, different patlnation, etc.; or by setting the new material with its face slightly reces sed from that of the original, thus throwing It into the shadow and the background as Is fitting. This latter device is almost universally employed when the new Insertion Is restricted ;Ln area and is more or less surrounded by the original face of masonry. Small breakages, clefts, gaping Joints, etc., which are mortared up are always done in this fashion. New mortar should never be brought flush with the face of old stone, and to smear new mortar over the face of the old stone only constitutes "destruction". Certainly In no case should new masonry ever be set in advance of the original wall face, as nothing must ever be done which will obscure or confuse the original lines of the building. The introduction of new material unseen into the body of ancient masonry for structural reinforcement is a factor little appreciated by laymen. However, since it frequently offers an alternative to dismantling and re-erecting, its importance is great. For this reason it is referred to here, although engineertig knowledge is necessary to put such things Into practise. Theoretically it is better not to build foreign materials into an ancient structure, as there is always a possibility that some unwonted reaction may
14 develop between two ill-assorted components. That is to say, where possible it is better to strengthen internally with the same materiai as the original construction. However, with understanding and due precaution foreign materials are incorporated into ancient masonry. Where necessary load-bearing stone walls may be transformed, In pest, into framed structures of reinforced concrete or structural steel. The essential thing to notice is that this Is dona only where necessary and to preserve the oi*iginal appearance. It is thus the very antithesis of unnecessarily introducing reinforced concrete elements where they can be seen. One particular method of Introducing new material into the core of an ancient masonry structure in order to strengthen it is what is called "grouting". Cement grout is a fluid mixture of cement which can be run into the interstices of ancient masonry with the result that a structure decemented and honeycombed with voids, can be converted once more into a strong coherent mass. And if proper care is taken there will be no external sign of this operation. Grouting provides a remedy for a situation where one element of the masonry, the rubble and mortar filling, has decayed. Mutih graver is the situation where the whole body of the stone work itself is organically diseased. This fortunately is of rare occurrence jp~rursl Indian temples because of the relatively clean atmospheric conditions. To some degree it may be possible to reconstitute such diseased stone by chemical means, but this can only be carried out by an expert chemist and the scope and possibilities of the treatment are much more restricted than appears to be the popular impression. Certainly there is no magic substance which can be applied to, InJected into, or Infused into stone so as to rejul.enate it or guarantee it long life. Such ideas are 'quacke.ry'; generally speaking, the only effect they will have is to spoil the appearance of the masonry. 4. Dismantling and re-erection of ancient masonry It should be evident that this method of dealing with the defective masonry is that of the last resort. However, many Instances of its operation are in evidence locally. The less said about them the better. The intention of this operation is that after completion the masonry unit is structurally sound and presents exactly the same appearance as before the operation with the exception of such defects as have been remedied. The process Is thus entirely dffferent in aim and organization from demolition of the original structure and the building of a new structure with the material so obtalned. Although dismantling and re-erecting has a twofold name, the operation has four components of equal importance, viz., 1. Recording. Dismantling. ;: Storage. 4. Re-erection. The various units of masonry must be each identified with a number, and their position shohn on a measured drawing. The blocks must be broken from bond and removed from the wall. They must be stored so that the position of each block is known and each block is immediately accessible. The blocks must be taken from storage and rebonded together in their original order and disposition according to the manner recorded.
15 Equal precautions must be taken durlng each of these phases so that t;le visible faces of the masonry are not disfigured. Thus numbers must be painted or i?nked only on non-visible parts (until such parts become accessible temporary numbers can be chalked on the faces of the blocks). During the repeated handlings crowbars or wire slings must never come into direct contact with the face of the stone, and protection of the faces may be necessary during storage. If blocks are dafective structurally they should be consolidated during storage. No block should be set into the re-erected wall in a defective condition. Finally it can only be repeated, this operation is a very demanding one if carried out properly, and Is not to be recommended if alternatfve in situ treatment is possible. The preceding notes have been drawn up in response to the observed pecullarities of the local scene. They express, however, only that which is standard practhe. T1i2-t this practice is indeed referrable to local needs may be emphasised by the following short extracts from a guide issued at the beglnnlng of the century for those charged with the care of ancient monuments in India. Although not expressly stated, it is clear that the concern of this guide Is mainly with %uins", i.e. those ancient monuments whose primary significance for society Is their historical and artistic interest rather than the original function for which they were erected. However, basically, the remarks are of general application and they merit the closest attention as they are very well stated. "Officers charged with the execution of conservation work should never forget that reparation of any remnant of ancient architecture, however humble, is a work to be entered upon with totally different feeling from a new work or from the repairs of a modern building... When, therefore, repairs are carried out, no effort should be spared to save as many parts of the original as possible, since it is to the authenticity of the old parts that practically all the interest attaching to the new will owe Itself. "Local artisans are usually good copyists, capable of Imitating any model which may be set before them, but unable to make use of their eyes; and bejng accustomed to work with a stereotyped series of degenerate modern imitations, they apply them indiscrimlnately, in place and out of it, on all classes of buildings. "One of the principal factors In causing the ruin of brick and &one buildings is the growth of vegetation In the Joints, and the only way of dealing with this evfl is constantly to eradicate the plants before they have the chance of becoming firmly rooted. "It is not generally dasirable to demolish or remove, in whole or in part, any stone or brickwork which it is at all possible to repair in situ. If the new work has to be inserted, any mouldings or other details, which may have to be worked on it, should be in strict harmony with the adjoining ornaments. In removing broken or decayed work do not take ouu + any, but such as is so far gone as to have lost all 5ts original form; better to have broken or half decayed original work than the smartest and most perfect new work. '%Jith regard to walls out of plumb, St is not always necessary to dismantle and rebuild them. In many cases it will be found that the fault was caused soon
16 after the erection of the building by the subsidence of the foundations which, having pezmancntly settled, are not likely to go any further. "When dismantling masonry, previous to rebuilding, it is necessary to mark or number the old stones so as, the more readily, to replace them in their original positions. In doing this, care should be taken net to use oil paint, or other pigment or stain, which will be difficult to remove again. It is better to put the numbers on the sides or back of the stone rather than upon the face. In any case, all marks should be removed on completion of the work. "All the new stone work should be matched in colour with the surface adjoining it. In some cases, too, where the old stone work has weathered to a darker tint, it may be necessary, in order to avoid any violent or unpleasant contrast between the new and old surfaces, to use artificial means for staining the former. "Accumulation of soil on roofs or other flat surfaces should be removed as favouring the growth of vegatation. Any openings on terraced roofs, through which rain water can percolate, should be stopped, and proper drainage provided for. Cracks on the roof where they are not observable may be pointed; but on the walls, both exterior and interior, simple grouting (if that ia necessary and practicable) should be employed. In this process the mortar can be prevented from coming too near the surface by first stopping the Joints with clay from the outside, which can be removed when the grouting within is dry. "If the new stones are accurately dressed, so as to fit closely to one another, there will generally be no necessity for mortar or any cementing material in the Joints. Old stone buildings were originally erected, as a rule, entirely without mortar. In no case should any mortar be seen upon the surface of tne work, where the mortar has not been used originally. Nor should pointing, as it is generally understood in India, be permitted, on any account, either in brick or stone work, except in places where it is not exposed ta view. Pointing on ancient buildings is an anachronism which cannot bc too strongly guarded against. All mortar Joints, in which, during previous repairs, tne mortar has not been confined to the Joint, but has been smeared over the adjacent stone, should be carefully scraped. "As a rule broken lintels or beams may be supported by skilfully stirruping them up from above, or if that is impracticable by inserting angle iron beneath. 'The use of whitewash or paint, especially on sculptures and inscriptions, should be forbidden. If it is contemplated to remove any from an old surface, precautions must be taken to prevent injury to any inscription, relief or painting beneath: "Immsdiately, after the completion of repairs to any monument, the building and its surroundings should be cleaned and tidied up. No mortar wheels, mortar heaps, brickbats or the like should be left behind."
17 APPENDIX 1 PREVENTION OF GROWTH OF VEGETATION ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS?'hat vegetation plays an active part in the destruction of temples and other ancient monuments is a fact very well known. It is one of the chief destructive influences in a tropical climate. But the custodians of sncient monuments do not, as a rule, seem to take any notice of these growths on the walls, either when they are but small plants, or even after they are deeply rooted, and consequently buildings are damaged to such an extent that heavy sums have to be spent in their restoration, though no renovation can restore the original beauty of the structure. Some custodians do make a show of removing the leaves and stems leaving the root to again produce a new and probably more luxuriant growth than before, and as the roots expand with the growth of the plants, the masonry, however heavy and solid it may be, is invariably forced out of position, and,if not checked in time, will ultimately fall into ruin. All this could be avoided at little or no expense by the removal of young plants whenever they appear in any Joints of the masonry. The attention of the custodians of ancient monuments should be drawn to the fact, that the first and foremost duty to be done in preserving such buildings is the constant removal of such growths to the very end of the root. That the ancient Hindus were not unaware of the evil effects of vegetation is evident from the fact that, in many important temples, due provision has been made in the accounts for the annual clearance of vegetation, though in practice, it is not now done in the manner in which it should and ought to be done, and is in most cases neglected." (General Principles for the guidance of those entrusted with the custody of, and execution of Repairs to Ancient Monument - Government of India, 1305.) A chemical treatment to deter the growth of vegetation on walls is a wash of 1lh $ solution magnesium chloride. If paint is to be applied, then it is possible to make use of special paint which contains a fungicide. The efficacity of such measures is probably not great. I have seen gopuras painted brand new and stated to be treated with chemicals, yet for all that they have sprouted luxuriant foliage in the two or three years since their redecoration. Regular efforts must be made to remove all saplings and small shrubs by hand. Usually they can be so removed without disturbing much masonry. If there is some difficulty in this they should be cut off as near the root as possible, and stump killed by chemical means (by applying a corrosive acid, e.g. nitric acid). Subsequently the decayed roots can be removed more easily. When treating masonry affected in this way it is most essential that all decayed roots and vegetable matter should be completely eradicated.
18 APPE'KDIX 2 GROUTING This Opel-ation is designed to strengthen a wall by replacing the internal cementing component which has dacayeci leaving voids in the structtx?e. There is considerable application for this process in repair work on South Indian temples, but it seems rarely put into effect. Liquid cement is called cement grout. Cement will not adhere to dust or a dry surface, and if the liquid is injected into a wall which has not been cleaned and washed out,it merely sets in an independent mass and fails to perform the function for which it is intended. A plentiful supply of water preferably by hose from matis is necessary for this vital prelimi;?ay washing. Testing for voids is made by tapping with a hammer - a dull or hollow sound indicates voids, otherwise a solid or ringing sound is produced. Suspected voids should be marked on the face of the wall. Small holes should be drilled where voids are anticipated, say 4 feet apart horizontally and 2 feet above each other vertically in a staggered formation. Naturally advantage should be taken of conveniently situated Joints, fissures etc., for introducing these holes into the masonry. It is usual to carry out large-scale grouting operations ste&i.ng at the base of the wall and working upwards in horizontal sections of about 4 feet in height. The cavities first should be washed out by flushing with water from above to obtain an outwash at the bottom of the section, and continuing this process until the water runs out clear. The process can be assisted by rodding the cavities with a metal poker. Careful note should be taken of where the water runs out from the face of the wall and before commencing to grcut, such fissures should be plugged tightly with clay a&or tow which should be pressed in for a depth of 5 cm. Tne injection of the grout can be provided for by a simple device. This consists of a mixing-pan, hose and nozzle provided with a stopcock. The pan (preferably coupled with another) is a galvanized iron, domestic washing-copper having an outlet at the bottom. This connects by means of couplings to several 2 metre lengths of 11/2" rubber hose which terminate in a galverlized iron nozzle, 9" diameter fitted with a stopcock. Additionally a wooden plug is provided about 50 cm long which will fit into the hole at the bottom of the pan. A further au,ziliary device is a suction "drain-cleaner' i.e. a long wooden handle set on an Indian rubber cap. The cement grout is mtied in the proportion of three parts water to two parts cement. The pan is suitably filled with water and then the cement emptied into the water and stirred continuously until the required consistency of grout is obtained, with all the cement in suspension ald no solids remaining at the bottom of the pan. To economize it is sometimes possible to use very fine sand of the same specific gravity as the cement as a one-to-one mixture with the cement.
19 The following preliminary precautions are necessary: (1) All cavities thoroughly washed out. (2) Open Joints plugged with tow or clay. (3) A supply of clean water available for instantaneously washing from the face of the stone work inevitable scapes of the mixture. The machine is operated as follows: The pan should be about 10 feet above the point of inlet to give a pressure of lbs. per sq. inch. Preferably two men are stationed on the scaffolding by the pan, one regulating the flow of the grout into the delivery tube, and the other preparing and mixing the second pen of grout. One other man controls the nozzle. He inserts it into the lowest hole and plugs it around with tow. When all is ready the wooden plug is raised and the grout flows down the tube and the stop-cock is opened so that the mixture flows into,the cavity. The operation should continue without removing the nozzle until the grout rises up the wall and begins to flow out of the series of holes immediately above. The stop-cock is turned off and the nozzle is allowed to remain in position until the cement has begun to set, i.e. when it has reached the consistency of putty* The nozzle is then withdrawn and washed in clean water. The Joints are also unplugged. At the end of the day's operations the equipment should be washed clean in water. When a complete wall is to be grouted the sequence of operations will upon its size and the condition of the masonry. If it is of great height, depend it will bc dangerous to commence washing out from the top and continue to the bottom without taking precautions like shoring to prevent the collapse of the face stones. In such case it is advisable to commence at the base of the wall, take a height of about 6 feet along its length, bore the holes where required, wash out the cavities from the top of the section, and then commence grouting from the bottom holes; and soon working upwards instages until the full height of the wall has been treated. When as often happens, cavities penetrate through the thickness of the wall, the preliminary operation of cutting holes and cleaning and washing out must be carried out on both sides of the wall. In such cases observation must be kept on both sides of the wall while washing out and grouting is in progress in order to stop any leakages.
20 III. THBTFMPLEOFSXRANGAM PROPOSED CONSEWATION AND J33STORATION A. GELPROGFUUWlE The basic consideration which has conditicned proposals of restoration or conservation work on the Temple of Srirangam is that it is a living building an3 not a ruin. This building is still perfcrmi~ng the function for which it was designed. Primarily the building is to worship in and only secondarily to be looked at. Thus the aim of any proposed measure is not to display a muser.lm piece to the best advantage, but to maintain end/or restore all the virtues of the building whti-h its designers envisaged; and at the same time not to derogate from the artistic/historical interest the building has acquired from survival through a number of centuries. As a result of a detailed survey of the montment, the consultant does not consider it in any way practical to formulate or Implement such a general programme dealing with the Temple City of Srirangam in toto. For reasons detailed in the report it is considered that a practical programme of conservation and restoration mus t be confined initially to a unit of the temple compound which is: (a) under administrative control of the temple authorities; (b) accessible to non-hindu visitors; (c) of artistic end historical *aterest. It is suggested that the area of tne Horsemen Msndapa and the Thousand Pillar Mandapa, with the direct approach thereto by way of the E&t Mottai Gopura, the Kaliyuga Gopura and the Vellai Gopura constitutes a unit meeting these requirements. Accordingly, as a practical step, a programme of work should be drawn up and implemented initially for this area only. B. PRESENT DISPOSITION OF TEMPLE When the temple complex of' Srirangam attained its present limit in ViJayanagar times (c.1520 AD..), it then constituted a 'Etimple-'Eown, a..vasuy different organization from its present Condition which is that of a temple and a town. Originally the outer prskaras were designed to serve the more mundane needs of the sanctuary, e.g. to provide temporary accommodation for visiting pilgrims and worshippers, and to house the temple servants end service facilities. That is, all who were inside the enclosure walls were there for some reason connected with religion. At some time between that date and the present this state of affairs began to change. Now the outermost three prakaras of the tempie constitute a township, the inhabitants of which have i&-so facto no more conncxion with the religious life of the temple than have the inhabitants of any other urban district in the neighbourhood. The history of this development is not